How to use Dna in a sentence

dna
  • You get the DNA from the bodies?

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  • He studied the DNA molecule to see if the child was related to the man.

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  • He leaves nothing; no DNA, no fingerprints, no witnesses.

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  • If you and I both had our DNA sequenced and compared the output, the information would be virtually identical.

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  • Even identical twins, thought until recently to have identical DNA, actually have slightly different DNA.

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  • We're checking DNA against the LeBlancs and are to get word this afternoon.

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  • I'm going to get a DNA test made on this baby.

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  • I want a DNA test on the baby.

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  • In every cell of your body except your red blood cells exists a copy of your DNA.

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  • The 2000s saw the rise of commercially viable seeds created by transgenesis, that is, the insertion of DNA from one species into another species.

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  • At any rate, Alex joined forces with his father in the request for a DNA test.

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  • Members agreed that malathion was a DNA methylating agent.

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  • One of the problems that could occur from genetic modification is when DNA from one plant (like peanuts) that someone is allergic to is introduced into a non-allergenic plant, a tomato for instance.

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  • It was going to take a DNA test.

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  • The mechanism by which cationic liposomes deliver DNA into the cell is poorly understood.

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  • Protocol amendment to the gene therapy trial in follicular lymphoma using a DNA vaccine.

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  • Members agreed that metabolism of 1,3-DCP was likely to produce the reactive epoxide metabolite that could damage DNA.

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  • He may now demand a DNA test to prove paternity.

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  • For example, scientists have the capability to put small pox vaccine into the DNA of tomatoes.

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  • Genetically modified (GM) foods are created with specific changes in mind, introduced into their DNA through one of various means of genetic engineering.

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  • Many people and groups have voiced concerns about the long-term effects of these types of foods, especially with regard to modified animal DNA.

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  • Because these modified foods can share DNA with other organisms, it is possible to add vitamins and minerals to certain foods that would otherwise never be available in certain crops.

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  • Further developments in DNA technology now allow technicians to determine a pre- implantation embryo ' s histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA ).

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  • Here the enzyme Eco RI is used to sever plasmid DNA which is then re-joined using DNA ligase.

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  • An innovative approach is developed for monitoring the activity of E. coli DNA ligase catalyzing nucleic acid ligation in the report.

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  • The DNA present in these cells could become ' available ' for uptake by soil microorganisms.

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  • Such gross somatic mosaicism was not observed in three other lines examined, further emphasizing a role for flanking DNA in modulating repeat stability.

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  • Eponine models consist of a set of DNA weight matrices recognizing specific sequence motifs.

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  • The insertion mutagenesis strategy was co-ordinated with acquisition of the DNA sequence of the PAI.

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  • By selectively amplifying fungal DNA it had been shown that, in bluebells, 2 or 3 genera of arbuscular mycorrhiza are present.

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  • The presence of oncogenic high risk HPV DNA is, at present, the best molecular marker for assessing the risk of cervical neoplasia.

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  • In contrast, the DNA in somatic nuclei is not fully neutralized by histones.

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  • Two conserved aspects, namely DNA replication and assembly of the icosahedral nucleocapsid, have been extensively studied.

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  • Little is known about the method of packaging DNA in the bacterial nucleoid.

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  • Explaining the basics of DNA and Genetics Human DNA contains 3 billion nucleotides and is wound up into a tight double helix spiral.

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  • These four different nucleotides form the four characters in the DNA code.

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  • A change in the DNA causes a special gene called an oncogene to be switched on.

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  • Investigation showed the retroviral vector used to load a gene into bone marrow cells had inadvertently carried its DNA into a known oncogene.

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  • The set of possible people allowed by our DNA massively outnumbers the set of actual people.

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  • Thirteen patients with airway papillomas were selected for study with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods to detect viral DNA.

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  • Molecular Computation Using DNA to solve computational problems can allow massive parallelism, by exploring 10 19 cases in parallel.

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  • This article is about DNA paternity testing without the knowledge or consent of the mother.

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  • We know that nonhuman primates share up to ninety-nine percent of their DNA with humans.

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  • Further, molecular analyzes using different DNA cloning techniques will be applied to uncover the genetic lesions underlying the mutant phenotypes.

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  • Evidence that the phylogeny inferred from protein and DNA sequence comparisons is correlated with the phylogeny inferred from evolutionary biology.

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  • The main objective of this research is to produce a robust phylogeny of the genus Pinus based on plastid DNA sequence data.

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  • The end of the particle attached to the F pilus flares open, exposing the phage DNA.

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  • Defective viral DNA ameliorates symptoms of geminivirus infection in transgenic plants.

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  • The bacterium contains a section of DNA called a plasmid in addition to its usual component of DNA.

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  • Both pUC18 plasmid and transgenic maize DNA were used in the experiments.

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  • Therefore, the helper plasmid lacking one or the other of the ITS cannot integrate itself into target DNA.

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  • The triphosphate form inhibits viral DNA polymerase and prevents synthesis of viral DNA, stopping viral replication.

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  • Curiously, a gene, DNA polymerase V, activates in times of stress.

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  • The double helix of the DNA ' unzips ', and the enzyme DNA polymerase makes a copy using the separated strands as templates.

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  • After ethanol precipitation, the dried DNA pellet is resuspended.. .

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  • Rashid's DNA data showed predisposition to aggression and drug addiction.

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  • Mutations in DNA repair genes are strong candidates for at least a proportion of these unknown breast cancer predisposition alleles.

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  • Using a fine needle, the DNA is injected into the large male pronucleus, which is derived from the sperm.

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  • The DNA contains purines which are broken down to uric acid in the blood.

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  • No DNA method yet exists that can accurately quantify the amount of meat species in meat products.

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  • Therefore, characterized GMO inserts are a very good model to study the molecular system involved in DNA rearrangements in general.

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  • I am currently working on a project to detect sporadic recombination in multiple DNA sequence alignments.

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  • One way DNA damage can arise is during a process called ' mitotic recombination ', which occurs when cells divide.

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  • Molecular analysis of DNA junctions produced by illegitimate recombination in human cells.

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  • The most powerful mechanism for promoting genetic change is the process of DNA recombination.

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  • Enhanced DNA repair enzymes are currently being incorporated into cosmetic formulations.

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  • These replication initiators recognize the plasmid, begin its replication initiators recognize the plasmid, begin its replication and control the number of copies made, but ignore the host DNA.

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  • Accurate DNA replication is critical to ensure stability of the genome.

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  • Much of this expanse is due to electric charge repulsion between the negatively charged phosphate groups in the DNA backbone.

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  • In the experiment, a batch of DNA is digested by two different restriction enzymes.

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  • The DNA is digested or ' cut up ' using restriction enzymes.

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  • Now transfer 20 µl of DNA to each of the TWO pink tubes containing a restriction enzyme.

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  • The DNA in this green tube will now be digested by both restriction enzymes.

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  • Transgenic poultry have been created using retroviruses carrying copies of the DNA coding for a new gene.

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  • Sometimes the DNA ladder rungs get mixed up or even lost.

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  • There would be no way to run a dental check or to get a DNA sample.

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  • And the IFR scientists responsible for the Collection are currently plowing through the huge task of DNA fingerprinting all the strains already stored.

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  • Sample DNA was analyzed for the presence of EBV genomic sequences by use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR ).

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  • Recognition sequences in DNA for other enzymes Restriction enzymes are highly specific for particular nucleic acid sequences.

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  • All cancers occur due to abnormalities in DNA sequence.

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  • The nucleotide sequence of the infectious cloned DNA components of potato yellow mosaic virus.

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  • All can be detected in a single run on a conventional DNA sequencer.

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  • New legislation enabled the Force to use DNA as evidence, instead of relying on direct evidence in order to convict a suspect.

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  • However, both the human and mouse telomerase RNA genes are within CpG islands and may therefore be under the regulation of DNA methylation.

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  • They also theorize that if the strands are separated then each can form the template for the synthesis of an identical DNA molecule.

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  • Infrequently, reduced sensitivity to aciclovir has been described as a result of subtle alterations in either the virus thymidine kinase or DNA polymerase.

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  • She and Ray Gosling begin work on calf thymus DNA samples given to Wilkins by Rudolf Singer in May 1950.

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  • However, DNA binding proteins without transcriptional activation domains may function as competitors, binding promoter sequences without the ability to activate transcription.

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  • However, we have now extended these studies to use retroviral gene transfer methods to stably transduce macrophage precursors with these DNA constructs.

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  • Adenovirus could be used to improve the efficiency of gene therapy that has been achieved using DNA transfection.

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  • The objective is to determine whether or not transgenic DNA can be detected in milk of cows fed diets containing GM material.

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  • The DNA was blotted onto a nylon membrane and the probe to the transposon was allowed to hybridize to those fragments containing the transposon.

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  • Impact This research used the most up to date DNA profiling techniques to identify practical strategies to help farmers control trypanosomiasis.

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  • The C. elegans homolog of the p53 tumor suppressor is required for DNA damage induced apoptosis.

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  • The structural instability of transgenic DNA its tendency to break and rejoin - is now undeniable.

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  • Topics covered so far include xenotransplantation, DNA chips and edible vaccines.

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  • There are several companies which do the DNA test, and any avain vet should be able to do surgical sexing.

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  • These pollutants have led to decreases in the populations of common whelks in the North Sea and cause DNA breakdown in some marine organisms.

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  • Then in the 1940s, another American, Oswald Avery, was able to show, through an ingenious method, that the genetic information had to be carried by the DNA.

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  • Each of those new cells has a new copy of your DNA.

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  • Secondly, the group uses DNA sequences to estimate the topology and timing of deep evolutionary relationships among the pulmonate land snails and slugs.

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  • We offer a selection of high quality, purified genomic DNA suitable for a wide spectrum of genetic research applications.

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  • None of the 43 pus samples analyzed contained P. anaerobius DNA.

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  • None of the 60 pus aspirates analyzed was positive for Peptostreptococcus magnus DNA.

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  • There are, however, still cases where DNA testing will not be possible, for example where the putative father has died.

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  • They suggest that, within the nucleus of the cell, homologous recombination of genomic DNA with these fragments takes place.

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  • These replication initiators recognize the plasmid, begin its replication and control the number of copies made, but ignore the host DNA.

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  • Repressor proteins bind at the promoter DNA thus preventing RNA polymerase from initiating the transcription process.

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  • A similar treatment may be applied to the recognition sequences for other DNA binding proteins such as repressor molecules.

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  • All DNA used in Southern blots was also digested with 0.25 µg Ribonuclease A per µg DNA upon completion of restriction endonuclease digestion.

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  • A restriction enzyme cuts DNA when it encounters a specific sequence of bases.

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  • No scope for anonymity and personal freedom - ID cards, CCTV, databases, DNA samples, retina scans?

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  • Fate of genetically modified maize DNA in the oral cavity and rumen of sheep.

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  • A very small section of DNA showing the double helix structure linked by bases, like the rungs on a twisted ladder.

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  • Human saliva actually contains factors that promote competence of resident bacteria to become transformed by DNA [48 ].

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  • Genes are segments of DNA that regulate biological activity.

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  • The DNA sequence of the human Y chromosome - the ' maleness ' chromosome - has been published.

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  • Deletion of a silencer element disrupts H19 imprinting independently of a DNA methylation epigenetic switch.

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  • Non smokers working in a smoke filled environment showed elevated DNA damage markers.

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  • These work by sticking to one of the cancer cell 's DNA strands.

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  • Sequencing should have been performed on both strands of the template DNA.

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  • In DNA, pairing by bases on opposite strands of the double helix links the two strands.

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  • Induction of a protective response in swine vaccinated with DNA encoding foot-and mouth disease virus empty capsid proteins and the 3D RNA polymerase.

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  • Recent evidence suggests that defects in DNA maintenance pathways and telomere dysfunction promote genomic instability and drives development of the disease.

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  • The objective will be addressed primarily by identification of DNA polymorphisms in extant landraces of barley and tetraploid wheat.

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  • A single cell in the human body contains 2 meters of DNA packed into a nucleus only 5 thousandths of a millimeter across.

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  • The similarity of action spectra for thymine dimers in human epidermis and erythema suggests that DNA is the chromophore for erythema.

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  • Both drugs act by terminating the growth of the DNA chain and inhibiting the reverse transcriptase enzyme of HIV.

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  • Transcription factors are proteins which bind to control regions of DNA.

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  • Transfection of insect cells with the recombinant baculovirus DNA resulted in expression of the JV capsid protein.

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  • It emphasizes the importance of achieving maximal plasmid DNA purity when performing DNA transfection experiments that focus on cell survival.

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  • The crucial question is whether transgenic DNA is more likely to spread by horizontal gene transfer than natural DNA.

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  • The code in DNA is a triplet code; three bases code for each amino acid (three bases make up each gene).

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  • Very surprisingly, the adult cell DNA was able to give rise to a complete individual, not just more udder cells.

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  • Karen Parker, University of Nottingham, to work with Matt Dickinson on regulation of gene expression through DNA methylation during wheat rust development.

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  • The scientist earned acclaim for his remarkable achievement in the field of DNA research.

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  • Identical twins do not have the same fingerprints, even though they share the same DNA.

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  • It is important to remember, however, that while identical twins do share the same DNA makeup, they are separate individuals with separate emotions and personalities.

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  • You play Jango Fett, the bounty hunter whose DNA would be used to create the Imperial Clone Army.

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  • The PCR test, or polymerase chain reaction test, is a relatively new technique in microbiology utilizing DNA.

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  • Another type of test looks for the presence of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) which identifies the specific chemical character of the antigen in its DNA, according to a 2001 study in Veterinary Ophthalmology.

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  • The Court has the power to order all parties involved (the mother, alleged father, and the child) to submit to DNA testing.

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  • Antioxidants neutralize free radicals, the natural byproduct of metabolism that can damage cell DNA and eventually cause tumors and cancer.

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  • Studies have shown that it is possible for micronized titanium dioxide particles to penetrate cells and eventually lead to DNA damage following sun exposure.

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  • Free radicals can cause damage to your cells, tissues, and even your DNA.

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  • Vitamin B 12 helps cellular DNA function normally.

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  • The vitamin also assumes a vital role in the synthesis of DNA.

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  • A DNA test proved Michael was not the father, and a judge decided Michael did not have to pay the $5 million.

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  • One affair produced a daughter, whom Tom tried to deny until DNA testing proved the child was his.

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  • Through DNA testing, Birkhead was found to be the father of Anna's daughter, Dannielynn.

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  • Law said he didn't remember the woman, but agreed to a DNA test anyway.

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  • All DNA requests have been made via their lawyers.

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  • New DNA evidence also surfaced years ago that could potentially free the three men.

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  • More owners are turning to dog DNA tests when their dog's paternity is in doubt.

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  • One week ago I received a letter from the AKC; a DNA analysis was done for my dog's litter and their named sire.

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  • She said that regardless of what the DNA analysis said, my dog's father is indeed the sire in question.

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  • A company called Metamophix makes and markets a Dog DNA Breed Test that shows if dogs have parents in common as well as confirms their lineage.

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  • If she delivers a litter you should have the pups DNA tested to confirm which dog is the father.

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  • Human DNA testing techniques are now being used to analyze dog genetics in order to identify specific breed heritage, as well as check for specific genetic markers related to certain common diseases.

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  • Taking a DNA sample is as easy as swabbing your dog's mouth with a Q-tip and sealing the swab in a test tube provided with the DNA test kit.

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  • Back at the lab, the sample is placed in a thermo-cycler and fluorescent primers are added to help sort out and identify individual DNA fragments throughout various cycles.

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  • There are several companies marketing dog DNA tests.

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  • Animal DNA Services has developed a test that narrows down your dog's ancestry to four major canine groups, as well as screens for four inherited diseases and certain physical/personality traits.

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  • For this purpose, the dog DNA test from Metamorphix, Inc. delivers a practical analysis that is able to identify markers for 38 specific breeds at the present time.

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  • However, scientists are working to map out the genetic markers for even more breeds, so hopefully one day we'll have a dog DNA test that will identify every recognizable breed in a dog's ancestry.

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  • For a simpler solution, a special DNA test can answer the question without any extra effort.

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  • A simple DNA test may be the easiest way for someone to determine a dog's breed.

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  • This method allows the dog's owner to send a sample of DNA swabbed from the dog's cheek into a special lab for a thorough analysis.

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  • A dog's breed can be informally determined without going through the trouble or expense of a DNA test.

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  • Organic seeds produce healthy sprouts that are rich in highly active antioxidants that help to protect our bodies from the effects of aging and prevent the destruction of our DNA.

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  • One of these requirements is that seeds not be genetically modified in a laboratory, which means that they may contain the DNA of animals, other plants, even bacteria and viruses!

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  • Genetic modification means that the foundation of a cell, the DNA, has been changed.

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  • Genetically modified foods (GMOs) are those that have had DNA from another source added to them.

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  • Altering the DNA of animals for meat production has been far more controversial than it has for the GM crops.

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  • Improved Animal Health - By modifying the DNA of certain species for food production, it is possible to alter the genes in such a way as to prevent common diseases.

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  • Animal Stress - Though it's difficult to measure, animal rights advocates are concerned about the amount of stress that would be experienced by the product of the genetic engineering of animal DNA.

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  • Issues of Ethics - Both the religious and non-religious alike have questioned the ethics behind altering the DNA of organisms, especially of animals.

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  • Extract their brain stem first as it will make the DNA worth more (25 instead of 10).The easiest humans to do this to are the scientists in the level with glowing cows.

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  • For some reason, if the person that is important to you dies (the person you need to abduct), extract their brain stem before you return to the Mothership -- the DNA is usually worth more.

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  • Your basic mission is to collect DNA (to help restore your race), eliminate military and other threats, and try to keep the majority of humans unaware of your existence.

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  • Crypto and the spacecraft can be upgraded with specific amounts of DNA that you collect to get better weapons and abilities.

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  • Destroy All Humans! is a funny sci-fi, action/adventure game where you play an alien with a mission to collect DNA to rebuild your race and eliminate potential human threats.

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  • Use this code to give yourself more DNA to utilize in the mating and creation menu.

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  • Necro was abducted as a young boy by Gill's organization, and was subjected to intense experimentation and testing that resulted in major alterations to his DNA.

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  • The history of Cabernet Sauvignon wasn't fully understood until the 1990s when researchers at the University of California at Davis used the nascent science of DNA testing to identify and type the grapes used to make this red wine.

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  • No one really knew where or how Cabernet Sauvignon developed until researcher Dr. Carole Meredith led a team that studied the DNA of the grapes used to make the wine.

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  • Until DNA typing identified the grapes and provided a closer estimate of age, wine aficionados went by the first recorded notes on the wine and the folklore surrounding Cabernet Sauvignon.

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  • Dr. Carole Meredith, a researcher at the University of California at Davis, led a group that conducted extensive DNA tests on the modern-day vines used to produce Cabernet Sauvignon.

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  • Cancer results from alterations (mutations) in genes that make up DNA, the master molecule of the cell.

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  • Many cancers have been shown to result from exposure to environmental toxins (carcinogens) and related alterations in DNA.

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  • Chromosome-A microscopic thread-like structure found within each cell of the human body and consisting of a complex of proteins and DNA.

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  • This test uses fluid collected from the sac around the fetus (amniotic fluid) instead of blood to detect the viral DNA.

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  • Virus-A small infectious agent consisting of a core of genetic material (DNA or RNA) surrounded by a shell of protein.

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  • Genetic defects may be passed through nuclear DNA (nDNA), the genetic material found in each cell that determines the majority of hereditary characteristics, or through mtDNA.

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  • The sex of a child is determined through the inheritance of strands of DNA called chromosomes.

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  • Genetic testing with DNA analysis may be available to identify one of the common gene mutations that lead to this disorder.

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  • Positive results of the DNA test and the presence of clinical symptoms can serve as strong indicators of the condition.

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  • Carriers of the gene for hereditary fructose intolerance can be identified through DNA analysis.

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  • Both DNA and biochemical studies have been used to help identify affected individuals.

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  • If there are multiple affected individuals in a family, it may be possible to perform prenatal diagnosis using a DNA information technique known as a linkage study.

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  • Prenatal testing is available for pregnancies in which an affected parent has been identified and the DNA mutation is known or the biochemical defect has been demonstrated.

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  • Identical twins will have the same DNA, genetic material (genotype), but it may be expressed differently (phenotype).

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  • Gene-A building block of inheritance, which contains the instructions for the production of a particular protein, and is made up of a molecular sequence found on a section of DNA.

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  • Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-A technique for diagnosing genetic disorders before birth by analyzing cells obtained by amniocentesis with DNA probes.

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  • In 1985, recombinant DNA techniques produced a safe and unlimited supply of GH in the lab.

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  • In FA, the frataxin gene on chromosome 9 is expanded when a particular sequence of bases in the DNA is repeated too many times.

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  • This extra DNA interferes with normal production of frataxin, thereby impairing iron transport.

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  • Direct DNA testing is available, allowing FA to be more easily distinguished from other types of ataxia.

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  • It encodes for (controls) the production of a protein that plays a role in regulating cell division following DNA damage.

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  • The various symptoms seen in A-T reflect the main role of this protein, which is to induce several cellular responses to DNA damage.

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  • The ATM protein also interacts with other special proteins when DNA is damaged as a result of exposure to some type of radiation.

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  • If the strands of DNA are broken, the ATM protein coordinates DNA repair by activating repair proteins, which helps to maintain the stability of cells.

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  • Mutations in ATM prevent cells from repairing DNA damage, which may lead to cancer.

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  • As of 2004, the A-T diagnosis is usually based on the characteristic clinical findings and supported by laboratory tests that point to a defect of DNA (genes and chromosomes) and to an inability to repair some types of damage to DNA.

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  • Since the 1995 isolation of the ATM gene, scientists have worked very hard to understand how the ATM protein is activated or turned on following damage to a cell's DNA.

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  • But the cloning of the ATM gene responsible for A-T as of 2004 allows physicians or cancer genetics professionals to conduct genetic testing, analyzing patients' DNA to look for A-T mutations in the ATM gene.

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  • Thus, if DNA analysis is negative, clinical methods must be relied upon.

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  • It is also used to form the nucleic acid of DNA and RNA.

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  • If the specific mutation is known in a family, DNA analysis may be possible.

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  • Mitochondria contain genetic material (DNA and RNA) and are responsible for converting food to energy.

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  • In this case, specialized DNA tests that look for small RB1 gene changes need to be performed on the blood cells.

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  • If a sample of tumor is available, then it is recommended that DNA testing be performed on the tumor cells prior to DNA testing of the blood cells.

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  • In these cases, DNA testing of the blood cells will not be able to ascertain whether someone is affected with an inherited or non-inherited form of retinoblastoma.

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  • Siblings and other relatives could undergo DNA testing to see if they have inherited the RB1 gene change/deletion.

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  • In families where there are multiple family members affected with retinoblastoma, blood samples from multiple family members are often analyzed and compared through DNA testing.

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  • Ninety-five percent of the time, this type of analysis is able to detect patterns in the DNA that are associated with a changed RB1 gene in that particular family.

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  • If chromosome or DNA testing identifies an RB1 gene/deletion in someone's blood cells, then prenatal testing can be performed on this person's offspring.

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  • The retinal examinations can be avoided if DNA testing indicates that the patient has a non-inherited form of retinoblastoma or if the sibling has not inherited the RB1 gene change/deletion.

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  • Any relatives who are found through DNA testing to have inherited an RB1 gene change/deletion should undergo the same surveillance procedures as siblings.

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  • Retinal surveillance should be performed unless DNA testing proves that their child does not possess the RB1 gene change/deletion.

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  • Folic acid deficiency anemia is the most common type of megaloblastic anemia, arising from a problem with the synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) within the cells of the body.

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  • It is characterized by RBCs that are larger than normal and is caused by a deficiency of folic acid, a vitamin that the body needs to produce normal cells and normal DNA.

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  • Cytosine and guanine are two of the four molecules, called nucleic acids, that make up DNA.

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  • Alkylating drugs-kill cancer cells by directly attacking DNA, the genetic material of the genes.

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  • Antimetabolites-interfere with the production of DNA and keep cells from growing and multiplying.

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  • They interfere with important cell functions, including production of DNA and cell proteins.

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  • Topoisomerase inhibitors-interfere with the action of topoisomerase enzymes, the enzymes that control the part of DNA needed to multiply.

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  • Sometimes DNA testing is needed in addition to the above screening tests.

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  • Viruses represent a large group of infective agents that are composed of a core of nucleic acids, either RNA or DNA, surrounded by a layer of protein.

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  • Retroviruses are composed of RNA molecules instead of DNA, and the only treatable one is the one that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

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  • Gene carriers for both forms of hemophilia can be detected through DNA studies in conjunction with results from factor VIII assays.

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  • Collagen or DNA tests may help confirm a diagnosis of OI; test results may take several weeks to confirm.

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  • The DNA in the blood cells is examined and the number of repeats in the affected gene is determined.

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  • Testing can be done at 10-12 weeks gestation by a procedure called chorionic villus sampling (CVS) that involves removing a tiny piece of the placenta and analyzing DNA from its cells.

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  • The test involves DNA sequencing and has been available since the early 2000s.

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  • This gene defect is called a triple repeat, meaning it contains extra triplets of DNA code.

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  • In more detail, PKU mutations can involve many different types of changes, such as deletions and insertions, in the DNA of the gene that codes for the PAH enzyme.

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  • Amniocentesis is a method of withdrawing amniotic fluid from the placenta to allow examination of fetal cell DNA shed into the amniotic fluid, helping to identify genetic mutations.

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  • Other techniques used to diagnose a chlamydial infection are enzyme immunoassays, serum antibody tests, and DNA probes.

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  • In addition, DNA testing can help identify the gene mutations that can cause the condition.

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  • In some cases, DNA testing can be a valuable adjunct to biochemical testing.

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  • Unfortunately many people with VWD possess DNA changes that are not detectable through DNA testing.

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  • If the relative with VWD possesses a detectable gene change, then DNA testing should be considered.

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  • If the DNA change in the parent(s) is unknown, then prenatal testing can sometimes be performed through biochemical testing of blood obtained from the umbilical cord.

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  • The gene encoding the DNA for HBsAg is introduced into common baker's yeast.

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  • Cells stop making certain proteins because their DNA is damaged by the ultraviolet rays.

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  • Since 1994, genetic screening using DNA technology has been available for both MEN 1 and MEN 2.

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  • It is also possible to confirm the diagnosis by obtaining a small sample of the patient's blood and analyzing the DNA for a mutation in the WAS gene.

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  • This technique uses DNA probes from the DiGeorge region on chromosome 22.

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  • More specialized DNA testing is required to detect maternal uniparental disomy or a mutation that disrupts imprinting.

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  • This DNA testing identifies unique DNA patterns in the mother and father.

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  • The unique DNA patterns are then compared with the DNA from the child with PWS.

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  • From the smallest cross-section of a DNA molecule to the proportion between your height and the distance between your navel and your foot, the Golden Ratio in humans may be the design template of the body.

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  • For example, every molecule of DNA follows the proportions of the Golden Ratio.

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  • While you've probably heard about the role of DNA in tracing ancestry, mitochondrial DNA might be a new concept for you.

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  • This new type of DNA testing helps establish the origins of your female ancestors, something than can be difficult to do with standard genealogy research.

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  • Traditional DNA testing looks at the information contained in the nucleus, but mitochondrial DNA testing examines the genetic material in the mitochondria themselves.

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  • In a way, mitochondrial DNA is a clue about the identity of our ancient female relatives.

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  • Your mitochondrial DNA comes from your mother and from her mother before that.

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  • While men have their mother's mitochondrial DNA, they do not pass this information on to their children.

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  • Instead, the children inherit mitochondrial DNA from their own mother.

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  • He tested the mitochondrial DNA of modern people and found that most of us had one of these seven strands of mitochondrial DNA.

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  • Testing your mitochondrial DNA will give you some interesting insights about your ancestry, but it will not provide you with names or dates.

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  • Mitochondrial DNA testing will tell you where some of your oldest ancestors lived, giving you insight into your ethnic background.

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  • If you find that you have an especially rare type of mitochondrial DNA, it could help you fill in some of the blanks in your family tree.

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  • Most people simply use mitochondrial DNA to get some insight into the lives of their ancient ancestors.

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  • Mitochondrial DNA testing is coming down in price, but it is still fairly expensive.

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  • Many genealogists are used to the free research tools on the Internet and can't help but balk at the idea of spending hundreds of dollars to test their mitochondrial DNA.

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  • While it can be a useful tool in tracing ancestry, mitochondrial DNA testing will not give you specific information about your relatives.

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  • Researchers at the University of Copenhagen had a theory that eye color was determined by a person's deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in the same way that DNA also seems to be the determiner of other characteristics.

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  • They theorized that there must be a spot on the DNA chain that controls eye color, but they needed to determine what it was that caused some people to have brown eyes and some to have lighter eyes, even to the point of a pale blue color.

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  • They took DNA samples and evaluated the eye color of the test participants.

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  • Some people see DNA-related research, particularly mitochondrial DNA research , to be an exciting, albeit expensive, way to establish the relationships between ancestors.

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  • On the other hand, other genealogists are less likely to accept the DNA research, seeing it as a very limited way to trace lineage and ethnicity, and not as fulfilling as the name and date tracing of more traditional genealogy practices.

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  • As with the DAN Ancestry Project, the first step is to request a kit to collect your DNA test sample.

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  • Human DNA testing for ancestry, while not appropriate for every situation, can be a useful tool in genealogical research.

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  • When you think of DNA tests, you probably think of the testing that is used in criminal investigations or to test for certain genetic illnesses.

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  • Human DNA testing for ancestry is different, however.

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  • The test provides no medical information and is only used to compare the subject's DNA to historic populations.

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  • For example, you could use DNA testing to prove that your family is descended from George Washington - assuming you could obtain DNA from George Washington.

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  • The most obvious limitation of this type of DNA test is that only men have a Y chromosome.

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  • A woman who wants to complete this type of DNA test would need to have a father, brother, paternal uncle, paternal grandfather, or a cousin with a common patrilineal ancestry complete the test on her behalf.

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  • This type of DNA is passed from mother to child without any mixing, so your mitochondrial DNA is exactly the same as your mother's DNA and your grandmother's DNA.

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  • However, a man does not pass his mitochondrial DNA onto his offspring.

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  • Although DNA testing for human ancestry is a fascinating concept, it is not without controversy.

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  • And, even when all appropriate protocols are followed, most of the frequencies of DNA markers have known rates of error.

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  • The results of your DNA testing can be complicated if it is discovered that someone is not biologically part of the family.

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  • If you are considering using DNA testing to obtain information for your family tree, it is best to remember that this is not a substitute for traditional genealogical research.

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  • Make sure you have exhausted all other possible information sources before you attempt DNA testing.

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  • You're probably already experienced some of the amazing things technology has done for the study of family history, but you may not have heard of DNA testing for ancestry.

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  • In recent decades, DNA testing has made countless news headlines for its help in establishing paternity, solving crimes, and identifying potential genetic diseases and conditions.

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  • Recently, genealogists have begun to employ this tool in their research, using DNA testing to find cousins, establish family migration paths, and give dimension to their family trees.

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  • You probably learned the basics of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) in your high school biology class.

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  • Genealogy DNA testing examines the information contained on the X and Y chromosomes and helps determine whether, and to what extent, two individuals are related.

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  • Paternal DNA testing focuses on the Y chromosome, which means it can only be performed on men.

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  • Maternal DNA or mitochondrial DNA, is contained on the X chromosome.

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  • While you can get a lot of answers through genealogy DNA testing, a cheek swab analyzed in this way won't tell you everything.

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  • You might associate DNA testing with blood tests and visits to the doctor's office; however, these days, you can have your DNA tested using a kit.

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  • Doing this is painless, and the process collects a few cells to use as in the DNA test.

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  • When it was first developed, the cost of genealogy DNA testing made it unpopular.

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  • These days, you can expect to pay less than $500 for a complete DNA profile, including Y-chromosome genetic testing and mitochondrial DNA testing.

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  • Ancestry.com is a paid subscription site popular with genealogists, and they offer DNA testing and a database of test results.

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  • Ancestry.com isn't the only place you can get DNA testing for ancestry.

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  • Not all DNA testing companies are reputable.

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  • Compare companies to find the best price for the type of DNA testing you need.

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  • Other researchers think low iron may interfere with DNA production.

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  • If he denies his responsibilities, you can later choose to have paternity established through a DNA test.

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  • Identical twins have the exact same DNA.

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  • Since identical twins are identical down to their DNA, not only will they look alike, they may act alike too.

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  • It's hard to tell for sure, but the pregnant Maggie Gyllenhaal certainly appears to have Hollywood success in her DNA.

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  • The Baby Gender Mentor Home DNA Testing Kit determines gender by tracing the amount of active genetic fetal chromosomal DNA in a sample of your blood.

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  • The Baby Gender Mentor Home DNA Testing Kit is available online without a prescription.

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  • How accurate is the Baby Gender Mentor Home DNA Testing Kit?

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  • If you have sex with two guys around that window, only a DNA test will give you a definitive answer.

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  • Baby prediction methods range from old wives' tales to DNA tests.

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  • No male should be present during the test to prevent potential contamination with male DNA.

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  • The laboratory will use the blood samples to test for the presence of male DNA.

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  • The presence of male DNA indicates a boy baby.

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  • If male DNA is not present, the results predict a girl.

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  • Since the embryo's DNA is analyzed, this method has the highest chances of producing a girl.

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  • After the sperm penetrates the egg, a zygote cell is formed, which is a critical cell containing DNA that composes the genetic information for the developing baby.

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  • Another important function of vitamin B12 is that it helps to make DNA, the genetic material in all of the body's cells.

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  • It also plays an important role in DNA repair and the healthy functioning of the immune system.

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  • It is essential in DNA regulation and synthesis.

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  • It is a component in many important enzymes as well as your DNA.

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  • Free radicals result from natural metabolic processes and are thought to cause damage to cellular DNA.

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  • Frances Crick, one of the two men credited with discovering the structure of DNA, called Pauling the father of molecular biology.

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  • It is also essential for DNA and RNA production.

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  • When couples select a DNA2Diamonds ring made from the carbon signatures in their hair, they are selecting a piece of jewelry uniquely their own through DNA and symbolic of their union in marriage.

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  • They promised DNA evidence, and ultimately, final proof to the world that Bigfoot is real.

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  • To date, animals believed to be the legendary goat sucker have all had dog or coyote DNA.

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  • Ayer is clear that he doesn't know what this creature really is, but that people can call it a Chupacabra if they want to until DNA tests show exactly what it is.

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  • So far, all cryptozoologists have to go on are eyewitness accounts, videos, drawings and a few DNA samples that so far have proven to be mainly from mange-ridden coyotes.

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