How to use Doctrine in a sentence
Stahl founded his doctrine of "phlogiston."
Differences in doctrine as well as polity and discipline became more and more prominent.
Once more, in the doctrine of sin and redemption, the governing idea is God's fatherly purpose for His family.
He entered the Congregation of the Christian Doctrine, and became tutor to the son of a Paris banker.
The doctors were to teach the faithful in sound learning, to guard purity of doctrine, and to be amenable to discipline.Advertisement
It would be difficult to say what branches of science had done most towards the establishment of this doctrine.
The doctrine of " Emboitement " is contained in the Considerations sur le principe de vie (1705); the preface to the Theodicee (1710); and the Principes de la nature et de la grace (§ 6) (1718).
Among the philosophic Jews, the Spanish Avicebron, in his Fons Vitae, expounds a curious doctrine of emanation.
In the system of Giordano Bruno, who sought to construct a philosophy of nature on the basis of new scientific ideas, more particularly the doctrine of Copernicus, we find the outlines of a theory of cosmic evolution conceived as an essentially vital process.
The Origin of Species appeared in 1859; and thenceforward the doctrine of evolution assumed a position and acquired an importance which it never before possessed.Advertisement
If we seek for the reason of the difference between the scientific position of the doctrine of evolution in the days of Lamarck and that which it occupies now, we shall find it in the great accumulation of facts, the several classes of which have been enumerated above, under the second to the eighth heads.
However, a cautious reasoner will probably rather explain such cases deductively from the doctrine of evolution than endeavour to support the doctrine of evolution by them.
Since Huxley and Sully wrote their masterly essays in the 9th edition of this encyclopaedia, the doctrine of evolution has outgrown the trammels of controversy and has been accepted as a fundamental principle.
The first Pitaka contains the Vinaya - that is, Rules of the Order; the second the Suttas, giving the doctrine, and the third the Abhidhamma, analytical exercises in the psychological system on which the doctrine is based.
Galen believed in the doctrine of humours originated by Hippocrates, which supposes the condition of the body to depend upon the proper mixture of the four elements, hot, cold, moist and dry, and that drugs possess the same elementary qualities, and that on the principle of contraries one or other was indicated, e.g.Advertisement
This doctrine was held for many centuries, and drugs are classed by all the old herbalists as having one or other of these qualities in a greater or less degree.
The belief was taught in the homogeneity of all living things, in the doctrine of original sin, in the transmigration of souls, in the view that the soul is entombed in the body (v13µa ojia), and that it may gradually attain perfection during connexion with a series of bodies.
Secondly, the histology of fossil plants, particularly woody plants of the carboniferous period, has been placed on a sound basis, assimilated with general histological doctrine, and has considerably enlarged our conceptions of plant anatomy as a whole, though again.
Undeterred by the offence which these works gave to his ecclesiastical superiors, he published in 1858 the Einleitung in die Philosophie and Grundriss der Metaphysik, in which he assailed the doctrine of Thomas Aquinas, that philosophy was the handmaid of theology.
In this place it is enough to consider the general influence of the patristic writings upon Christian doctrine and biblical interpretation.Advertisement
Thus the English canon of 1571 directs preachers "to take heed that they do not teach anything in their sermons as though they would have it completely held and believed by the people, save what is agreeable to the doctrine of the Old and New Testaments, and what the Catholic Fathers and ancient Bishops have gathered from that doctrine."
In Arabic he wrote his philosophical work, called in the Hebrew translation Sepher ha-Kuzari, a defence of revelation as against non-Jewish philosophy and Qaraite doctrine.
It was under the name of al-mandi that Mokhtar proclaimed `Ali's son Mahommed as the opponent of the caliph Abdalmalik, and, according to Shahrastani, the doctrine of the mandi, the hidden deliverer who is one day to appear and fill the oppressed world with righteousness, first arose in connexion with a belief that this Mahommed had not died but lived concealed at Mount Radwa, near Mecca, guarded by a lion and a panther.
Thus the council rejected both Nestorianism and Eutychianism, and stood upon the doctrine that Christ had two natures, each perfect in itself and each distinct from the other, yet perfectly united in one person, who was at once both God and man.
Amongst his works are - Doctrine de Saint-Simon (written in conjunction with several of his followers), published in 1830, and several times republished; Economie politique et politique Saint-Simonienne (1831); Correspondance politique (1835-1840); Corresp. philos.Advertisement
Disregarding all the accidental excrescences of the doctrine, Cynicism must be regarded as a most valuable development and as a real asset in the sum of ethical speculation.
To the standpoint of Aquinas, however, the Church of Rome (at least in regard to the basis of doctrine) has more and more returned.
Or it is the doctrine of unfallen man's " natural state " - a doctrine intensified in Protestantism - separating itself from the theologians' grave doctrine of sin.
So in Scotland, Thomas Erskine and Thomas Chalmers - the latter in contradiction to his earlier position - hold that the doctrine of salvation, when translated into experience, furnishes " internal evidence " - a somewhat broader use of the phrase than when it applies merely to evidence of date or authorship drawn from the contents of a book.
His doctrine is most closely related to that of Satornil (Saturninus).Advertisement
In ethics he anticipated much of the teaching of Tolstoy; in doctrine he often appealed to the authority of Wycliffe; and in some of his views it is possible to trace the influence of the Waldenses.
In doctrine they were generally broad and radical.
They taught the Apostles' Creed, rejected Purgatory, the worship of saints and the authority of the Catholic Church, practised infant baptism and confirmation, held a view on the Sacrament similar to that of Zwingli, and, differing somewhat from Luther in their doctrine of justification by faith, declared that true faith was "to know God, to love Him, to do His commandments, and to submit to His will."
With the Brethren, however, the chief stress was laid, not on doctrine, but on conduct.
It was from the Moravians that Schleiermacher learnt his religion, and they even made a passing impression on Goethe; but both these men were repelled by their doctrine of the substitutionary sufferings of Christ.Advertisement
The doctrine long continued to be one of the main subjects in dispute between the Scotists and the Thomists, or, what is almost the same thing, between the Franciscans and the Dominicans.
The Popovsti, who were served by priests converted from the Orthodox Church, made their headquarters in the island of Werka, in a tributary of the Dnieper, n Poland (1695), and after its destruction by the government in 1735 and again in 1764, at Starodubye in the government of Chernigov, whence their doctrine spread in the country of the Don.
Until recent times these various nationalities were allowed to retain unmolested the language, religion and peculiar local administration of their ancestors; but when the new nationality doctrine came into fashion, attempts were made to spread among them the language, religion and administrative institutions of the dominant race.
Joao d'Albuquerque, bishop of Goa, he asked his permission to officiate in the diocese, and at once began walking through the streets ringing a small bell, and telling all to come, and send their children and servants, to the "Christian doctrine" or catechetical instruction in the principal church.
It still remains as the accepted doctrine of the Church of Rome.Advertisement
Elizabeth required Grindal to suppress the "prophesyings" or meetings for discussion which had come into vogue among the Puritan clergy, and she even wanted him to discourage preaching; she would have no doctrine that was not inspired by her authority.
Nowhere in the Old Testament does the doctrine taught by Amos of Yahweh's universal power and sovereignty 1 Viz.
There can be little 1 We shall have to note the emergence of the doctrine of the resurrection of the righteous in later Judaism, which is obviously a fresh contribution of permanent value to Hebrew doctrine.
On the other hand, the doctrine of pre-existence is speculative rather than religious, and applies to institutions rather than persons.
Barton's Semitic Origins is extremely able, but his doctrine of the derivation of male from original female deities is pushed to an extreme.Advertisement
The author designates the story of the later empire at Constantinople (after Heraclius) as " a uniform tale of weakness and misery," a judgment which is entirely false; and in accordance with this doctrine, he makes the empire, which is his proper subject, merely a string for connecting great movements which affected it, such as the Saracen conquests, the Crusades, the Mongol invasions, the Turkish conquests.
And he did not realize the importance of the kinship between Christian doctrine and Hellenistic syncretism, which helped to promote the reception of Christianity.
In 1869 he gave a course of lectures at Harvard on the Positive Philosophy; next year he was history tutor; in 1871 he delivered thirty-five lectures on the Doctrine of Evolution, afterwards revised and expanded as Outlines of Cosmic Philosophy (1874); and between 1872 and 1879 he was assistant-librarian.
On his return to Liegnitz he helped to spread the principles of the Reformation in the principality and in Silesia, while warning his colleagues against the abuse of the doctrine of justification by faith.
In 1533, in an important synod, he defended against Martin Bucer the principles of religious freedom as well as his own doctrine and life.Advertisement
His theology took a more distinctly heterodox form, and the publication (1539) of a book in proof of his most characteristic doctrine - the deification of the humanity of Christ - led to his active persecution by the Lutherans and his expulsion from the city of Ulm.
The next year (1540) he published a refutation of the attacks upon his doctrine with a more elaborate exposition of it, under the title Grosse Confession.
In his Christology he departed from the Lutheran and Zwinglian doctrine of the two natures by insisting on what he called the Vergotterung des Fleisches Christi, the deification or the glorification of the flesh of Christ.
The doctrine was his protest against a separation of the human and the divine in Christ, and was intimately connected with his mystical view of the work of Christ.
Yet the boldness and the splendour of the nebular theory have always given it a dignity not usually attached to a doctrine which from the very nature of the case can have but little direct evidence in its favour.
In philosophical doctrine he adhered to a moderate Thomism.
In theology, Suarez attached himself to the doctrine of Luis Molina, the celebrated Jesuit professor of Evora.
Molina tried to reconcile the doctrine of predestination with the freedom of the human will by saying that the predestination is consequent upon God's foreknowledge of the free determination of man's will, which is therefore in no way affected by the fact of such predestination.
Milbourn (1867) the defendant had broken his contract to let a lecture-room to the plaintiff, on discovering that the intended lectures were to maintain that "the character of Christ is defective, and his teaching misleading, and that the Bible is no more inspired than any other book," and the court of exchequer held that the publication of such doctrine was blasphemy, and the contract therefore illegal.
On the other hand, the opinion of Cardinal Pitra, who referred the Physiologus to the more orthodox though somewhat peculiar teaching of the Alexandrians, is fully borne out by a close examination of the irregularities of doctrine pointed out in the Physiologus by Cahier, all which are to be met with in Origen.
Only by the preaching of pure doctrine would he overcome heretics....
The beginnings of modern thermochemistry, though made independently of the doctrine of the conservation of energy, are practically contemporaneous with the recognition of that law, and without it the science could scarcely have reached the degree of development which it rapidly attained.
It was begun by Ugolino Vieri of Siena in 1337, and was made to contain the Holy Corporal from Bolsena, which, according to the legend, became miraculously stained with blood during the celebration of mass to convince a sceptical priest of the truth of the doctrine of transubstantiation.
The book of Deuteronomy crystallizes a doctrine; it is the codification of teaching which presupposes a carefully prepared soil.
His opposition to the doctrine of non-resistance brought him into conflict with the tory ministry of 1712 and with Swift, but he never entered into personal controversy.
At Rome Victor excommunicated Theodotus of Byzantium on account of his doctrine as to the person of Christ.
In the second, which took place in the Church of St John and St Paul, and lasted three days, he undertook to refute innumerable errors in Aristotelians, mathematicians and schoolmen, to conduct his dispute either logically or by the secret doctrine of numbers, &c. According to Aldus, who attended the debate and published an account of it in his dedication to Crichton prefixed to Cicero's "Paradoxa" (1581), the young Scotsman was completely successful.
The prefaces and notes to both these expressed the view that Holy Scripture is the only rule of doctrine, and that justification is by faith alone.
He develops the Platonic philosophy into an elaborate system by means of the doctrine of emanation.
Joachim had proclaimed the doctrine of three world-ages--the kingdom of the Father, of the Son, and of the Spirit.
The gloom and harshness of these Spanish mystics are absent from the tender, contemplative spirit of Francois de Sales (1567-1622); and in the quietism Fof Mme Guyon (1648-1717) and Miguel de Molinos (1627-1696) there is again a sufficient implication of mystical doctrine to rouse the suspicion of the ecclesiastical authorities.
Stripped of its definitely miraculous character, the doctrine of the inner light may be regarded as the familiar mystical protest against formalism, literalism, and scripture-worship. Swedenborg, though selected by Emerson in his Representative Men as the typical mystic, belongs rather to the history of spiritualism than to that of mysticism as understood in this article.
The peaceful progress of Brahmanism was hindered by the doctrine of the Indian prince Gotama, called the Buddha, which grew into one of the greatest religions of the world.
This doctrine or hypothesis he usually speaks of as "the ideal system" or "the theory of ideas"; and to it he opposes his own analysis of the act of perception.
The relativism or phenomenalism which Hamilton afterwards adopted from Kant and sought to engraft upon Scottish philosophy is wholly absent from the original Scottish doctrine.
But since Hamilton's time the most typical Scottish thinkers have repudiated his relativistic doctrine, and returned to the original tradition of the school.
The tariff of 1828 aroused bitter opposition in South Carolina, and called from Vice-President Calhoun the statement of the doctrine of nullification which was adopted by the South Carolina legislature at the close of the year and is known as the South Carolina Exposition.
Hayne, from the same state, voiced this doctrine in the Senate, and Webster's reply was his most powerful exposition of the national conception of the Union.
Webster's brief reply drew from Hayne a second speech, in which he entered into a full exposition of the doctrine of nullification, and the important part of Webster's second reply to Hayne on the 26th and 27th of January is a masterly exposition of the Constitution as in his opinion it had come to be after a development of more than forty years.
He showed the revolutionary and unpractical character of any doctrine such as nullification based on the assumption that the general government was the agent of the state legislatures.
South Carolina, however, insisted that its doctrine was sound, and in November 1832 passed an ordinance declaring the revenue laws of the United States null and void.
On questions of fundamental doctrine they held to the belief XI.
Von Hartmann's doctrine of the Unconscious is in many respects similar to Schopenhauer's doctrine of the Will.
The doctrine once established remained an inherent part of the Babylonian-Assyrian religion and led to the more or less complete disassociation of the three gods constituting the triad from their original local limitations.
It is due to the influence of the laisser faire doctrine that we regard law and regulation as a restraint on liberty.
In the history of economics or the biography of Ricardo it is of interest to show that he anticipated later writers, or that his analysis bears the test of modern criticism; but no economist is under any obligation to defend Ricardo's reputation, nor is the fact that a doctrine is included in his works to be taken as a demonstration of its truth.
It is not unlike the procedure of the canonists and casuists of the middle ages with regard to the doctrine of usury, by which the doctrine was to all appearances preserved intact while in reality it was stripped of all its original meaning by innumerable distinctions " over-curious and precise."
No economic doctrine so well illustrates the achievements and the defects of modern economic analysis.
But the net result of the development of the doctrine of rent is that all problems in which this factor appears, and they embrace the whole range of economic theory, must apparently be treated on their merits.
In its modern form the doctrine is far too general to be serviceable without the closest scrutiny of all the facts relating to the particular case to which it is applied.
The real state of the case is certainly unsuspected by Origen himself; but many of his opponent's arguments he is unable to meet except by a speculative reconstruction of the church doctrine in question.
It need hardly be said that he spiritualized the church doctrine of the resurrection of the flesh.
This is seen especially in the doctrine of the Logos.
Fidelity to the emperor and to the teaching of the Roman Catholic doctrine formed part of the aims of this comprehensive corporation.
Of his philosophical doctrine proper, the most striking characteristic is Integration, as opposed to Disintegration, both in thought and in reality.
As regards doctrine, the work is exhaustive; but it is diffuse, obscure, and occasionally selfcontradictory, as might be expected in a work which consists of a number of unconnected paragraphs of various authorship and date.
The foundation of the system is obviously to be sought in Gnosticism, and more particularly in the older type of that doctrine (known from the serpent symbol as Ophite or Naassene) which obtained in Mesopotamia and Further Asia generally.
In theology he followed Zwingli, and at the sacramentarian conferences of Heidelberg (1560) and Maulbronn (1564) he advocated by voice and pen the Zwinglian doctrine of the Lord's Supper, replying (1565) to the counter arguments of the Lutheran Johann Marbach, of Strassburg.
The ban was not removed till 1575, Erastus declaring his firm adhesion to the doctrine of the Trinity.
In 1836 he was elected to the Georgia House of Representatives after a campaign in which he was vigorously opposed because he had attacked the doctrine of nullification, and because he had opposed all extra-legal steps against the abolitionists.
Interesting relationships between the Ethiopian and Oriental, the Neotropical and West African, the Patagonian and New Zealand faunas suggest great changes in the distribution of land and water, and throw doubt on the doctrine of the permanence of continental areas and oceanic basins.
Oecolampadius welcomed him to Basel, where in 1524 he put forth thirteen theses sharply antagonizing Roman doctrine.
Alger's History of the Doctrine of a Future Life, as it has prevailed in all Nations and Ages (1862), and published separately in 1864.
The new doctrine, loudly proclaiming the discovery of a " Natural" System, led away many from the steady practice which should have followed the teaching of Cuvier (though he in ornithology had not been able to act up to the principles he had lain down) and from the extended study of Comparative Anatomy.
But at this time he was encumbered with the hazy doctrine of analogies, which, if it did not act to his detriment, was assuredly of no service to him.
His heterodox opinions regarding the doctrine of the Trinity drew upon his works the condemnation of the church.
It was this distinction between Deitas or Divinitas and Deus that led to the condemnation of Gilbert's doctrine.
In Der Kampf urns Dasein am Himmel von Prel endeavoured to apply the Darwinian doctrine of organic evolution not only to the sphere of consciousness but also even more widely as the philosophical principle of the world.
The destruction of the mainland cities, and the flight of their leading inhabitants to the lagoons, encouraged the lagoon population to assert a growing independence, and led them to advance the doctrine that they were "born independent."
He repudiated the doctrine of secession, and pleaded for compromise and conciliation.
We cannot do more than refer to Charles for discussions as to how this theory of nature is connected with the metaphysical problems of force and matter, with the logical doctrine of universals, and in general with Bacon's theory of knowledge.
The additional qualification of " Roman " she tolerates, since it proclaims her doctrine of the see of Rome as the keystone of Catholicism; but to herself she is "the Catholic Church," and her members are "Catholics."
He is also the author of the Brazen Serpent (1831), the Doctrine of Election (1839), several "Introductory Essays" to editions of Christian Authors, and a posthumous work entitled Spiritual Order and Other Papers (1871).
Nominalism was a doctrine of sceptics and suspected heretics, such as Berengar of Tours and Roscellinus.
The common law doctrine of a six months' notice being required to terminate a tenancy from year to year of a corporeal hereditament, does not apply to an incorporeal hereditament such as a right to shoot.
The general American doctrine is that where the contract is contained in separate writings they must connect themselves by reference, and that parol evidence is not admissible to connect them.
The English doctrine that a verbal lease may be specifically enforced if there has been part performance by the person seeking the remedy has been fully adopted in nearly all the American states.
Had this not been the case he could scarcely have remained a firm believer in the phlogistic doctrine.
His chief books on chemistry were six volumes of Experiments and Observations on different Kinds of Air, published between 1774 and 1786; Experiments on the Generation of Air from Water (1793) Experiments and Observations relating to the Analysis of Atmospheric Air, and Considerations on the Doctrine of Phlogiston established and that of the Composition of Water refuted (1800).
Besides orthodox Moslems there are also Shi`ite sects, as well as a number of religious communities whose doctrine is the outcome of the process of fermentation that characterized the first centuries of Islam.
To portions of these Aristotle has been supposed to have been indebted for his doctrine of the categories and some of his chief ethical theories.
It shows a clear discernment of the dangers of the ascetic life, and a deep insight into the significance of the Augustinian doctrine of grace.
He had submitted the doctrine of transubstantiation (already generally received both by priests and people, although in the west it had been first unequivocally taught and reduced to a regular theory by Paschasius Radbert in 831) to an independent examination, and had come to the conclusion that it was contrary to reason, unwarranted by Scripture, and inconsistent with the teaching of men like Ambrose, Jerome and Augustine.
Berengar's belief was not shaken by their arguments and exhortations, and hearing that Lanfranc, the most celebrated theologian of that age, strongly approved the doctrine of Paschasius and condemned that of " Scotus " (really Ratramnus), he wrote to him a letter expressing his surprise and urging him to reconsider the question.
Trusting in Hildebrand's support, and in the justice of his own cause, he presented himself at the synod of Rome in 1059, but found himself surrounded by zealots, who forced him by the fear of death to signify his acceptance of the doctrine " that the bread and wine, after consecration, are not merely a sacrament, but the true body and the true blood of Christ, and that this body is touched and broken by the hands of the priests, and ground by the teeth of the faithful, not merely in a sacramental but in a real manner."
The transubstantiation doctrine seemed to him full of evil, from its tendency to lead men to overvalue what was sensuous and transitory.
He rejected with indignation the miraculous stories told to confirm the doctrine of transubstantiation.
Reason and Scripture seemed to him the only grounds on which a true doctrine of the Lord's supper could be rested.
The doctrine of analogy was intended as a reply to the deistical conclusions that had been drawn from Locke's theory of knowledge.
The descent of alchemistical doctrine can thus be traced with fair continuity for a thousand years, from the Greeks of Alexandria down to the time when Latin alchemy was firmly established in the West, and began to be written of by historical authors like Albertus Magnus, Roger Bacon and Arnoldus Villanovanus in the 13th century.
This is briefly the doctrine that the metals are composed of mercury and sulphur, which persisted in one form or another down to the 17th century.
This statement represents a doctrine widely held in the 13th century, and also to be found in the Greek alchemists, that everything endowed with a particular apparent quality possesses a hidden opposite quality, which can be rendered apparent by fire.
In 754 he assembled at the palace of Hiereion 338 bishops, by whom the worship of images was forbidden as opposed to all Christian doctrine and a curse pronounced upon all those who upheld it.
It is connected with the doctrine of a Messiah, which arose in Nevada among the Piute Indians in 1888 and spread to other tribes.
He was therefore naturally invited to defend the doctrine of transubstantiation against the attacks of Berengar of Tours.
Although the school of Bec was firmly attached to the doctrine of papal sovereignty, he still assisted William in maintaining the independence of the English Church; and appears at one time to have favoured the idea of maintaining a neutral attitude on the subject of the quarrels between papacy and empire.
His great work was the Theologia moralis et dogmatica, a compendium in catechetical form of Roman Catholic doctrine and ethics which has been much used as a students' text-book.
Gallatin was thrown helplessly back upon the rejected Federalist doctrine of government according to circumstances.
During his stay of a year and a half in this university, besides his classes, he found occasion to give to some companions his Spiritual Exercises in the form they had then taken and certain instructions in Christian doctrine.
When he arrived near Loyola he would not go to the castle, but lived at the public hospice at Azpeitia, and began his usual life of teaching Christian doctrine and reforming morals.
He impressed on his followers the doctrine that in all things the end was to be considered.
His doctrine on the subject is found in the well-known letter to the Portuguese Jesuits in 15J3, and if this be read carefully together with the Constitutions his meaning is clear.
Its foundation is often attributed to Xenophanes of Colophon, but, although there is much in his speculations which formed part of the later Eleatic doctrine, it is probably more correct to regard Parmenides as the founder of the school.
Lavoisier adequately recognized and acknowledged how much he owed to the researches of others; to himself is due the co-ordination of these researches, and the welding of his results into a doctrine to which the phlogistic theory ultimately succumbed.
Lavoisier appears to have assumed that the composition of every chemical compound was constant, and the same opinion was the basis of much experimental inquiry at the hands of Joseph Louis Proust during 1801 to 1809, who vigorously combated the doctrine of Claude Louis Berthollet (Essai de statique chimique, 1803), viz.
The phlogistic theory, which pervaded the chemical doctrine of this period, gave rise to continued study of the products of calcination and combustion; it thus happened that the knowledge of oxides and oxidation products was considerably developed.
Mitscherlich, who also observed the similarity of the crystallographic characters of selenates and sulphates, which afforded valuable corroboration of his doctrine of isomorphism.
In addition to the vitalistic doctrine of the origin of organic compounds, views based on purely chemical considerations were advanced.
The brilliant researches of Frankland on the organo-metallic compounds, and his consequent doctrine of saturation capacity or valency of elements and radicals, relieved Kolbe's views of all obscurity.
The doctrine of copulae was discarded, and in 1859 emphasis was given to the view that all organic compounds were derivatives of inorganic by simple substitution processes.
Another consequence of the doctrine of valency was that it permitted the graphic representation of the molecule.
Thiele suggested a doctrine of " partial valencies," which assumes that in addition to the ordinary valencies, each doubly linked atom has a partial valency, by which the atom first interacts.
The development of the theory of crystal structure, and the fundamental principles on which is based the classification of crystal forms, are treated in the article Crystallography; in the same place will be found an account of the doctrine of isomorphism, polymorphism and morphotropy.
A great friend of Erasmus, whom he invited to Cambridge, whilst earnestly working for a reformation of abuses, he had no sympathy with those who attacked doctrine; and he preached at Paul's Cross (12th of May 1521) at the burning of Luther's books.
It was but natural that he should diverge more and more widely from the traditional doctrine, so that at length the relation between his teaching and that of the church appeared to be one of opposition rather than of reconciliation.
The two most important points in his, as in all mystical theories, are first, his doctrine of the divine nature, and second, his explanation of the relation between God and human thought.
The crisis began when Archbishop Antony of Volinsk denounced the doctrine as heretical in The Russian Monk.
The doctrine of the sphericity of the earth was still held by the more learned, but the heads of the church held it to be unscriptural.
But this is the only passage; the Talmud has no fixed doctrine on the point.
By this doctrine of Augustine's, the old millennarianism, though not completely extirpated, was at least banished from the official theology.
Several imprisonments, including that of George Fox at Derby in 1650-1651, were brought about under the Blasphemy Act of 1650, which inflicted penalties on any one who asserted himself to be very God or equal with God, a charge to which the Friends were peculiarly liable owing to their doctrine of perfection.
They left behind them, however, many influential members, who may be described as a middle party, and who strove to give a more " evangelical " tone to Quaker doctrine.
At certain periods this doctrine, pushed to an extreme, has led to a practical undervaluing of the Scriptures, but of late times it has enabled Friends to face fearlessly the conclusions.
Apart from points of doctrine which can be more or less definitely stated (not always with unanimity) Quakerism is an atmosphere, a manner of life, a method of approaching questions, a habit and; attitude of mind.
A few of them demand from their ministers definite subscription to a specific body of doctrine, mostly of the ordinary " evangelical " type.
The meetings for business further concern themselves with arrangements for spreading the Quaker doctrine, and for carrying out various religious, philanthropic and social activities not neces sarily confined to the Society of Friends.
On the 25th of July 1898 he addressed to the Scottish Catholic bishops a letter, in the course of which he said that "many of the Scottish people who do not agree with us in faith sincerely love the name of Christ and strive to ascertain His doctrine and to imitate His most holy example."
In 1879, addressing a congress of Catholic journalists in Rome, he exhorted them to uphold the necessity of the temporal power, and to proclaim to the world that the affairs of Italy would never prosper until it was restored; in 1887 he found it necessary to deprecate the violence with which this doctrine was advocated in certain journals.
The doctrine of election had led to a separation between Whitefield and the Wesleys in 1741.
He preached the doctrine of conscious acceptance with God and daily growth in holiness.
Omar, on hearing the request of his general, is said to have replied that if those books contained the same doctrine with the Koran, they could be of no use, since the Koran contained all necessary truths; but if they contained anything contrary to that book, they ought to be destroyed; and therefore, whatever their contents were, he ordered them to be burnt.
About the same time Marsilio completed and published his treatise on the Platonic doctrine of immortality (Theologia Platonica de immortalitate animae), the work by which his claims to take rank as a philosopher must be estimated.
The cardinal point of his doctrine was the identity of religion and philosophy.
He maintained that the Platonic doctrine was providentially made to harmonize with Christianity, in order that by its means speculative intellects might be led to Christ.
Far more interesting as explaining the diffusion and the religious and social importance of his doctrine is his conception of the second and third ages.
The Avesta is, indeed, our principal source for the doctrine of Zoroaster; on the subject of his person and his life it is comparatively reticent; with regard to his date it is, naturally enough, absolutely silent.
His doctrine was rooted in the old Iranian - or Aryan - folk-religion, of which we can only form an approximate representation by comparison with the religion of the Veda.
The most striking difference between Zoroaster's doctrine of God and the old religion of India lies in this, that while in the Avesta the evil spirits are called daeva (Modern Persian div), the Aryans of India, in common with the Italians, Celts and Letts, gave the name of deva to their good spirits, the spirits of light.
The authentic doctrine of the Gathas had no room either for the cult of Mithra or for that of the Haoma.
Ethically, too, the new doctrine stands on a higher plane, and represents, in its moral laws, a superior civilization.
Of a real remission of sins the old doctrine of Zoroaster knows nothing, whilst the later Zoroastrian Church admits repentance, expiation and remission.
For the great mass of the people Zoroaster's doctrine was too abstract and spiritualistic. The vulgar fancy requires sensuous, plastic deities, which admit of visible representation; and so the old gods received honour again and new gods won acceptance.
The Parsees in and around Bombay hold by Zoroaster as their prophet and by the ancient religious usages, but their doctrine has reached the stage of a pure monotheism.
In this all-important doctrine of the Sephiroth, the Kabbalah insists upon the fact that these potencies are not creations of the En Soph, which would be a diminution of strength; that they form among themselves and with the En Soph a strict unity, and simply represent different aspects of the same being, just as the different rays which proceed from the light, and which appear different things to the eye, are only different manifestations of one and the same light; that for this reason they all alike partake of the perfections of the En Soph; and that as emanations from the Infinite, the Sephiroth are infinite and perfect like the En Soph, and yet constitute the first finite things.
Still more distinct is the doctrine of the atonement.
The firm establishment of the doctrine of practical monotheism happened to coincide in time with the destruction of the national political life (in the 6th century B.C.).
At the moment when this doctrine had come to be generally accepted by the thinking part of the nation, the Jews found themselves dispersed among foreign communities, and from that time were a subject people environed by aliens, Babylonian, Persian and Greek.
In 434, three years after the council of Ephesus, he wrote the Commonitorium adversus profanas omnium haereticorum novitates, in which he ultimately aims at Augustine's doctrine of grace and predestination.
He does not attain to a systematic exhibition of Christian doctrine, but he paves the way for it, and lays the first stones of the foundation.
For his moral doctrine he borrowed freely from Stoicism.
The theory was purely democratic, but was all ready to be transformed, by means of a series of fictions and implications, into an imperialist doctrine; and in like manner it contained a visionary plan of reformation which ended, not in the separation of the church from the state, but in the subjection of the church to the state.
But, above all, in an unpublished work preserved at Oxford, the Defensor minor, Marsilius completed and elaborated in a curious manner certain points in the doctrine laid down in the Defensor pacis.
Pope Celestine's choice fell on the deacon Palladius, who had taken a prominent part in stamping out the doctrine in Britain.
By the 12th century, mitre and gloves were worn by all bishops, and in many cases they had assumed a new ornament, the rationale, a merely honorific decoration (supposed to symbolize doctrine and wisdom), sometimes of the nature of a highly ornamental broad shoulder collar with dependent lappets; sometimes closely resembling the pallium; rarely a "breast-plate" on the model of that of the Jewish high priest.'
In this he criticizes the bishops' Report in a sympathetic spirit, but points out how intimately the symbolism of the vestments had become associated with the doctrine of the Sacrifice of the Mass, and how logical was the action of the Reformers in rejecting certain of these vestments.
In the summer of 1864 a sermon which he preached and printed on Baptismal Regeneration (a doctrine which he strenuously repudiated, maintaining that immersion was only an outward and visible sign of the inward conversion) led to a difference with the bulk of the Evangelical party, both Nonconformist and Anglican.
Shortly before his death Huss had accepted a doctrine preached during his absence by his adherents at Prague, namely that of "utraquism," i.e.
This doctrine became the watchword of the moderate Hussites who were known as the Utraquists or Calixtines (calix, the chalice), in Bohemian, podoboji; while the more advanced Hussites were soon known as the Taborites, from the city of Tabor that became their centre.
These articles, which contain the essence of the Hussite doctrine, were rejected by Sigismund, mainly through the influence of the papal legates, who considered them prejudicial to the authority of the Roman see.
The city of Kiiniggr .tz (Kralove Hradec), which had been under Utraquist rule, espoused the doctrine of Tabor, and called Zizka to its aid.
As the theological doctrine of the Logos which bulks so largely in the writings of the apologists of the 2nd century came to the front, the trinitarian problem became acute.
The writings of Theodore of Mopsuestia had become well known in the West, especially since the strife over the "three chapters" (544-553), and the opposition of Islam also partly determined the form of men's views on the doctrine of Christ's person.
Another synod was held at Frankfort in 794, by which the new doctrine was again formally condemned, though neither Felix nor any of his followers appeared.
In the scholastic discussions of the 12th century the question came to the front again, for the doctrine as framed by Alcuin was not universally accepted.
In the former review, a striking paper upon development of doctrine (Dec. 1st, 1898) headed a series of studies apparently taken from an already extant large apologetic work.
This may be so extended as to include a discourse in favour of pure morality, though, even in that case, the morals are founded on Christian doctrine, and even the sermon which the fox preaches in La Fontaine's Fables is a parody of a Christian discourse.
When Constantine deposed the orthodox bishops who resisted, Auxentius was installed into the seat of Dionysius, bishop of Milan, and came to be regarded as the great opponent of the Nicene doctrine in the West.
It has been insisted, by those who accepted Lankester's original doctrine of the direct or genetic affinity of the Chaetopoda and Arthropoda, that Apus and Branchipus really come very near to the ancestral forms which connected those two great branches of Appendiculate (Parapodiate) animals.
Indications are not wanting that St Paul's doctrine of justification by faith was, in his own day, mistaken or perverted in the interests of immoral licence.
The doctrine of the immortality of the soul was accompanied by that of the resurrection of the flesh; the struggle between good and evil was one day to cease, and the divine bull was to appear on earth, Mithras was to descend to call all men from their tombs and to separate the good from the bad.
His religious doctrine is Pantheistic; and, rejecting the belief in a future life as commonly conceived, he substitutes for it a theory of metempsychosis.
We may conclude with brief reference to the most important aspects of the Roman doctrine.
Such in brief were the doctrine and use of the early churches, gradually systematized, developed and transformed in the churches of the Roman obedience.
The doctrine of Schopenhauer and von Hartmann is a monism of cosmic will which submerges the individual no less completely than Hegelianism, though in a different manner.
But the further progress of Scholastic thought consisted in a withdrawal of doctrine after doctrine from the possibility of rational proof and their relegation to the sphere of faith.
The first form of Realism corresponds to the Platonic theory of the transcendence of the ideas; the second reproduces the Aristotelian doctrine of the essence as inseparable from the individual thing.
John the Scot was still E acquainted with Greek, seeing that he translated the work of the pseudo-Dionysius; and his speculative genius achieved the fusion of Christian doctrine and Neoplatonic thought in a system of quite remarkable metaphysical completeness.
Erigena does not separate his Platonic theory of pre-existent exemplars from the Aristotelian doctrine of the universal as in the individuals.
At all events, while Erigena's Realism is pronounced, the Platonic and Aristotelian forms of the doctrine are not distinguished in his writings.
Taken strictly his words state the position of extreme Nominalism; but even if we were not forbidden to do so by other passages, in which the doctrine of moderate Realism is adopted (under cover of the current distinction between the singular as felt and the pure universal as understood), it would still be unfair to press any passage in the writings of this period.
One of the first of these attacks was made by Berengarius of Tours (999-1088) upon the doctrine of transubstantiation; he denied the possibility of a change of substance in the bread and wine without some corresponding change in the accidents.
It is not to be supposed that the full scope of his doctrine was present to the mind of Roscellinus; but Nominalism would hardly have made the sensation it did had its assertions been as innocent as Haureau would make them.
And, though we may acquit Roscellinus of consciously propounding a theory so subversive of all knowledge, his criticism of the doctrine of the Trinity is proof at least of the determination with which he was prepared to carry out his individualism.
This theological deduction from his doctrine drew upon Roscellinus the polemic of his most celebrated opponent, Anselm of Canterbury (1033-1109).
It was simply accepted by him in a broad way as the orthodox philosophic doctrine, and the doctrine which, as a sagacious churchman, he perceived to be most in harmony with Christian theology.
As he reverted to Realism, his influence, first at Rheims and then in Paris, was doubtless instrumental in bringing about the general acceptance of that doctrine till the advent of Roscellinus as a powerful disturbing influence.
But the Platonically conceived proof of the being of God contained in the Monologion shows that Anselm's doctrine of the universals as substances in things (universalia in re) was closely connected in his mind with the thought of the universalia ante rem, the exemplars of perfect goodness and truth and justice, by participation in which all earthly things are judged to possess these qualities.
Besides its connexion with the speculations of Anselm, the doctrine of Roscellinus was also of decisive influence within the schools in crystallizing the opposite opinion.
In other words, he merely sought to avoid the awkward consequences of his own doctrine by substituting " individualiter " for " essentialiter " in his definition.
The doctrine of indifference as it appears in later writers certainly tends, as Prantl points out, towards Nominalism, inasmuch as it gives up the substantiality of the universals.
Bernard of Chartres, at the beginning of the 12th century, endeavoured, according to John of Salisbury, to reconcile Plato and Aristotle; but his doctrine is almost wholly derived from the former through St Augustine and the commentary of Chalcidius.
The universals are thus forms inherent in things - " native forms," according to the expression by which Gilbert's doctrine is concisely known.
Abelard also perceived that Realism, by separating the universal substance from the forms which individualize it, makes the universal indifferent to these forms, and leads directly to the doctrine of the identity of all beings in one universal substance or matter - a pantheism which might take either an Averroistic or a Spinozistic form.
Against the system of non-difference Abelard has a number of logical and traditional arguments to bring, but it is sufficiently condemned by his fundamental doctrine that only the individual exists in its own right.
For that system still seems to recognize a generic substance as the core of the individual, whereas, according to Cousin's rendering of Abelard's doctrine, " only individuals exist, and in the individual nothing but the individual."
By these distinctions Abelard hoped to escape the consequences of extreme Nominalism, from which, as a matter of history, his doctrine has been distinguished under the name of Conceptualism, seeing that it lays stress not on the word as such but on the thought which the word is intended to convey.
Abelard's application of dialectic to theology betrayed the Nominalistic basis of his doctrine.
Realism was in the beginning of the 12th century the dominant doctrine and the doctrine of the church; the Nominalists were the innovators and the especial representatives of the Rationalistic Summists.
The apocryphal Neoplatonic treatises and the First views of the Arabian commentators obscured for the effects of first students the genuine doctrine of Aristotle, and the the new 13th century opens with quite a crop of mystical knowledge.
The spread of the Amalrican doctrine led to fierce persecutions, and the provincial council which met at Paris in 1209 expressly decreed " that neither the books of Aristotle on natural philosophy, nor commentaries on the same, should be read, whether publicly or privately, at Paris."
The earlier doctors who avail themselves of Aristotle's works, while bowing to his authority implicitly in matters of logic, are generally found defending a Christianized Platonism against the doctrine of the Metaphysics.
Thus he defended the universalia ante rem as exemplars existent in the divine intelligence, and censured Aristotle's doctrine of the eternity of the world.
So long as the Neoplatonic influence remained strong, attempts were still made to demonstrate the doctrine of the Trinity, chiefly in a mystical sense as in Erigena, but also by orthodox churchmen like Anselm.
Here the Scholastic philosophy comes into conflict with Aristotle's doctrine of the eternity of the world.
A tolerably evident shortcoming of such a doctrine is that, while declaring the quantitative determination of matter to be the individual element in the individual, it gives no account of how such quantitative determination arises.
This difficulty was presently raised by Duns Scotus and the realistically-inclined opponents of the Thomist doctrine.
Thomism, which was destined to become the official philosophy of the Roman Catholic Church, became in the first instance the accepted doctrine of the Dominican order, who were presently joined in this allegiance by the Augustinians.
One of the first of these was the Reprehensorium seu correctorium fratris Thomae, published in 1285 by William Lamarre, in which the Averroistic consequences of the Thomist doctrine of individuation are already pressed home.
And it is significant that this primacy of the undetermined will (voluntas superior intellectu) was the central contention of the Scotists against the Thomist doctrine.
Accordingly, the Thomist doctrine may be described as a moderate determinism.
Transferred to the divine activity, Aquinas's doctrine led him to insist upon the perseitas boni.
Scotus, on the other hand, following out his doctrine of the will, declared the good to be so only by arbitrary imposition.
While agreeing with Albert and Thomas in maintaining the threefold existence of the universals, Duns Scotus attacked the Thomist doctrine of individuation.
Notwithstanding the above doctrine, however, Scotus holds that all created things possess both matter and form - the soul, for example, possessing a matter of its own before its The principle of individuation.
But the name with which the Nominalism of the 14th century is historically associated is that of the " Invincible Doctor," William of Occam William of who, (q.v.),, as the, author of a doctrine which came occam to be almost universally accepted, received from his followers the title Venerabilis inceptor.
Occam reproaches the " modern Platonists " for perverting the Aristotelian doctrine by these speculations, and claims the authority of Aristotle for his own Nominalistic doctrine.
The most interesting example of this method is seen in the Tractatus de sacramento altaris where Occam accepts the doctrine of Real Presence as a matter of Faith, and sets forth a rational theory of the Eucharist (afterwards adopted by Luther) known as " Consubstantiation."
But only in the period following Occam did it become a current doctrine.
The title " last of the Scholastics " is commonly given to Gabriel Biel, the summarizer of Occam's doctrine.
The harmony of reason and faith had given place to the doctrine of the dual nature of truth.
The essence of the fatalistic doctrine is that it assigns no place at all to the initiative of the individual, or to rational sequence of events.
The doctrine of fate appears also in what are known as the higher religions, e.g.
There was a certain learned mathematician who sent his algebra, written in the Syriac language, to Alexander the Great, and he named it almucabala, that is, the book of dark or mysterious things, which others would rather call the doctrine of algebra.
Sir Isaac Newton introduced the term Universal Arithmetic, since it is concerned with the doctrine of operations, not affected on numbers, but on general symbols.
The first of these views is closely connected with the doctrine of the Apostolical Succession.
The latter make "the three notes or marks" by which a true church is known "pure and sound doctrine, the sacraments administered according to Christ's holy institution, and the right use of ecclesiastical discipline."
The three groups communicated secretly through Switzerland, and it was felt that the time had come for the exiles to take a fresh step forward, in view of the prominence given to the doctrine of self-determination since the Russian Revolution and America's entry into the war.
Moreover the High Command viewed with alarm the growth of " Septembrist " doctrine among the troops - i.e.
A fantastic and elaborate doctrine of symbolism existed which comprised all nature; witchcraft, alchemy and medicine were its practical expressions.
The delay in the establishment of the doctrine of organic evolution was due, not to the ignorant and unobservant, but to the leaders of zoological and botanical science.
It was reserved for Charles Darwin, in the year 1859, to place the whole theory of organic evolution on a new footing, and by his discovery of a mechanical cause actually existing and demonstrable by which organic evolution doctrine must be brought about, entirely to change the attitude in regard to it of even the most rigid exponents of the scientific method.
The astonishing colours and grotesque forms of some animals and plants which the museum zoologists gravely described without comment were shown by these observers of living nature to have their significance in the economy of the organism possessing them; and a general doctrine was recognized, to the effect that no part or structure of an organism is without definite use and adaptation, being designed by the Creator for the benefit of the creature to which it belongs, or else for the benefit, amusement or instruction of his highest creature - man.
Teleology in this form of the doctrine of design was never very deeply rooted amongst scientific anatomists and systematists.
A more instructive subdivision must be one which corresponds to the separate currents of thought and mental preoccupation which have been historically manifested in western Europe in the gradual evolution of what is to-day the great river of zoological doctrine to which they have all been rendered contributory.
We have mentioned Lamarck before his great contemporary Cuvier because, in spite of his valuable philosophical doctrine of development, he was, as compared with Cuvier and estimated as a systematic zoologist, a mere enlargement and logical outcome of Linnaeus.
Cuvier's doctrine of four plans of structure was essentially a morphological one, and so was the single-scale doctrine of Buffon and Lamarck, to which it was opposed.
We now arrive at the period when the doctrine of organic evolution was established by Darwin, and when naturalists, being convinced by him as they had not been by the transmutationists of fifty years' earlier date, were compelled to take an entirely new view of the significance of all attempts at framing a " natural " classification.
The whole position was changed by the acquiescence, which became universal, in the doctrine of Darwin.
That doctrine took some few years to produce its effect, but it became evident at once to those who accepted Darwinism that the natural classification of animals, after which collectors and anatomists, morphologists, philosophers and embryologists had been so long striving, was nothing more nor less than a genealogical tree, with breaks and gaps of various extent in its record.
Pre-Darwinian zoologists had been aware of the class of facts thus interpreted by Fritz Muller, but the authoritative view on the subject had been that there is a parallelism between (a) the series of forms which occur in individual development, (b) the series of existing forms from lower to higher, and (c) the series of forms which succeed 'one another in the strata of the earth's crust, whilst an explanation of this parallelism was either not attempted, or was illusively offered in the shape of a doctrine of harmony of plan in creation.
Another important factor in the present condition of zoological knowledge as represented by classification is the doctrine of degeneration propounded by Anton Dohrn.
General Tendencies Since Darwin Darwin may be said to have founded the science of bionomics, and at the same time to have given new stimulus and new direction to morphography, physiology, and plasmology, by uniting them as contributories to one common biological doctrine-the doctrine of organic evolution-itself but a part of the wider doctrine of universal evolution based on the laws of physics and chemistry.
It is held 1 that the Darwinian doctrine of selection of fortuitous congenital variations is sufficient to account for all cases, that the Lamarckian hypothesis of transmission cf acquired characters is not supported by experimental evidence, and that the latter should therefore be dismissed.
Helmholtz in 1871 is the ` foundation of the important doctrine of the microscopic limit.
On the side of Persia too, where the decisive battle of Shurur (1502) had raised to power Ismail, the first of the modern line of shahs, danger threatened the sultan, and the latter years of his reign were troubled by the spread, under the influence of the new Persian power, of the Shiite doctrine in Kurdistan and Asia Minor.
Probably (as Duval suggests) the use of Syriac in these regions went hand in hand with the spread of the monophysite doctrine, for the liturgies and formulas of the Jacobite Church were composed in Syriac. Similarly the spread of Nestorian doctrines throughout the western and southwestern regions of the Persian Empire was accompanied by the ecclesiastical use of a form of Syriac which differed very slightly indeed from that employed farther west by the Jacobites.
An amplified form of the same story is furnished by the Doctrine of Addai, an original Syriac work which survives complete in a St Petersburg MS. of the 6th century, and is also represented by fragments in other MSS.
Of the large number of Apocryphal books existing in Syriac8 the majority have been translated from Greek, one or two (such as Bar Sira or Ecclesiasticus) from Hebrew, while some (like the Doctrine of Addai above referred to) are original Syriac documents.
Among such documents connected with the early history of Edessa we have, besides the Doctrine of Addai, certain martyrdoms, those of Sharbel and Barsamya assigned to the reign of Trajan, and those of Gurya and Shamona and of the Deacon Habbibh under Diocletian and Licinius.
Western Syria, on the contrary, had partaken with Alexandria in the reaction from Nestorianism which finally crystallized in the Monophysite doctrine, that spread so widely through Egypt and Western Asia towards the end of the 5th century.
Born probably between 415 and 420 he imbibed Nestorian doctrine from Ibas at the Persian school of Edessa, but was driven out in 457 on the death of his master, and went to be bishop of Nisibis.
Barsauma appointed him head of the new school, where he taught rigidly Nestorian doctrine.
In the preface to the first volume he regrets that except for Alfred's translations Englishmen had no means of learning the true doctrine as expounded by the Latin fathers.
The first series of forty homilies is devoted to plain and direct exposition of the chief events of the Christian year; the second deals more fully with church doctrine and history.
Whether Xenophanes was a monotheist, whose assertion of the unity of God suggested to Parmenides the doctrine of the unity of Being, or a pantheist, whose assertion of the unity of God was also a declaration of the unity of Being, so that he anticipated Parmenides - in other words, whether Xenophanes's teaching was purely theological or had also a philosophical significance - is a question about which authorities have differed and will probably continue to differ.
The Platonic testimony, if it proved anything, would prove too much, namely, that the doctrine of the unity of Being originated, not with Xenophanes, but before him; and, in fact, the passage from the Sophist no more proves that Plato attributed to Xenophanes the philosophy of Parmenides than Theaetetus, 160 D, proves that Plato attributed to Homer the philosophy of Heraclitus.
He was credited with having originated the doctrine of metempsychosis, while Cicero and Augustine assert that he was the first to teach the immortality of the soul.
The learned hold the doctrine of Confucius, and Buddhism, alloyed with much popular superstition, has some influence.
The Guiana boundary question began now to assume an acute stage, the Venezuelan minister in Washington having persuaded President Cleveland to take up the cause of Venezuela in vindication of the principles of the Monroe doctrine.
The president, however, sheltered himself behind the Monroe doctrine and appealed to the government of the United States to intervene.
The theory that it is possible for a thing to be theologically true and philosophically false, and the doctrine of the mortality of the human soul, were both repudiated; while a three years' tithe on all church property was set apart to provide funds for a war against the Turks.
When Virchow wrote, in 1850, " every animal presents itself as a sum of vital unities, every one of which manifests all the characteristics of life," he expressed a doctrine whose sway since then has practically been uninterrupted.
Nippur continued to be a sacred city after it ceased to have any considerable political importance, while in addition the rise of the doctrine of a triad of gods symbolizing the three divisions - heavens, earth and water - assured to Bel, to whom the earth was assigned as his province, his place in the religious system.
The disassociation from his local origin involved in this doctrine of the triad gave to Bel a rank independent of political changes, and we, accordingly, find Bel as a factor in the religion of Babylonia and Assyria to the latest days.
Hippocrates, influenced as is thought by the Pythagorean doctrines of number, taught that they were to be expected on days fixed by certain numerical rules, in some cases on odd, in others on even numbers - the celebrated doctrine of "critical days."
The Erasistrateans paved the way for what was in some respects the most important school which Alexandria produced, that known as the empiric, which, though it recognized no master by name, may be considered to have been founded by Philinus of Cos (280 B.C.), a pupil of Herophilus; but Serapion, a great name in antiquity, and Glaucias of Tarentum, who traced the empirical doctrine back to the writings of Hippocrates, are also named among its founders.
We have now to trace the fortunes of this body of medical doctrine and practice when transplanted to Rome, and ultimately to the whole Roman world.
He introduced a system which, so far as we know, was his own, though founded upon the Epicurean philosophical creed; on the practical side it conformed pretty closely to the Stoic rule of life, thus adapting itself to the leanings of the better stamp of Romans in the later times of the republic. According to Asclepiades all diseases depended upon alterations in the size, number, arrangement or movement of the "atoms," of which, according to the doctrine of Epicurus, the body consisted.
This doctrine, of which the developments need not further be followed, was important chiefly in so far that it was perfectly distinct from, and opposed to, the humoral pathology of Hippocrates.
Asclepiades had many pupils who adhered more or less closely to his doctrines, but it was especially one of them, Themison, who gave permanence to the teachings of his master by framing out of them, with some modifications, a new system of medical doctrine, and founding on this basis a school which lasted for some centuries in successful rivalry with the Hippocratic tradition, which, as we have seen, was up to that time the prevailing influence in medicine.
This doctrine, crudely transferred from philosophical speculation, was intended to reconcile the humoral (or Hippocratic) and solidist (or methodic) schools; but the methodists seem to have claimed Athenaeus as one of themselves.
Although no system or important doctrine of medicine was originated by the Roman intellect, and though the practice of the profession was probably almost entirely in the hands of the Greeks, the most complete picture which we have of medical thought and activity in Roman times is due to a Latin pen, and to one who was, in all probability, not a physician.
The application of physiology to the explanation of diseases, and thus to practice, was chiefly by the theory of the temperaments or mixtures which Galen founded upon the Hippocratic doctrine of humours, but developed with marvellous and fatal ingenuity.
Arcana were often shown to be such by their physical properties, not only by such as heat, cold, &c., but by fortuitous resemblances to certain parts of the body; thus arose the famous doctrine of "signatures," or signs indicating the virtues and uses of natural objects, which was afterwards developed into great complexity.
But the development of mathematical and physical science soon introduced a fundamental change in the habits of thought with respect to medical doctrine.
He made a resolute attempt to reconstruct medicine on the two bases of the doctrine of the circulation of the blood and the new views of chemistry.
He resembled his Greek master in the high value he set on the study of the "natural history of disease"; in the importance he attached to "epidemic constitution" - that is, to the influence of weather and other natural causes in modifying disease; and further in his conception of the healing power of nature in disease, a doctrine which he even expanded beyond the teaching of Hippocrates.
Another important point in Sydenham's doctrine is his clear recognition of many diseases as being what would be now called specific, and not due merely to an alteration in the primary qualities or humours of the older schools.
Cullen's system was largely based on the new physiological doctrine of irritability, but is especially noticeable for the importance attached to nervous action.
But, further, the happiness and the dignity of life are regarded by him as absolutely dependent on the acceptance of the true and the rejection of the false doctrine.
In the fourth book he discusses the Epicurean doctrine of the images, which are cast from all bodies, and which act either on the senses or immediately on the mind, in dreams or waking visions, as affording the explanation of the belief in the continued existence of the spirits of the departed.
Nothing can be more unlike the religious and moral attitude of Lucretius than the old popular conception of him as an atheist and a preacher of the doctrine of pleasure.
He took a prominent part in educational affairs, strongly opposed the Roman Catholic claims for public funds for parochial schools, and conducted the campaign of the Free School Society to its successful issue in 1842, when a state law was passed forbidding the support from public funds of any "religious sectarian doctrine."
Of a controversial character are the Confessio Catholica, (1633-1637), an extensive work which seeks to prove the evangelical and catholic character of the doctrine of the Augsburg Confession from the writings of approved Roman Catholic authors; and the Loci communes theologici (1610-1622), his principal contribution.
Unable to accept Berzelius's doctrine of the unalterability of organic radicals, he also gave a new interpretation to the meaning of copulae under the influence of his fellow-worker Edward Frankland's conception of definite atomic saturation-capacities, and thus contributed in an important degree to the subsequent establishment of the structure theory.
This doctrine of philosophic quietism was common to his successors, until in the time of the sixth guru, Har Govind, it was found necessary to support the separate existence of Sikhism by force of arms, and this led to the militant and political development of the tenth and most powerful of the gurus, Govind Singh.
Amar Das preached the doctrine abrogation of caste distinctions, and his precepts were implicitly followed by his successors.
The dualism of the earlier Zoroastrians, which may be compared with the Christian doctrine of God and Satan, gradually tended in la.
He held the doctrine that the chemical elements are compounds of equal and similar atoms, and might therefore possibly be all derived from one generic atom.
His admiration for Plato led him to write a commentary on the Timaeus; in another way it is shown by important modifications which he made in psychological doctrine.
In 1629 Prynne came forward as the assailant of Arminianism in doctrine and of ceremonialism in practice, and thus drew down upon himself the anger of Laud.