The whole distribution system broke down.
We won't talk at this point about the distribution of that wealth; that will come later.
There is an optimal distribution that can be achieved.
The higher authorities and the police organized the distribution of goods left behind by the French.
The question of the distribution of this stored energy to the separate protoplasts of the plant can be seen to be the same problem as the distribution of the food.
Amber has indeed a very wide distribution, extending over a large part of northern Europe and occurring as far east as the Urals.
Aerial distribution from distributing poles is a method frequently adopted.
The study of the distribution of species dates back to the time of the early systematists, the study of vegetation to the time of the early botanical travellers.
The interesting occurrence of certain halophytes and hemi-halophytes on sea-shores and also on mountains is probably to be explained by the past distribution of the species in question.
I do not think the importance of YouTube lies in its role as a communication method nor as a fundamentally new means of distribution of media.
The waterways of Cochin-China communicate by means of natural or artificial channels (arroyos), facilitating transport and aiding in the uniform distribution of the inundation to which the country owes its fertility.
The former is concerned with the division of the earths surface into major districts characterized by particular plants or taxonomic groups of plants, with the subdivision of these floristic districts, and with the geographical distribution (both past and present) of the various taxonomic units, such as species, genera, and families.
To such customary routine belonged his conversations with the staff, the letters he wrote from Tarutino to Madame de Stael, the reading of novels, the distribution of awards, his correspondence with Petersburg, and so on.
Past elevations of land, however (and doubtless equally great subsidences) have taken place in South America since the Eocene, and the conclusion that extensive areas of land have subsided in the Indian Ocean has long been based on a somewhat similar distribution of giant tortoises in the Mascarene region.
As regards their present distribution in India, elephants are found along the foot of the Himalaya as far west as the valley of Dehra-Dun, where the winter temperature falls to a comparatively low point.
So you make sure that if your population of redheads had a million people with a certain distribution of age, the distribution in your non-redhead sample is exactly the same.
The overall economic output of the planet, GWP (gross world product), will rise dramatically in the years to come, but its distribution will be quite skewed.
DISTRIBUTION OF PLANTS
Much capital was locked up in the failed banks, and was therefore not available for distribution amongst wageearners.
In describing the mean distribution of temperature in the waters of the Atlantic it is necessary to treat the northern and southern divisions separately.
Supply and Distribution of Energy in PlantsIt is well known that one of the conditions of life is the maintenance of the process which is known as respiration.
She also knew that neither her father nor her brother would refuse to help the peasants in need, she only feared to make some mistake in speaking about the distribution of the grain she wished to give.
It is well known for its well-established, lucrative manufacturing and distribution industries.
Since about 1880 considerable attention has been directed to the question of the supply, distribution and expenditure of energy in the vegetable kingdom.
The small pulvini of the leaflets, by similar changes of the distribution of turgidity, take up their respective position.s after receiving the stimulus.
The enzymes which act upon glucosides are many; the best known are emul sin and myrosin, which split up respectively amygdalin, the special glucoside of certain plants of the Rosaceae; and sinfgrin, which has a wide distribution among those of the Cruciferae.
The sporogonium of the liverworts is in the simpler forms simply a spore-capstile with arrangements for the development, protection and distribution of the spores.
On the other hand, ecological plant geography seeks to ascertain the distribution of plant communities, such as associations and formations, and enquires into the nature of the factors of the habitat which are related to the distribution of plantsplant forms, species, and communities.
This periodic distribution in time and space constitutes an electric wave proceeding outwards in all directions from the sending antenna.
In large towns telephone distribution by means of open wires is practically impossible, and the employment of cables either laid in the ground or suspended from poles or other overhead supports is necessary.
Wallace, Geographical Distribution of Animals (New York, 1876); Theodor Wolf, Ein Besuch der Galapagos Inseln (Heidelberg, 1879); and paper in Geographical Journal, vi.
Even here, however, general agreement has not ~en reached; and the questions involved in relating the facts the distribution of plant communities to the factors of the tbitat are very imperfectly understood.
The distribution of population at the close of 1906 (4,118,000) was New South Wales 1,530,000, Victoria 1,223,000, Queensland 534,000, South Australia 381,000, Western Australia 270,000, Tasmania 180,000.
(3) It is doubtful whether there are any actual inscriptions which can be referred with certainty to the language of the Ligures, but some other evidence seems to link them with the -CO- peoples, whose early distribution is discussed under VoLscI and LIGURIA.
The promise of a constitution for the empire, ~,~after made in 1849, was never carried out; the government of Lombardo-Venetia was vested in Field-Marshal Radetzky; and although only very few of the revolutionists were excluded from the amnesty, the carrying of arms or the distribution or possession of revolutionary literature was punished with death.
Mention may be made here of a class of epidermal organ, the hydaihodea, the wide distribution and variety of which have been revealed by recent research.
The vertical relief of the land above the ocean is a very important factor in determining the climate as well as the distribution of the fauna and flora of a continent.
The chemical characters of the well-waters, the irregular distribution of the water-pressure, the distribution of the underground thermal gradients, and the occurrence in some of the wells of a tidal rise and fall of a varying period, are facts which are not explained on the simple hydrostatic theory.
This distribution is most marked at about 300 fathoms, and disappears at soo fathoms, beyond which depth the lines tend to become parallel and to run east and west, the gradient slowly diminishing.
12, compiled from the actual records obtained during the laying of the Canso-Fayal section of the Commercial Cable Company's system, shows by the full line the actual strain recorded which secured the even distribution of 8 per cent.
As we have already stated, the distribution of the capacity along the resistance R must in submarine cable work be made to correspond very accurately with the distribution of the capacity along the resistance of the cable.
In the North Atlantic the distribution of pressure and resulting wind circulation are very largely modified by the enormous areas of land and frozen sea which surround the ocean on three sides.
In superintending the distribution of the Mantuan territory amongst the veterans, he used his influence to save from confiscation the property of the poet Virgil.
The cura tori or curatoli (factors) receive 40 a year, with a slight interest in the profits; the stockmen hardly earn in money and kind 13; the muleteers and underworkmen get between 5 to 8, plus firewood, bread and oil; irregular workmen have even lower wages, with a daily distribution of bread, salt and oil.
Another method of distribution, largely adopted, is to run the lead cables into the interior of blocks of buildings, and to terminate them there in iron boxes from which the circuits are distributed to the surrounding buildings by means of rubber-covered wires run along the walls.
The reason for the distribution of the chloroplaits described above is consequently seen.
Each has its own judicial system, and enacts laws relating to the administration of justice, the distribution and imposition of taxes, and all matters affecting the province.
It is clear, however, that an equal quantitative division and distribution of the chromatin to the daughter cells is brought about; and if, as has been suggested, the chromatin consists of minute particles or units which are the carriers of the hereditary characteristics, the nuclear division also probably results in the equal division and distribution of one half of each of these units to each daughter cell.
The communication between the Atlantic and Arctic basins being cut off, as already described, at a depth of about 300 fathoms, the temperatures in the Norwegian Sea below that level are essentially Arctic, usually below the freezing-point of fresh water, except where the distribution is modified by the surface circulation.
It's practically halted distribution.
This phenomenon of what might have been taken for a piece of Umbrian text appearing in a district remote from Umbria and hemmed in by Latins on the north and Oscan-speaking Samnites on the south is a most curious feature in the geographical distribution of the Italic dialects, and is clearly the result of some complex historical movements.
On the 15th of December 1796 the expedition, consisting of forty-three sail and carrying about 15,000 men with a large supply of war material for distribution in Ireland, sailed from Brest.
While the majority of the Nematodes are parasites, there are many that are never at any period of their life parasitic. These free-living forms are found everywhere - in salt and fresh water, in damp earth and moss, and among decaying substances; they are always minute in size, and like many other lower forms of life, are capable of retaining their vitality for a long period even when dried, which accounts for their wide distribution; this faculty is also possessed by certain of the parasitic Nematodes, especially by those which lead a free existence during a part of their life-cycle.
lxiii.; On the Distribution of Assimilated Iron Cornpotrnds other than Haemoglobin and Haematins, in Animal and Vegetable Cells, Quart.
No truths brought to light by biological investigation were better calculated to inspire distrust of the dogmas intruded upon science in the name of theology than those which relate to the distribution of animals and plants on the surface of the earth.
They did not dedicate each day in turn to its astrological planet; and it is therefore precarious to assume that the Sabbath was in its origin what it is in the astrological week, the day sacred to Saturn, and that its observance is to be derived from an ancient Hebrew worship of that planet.4 The week, however, is found in various parts of the world in a form that has nothing to do with astrology or the seven planets, and with such a distribution as to make it pretty certain that it had no artificial origin, but suggested itself independently, and for natural reasons, to different races.
" I should be glad," he says, when talking of a publisher, 1 " if the whole book were printed in good type, on good paper, and I should like to have at least 200 copies for distribution.
The observation of the facts of geographical distribution.
In fact, the strongest and most conclusive arguments in favour of evolution are those which are based upon the facts of geographical, taken in conjunction with those of geological, distribution.
When an organ is stated to be variable, the biometricist demands statistics to show the range of the variations and the mode of their distribution.
Common experience shows that temperature is the most important condition which controls the distribution of plants.
Anything short of this is merely descriptive and empirical, and affords no rational basis for inquiry into the mode in which the distribution of plant-life has been brought about.
The actual and past distribution of plants must obviously be controlled by the facts of physical geography.
In attempting to account for the distribution of existing vegetation we must take into account palaeontological evidence.
The distribution of mountain barriers in the Old and New Worlds is in striking contrast.
It results that besides a horizontal distribution of plants, there is also an altitudinal: a fact of cardinal importance, the first observation of which has been attributed to Tournefort.
~oriTI1 TEMPERATE REGI0N.Many writers on the distribution of animals prefer to separate this into two regions of primary rank:
Lyell, discussing the facts of zoological distribution, admits that the farther we go north.
Apart from the occurrence of Cycas, the Asiatic character of the Polynesian flora is illustrated by the distribution of Meliaceae.
Aroids, of which the tribes are not restricted in their distribution, have two large endemic genera, Philodendron and Anthurium.
Under such circumstances the earths vegetation would be very different from what it is, and the study of plant distribution would be a simple affair.
The whole story points to a general distribution of flowering plants from the northern hemisphere southwards.
The investigation of these may raise and solve interesting physiological problems, but throw no light on the facts and genetic relationship which a rational explanation of distribution requires.
yA, earth, and yp64&v, to write), the exact and organized knowledge of the distribution of phenomena on the surface of the earth.
The distribution of the mass of the atmosphere over the surface of the earth is also controlled by the relief of the crust, its greater or lesser density at the surface corresponding to the lesser or greater elevation of the surface.
The influence of physical environment becomes clearer and stronger when the distribution of plant and animal life is considered, and if it is less distinct in the case of man, the reason is found in the modifications of environment consciously produced by human effort.
The physical and natural sciences are concerned in geography only so far as they deal with the forms of the earth's surface, or as regards the distribution of phenomena.
Next follows the distribution of plants and animals (biogeography), and finally the distribution of mankind and the various artificial boundaries and redistributions (anthropogeography).
His argument as to the narrowness of the sea between West Africa and East Asia, from the occurrence of elephants at both extremities, is difficult to understand, although it shows that he looked on the distribution of animals as a problem of geography.
(1) Mathematical geography, which deals with the form, size and movements of the earth and its place in the solar system; (2) Moral geography, or an account of the different customs and characters of mankind according to the region they inhabit; (3) Political geography, the divisions according to their organized governments; (4) Mercantile geography, dealing with the trade in the surplus products of countries; (5) Theological geography, or the distribution of religions.
The conception of the development of the plan of the earth from the first of cooling of the surface of the planet throughout the long geological periods, the guiding power of environment on the circulation of water and of air, on the distribution of plants and animals, and finally on the movements of man, give to geography a philosophical dignity and a scientific completeness whici it never previously possessed.
The two conceptions which may now be said to animate the theory of geography are the genetic, which depends upon processes of origin, and the morphological, which depends on facts of form and distribution.
The angle which the earth's axis makes with the plane in which the planet revolves round the sun determines the varying seasonal distribution of solar radiation over the surface and the mathematical zones of climate.
Granting that the geoid or mean surface of the ocean is a uniform spheroid, the distribution of land and water approximately indicates a division of the surface of the globe into two areas, one of elevation and one of depression.
Geomorphology is concerned, however, in the suggestions which have been made as to the cause of the distribution of heap and hollow in the larger features of the crust.
The geographical distribution of mountains is intimately associated with the great structural lines of the continents of which they form the culminating region.
The distribution of living organisms is a complex problem, a function of many factors, several of which are yet but little known.
Differences in land forms do not exert great influence on the distribution of living creatures directly, but indirectly such land forms as mountain ranges and internal drainage basins are very potent through their action on soil and climate.
The distribution of life is discussed in the various articles in this Encyclopaedia dealing with biological, botanical and zoological subjects.'
Wallace, Geographical Distribution of Animals and Island Life; A.
Heilprin, Geographical and Geological Distribution of Animals (1887); O.
The distribution of fossils frequently makes it possible to map out approximately the general features of land and sea in long-past geological periods, and so to enable the history of crustal relief to be traced.'
Australia and Polynesia By 87, 000,000 392,000,000 170,000,000 1 43, 000,000 7,000,000 influence of climate, and by the development of trade even to inhabit countries which cannot yield a food-supply, the mass of mankind is still completely under the control of those conditions which in the past determined the distribution and the mode of life of the whole human race.
The discovery and production of commodities require a knowledge of the distribution of geological formations for mineral products, of the natural distribution, life-conditions and cultivation or breeding of plants and animals and of the labour market.
Chisholm, " On the Distribution of Towns and Villages in England," Geographical Journal (1897), ix.
In his speech Cicero briefly dismisses the charge of assassination, the main question being the distribution of the provinces, which was the real cause of the quarrels between DeIotarus and his relatives.
In this article (A) the general anatomy of birds is discussed, (B) fossil birds, (c) the geographical distribution.
The key to the distribution of recent groups lies in that of the extinct forms. Not only have many absolutely new families been discovered, but many kinds of modern birds are now known to have existed also in countries which they are now extinct.
C. Geographical Distribution The study of the extinct organisms of any country leads to a proper appreciation of its existing flora and fauna; while, on the other hand, a due consideration of the plants and animals which may predominate within its bounds cannot fail to throw more or less light on the changes it has in the course of ages undergone.
That is to say, the distribution of forms in time is a subject so much connected with the distribution of forms in space, that the one can hardly be separated from the other.
Granting this is a general truth, it must yet be acknowledged as a special fact, that in fossil birds we have as yet but scanty means of arriving at any precise results which will justify bold generalization in the matter of avine distribution.
The great problems involved in the study of geographical distribution must therefore be based mainly upon the other classes, both vertebrate and invertebrate, which, moreover, enjoy less great facilities of locomotion than the birds.
Yet it so happens that the great zoogeographical regions of the world, now more or less generally accepted, have been based upon the distribution of birds.
distribution of animals."
Tiedemann, 2 the Heidelberg anatomist, who has been generally ignored, although he surpassed many a recent zoogeographer by the wide view he took of the problem; in fact he was the first to connect distribution with environmental or bionomic factors; e.g.
Besides some occasional references in the text, only a few more of the general works dealing with the distribution of birds can here be mentioned.
Especial attention has to be drawn to the article " Geographical Distribution," in Newton's Dictionary of Birds.
Heilprin, The Geographical and Zoological Distribution of Animals (New York, 1887); W.
Sclater on the general geographical distribution of the members of the class " A y es," 2.
The presence of bustards (Eupodotis) is a curious example of interrupted distribution, since none other of the Otididae are found nearer than India.
Sclater, and as regards the distribution of most classes of animals there have been few to doubt that it is an extremely natural one.
They are well known in cultivation, and owing to the wide distribution of the genus different methods are adopted with different species.
aumonier), in the primitive sense, an officer in religious houses to whom belonged the management and distribution of the alms of the house.
The lord high almoner is an ecclesiastical officer, usually a bishop, who had the rights to the forfeiture of all deodands and the goods of a felo de se, for distribution among the poor.
The Coleoptera are almost worldwide in their distribution, being represented in the Arctic regions and on almost all oceanic islands.
Most of the dominant families - such as the Carabidae (ground-beetles), Scarabaeidae (chafers), or Curculionidae (weevils) have a distribution as wide as the order.
The distribution of many groups of beetles is restricted in correspondence with their habits; the Cerambycidae (longhorns), whose larvae are wood-borers, are absent from timberless regions, and most abundant in the great tropical forests.
The beetles of the British islands afford some very interesting examples of restricted distribution among species.
Sharp, and the comparison of the species found with those of the nearest continental land, furnish the student of geographical distribution with many valuable and suggestive facts.
According to the results obtained by the census committee of 1897, working on a linguistic basis, the distribution of races was as given in the table opposite: 1 Taken as a whole, only 13% of the population of Russia lived in towns in 1897, but in the years 1857-60 less than 10% was urban.
Of these some are ancient and undisputed: the empire may not be partitioned, but Table Showing Distribution Of Races ' These totals include in some cases small linguistic groups not mentioned in the table.
The soil of Russia depends chiefly on the distribution of the boulder-clay and loess.
The distribution of all these is, however, very unequal, and the five following subdivisions may be established: - (T) the tundras; (2) the forest region; (3) the middle region, comprising the surface available for agriculture and partly covered with forests; (4) the black-earth (chernozyom) region; and (5) the steppes.
The actual distribution of arable land, forests and meadows, in European Russia and Poland is shown in the following table The land in European Russia and Poland (Caucasia being excluded) is divided amongst the different classes of owners as follows Down to January 1st 1903, the peasants had actually redeemed out of the land allotted to them in 1861 a total of 280,530,516 acres..
These cover a considerable area, as may be seen by the following table for 1904: - The distribution of forests is very unequal, the area covered by them in the various governments varying from 70% of the total area in the Ural governments of Perm and Ufa, and 68% in Olonets and Archangel, down to 2% in the S.E.
This perfection of distribution is practically attained in present-day practice by the multiple control system of operating an electric train, where motors are applied to a selected number of axles in the train, all of them being under the perfect control of the driver.
Distribution of steam is effected by a slide valve, sometimes fitted with a balancing device, and sometimes formed into a piston valve.
The general characteristics of the distribution effected by these gears are similar.
This would be distributed between three coupled axles giving an average of 1.38 tons per axle, though the distribution might not in practice be uniform, a larger proportion of the weight falling on the driving-axle.
The distribution of steam to both cylinders is effected by one piston-valve operated by a link motion, so that there is considerable mechanical simplicity in the arrangement.
It is a safe, steady-running and trustworthy engine, with excellent distribution of weight, and it is susceptible of a wide range of adaptability in power requirements.
The mountain chains, which from their peculiar geologic character are known as of the "Basin Range type" (not exactly conterminous in distribution with the Basin), are echeloned in short ranges running from N.
His influence was felt decisively in the distribution of guns and armour, and in the training of the personnel of the navy.
Libby, Geographical Distribution of the Vote of the Thirteen States on the Federal Constitution, 1787-1788 (Madison, Wis., 1894); the Memoirs of Oliver Wolcott (ed.
It has a wide geographical distribution, being found in Europe (including England), Asia Minor, Burma, Straits Settlements, Java, China, Formosa, Egypt; west, south and Central Africa; Australia, South America, West Indies, United States and Canada, but is generally confined to local centres in those countries.
The genus with which Anopheles is most likely to be confounded is Culex, which is the commonest of all mosquitoes, has a world-wide distribution, and is generally a greedy blood-sucker.
Glossina --see Tsetse-Fly) the distribution of a genus is limited to a continent.
To a geographical distribution of the widest extent, Diptera add a range of habits of the most diversified nature; they are both animal and vegetable feeders, an enormous number of species acting, especially in the larval state, as scavengers in consuming putrescent or decomposing matter of both kinds.
All his energies were now directed to securing food and vessels for its transportation and to directing its distribution in Belgium.
The foregoing brief review of the principal territorial divisions according to which the forms of life are distributed in Asia, indicates how close is the dependence of this distribution on climatic conditions, and this will be made more apparent by a somewhat fuller account of the main features of the flora and fauna.
The distribution of the Mongolian group in Asia offers no particular difficulty.
The influence of Greek culture in northern India is fully recognized, and the distribution of Greek colonies previous to Alexander's time is attested by practical knowledge of the districts they were said to occupy.
This connexion, if true, must be very ancient, since it apparently goes back to a time when the distribution of land and water was other than at present.
Of these the first three represent different types of civilization: the fourth has little originality, but has been of great importance in affecting the distribution of races and political power.
In politics these races have been less successful in modern times, but the Semitic states of Babylonia and Assyria were once the principal centres for the development and distribution of civilization.
This distribution seems to indicate that they once spread over the whole region, and were divided by the later advance of the Siamese and others.
This widely-scattered race has no political union and its distribution is a puzzle for ethnography.
It would seem from this distribution that the Malays are not continental, but a seafaring race with exceptional powers of dispersal, who have spread over the ocean from some island centre - perhaps Java.
At this time the state had been brought to the brink of ruin by the growth of avarice and luxury; there was a glaring inequality in the distribution of land and wealth, and the number of full citizens had sunk to 700, of whom about roc practically monopolized the land.
The abolition of debts was carried into effect, but the land distribution was put off by Agesilaus on various pretexts.
Magnetite is a mineral of wide distribution, occurring as grains in many massive and volcanic rocks, like granite, diorite and dolerite.
Turgot's best known work, Reflexions sur la formation et la distribution des richesses, was written early in the period of his intendancy for the benefit of two young Chinese students.
The distribution between the two islands of such important crops of arable land as cereals and potatoes is indicated in Table V.
The competition thus constitutes what is termed a " block test," and it is instructive in affording the opportunity of seeing the quality of the carcases furnished by the several animals, and in particular the relative proportion and distribution of fat and lean meat.
Four out of the five essays are elaborate and powerful solutions of perplexing technical problems - the distribution of the gains of international commerce, the influence of consumption on production, the definition of productive and unproductive labour, the precise relations between profits and wages.
From this oppressive feeling he found relief in the thought set forth in the opening of the second book of his Political Economy - that, while the conditions of production have the necessity of physical laws, the distribution of what is produced among the various classes of producers is a matter of human arrangement, dependent upon alterable customs and institutions.
Among other things, he made a more thorough study of socialist writers, with the result that, though he was not converted to any of their schemes as being immediately practicable, he began to look upon some more equal distribution of the produce of labour as a practicability of the remote future, and to dwell upon the prospect of such changes in human character as might render a stable society possible without the institution of private property.
" Were the law different, nearly all the phenomena of the production and distribution of wealth would be other than they are."
History of Discovery and Distribution of Remains.
(4) Commerce was practised to some extent in very early times, as is proved by the distribution of Melian obsidian over all the Aegean area and by the Nilotic influence on early Minoan art.
decadent Aegean products and their wide distribution become more marked than ever.
Through Acajutla it exports coffee and sugar, and imports grain for distribution to all parts of the interior.
Geographical Distribution The class Hexapoda has a world-wide range, and so have most of its component orders.
The Aptera have perhaps the most extensive distribution of all animals, being found in Franz Josef Land and South Victoria Land, on the snows of Alpine glaciers, and in the depths of the most extensive caves.
Most of the families and a large proportion of the genera of insects are exceedingly widespread, but a study of the genera and species in any of the more important families shows that faunas can be distinguished whose headquarters agree fairly with the regions that have been proposed to express the distribution of the higher vertebrates.
Many insects, however, can readily extend their range, and a careful study of their distribution leads us to discriminate between faunas rather than definitely to map regions.
Interesting relationships between the Ethiopian and Oriental, the Neotropical and West African, the Patagonian and New Zealand faunas suggest great changes in the distribution of land and water, and throw doubt on the doctrine of the permanence of continental areas and oceanic basins.
Buffon was the first man who formed any theory that may be called reasonable of the geographical distribution of animals.
185-215), though an abstract forming part of a Prodrome d'une nouvelle distribution du regne animal appeared earlier (op. cit.
Herein the author first assigned anatomical reasons for rearranging the order Anseres of Linnaeus and Natatores of Illiger, who, so long before as 1811, had proposed a new distribution of it into six families, the definitions of which, as was his wont, he had drawn from external characters only.
Questions of affinity, and the details of geographical distribution, were endowed with a real interest, in comparison with which any interest that had hitherto been taken was a trifling pastime.
More than this, he entered upon their geographical distribution, the facts of which important subject are here, almost for the first time, since the attempt of Blyth already mentioned, 4 brought to bear practically on classification.
Here we must mention the intimate connexion between classification and geographical distribution as revealed by the palaeontological researches of Alphonse Milne-Edwards, whose magnificent Oiseaux Fossiles de la France a.
Unfortunately none of these, however, can be compared for singularity with Archaeopteryx or with some American fossil forms next to be noticed, for their particular It is true that from the time of Buffon, though he scorned any regular classification, geographical distribution had been occasionally held to have something to do with systematic arrangement; but the way in which the two were related was never clearly put forth, though people who could read between the lines might have guessed the secret from Darwin's Journal of Researches, as well as from his introduction to the Zoology of the " Beagle" Voyage.
After the capture of Troy, Cassandra, the daughter of Priam, fell to his lot in the distribution of the prizes of war.
Wheat, coal, cotton, petroleum, wood, lime and cement are brought into Venice for shipment to the Levant or for distribution over Italy and Europe.
The disturbances among the underlying rocks of Ohio have been slight, and originally the surface was a plain only slightly undulating; stream dissection changed the region to one of numberless hills and valleys; glacial drift then filled up the valleys over large broken areas, forming the remarkably level till plains of northwestern Ohio; but at the same time other areas were broken by the uneven distribution of the drift, and south-eastern Ohio, which was unglaciated, retains its rugged hilly character, gradually merging with the typical plateau country farther S.E.
The possession of silk-glands has also profoundly influenced the geographical distribution of spiders and has enabled them to cross arms of the sea and establish themselves on isolated oceanic islands which most of the orders of Arachnida are unable to reach.
In 78 he was consul with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, who after the death of Sulla proposed the overthrow of his constitution, the re-establishment of the distribution of grain, the recall of the banished, and other democratic measures.
Demands for yarn cannot be expected to come always at the most favourable time socially for the distribution of the cotton.
The advantages that might accrue from the wider distribution of cotton-growing are mainly fourfold.
The most common method of distribution in cities and towns is by a series of pipes from 12 in.
Under the present Ottoman distribution " Syria " is the province of Sham or Damascus, exclusive of the vilayets of Aleppo and Beirut and the sanjaks of Lebanon and Jerusalem, which all fall in what is called Syria is the wider geographical sense.
It is impossible here to follow in detail the numerous changes in the distribution of the territory and the gradual disappearance of particular dynasties which maintained a footing for some time longer in Chalcis, Abila, Emesa and Palestine; but it is of special interest to note that the kingdom of the Arab Nabataeans was able to keep its hold for a considerable period on the north as far as Damascus.
In those intended for alternating currents, the main current through the movable coil, whether consisting of one turn or more than one turn, is carried by a wire rope, of which each component strand is insulated by silk covering, to prevent the inductive action from altering the distribution of the current across the transverse section of the conductor.
Much bibliographical and other information about the later writers on alchemy is contained in Bibliotheca Chemica (2 vols., Glasgow, 1906), a catalogue by John Ferguson of the books in the collection of James Young of Kelly (printed for private distribution).
In this capacity Thomas controlled the issue of royal writs and the distribution of ecclesiastical patronage; but it was more important for his future that he had ample opportunities of exercising his personal fascination upon a prince who was comparatively inexperienced, and thirteen or fourteen years his junior.
He gives various methods of prayer; methods of making an election; his series of rules for the discernment of spirits; rules for the distribution of alms and the treatment of scruples; tests of orthodoxy.
He readjusts the distribution of property: he robs the rich and endows the poor.
A preliminary distribution of 1060 natives in1509-1510was the direct precursor of the rebellion of the natives in 1511.
Immediately after this rebellion a second distribution of more than 4000 natives foreshadowed the rapid disappearance of those unfortunates, despite the well-meaning regulations of the Council of the Indies.
The family Helicidae has a world-wide distribution.
It was proposed that all the land north of the Padus (Po) lately in possession of the Cimbri, including that of the independent Celtic tribes which had been temporarily occupied by them, should be held available for distribution among the veterans of Marius.
The succession of bad seasons which marked the end of the decade affected the distribution of the principal crops, but with the advent of more prosperous seasons things tend to return to their old level.
From such a rudis indiges-, taque moles, after it had attained an almost world-wide distribution, have arisen the various Ratitae, independently at various epochs and in various countries.
The distribution of weight in chemical change is readily expressed in the form of equations by the aid of these symbols; the equation 2HC1+Zn =ZnCl2+H2, for example, is to be read as meaning that from 73 parts of hydrochloric acid and 65 parts of zinc, 136 parts of zinc chloride and 2 parts of hydrogen are produced.
Bamberger (a strong supporter of the centric formula), have shown that the nature of the substituent groups influences the distribution of the fourth valencies; therefore it may be con-?
These values, however, require modification in certain cases, for discrepancies occur which can be reconciled in some cases by assuming that the atomic value of a polyvalent element varies according to the distribution of its valencies.
Amongst the breeds which are valued for the distribution of colour on the fur are the Himalayan and the Dutch.
Very little enthusiasm was shown in the matter by the people, who preferred the distribution of doles in the city to the prospect of distant allotments.
The distribution of Clarkson's book led to his forming connexions with many persons of influence, and especially with William Wilberforce.
In Great Britain in the breeding-season it seems to affect exclusively hilly and moorland districts from Herefordshire northward, in which it partly or wholly replaces the common linnet, but is very much more local in its distribution, and, except in the British Islands and some parts of Scandinavia, it only appears as an irregular visitant in winter.
In North America rhinoceroses became extinct before the close of the Pliocene period; but in the Old World, although their geographical distribution has become greatly restricted, at least five well-marked species survive.
Special instructions and regulations determined the latitude left to each department in the distribution of the credits accorded to it among its various heads of expenditure, the degree of responsibility of the functionaries within each department and the relations regarding finance and accounts between each department and its dependencies.
Four-fifths of the net product of the revenues, after deduction of the first charge of £T590,000, was to be applied.to the service of the interest on the new reduced debt, and provided that the four-fifths were sufficient to allow the distribution of 1% interest, one-fifth was to be devoted to sinking fund; but this latter fifth was to be reduced, if necessary, by an amount sufficient to maintain the rate of interest at i %.
Towards the middle of Suleiman's reign even this practice was abandoned, and the sultans henceforth attended the divans only on the distribution of pay to the troops or the reception of a foreign ambassador, which occasions were usually made to coincide.
It is still, however, the centre of distribution for a very large, if scantily populated, country, and it also derives much profit from pilgrims, lying as it does on the route which Shiite pilgrims from Persia must take on their way to the sacred cities.
Of the sixty-one species of birds breeding in Greenland, eight are European-Asiatic, four are American, and the rest circumpolar or North Atlantic and North Pacific in their distribution.
There is ample equipment of fixed and movable staiths and cranes of various sizes up to 70 tons, the Lewis-Hunter patent cranes being largely used for shipping coal owing to their minimizing the breakage of coal and securing its even distribution.
The most important were: the Australian Antarctic expedition of 1911-4 under Sir Douglas Mawson; the Danish Oceanographical expeditions in the Mediterranean and adjacent seas of 1908-10; a short cruise made by Sir John Murray and Dr. Johan Hjort in the Norwegian Fishery exploring vessel " Michael Sars " in 1910, the general results of which were published as The Depths of the Ocean (1912) by the leaders of the expedition; and a short special cruise made by the " Scotia " in 1913 (after the loss of the " Titanic ") under the leadership of Dr. Matthews, which made observations upon the distribution of ice in the North Atlantic.
Water drifting into the North Atlantic from the equatorial stream has a relatively high salinity (from 36°/oo to 36.5°/00) and a high temperature (from 15°C. to 20°C.), and when the distribution of salinity from season to season is studied it is seen that the area of dense water (salinity 36°/00) extends farther to the N.
These facts of distribution are due to certain conditions that govern the production of organic substance in the oceans.
The distribution is very interesting and it has been shown that the water of the Antarctic Ocean contains about 0 .
The nervous system is thus essentially epidermal in position and diffuse in distribution; but an interesting concentration of nerve-cells and fibres has taken place in the collar-region, where a medullary tube, closed in from the outside, opens in front and behind by anterior and posterior neuropores.
The Ptychoderidae and Spengelidae are predominantly tropical and subtropical, while the Balanoglossidae are predominantly arctic and temperate in their distribution.
One of the most singular facts concerning the geographical distribution of Enteropneusta has recently been brought to light by Benham, who found a species of Balanoglossus, sensu stricto, on the coast of New Zealand hardly distinguishable from one occurring off Japan.
HoppeSeyler, based primarily on solubilities and distribution, may be conveniently retained.
It has a world-wide distribution, but finds its chief development in the temperate and frigid zones, especially of the northern hemisphere, and as Alpine plants.
Finally, the laws of distribution of animals over Siberia cannot be made out until the changes undergone by its surface during the Glacial and Lacustrine periods are well established and the Post-Tertiary fauna is better known The remarkable finds of Quaternary mammals about Omsk and their importance for the history of the Equidae are merely a slight indication of what may be expected in this field.
In 1897 the distribution was as follows.
f m +Z(D2f1) (Dif2)f3...fm+Z(D3f1) f 2 f fm, the summation in a term covering every distribution of the operators of the type presenting itself in the term.
Galena (q.v.), the principal lead ore, has a world-wide distribution, and is always contaminated with silver sulphide, the proportion of noble metal varying from about o of or less to o 3%, and in rare cases coming up to 2 or i %.
Since all soluble lead compounds are strong cumulative poisons, danger is involved in using lead cisterns or pipes in the distribution of pure waters.
Le Couronnement Looys, already mentioned, Le Charroi de Nimes (12th century) in which Guillaume, who had been forgotten in the distribution of fiefs, enumerates his services to the terrified Louis, and Aliscans (r2th century), with the earlier Chanrun, are among the finest of the French epic poems. The figure of Vivien is among the most heroic elaborated by the trouveres, and the giant Rainouart has more than a touch of Rabelaisian humour.
The distribution of magnetism and the position of the poles in magnets of other shapes, such as cylindrical or rectangular bars, cannot be specified by any general statement, though approximate determinations may be obtained experimentally in individual cases.'
Nevertheless, many important problems relating to the distribution of magnetic induction may be solved by methods similar to those employed for the solution of analogous problems in electricity.
In the bibliography at the close of this article (referred to by leaded arabic numerals in brackets throughout these pages), the titles of works are given which contain detailed information as to the genera and species of each order or sub-order, their geographical distribution and their habits and economy so far as they have been ascertained.
References to works dealing with the taxonomy and geographical distribution of scorpions are given at the end of this article (28).
Russell in particular entered into close communication with the marquis de Ruvigny (Lady Russell's maternal uncle), who came over with money for distribution among members of parliament.
Liliaceae is one of the larger orders of flowering plants containing about 2500 species in zoo genera; it is of world-wide distribution.
The ancients generally cared but little for what we call a philosophic distribution of topics, and Tribonian seems to have merely followed the order of the Perpetual Edict which custom had already established, and from which custom would perhaps have refused to permit him to depart.
4 "Prodrome d'une Nouvelle Distribution du Regne Animal," Bulletin des sciences par la Societe Philomatique de Paris (1816), p.113.
History and Distribution.
Sugar cane, another exotic, has an equally wide distribution, and cotton is grown along the coast from Maranhao to Sao Paulo.
Other economic plants and fruits having a wide distribution are tobacco, maize, rice, beans, sweet potatoes, bananas, cacao (Theobroma cacao), mandioca or cassava (Manihot utilitissima), aipim or sweet mandioca (M.
but has a more eastern distribution.
The distribution of the great satrapies was changed occasionally, and often two of them were given to the same man.
Another characteristic feature is the uneven distribution of the navigable rivers, of which Upper Hungary and Transylvania are almost completely devoid.
When an attempt is made to represent in colour the actual distribution of the races (as in Dr Chavanne's Geographischer and statistischer Handatlas) the effect is that of occasional blotches of solid colour on a piece of shot silk.
2 The distribution of the races is analysed in greater detail in Mr Seton-Watson's Racial Problems, p. 3 seq.
Pigs are reared in large quantities all over the country, but the principal centres for distribution are Debreczen, Gyula, Bares, Szeged and Budapest.
Thus Bionomics is treated in such articles as Evolution, Heredity, Variation, Mendelism, Reproduction, Sex, &C.; Zoo-dynamics under Medicine, Surgery, Physiology, Anatomy, Embryology, and allied articles; Plasmology under Cytology, Protoplasm, &C.; and Philosophical Zoology under numerous headings, Evolution, Biology, &C. See also Zoological Distribution, Palaeontology, Ocranography, Microtomy, &C.
Systems Of Classification Morphography includes the systematic exploration and tabulation of the facts involved in the recognition of all the recent and extinct kinds of animals and their distribution in space and time.
The failure of the material carrying a positive character to divide so as to distribute itself among all the reproductive cells of a hybrid individual, and the limitation of its distribution to half only of those cells, must prevent the swamping " of a newly appearing character in the course of the inter-breeding of those individuals possessed of the character with those which do not possess it.
To the mere tradition preserved by memory and handed on by speech was then added the written record and its later multiplication by the mechanical arts of printing, by which it acquired permanence and universal distribution.
- A very general problem in diffraction is the investigation of the distribution of light over a screen upon which impinge divergent or convergent spherical waves after passage through various diffracting apertures.
We readily find (with substitution for k of 27r/X) a2b S n J s in fl „2a2E2 „2b2n2 f2X2 f2X2 as representing the distribution of light in the image of a mathematical point when the aperture is rectangular, as is often the case in spectroscopes.
Let us now consider the distribution of brightness in the image of a double line whose components are of equal strength, and at such an angular interval that the central line in the image of one coincides with the first zero of brightness in the image of the other.
In the case of the circular aperture the distribution of light is of course symmetrical with respect to the focal point p=o, q=o; and C is a function of p and q only through 11 (p 2 -}-q 2).
If we make the extreme suppositions of an infinitely small source and absolutely homogeneous light, there is no escape from the conclusion that the light in a definite direction is arbitrary, that is, dependent upon the chance distribution of apertures.
We now proceed to consider more particularly the distribution of light upon a screen PBQ near the shadow of a straight edge A.
Their distribution, other than in the south-eastern districts, is imperfectly understood.
Various accidental circumstances, however, have brought it about that the actual distribution of scientific work does not correspond with the logical subdivisions of biology.
Distribution is treated of under ZOOLOGICAL DISTRIBUTION, PLANKTON, PALAEONTOLOGY and PLANTS: Distribution.
The chief seat of cultivation in early times, however, was the town of Corycus (modern Korghoz) in Cilicia, and from this central point of distribution it may not improbably have spread east and west.
P. leucilla, one of the best known, has a wide distribution from the isthmus of Panama to Guiana and the valley of the Amazon; but it is one of the most plainly coloured of the family, being black with a white head.
According to this celebrated theory, the body contains four humours - blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile, a right proportion and mixture of which constitute health; improper proportions or irregular distribution, disease.
Works of this kind became still more abundant in the 14th and in the first half of the 15th century, till the wider distribution of the medical classics in the original put them out of fashion.
Yet even the distribution of toxic matters by the blood is not necessarily followed by general and indiscriminate injury to the nervous elements.
Again, as regards the distribution of the current, he took a leading part in the development of the three-wire system and the closed-circuit transformer, while electric traction had to thank him for the series-parallel method of working motors.
As regards the distribution of powers and duties between the County Council and the Borough Councils, and the constitution and working of each, the underlying principle may be briefly indicated as giving all powers and duties which require uniformity of action throughout the whole of London to the County Council, and powers and duties that can be locally administered to the Borough Councils.
In the article on Mineral Deposits the distribution and mode of occurrence of the useful minerals and ores are fully discussed.
The distribution of the workable areas of mineral in the deposit; 3.
in thickness and the extent and distribution of the rich and barren areas by outcrop measurements.
In the case of metalliferous deposits of varying thickness or irregular distribution the information from bore-holes is less satisfactory.
A tactical operation of that character demanded most careful prior organization, and it called for a distribution of the attacking force amongst the available shipping based on purely tactical considerations.
Consequently it is very difficult to reconcile the accounts of this district, as transmitted by ancient authors, with its present aspect and the distribution of the streams which water it.
Their object was to pursue the inquiry begun by Fraunhofer as to the effect of chemical composition on the distribution of dispersion.
the production of pairs of glasses of widely differing refraction and dispersion, but having a similar distribution of dispersion in the various regions of the spectrum, was not in the first instance solved.
In the walls and floor of the kiln special cooling channels or air passages are provided and by gradually opening these to atmospheric circulation the cooling is considerably accelerated while a very even distribution of temperature is obtained; by these means even the largest slabs can now be cooled in three or four days and are nevertheless sufficiently well annealed to be free from any serious internal stress.
The Nile supplied a waterway for the conveyance of fuel and for the distribution of the finished wares.
The puma has an exceedingly wide range of geographical distribution, extending over a hundred degrees of latitude, from Canada in the north to Patagonia in the south, and formerly was generally diffused in suitable localities from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, but the advances of civilization have curtailed the extent of the districts which it inhabits.
If the distribution of the thrust is not uniform, as, for instance, on a vertical or inclined face or wall of a reservoir, then P/A represents the average pressure over the area; and the actual pressure at any point is the average pressure over a small area enclosing the point.
A distribution of sources and doublets over a moving surface will enable an expression to be obtained for the velocity function of a body moving in the presence of a fixed sphere, or inside it.
The method of electrical images will enable the stream function, )' to be inferred from a distribution of doublets, finite in number when the surface is composed of two spheres intersecting at an angle 7r/m, where m is an integer (R.
Even in the course of a general survey of the legal lore at our disposal, one cannot help being struck by peculiarities in the distribution of legal subjects.
Since then a number of other monuments have been found, some on new sites, others on sites already known to be Hittite, the distribution of which can be seen by reference to the accompanying map. It will be observed that, so far as at present known, they cluster most closely in Commagene, Cappadocia and S.
Subsequently all extraordinary refo Fiscalr expenditure was met by forced loans (prestanze), but the (1427),ms method of distribution aroused discontent among the lower classes, and in 1427 a general catasto or assessment of all the wealth of the citizens was formed, and measures were devised to distribute the obligations according to each man's capacity, sò as to avoid pressing too hardly on the poor.
In 1785 appeared his Recherches theoriques et experimentales sur la force de torsion et sur l'elasticite des fils de metal, &c. This memoir contained a description of different forms of his torsion balance, an instrument used by him with great success for the experimental investigation of the distribution of electricity on surfaces and of the laws of electrical and magnetic action, of the mathematical theory of which he may also be regarded as the founder.
In one family (Ligulidae) the segmentation is only expressed in the metameric distribution of the generative organs and the worm is externally unisegmental.
In geographical distribution the Bovidae present a remarkable contrast to the deer tribe, or Cervidae.
Observations made at the most diverse parts of the globe, and the general distribution area of the disease, show that mere questions of elevation, or even configuration of the ground, have little or no influence.
The island is a place of call for almost all the steamships plying to and from the West Indies, and is a great centre of distribution.
The taxes with the booty from conquests were to be sent to Arabia for distribution among the Moslems. Omar tried to prevent the advance of conquests lest Arabia should suffer.
In his appointments to governorships and other offices, as well as in his distribution of spoil, Othman showed a marked preference for the members of his own tribe the Koreish (Quraish) and the members of his own family the Bani Omayya (Umayya).
The wide distribution of certain species is undoubtedly attributable to the agency of ships and trains; under natural conditions mosquitoes seldom travel far from their breeding grounds, although the powers of flight of some species are greater than has been supposed.
Of the tribal distribution of this race, of its linguistic, social and political characteristics, and of the history of its relation to the other peoples of Spain, we have only the most general, fragmentary and contradictory accounts.
The second work is practical or temporal; it settles the distribution of power, and the institutions that are most conformable to the spirit of the system which has previously been thought out in the course of the theoretic work.
The motivepower generated by the Camuzzoni canal is utilized by a large nail factory, flour mills, paper mills, cotton mills and works for the distribution of electric energy.
This creature displays an almost unexampled frequency and extent of distribution in the whole North Sea, in the western parts of the Baltic, near the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Greenland and the English coasts, so that it may be regarded as a characteristic North Sea echinoderm form.
Archaster typicus has a pretty wide distribution over the Indian Ocean; other Asteridae of Japan, on the other hand, appear to be confined to its shores.
Members of the group have existed in both east and west hemispheres since the beginning of the Miocene period; but in America they all became extinct before the end of the Pliocene period, and in the Old World their distribution has become greatly restricted.
In this way the development of the electrochemical industry is in a marked degree altering the distribution of trade throughout the world.
The emperor's most important act was a severe reprimand addressed to Herr von Puttkamer, the reactionary minister of the interior, which caused his resignation; in the distribution of honours he chose many who belonged to classes and parties hitherto excluded from court favour.
In accordance with this general distribution snakes show a great amount of differentiation with regard to their mode of life and general organization; and from the appearance alone of a snake a safe conclusion can be drawn as to its habits.
Many of the so-called genera, or groups of genera, are consequently not to be used either as witnesses of blood-relationship or of geographical distribution.
Hoplocephalus curtus), with a similar distribution, and also common in Tasmania, from 5 to 6 ft.
The majority of alloys, when examined thus, prove to be complexes of two or more materials, and the patterns showing the distribution of these materials throughout the alloy are of a most varied character.
This uniform distribution of a solid substance throughout the mass of another, so as to form a homogeneous material, is called " solid solution," and we may say that solid silver can dissolve copper.
But the attempt to interpret, in terms of this Asiatic diagram, the actual distribution of dialects and peoples in European Greece, led to difficulties.
Arcadia, on the other hand, in the heart of Peloponnese, retained till a late date a quite different dialect, akin to the ancient dialect of Cyprus, and more remotely to Aeolic. This distribution makes it clear (r) that the Doric dialects of Peloponnese represent a superstratum, more recent than the speech of Arcadia; (2) that Laconia and its colonies preserve features alike, -n and -w which are common to southern Doric and Aeolic; (3) that those parts of " Dorian " Greece in which tradition makes the pre-Dorian population " Ionic," and in which the political structure shows that the conquered were less completely subjugated, exhibit the Ionic -a and -ov; (4) that as we go north, similar though more barbaric dialects extend far up the western side of central-northern Greece, and survive also locally in the highlands of south Thessaly; (5) that east of the watershed Aeolic has prevailed over the area which has legends of a Boeotian and Thessalian migration, and replaces Doric in the northern Doris.
But this distribution does not by itself prove that Doric speech was the language of the Dorian invaders.
As evidence of an intrusion of northerly folk, however, the distribution of dialects remains important.
The common calendar and cycle of festivals, observed by all Dorians (of which the Carneia was chief), and the distribution in Greece of the worships of Apollo and Heracles, which attained pre-eminence mainly in or near districts historically " Dorian," suggest that these cults, or an important element in them, were introduced comparatively late, and represent the beliefs of a fresh ethnic superstratum.
An agricultural reform initiated by the provisional Government aims at the distribution of the fallow lands of the large estates and the better exploitation of the land.
Since the potential of a small charge of electricity dQ at a distance r is equal to dQ/r, and since the potential of all parts of a conductor is the same in those cases in which the distribution of surface density of electrification is uniform or symmetrical with respect to some point or axis in the conductor, we can calculate the potential by simply summing up terms like rdS/r, where dS is an element of surface, o- the surface density of electricity on it, and r the distance from the symmetrical centre.
Thus the distribution of electricity on a sphere in free space must be uniform, and all parts of the charge are at an equal distance R from the centre.
It must be such a potential distribution that the potential in the interior will be to constant, since the electric force must be zero.
Let a charge +Q be f t the ellipsoid a similar and slightly larger one, that distribution will be in equilibrium and will produce a constant potential throughout the interior.
Accordingly for a given ellipsoid the surface density of free distribution of electricity on it is everywhere proportional to the the tangent e plane e att that point.
Accordingly the distribution of electricity is such that equal parallel slices of the ellipsoid of revolution taken normal to the axis of revolution carry equal charges on their curved surface.
The reader is also referred to an article by Lord Kelvin (Reprint of Papers on Electrostatics and Magnetism, p. 178), entitled " Determination of the Distribution of Electricity on a Circular Segment of a Plane, or Spherical Conducting Surface under any given Influence," where another equivalent expression is given for the capacity of an ellipsoid.
The capacity of two parallel planes can be calculated at once if we neglect the distribution of the lines of force near the edges of the plates, and assume that the only field is the uniform field between the plates.
Kirchhoff's expression is as follow d+47 r rd l dlog e 167x 2 + t), +t log,: t t I (4) In the above formula e is the base of the Napierian logarithms. The first term on the right-hand side of the equation is the expression for the capacity, neglecting the curved edge distribution of electric force, and the other terms take into account, not only the uniform field between the plates, but also the non-uniform field round the edges and beyond the plates.
In practice we can avoid the difficulty due to irregular distribution of electric force at the edges of the plate by the use of a guard plate as first suggested by Lord Kelvin.
We now proceed to consider in more detail the laws which govern the distribution of electricity at rest upon conductors.
Hence that distribution of potential which is neces 1 See Maxwell, Electricity and Magnetism, vol.
Thus the actual distribution of electricity on the conductor in the field is not merely a stable distribution, it is the only possible stable distribution.
A very powerful method of attacking problems in electrical distribution was first made known by Lord Kelvin in 1845 and is described as the method of electrical images.'
So the potential distribution in the space due to the electric point-charge +q as A together with -q at B is the same as that due to +q at A and the negative induced charge erected on the infinite plane (earthed) metal sheet placed half-way between A and B.
The same reasoning can be applied to determine the electrical image of a point-charge of positive electricity in a spherical surface, and therefore the distribution of induced electricity over a metal sphere connected to earth produced by a point-charge near it.
If we make a distribution of negative electricity over it, which has a density a varying according to the law a = -(d 2 -r 2) q /42rr AP3.
(26), that distribution, together with the point-charge +q at A, will make a distribution of electric force at all points outside the sphere 2 See Lord Kelvin's Papers on Electrostatics and Magnetism, p. 144.
It inhabits the greater part of the continent of Europe, but is more southern than the next in its distribution, not being found in Sweden or Norway.
The association and distribution of gold may be considered under two different heads, namely, as it occurs in mineral veins - " reef gold," and in alluvial or other superficial deposits which are derived from the waste of the former - " alluvial gold."
The age distribution of the population of Ireland lends some support to this view.
Large reservoirs assist to store this water after it is raised, and to equalize its distribution.
The hypothesis that the state was steady, so that interchanges arising from convection and collisions of the molecules produced no aggregate result, enabled him to interpret the new constants involved in this law of distribution, in terms of the temperature and its spacial differential coefficients, and thence to express the components of the kinetic stress at each point in the medium in terms of these quantities.
Reynolds, in his investigation, introducing no new form of law of distribution of velocities, uses a linear quantity, proportional to the mean free path of the gaseous molecules, which he takes to represent (somewhat roughly) the average distance from which molecules directly affect, by their convection, the state of the medium; the gas not being uniform on account of the gradient of temperature, the change going on at each point is calculated from the elements contributed by the parts at this particular distance in all directions.
This distribution is not, however, observed very strictly.
Distribution and Habits.
to Gostivar, an important centre of distribution, E.N.E.
The classification adopted was a double one, taking account both of the origin and of the distribution in depth of the various deposits, thus: - II.
The distribution of dissolved oxygen in the depths of the open ocean is still very imperfectly known.
a temperature of 40.1 ° F., the carbonic acid amounts to 51 J5 cc. per litre, and the oxygen only to 2.19 cc. Vegetable plankton in sunlight can reverse this process, assimilating the carbon of the carbonic acid and restoring the oxygen to solution, as was proved by Martin Knudsen and Ostenfeld in the case of diatoms. Little is known as yet of the distribution of carbonic acid in the oceans, but the amount present seems to increase with the salinity as shown by the four observations quoted: Water from Gulf of Finland of 3.2 per mille salinity =17.2 cc. C02 Western Baltic of 14.2 North Atlantic of .0, , 49'0 Eastern Mediter ranean of 39.o, , =53'0, , Unfortunately the very numerous determinations of carbonic acid made by J.
Distribution of Salinity.-A great deal of material exists on which to base a study of the surface salinity of the oceans, and Schott's chart published in Petermanns Mitteilungen for 1902 incorporates the earlier work and substantially confirms the first trustworthy chart of the kind compiled by J.
The vertical distribution of salinity has only recently been investigated systematically, as the earlier expeditions were not equipped with altogether trustworthy apparatus for collecting water samples at great depths.
As yet it is only possible to speak with confidence of the vertical distribution of salinity in the seas surrounding Europe, where there is a general increase of salinity with depth.
Buchanan's large model they can be trusted to give a good account of the vertical distribution of temperature, provided the water grows cooler as the depth increases.
The vertical distribution of temperature ' in the open ocean is much better known than that of salinity.
The normal vertical distribution of temperature is illustrated in curve A of fig.
Curve B shows the typical distribution of temperature in an enclosed sea, in this case the Sulu Basin of the Malay Sea, where from the level of the barrier to the bottom the temperature remains uniform or homothermic. Curve C shows a typical summer condition in the polar seas, where layers of sea-water at different temperatures are superimposed, the arrangement from the surface to 200 fathoms is termed FIG.
- Diagram illustrating Distribution of Sea Temperature.
In shallow seas such as the North Sea and the British fringing seas, where tidal currents run strong, there is a general mixing together of the surface and deeper water, thus making the arrangement of vertical temperature anathermic in summer and katathermic in winter, while at the transitional periods in spring and autumn it is practically homothermic. Thus at Station E2 of the international series at the mouth of the English Channel in 49° 2 7' N., 4 42' W., the following distribution of temperature F.
In small nearly land-locked basins shut off from one another by bars rising to within a short distance of the surface and affected both by strong tidal currents and by a considerable admixture of land water, the contrasts of vertical distribution of temperature with the seasons are strongly marked, and there are also great unperiodic changes effected mainly by wind, as is shown by the investigations of H.
Modern oceanography has found means to calculate quantitatively the circulatory movements produced by wind and the distribution of temperature and salinity not only at the surface but in deep water.
The connexion between variations of current strength and the conditions of existence and distribution of plankton are no less important, especially as they act directly or indirectly on the life-conditions of food fishes.
Knudsen, Hydrographical Tables (Copenhagen, 1901); Sir John Murray, " Deep-Sea Deposits and their Distribution in the Pacific Ocean," Geogr.
This ecclesiastic related wonderful stories of the shrine of St Thomas in India, and of the miracles wrought there by the body of the apostle, including (fn1) the distribution of the sacramental wafer by his hand.
The genus has a very wide distribution, extending from Europe through Asia to North America, and occurring in strata which are of Oligocene and Miocene age.
In Ancodon (Hyopotamus) the cusps on the molars are taller, so that the dentition is more decidedly selenodont; the distribution of this genus includes not only Europe, Asia and North Africa, but also Egypt where it occurs in Upper Eocene beds in company with the European genus Rhagatherium, which is nearer Anthracotherium.
Bray, Distribution and Adaptation of the Vegetation of Texas (Austin, 1905).
The squirrels of the typical genus Sciurus are unknown in Africa south of the Sahara, but otherwise have a distribution co-extensive with the rest of the family.
The rainfall is also very unequal in distribution throughout the year, as also between the same periods of different years, and as between the different parts of the state.
(5) If c is the resultant velocity of a molecule, so that c 2 =u2+v2+w2, it is readily found from formula (4) that the number of molecules of the first kind of which the resultant velocity lies between c and c+dc is 4lrs1,l (h 3 rn 3 17r 3)e hmc2 c 2 dc. (6) These formulae express the " law of distribution of velocities " in the normal state: the law is often called Maxwell's Law of Distribution.
Ptolemy Soter (reigned 323-285 B.C.), to whom, in the general distribution of Alexander's conquests, this kingdom had fallen, began to draw around him from various parts of Greece a circle of men eminent in literature and philosophy.
He engraved privately about 1785 at enormous expense Botanical Tables containing the Different Familys of British Plants, while The Tabular Distribution of British Plants (1787) is also attributed to him.
Her leading politicians were out of sympathy with the conduct of national affairs (in the conduct of foreign relations, the distribution of political patronage, naval policy, the question of public debt) from 1804 - when Jefferson's party showed its complete supremacy - onward; and particularly after the passage of the Embargo Act of 1807, which caused great losses to Massachusetts commerce, and, so far from being accepted by her leaders as a proper diplomatic weapon, seemed to them designed in the interests of the Democratic party.
An account of savage life, therefore, includes the knowledge of the animal life of America and its distribution, regarding the continent, not only as a whole, but in those natural history provinces and migrations which governed and characterized the activities of the peoples.
The distribution of the material between the two documents is uncertain; but some such scheme as the following is not improbable.
Appointed painter to the emperor, David produced the two notable pictures "The Coronation" (of Josephine) and the "Distribution of the Eagles."
blackish when adult; while the lighter-coloured and larger roan antelope has a much wider distribution.
The singular fact of the existence of animals so closely allied as the Malayan and the American tapirs in such distant regions of the earth and in no intervening places is accounted for by the geological history of the race, for the tapirs once had a very wide distribution.
Had he made in 1815 the wise distribution of his soldiers in the theatre of war which he made in his former immortal campaigns, he would have concentrated 155,000 to 160,000 of his available force opposite to Charleroi on June 14, and the issue of the campaign would hardly have been in doubt.
CRASSULACEAE, in botany, a natural order of dicotyledons, containing 13 genera and nearly 500 species; of cosmopolitan distribution, but most strongly developed in South Africa.
Natives of India, an element of considerable extent and importance in this colony, are enumerated apart from the white population, but in full detail, recognizing the remarkable difference between the European and the Oriental in the matter of age distribution and civil condition.
In solar physics Huggins suggested a spectroscopic method for viewing the red prominences in daylight; and his experiments went far towards settling a much-disputed question regarding the solar distribution of calcium.
To correct abuses in the life insurance business which were discovered in 1905 by a committee of the state legislature, laws were passed in the next year regulating the election of the directors of the insurance companies, and the investments of the companies and the distribution of dividends, limiting the amount of business of the larger companies and prohibiting rebates on insurance premiums. A state superintendent of insurance, (since 1860) appointed by the governor, holds office for three years.
As even distribution at a uniform depth is necessary, the drill is preferred to the broadcast-seeder for barley sowing.
Washington has a state board consisting of three members appointed by the governor to confer with commissioners from other states upon such matters as marriage and divorce, insolvency, descent and distribution of property, the execution and probate of wills, for the purpose of promoting uniformity of legislation respecting them.
The distribution of velocity then is represented by the dotted curve and is forward when the curve is above the axis and Dackward when it is below.
The general distribution of the Russian forces was now as follows: The main army under Kuropatkin was forming, by successive brigades, in two groups - I.
With a battle-front exceeding two days' marches the wrong distribution of reserves by both sides was a grave misfortune.
Fighting for localities and alterations in the interior distribution of the opposing forces occupied much time, and by the 3rd, though the battle had become severe, Kuropatkin had merely drawn in his right and right centre (now facing W.
But the verdict was looked upon with suspicion, and it was known for a fact that one of the jurymen had received a large sum of money for distribution amongst his colleagues.
He was certain that war with Spain was inevitable, and he did much to prepare the navy for hostilities, framing an important personnel bill, collecting ammunition, getting large appropriations for powder and ammunition used in improving the marksmanship of the navy by gunnery practice, buying transports and securing the distribution of ships and supplies (especially in the Pacific) in such a way that, when hostilities were declared, American naval victories would be assured.
Saxony owes its unusual wealth in fruit partly to the care of the elector Augustus I., who is said never to have stirred abroad without fruit seeds for distribution among the peasants and farmers.
The objection to continuity is that very small alterations of level of the supports due to settlement of the piers may very greatly alter the distribution of stress, and render the bridge unsafe.
Such a composite structure is, however, fundamentally defective, the distribution of loading to the two independent systems being indeterminate.
This was partly necessary to meet the uncertain conditions in floating when the distribution of supporting forces was unknown and there were chances of distortion.
Barton, " On the economic distribution of material in the sides of wrought iron beams " (Proc. Inst.
36 gives the loads per axle and the distribution of loads in some exceptionally heavy modern British locomotives.
But if a load is so applied that the deflection increases with speed, the stress is greater than that due to a very gradually applied load, and vibrations about a mean position are set up. The rails not being absolutely straight and smooth, centrifugal and lurching actions occur which alter the distribution of the loading.
It is generally reckoned to be uniformly distributed, but in large spans the distribution of weight in the main girders should be calculated and taken into account.
to the left and right of the load are R 1 and -R 2, and the distribution of shearing force is given by two rectangles.
The distribution of shear on vertical sections is given by the ordinates of a sloping line.
The distribution of total shear, due to a dead load w 1 per ft.
For the position shown the distribution of bending moment due to W 1 is given by ordinates of the triangle 000 A'CB'; that due to W2 by ordin al, W, WW1 W„ ates of A'DB'; and that due to W3 by ordinates of A EB'.
But very great accuracy in drawing this curve is unnecessary, because the rolling stock of railways varies so much that the precise magnitude and distribution of the loads which will pass over a bridge cannot be known.
Clearly, the distribution of the load by the rail girder considerably alters the distribution of shear due to a load in the bay in which the section considered lies.
- Another method of investigating the maximum shear at a section due to any distribution of a travelling load has been given by Prof. H.
The shaded rectangles represent the distribution of shear due to the load at C, while no may be termed the datum line of shear.
The distribution of shear is given by the partially shaded rectangles.
Early in 1915 an institution was established for regulating the traffic in grain during the war (Kriegsgetreide-Verhehrs-Anstalt); it had been preceded by a central maize board, established to control the distribution of the maize contributed by Hungary.
Its object was to exhibit by means of certain formulas the way in which the products of agriculture, which is the only source of wealth, would in a state of perfect liberty be distributed among the several classes of the community (namely, the productive classes of the proprietors and cultivators of land, and the unproductive class composed of manufacturers and merchants), and to represent by other formulas the modes of distribution which take place under systems of Governmental restraint and regulation, with the evil results arising to the whole society from different degrees of such violations of the natural order.
Corn grows throughout the western half of the state, and especially in the south-western parts, in Lincoln, Clay, Union, Yankton and Bonhommie counties, the largest crop in 1899 being that of Lincoln county, 3,914,840 bush., nearly one-eleventh of the state crop. Oats has a distribution similar to that of corn, the largest crop in 1899 being that of Minnehaha county, 1,666,110 bush., about one-nineteenth of the state crop. Barley grows principally in the eastern and southern parts of the state - Minnehaha, Moody, Lake and Brookings counties - the largest crop in 1899 being that of Minnehaha county, 932,860 bush., more than one-seventh of the state.
The distribution of medals to the soldiers and the institution of the Victoria Cross (February 1857) as a reward for individual instances of merit and valour must also be noted among the incidents which occupied the queen's time and thoughts.
Former tributaries have given place to others developed with reference to the distribution of more or less easily eroded strata, the present longitudinal valleys being determined by the out-crop of soft shales or soluble limestones, and the parallel ridges upheld by hard sandstones or schists.
They exhibit in an exaggerated form the irregularities of distribution visible in our zodiacal constellations, and present the further anomaly of being frequently reckoned as twenty-eight in number, while the ecliptical arcs they characterize are invariably twenty-seven.
Calcium carbonate, CaCO 3, is of exceptionally wide distribution in both the mineral and animal kingdoms. It constitutes the bulk of the chalk deposits and limestone rocks; it forms over one-half of the mineral dolomite and the rock magnesium limestone; it occurs also as the dimorphous minerals aragonite (q.v.) and calcite (q.v.).
,It embraces a consideration of the external forms of plants - of their anatomical structure, however minute - of the functions which they perform - of their arrangement and classification - of their distribution over the globe at the present and at former epochs - and of the uses to which they are subservient.
The department of geographical botany made rapid advance by means of the various scientific expeditions which have been sent to all quarters of the globe, as well as by individual effort (see Plants: Distribution) since the time of A.
Distribution or Geographical Botany, the consideration of the distribution of plants on the earth's surface (see Plants: Distribution).
Nothing in the general physiognomy of the islands is more remarkable than the number and distribution of the volcanoes, active or extinct.
has a less rainfall than the west; the distribution of the rain on the north coast is quite different from that on the south, and a similar difference is observed between the east and the west of Celebes.
As regards the present racial distribution, the view accepted by many anthropologists, following A.
Wallace, Malay Archipelago (London, 1869, and later editions, notably for zoological distribution) and Island Life (London, 1880, notably for ornithology).
As middlemen they already possessed a large interest in the spice trade, for the Portuguese, having no direct access to the principal European markets, had made a practice of sending cargo to the Netherlands for distribution by way of the Scheldt and Rhine.
The Dutch now sought to monopolize not only the distribution but the production of spices - an enterprise facilitated by the co-operation of many exiled Portuguese Jews who had settled in Holland.
But in the transition from molecular theory to the electrodynamics of extended media, all magnetism has to be replaced by a distribution of current; the latter being now specified by volume as well as by flow so that (u,v,w) ST is the current in the element of volume 6T.
For the purchase and distribution of the land a " State Land Office" has been set up. A share in the distribution may be claimed on the one hand by private persons to the amount of 15 hectares (37 ac.) - the amount suitable for cultivation by one family; on the other hand by agricultural, housing and cooperative societies.
On the 24th of October 1795 Prussia acceded to the Austro-Russian partition compact of the 3rd of January, and the distribution of the conquered provinces Third Par- was finally regulated on the 10th of October 1796.
At the same time, however, it was decided by a secret protocol that the four powers should first settle among themselves the distribution of the conquered territories, and that France and Spain should only be consulted when their final decision was announced.
In continental Asia the distribution of parrots is rather remarkable.
Of these the more noteworthy dealt with the distribution of stars, starclusters and nebulae, and the construction of the sidereal universe.
Both the grinding and polishing tools are grooved, to obtain a uniform distribution of the emery used in the grinding process and of the rouge employed in polishing, as also to provide for the lateral expansion of the pitch with which the polisher is coated.
The method of pollination is to some extent governed by the distribution of the stamens and pistil.
Their range in space, including carriage by birds, may be coextensive with the distribution of water, but it is not known what height of temperature or how much chemical adulteration of the water they can sustain, how far they can penetrate underground, nor what are the limits of their activity between the floor and the surface of aquatic expanses, fresh or saline.
(distribution of the land among the different tribes), xxi.
Many, particularly of late, have contributed to the wide distribution, if not of the critical spirit itself, yet at least of a knowledge of its conclusions.