Absent these most general distinctions, color was her only detailed observation.
More than once he had vexed his father by spoiling his own career, and he laughed at distinctions of all kinds.
Among his many distinctions he was D.D.
Yet on the whole Aristotle leans to a teleological theory of evolution, which he interprets dualistually by means of certain metaphysical distinctions.
Only at Rome, where there was a plebs to be striven against, these distinctions seem to have had a tendency to die out, while at Sparta they seem to have had a tendency to widen.
No distinctions made nowadays....
These useful distinctions are stated and well explained in W.
And, as at Rome in early times, there were at Sparta distinctions within the populus; there were 5 otot and nro,ueioves, like the majores and minores genies at Rome.
But these grants and sales led to distinctions within the ranks of the noble order, like those of which we get faint glimpses among the Roman patricians.
The primary distinctions between these branches have been increased during the last nine centuries by their contact with different nationalities - the Great Russians absorbing Finnish elements, the Little Russians undergoing an admixture of Turkish blood, and the White Russians submitting to Lithuanian influence.
Besides the distinctions already noted, English Jews have risen to note in theology (C. G.
It is so with Bernard of Clairvaux (109053), who condemns Abelard's distinctions and reasonings as externalizing and degrading the faith.
The final breakdown of scholasticism as a rationalized system of dogma may be seen in Nicolas (or Nicolaus) of Cusa (1401-1464), who distinguishes between the intellectus and the discursively acting ratio almost precisely in the style of later distinctions between the reason and the understanding.
But in that case it might be difficult to find a systematic philosopher who would escape the charge of mysticism; and it is better to remain by long-established and serviceable distinctions.
The position of this class, which has remained till the present day, is connected with the institution of caste, a division of the population into groups founded partly on racial distinctions.
When, in 1809, Dalmatia was re-annexed to the Illyrian provinces, Dandolo returned to Venice, having received as his reward from the French emperor the title of count and several other distinctions.
Nevertheless there are distinctions of result dependent on differences in the habits of the two plants, and in the conditions of their cultivation accordingly.
It is not unlike the procedure of the canonists and casuists of the middle ages with regard to the doctrine of usury, by which the doctrine was to all appearances preserved intact while in reality it was stripped of all its original meaning by innumerable distinctions " over-curious and precise."
19) are intended to show certain important distinctions which obtain amongst the various " introverts," or intro-and e-versible tubes so frequently met with in animal bodies.
Green's teaching was, directly and indirectly, the most potent philosophical influence in England during the last quarter of the 19th century, while his enthusiasm for a common citizenship, and his personal example in practical municipal life, inspired much of the effort made, in the years succeeding his death, to bring the universities more into touch with the people, and to break down the rigour of class distinctions.
Nevertheless, the constant increase of our knowledge of insect forms renders classification increasingly difficult, for gaps in the series become filled, and while the number of genera and families increases, the distinctions between these groups become dependent on characters that must seem trivial to the naturalist who is not a specialist.
The most novel feature, and one the importance of which most ornithologists of the present day are fully prepared to admit, is the separation of the class A y es into two great divisions, which from one of the most obvious distinctions they present were called by its author Carinatae' and Ratitae, 2 according as the sternum possesses a keel (crista in the phraseology of many anatomists) or not.
Besides the distinctions of human and nonhuman, hostile and friendly, the demons in which the lower races believe are classified by them according to function, each class with a distinctive name, with extraordinary minuteness, the list in the case of the Malays running to several score.
Syntheses of the Benzene Ring.-The characteristic distinctions NH NH, r.-NH, [[Cooh Cooh, _ + Nh2 Nh, H., Cooh]] x x x Tri.
As a scholar, he failed to recognize the distinctions between different periods of antiquity and various schools of thought.
The Serb and Moslem delegates, who had started on the same day for Budapest, to present their petition to the emperor, learned from the rescript that the government intended to concede to their compatriots "a share in the legislation and administration of provincial affairs, and equal protection for all religious beliefs, languages and racial distinctions."
The National Convention was therefore the first French assembly elected by universal suffrage, without distinctions of class.
Compare the fine distinctions drawn by the casuists and attacked by Pascal in the twelfth of the Provincial Letters.
Bonaparte, who styled him "la haute pyramide des sciences mathematiques," loaded him with personal favours and official distinctions.
Its democracy obliterated the distinctions between rich and poor; slave and senator became subject to the same rule, eligible for the same honours, partook of the same communion, and were interred in the same type of sepulchre, to await the same resurrection.
Scholasticism opens with a discussion of certain points in the Aristotelian logic; it speedily begins to apply its logical distinctions to the doctrines of the church; and when it attains its full stature in St Thomas it has, with the exception of certain mysteries, rationalized or Aristotelianized the whole churchly system.
In other words, we note philosophy gradually extending its claims. Dialectic is, to begin with, a merely secular art, and only by degrees are its terms and distinctions applied to the subject-matter of theology.
But, though he implies an ample previous treatment of the questions by philosophers, Porphyry gives no references to the different systems of which such distinctions are the outcome, nor does he give any hint of his own opinion on the subject, definite enough though that was.
The point in dispute has not in his hands the all-absorbing importance it afterwards attained, and the keenness of later distinctions is as yet unknown.
In this way, however, though the distinctions drawn may still be comparatively vague, there existed in the schools a Peripatetic tradition to set over against the Neoplatonic influence of John the Scot, and amongst the earliest remains of Scholastic thought we find this tradition asserting itself somewhat vigorously.
But now bolder spirits arose who did not shrink from applying the distinctions of their human wisdom to the mysteries of theology.
By these distinctions Abelard hoped to escape the consequences of extreme Nominalism, from which, as a matter of history, his doctrine has been distinguished under the name of Conceptualism, seeing that it lays stress not on the word as such but on the thought which the word is intended to convey.
His first distinctions are said to have been gained in theological controversy, but at an early age he became mathematical teacher in the military school of Beaumont, the classes of which he had attended as an extern.
But scientific distinctions by no means satisfied his ambition.
The broad distinctions which, as a matter of fact, exist between every known form of living substance and every other component of the material world, justify the separation of the biological sciences from all others.
He rejected the theory of the unity and continuity of history so far as it would obliterate distinctions between ancient and modern history, holding that, though work on ancient history is a useful preparation for the study of modern history, either may advantageously be studied apart.
At a convivial gathering on the, 8th of November he supported a toast to "the speedy abolition of all hereditary titles and feudal distinctions," and gave proof of his zeal by expressly repudiating his own title - a performance for which he was dismissed from the army.
The act of 1899 swept away all these distinctions, and constituted the new borough councils in every case the overseers for every parish within their respective boroughs, except that the town clerk of each borough performs the duties of overseers with respect to the registration of electors.'
He abrogated caste distinctions, and taught in opposition to ancient writings that every man had the eternal right of searching for divine knowledge and worshipping his Creator.
Amar Das preached the doctrine abrogation of caste distinctions, and his precepts were implicitly followed by his successors.
He, like his predecessors, openly attacked all distinctions of caste, and taught the equality of all men who would join him, and he instituted a ceremony of initiation with baptismal holy water by which all might enter the Sikh fraternity.
The object of this ceremony is to abolish caste distinctions.
He received many distinctions from British and foreign scientific societies.
After the treaties with the Danes, the tendency is to simplify distinctions on the lines of an opposition between twelvehynd-men and twyhyndmen, paving the way towards the feudal distinction between the free and the unfree.
Accra preserves the distinctions of James Town, Ussher Town and Christiansborg, indicative of its tripartite origin.
The council consists in equal proportions of nominated and elected members, no racial distinctions being made.
Martineau, who was in his youth denied the benefit of a university education, yet in his age found famous universities eager to confer upon him their highest distinctions.
keitloa, but the characters of these appendages are too variable for specific distinctions.
He is, in fact, an instance of the tendency, which has so often been remarked by other nations in the English, to drag in moral distinctions at every turn, and to confound everything which is novel to the experience, unpleasant to the taste, and incomprehensible to the understanding, under the general epithets of wrong, wicked and shocking.
Above all, the dentition, which exhibits almost endless modifications, in most cases is difficult to ascertain and to appreciate in its subtle distinctions.
The distinctions between animals and plants are in fact obviously secondary and adaptive, and point clearly towards the conception of a common origin for the two forms of life, a conception which is made still more probable by the existence of many low forms in which the primary differences between animals and plants fade out.
The imperial patronage had made education and social distinctions a greater possibility for the preacher, and the decline of political eloquence furnished an opening for pulpit oratory.
On a marble slab that once adorned the public baths at Comum, his distinctions were recorded in a long inscription, which was afterwards removed to Milan.
By keeping these distinctions in view, the right of patronage in the case of secular benefices becomes intelligible, being in fact the right, which was originally vested in the donor of the temporalities, to present to the bishop a clerk to be admitted, if found fit by the bishop, to the office to which those temporalities are annexed.
Hallam was a fellow of the Royal Society, and a trustee of the British Museum, and enjoyed many other appropriate distinctions.
BERNOULLI, or Bernouilli, the name of an illustrious family in the annals of science, who came originally from Antwerp. Driven from their country during the oppressive government of Spain for their attachment to the Reformed religion, the Bernoullis sought first an asylum at Frankfort (1583), and afterwards at Basel, where they ultimately obtained the highest distinctions.
He was once made rector of his university, and had other distinctions bestowed on him.
He was hailed as the deliverer and father of his country, and all manner of distinctions and congratulations were heaped upon him.
In the hive-bee and among ants, on the other hand, there are constant structural distinctions between queen and worker, and the function of the queen bee in a hive is confined to egg-laying, the labour, of the community being entirely done by the workers.
But the distinctions between many of these rest on comparatively slight characters, and it is likely that TER21...-.
To direct attention to the true nature of revolution, to demonstrate how inextricably the right of liberty is interwoven with the very existence of man as an intelligent agent, to point out the inherent progressiveness of state arrangements, and the consequent necessity of reform or amendment, such are the main objects of the Beitrage; and although, as is often the case with Fichte, the arguments are too formal and the distinctions too wiredrawn, yet the general idea is nobly conceived and carried out.
On the other hand, idealism would be false to itself if it interpreted the unity which it thus seeks to establish in any sense that is incompatible with the validity of moral distinctions and human responsibility in the fullest sense of the term.
In some of the groups distinctions of colour are returned in general terms; in others, not at all.
They have no caste distinctions but speak of themselves as belonging to one of nine septs or clans, who all eat together and intermarry with each other.
He had the double dignity of having refused the highest prize in his profession for conscience' sake, and of having accepted that dignity without loss of consistency; in his life he acquired a high reputation and the sincere admiration of his fellowmen, as well as an abundant fortune and ample titular distinctions.
It must be borne in mind that primitive humanity is not governed by logical distinctions.
All invidious class distinctions were done away with.
3 It is right to state, however, that the African examples of this bird are said to be distinguishable from the Asiatic by their somewhat shorter wings and weaker bill, and hence they are considered by some authorities to form a distinct species or subspecies, P. docilis; but in thus regarding them the difference of locality seems to have influenced opinion, and without that difference they would scarcely have been separated, for in many other groups of birds distinctions so slight are regarded as barely evidence of local races.
It is probable that the milk of ruminants possesses certain physical and physiological distinctions from that of non-ruminant animals, which will account for the virtues attributed to the milk of the ass and mare.
After a careful education, completed by the usual grand tour, Magnus learned the art of war under Gustavus Horn, and during the reign of Christina (1644-16J4), whose prime favourite he became, though the liaison was innocent enough, he was raised to the highest offices in the state and loaded with distinctions.
Other early writers, however, do not observe these distinctions, and neither in language nor in custom do we find evidence of any appreciable differences between the two former groups, though in custom Kent presents most remarkable contrasts with the other kingdoms. Still more curious is the fact that West Saxon writers regularly speak of their own nation as a part of the Angelcyn and of their language as Englisc, while the West Saxon royal family claimed to be of the same stock as that of Bernicia.
For every philosophy is scholastic whose subject-matter is imaginative and mystical, and which handles this subject-matter according to established rules in logical categories and distinctions.
-, g Oriental religions from the formidable assault of ardour with formal acuteness, connected the whole mass of traditional lore into a huge system, making good defects, and smoothing away contradictions by means of distinctions and speculations.
Under the constitution of 1824 all race distinctions are abolished, and these diverse ethnic elements are nominally free and equal.
By his theory of the disputes between the patricians and plebeians arising from original differences of race he drew attention to the immense importance of ethnological distinctions, and contributed to the revival of these divergences as factors in modern history.
Although the more typical goats are markedly distinct from sheep, there is, both as regards wild and domesticated forms, an almost complete gradation from goats to sheep, so that it is exceedingly difficult to define either group. The position of the genus Capra (to all the members of which, as well as some allied species, the name "goat" in its wider sense is applicable) in the family Bovidae is indicated in the article Bovidae, and some of the distinctions between goats and sheep are mentioned in the article Sheep. Here then it will suffice to mention that goats are characterized by the strong and offensive odour of the males, which are furnished with a beard on the chin; while as a general rule glands are present between the middle toes of the fore feet only.
The most obvious distinctions between Totaninae and Tringinae may be said to lie in the acute or blunt form of the tip of the bill (with which is associated a less or greater development of the sensitive nerves running almost if not quite to its extremity, and therefore greatly influencing the mode of feeding) and in the style of plumage - the Tringinae, with blunt and flexible bills, mostly assuming a summer-dress in which some tint of chestnut or reddish-brown 1 These are Phalaropus fulicarius and P. (or Lobipes) hyperboreus, and were thought by some of the older writers to be allied to the Coots (q.v.).
The purpose of this bill was disclosed in the statement that "the government of India had decided to settle the question of jurisdiction over European British subjects in such a way as to remove from the code, at once and completely, every judicial disqualification which is based merely on race distinctions," in fact to subject Europeans in certain cases to trial by native magistrates.
Thus, to take an example, he will not print a critical text of Plautus with two letters (Y and Z) which were no part of the Latin alphabet in the age of that comedian; still less will he introduce into Latin texts distinctions, such as i,j and u, v, which were not used till long after the middle ages.
But detailed study of these various groups of insects shows that beneath their common superficial resemblances lie important distinctions in structure, and essential differences in the course of the life-history.
The multiplication of orders is attended with practical difficulties, and the distinctions between the various groups of the Linnean Neuroptera are without doubt less obvious than those between the Coleoptera (beetles) and the Diptera (two-winged flies) for example.
But, using substance as he does always in the Kantian sense of permanent substratum beneath changing phenomena, and never in the Aristotelian sense of any distinct thing, he proceeds to make distinctions between the applications of causality and of substance.
Clarke, include General Metaphysics (1890), by John Rickaby, who effectively criticizes Hegel by precise distinctions, which, though scholastic, did not deserve to be forgotten.
The first is the department of extraordinary ecclesiastical affairs, having at its head the secretary of the Congregation of the same name; the second, that of ordinary affairs, directed by a substitute, is the department dealing, among other things, with the concession of honorary distinctions, both for ecclesiastics and laymen; the third is that of the briefs, which hitherto.
to the chancery, as noted above, but they have kept important honorary privileges; this is yet another source of distinctions conferred upon a great number of priests outside of Rome, the protonotaries of different classes.
Ancillon had convinced himself that the rigid class distinctions of the Prussian system were the philosophically ideal basis of the state, and that representation "by estates" was the only sound constitutional principle; his last and indeed only act of importance as minister was his collaboration with Metternich in the Vienna Final Act of the 12th of June 1834, the object of which was to rivet this system upon Germany for ever.
They partake of the nature of a pastoral manifesto, which does not trouble to draw any fine distinctions between the principles or motives of its opponents.
The most clearly marked distinctions are between Spanish, French, German, Italian, Maghrebi, Greek, Syrian (including Egyptian), Yemenite, Persian and Qaraite hands.
And in their indifference to the distinctions of race and nationality they merely accommodated themselves to the spirit which had become characteristic of chivalry itself, already recognized, like the church, as a universal institution which knit together the whole warrior caste of Christendom into one great fraternity irrespective alike of feudal subordination and territorial boundaries.
3 This rule, however, had often been broken before; even the romances of chivalry speak not infrequently of the knighting of serfs or jongleurs; 4 and other causes besides distraint of knighthood tended to level the old distinctions.
There are no orders for natives, and such distinctions as are conferred by the different coloured buttons of the mandarins, the grades indicated by the number of peacocks' feathers, the gift of the yellow jacket and the like, are rather insignia of rank or personal marks of honour than orders, whether of knighthood or merit, in the European sense.
These distinctions, however, are not maintained with much constancy..
This idea, though at first ridiculed, has been greatly developed since the foundation of the order; and new distinctions and decorations have been founded, also contributing to the attractions of the league.
As is commonly the case with plants which have been long under cultivation, there has been some doubt as to specific distinctions among the varieties of tea.
On the whole, setting aside the impassable barrier between Greek and Phoenician, other distinctions of race within the island were breaking down through the spread of the Hellenic element, but among the Greek cities themselves the distinction between the Dorian and the Ionian or Chalcidian settlements was still keenly felt.
But what were the distinctions and sophisms of the theologians for, if they could not remove such contradictions, and convict their opponents of heresy?
The distinctions between the dialects consist largely in pronunciation, but extend also to the vocabulary, word-formation and syntax.
A great advance was therefore made when several homophones were introduced into the alphabet in the Middle and New Kingdoms, partly as the result of the wearing away of old phonetic distinctions, ~iving the choice between ..-.
Det&minative acteristic distinctions of later demotic is the Value.
On his return to France, promotion and distinctions followed rapidly upon his first successes.
The studies fell in the 18th century into an " abject state," from which they were first raised by a statute passed in 1800 (Report of Oxford University Commission of 1850-1852, p. 60 et seq.), under which distinctions were first allotted to the ablest candidates for the bachelor's degree.
From the first the degrees were (unlike those of Oxford and Cambridge until 1871) open to all male persons without religious distinctions; and in 1878 they were opened to women.
He gained his first distinctions not in literature but in chess, being reputed, before he was twenty, one of the first players in the world.
God is your Father, He says in effect; you will be His sons if like Him you will refuse to make distinctions, loving without looking for a return, sure that in the end love will not be wholly lost.
But the common people did not discriminate, and believed that when they bought an Indulgence they were purchasing pardon from sin; and Luther placed himself in the position of the ordinary Christian uninstructed in the niceties of theological distinctions.
Yet, the conditions in Palestine during the monarchies reveal grave and complex social problems, marked class distinctions, and constant intercourse and commercial enterprise.
Prior to Young, halos and coronae had not been clearly differentiated; they were both regarded as caused by the refraction of light by atmospheric moisture and ice, although observation had shown that important distinctions existed between these phenomena.
He knew absolutely no social distinctions in his willingness to perform services for the deserving.
On the other hand there are various offshoots from orthodox Hinduism, the distinguishing feature of which, in their earlier history at least, is the obliteration of caste distinctions and the rejection of the Brahmanical hierarchy.
According to the inscription upon his statue at Calcutta, from the pen of Macaulay: " He abolished cruel rites; he effaced humiliating distinctions; he gave liberty to the expression of public opinion; his constant study it was to elevate the intellectual and moral character of the nations committed to his charge."
But there is an intermediate alternative, which is neither impossible nor arbitrary; namely, to consider the general distinctions and principles of all things; and without this general consideration of the matter the logician cannot know the form of thought, which consists in drawing inferences about things on these general principles.
It is clear then that a man's metaphysics and psychology must colour his logic. It is accordingly necessary to the logician to know beforehand the general distinctions and principles of things in metaphysics, and the mental operations of sense, conception, memory and experience in psychology, so as to discover the processes of inference from experience about things in logic.
But it is not the whole method of logic, which also and rightly considers the mental process necessary to language, without substituting linguistic for mental distinctions.
Hairsplitting, even when mischievous in intent, leads to distinctions of value.
Actual modes of expression are shown to embody distinctions which average intelligence can easily recognize and will readily acknowledge, though they may tend by progressive rectification fundamentally to modify the assumption natural to the level of thought from which he begins.
They are apparently offered in place of those of Aristotle, an acquaintance with whose distinctions they clearly presume.
In the zoology and botany of California as of the rest of the Pacific Coast, the distinctions between the upper austral and humid transition zones are largely obliterated; and as one passes southward into the arid lands, life forms of both these zones intermingle with those of the arid transition.
As thus the restless reason tests the emotions of the soul, criticizes the traditions to which they cling, rejects the ancient dogmas in which they have been defined, the Church slowly participates in the process: silently this position and that are forsaken, legends and beliefs once of prime importance are forgotten, or when forced into controversy many ways are found by which the old and the new are reconciled: the sharpness of distinctions can be rubbed off, expressions may be softened, definitions can be modified and half-way resting-places afforded, until the momentous transition has been made and the continuity of tradition is maintained.
She will be queen of all her subjects, and would have all the parties and distinctions of former reigns ended and buried in hers."' Her motive for getting rid of the Whigs was not any real dislike of their administration, but the wish to escape from the domination of the party,' and on the advent Ibid.
The verbs usually have no inflexions to express relations of voice, mood, tense, number of person - such distinctions being indicated by particles.
But he was more remarkable for the rare beauty of his character than even for academic distinctions.
These distinctions are not of a hard and fast character, for they frequently merely represent different developments of the same wine.
Enlarging his plan, he proposed to prove three matters: (a) the existence of God; (b) the naturalness of moral distinctions; and (c) the reality of human freedom.
These three together make up the intellectual (as opposed to the physical) system of the universe; and they are opposed respectively by three false principles, atheism, religious fatalism which refers all moral distinctions to the will of God, and thirdly the fatalism of the ancient Stoics, who recognized God and yet identified Him with nature.
It is an answer to Hobbes's famous doctrine that moral distinctions are created by the state, an answer from the standpoint of Platonism.
Modern distinctions of moral and ceremonial being unknown, ancient systems must be judged in the light of those modes of thought which could not view religion apart from life.
Theology might draw subtle distinctions between different forms of devotion; but, tried by the comparisons of the anthropologist, the monotheism even of historical Christianity cannot be strictly maintained.
At first the social distinctions of this life are simply continued hereafter: the chief remains a chief, the slave a slave; and the conditions of the future only prolong those of the present.
In the trade, distinctions are made between alpacas and the several styles of mohairs and lustres, but so far as the general purchaser is concerned little or no distinction is made.
The students, who are distinguished by their white caps, are divided for social purposes into " nations " (landskap) of ancient origin, based upon the distinctions between natives of different parts.
He was educated at home and at Aberdeen University, where he attained the highest academic distinctions, winning among other things the Ferguson mathematical scholarship, which is open to all graduates of Scottish universities under three years' standing.
The empress reassured him by fresh honours and distinctions on the occasion of the solemn celebration of the peace of Jassy (2nd of September 1793), when she publicly presented him with a golden olive-branch encrusted with brilliants.
The colour of the rind, yellowish, brown or purple, furnishes distinctions, as does the yellow or white colour of the flesh.
In 1849, however, he was appointed professor extraordinarius, and later received a number of distinctions (in 1858 chief court preacher, &c.).
The less any one man could do to interfere in the government, or even to safeguard his own life and property, the more heavily the common fate pressed upon all, levelling the ordinary distinctions of class.
Such pre-eminence was but the sequel of personal distinctions visible even in the preparatory days of discipleship, and it warns us against viewing the primitive facts touching apostles in the official light of later times.
The Roman losses, both of property and rights, were likely to be great at first; how far they continued permanent during the two centuries of the Lombard kingdom, or how far the legal distinctions between Rome and Lombard gradually passed into desuetude, is a further question.
Another writer draws these distinctions: (a) a state connected by protectorship with another previously enjoyed autonomy; the vassal state did not; (b) the protected state retains its nationality and its internal administration; the vassal state acquires a distinct nationality; (c) the establishment of a protectorate modifies few of the institutions of the protectorate state except as to foreign relations; the establishment of a suzerainty changes the institutions of the vassal state; (d) the protected state exercises its internal sovereignty a peu pres pleinement; the vassal state remains subordinate in several respects; (e) while the protected state has the right to be assisted in case of war by the protecting state, but is not bound to defend the latter, the vassal state is bound to aid its suzerain (Tchomacoff, De la Souverainete, p. 53) See also Hachenburger, De la Nature juridique du protectorat.
But such distinctions are of doubtful value; the facts of each case must be considered (Ullmann, § 26).
It has ever been the policy of Rome to efface national distinctions, but under the shadow of the Eastern Church national churches have grown and flourished.
The simple idea that possesses the monks is that of fleeing the world; they have no distinctions of orders, and though they follow the rule of St Basil object to being called Basilians.
Distinctions may be drawn, as will be seen, between the nature and methods of the fisheries on the various coasts, and the relative prosperity of the industry from year.
These anatomical distinctions are undoubtedly of great moment, and it is an interesting question whether they suffice to place man in a zoological order by himself.
(For particulars of Quetelet's method, see his Physique sociale (1869), and Anthropometrie (1871).) Classifications of man have been numerous, and though, regarded as systems, most of them are unsatisfactory, yet they have been of great value in systematizing knowledge, and are all more or less based on indisputable distinctions.
best distinctions are found in the position of the embryo in relation to the endosperm - lateral in grasses, basal in Cyperaceae - and in the possession by Gramineae of the 2-nerved palea below each flower.
He held the doctrine of the trinitarian distinctions indeed to be a necessity of reason.
This territorial arrangement eliminated all sectarian distinctions, and also the possibility of committing the different churches as such to any particular policy.
The state insisted to a certain extent on the public character of this subjection and drew distinctions between personal slavery and serfdom.
The abundance of petrified coniferous wood in rocks of various ages has led many botanists to investigate the structure of modern genera with a view to determining how far anatomical characters may be used as evidence of generic distinctions.
He was educated at the Sydney grammar school and the university of Sydney, where he won many distinctions, and was called to the N.S.W bar in 1871, becoming Q.C. in 1889.
Although such distinctions may be doubtful (the two African breeds are almost certainly descended from one ancestral form), the retention of such names may be convenient as a provisional measure.
One of the primary distinctions in the use of number is between ordinal and cardinal numbers, or rather between the ordinal and the cardinal aspects of number.
Cousin remarks that, among all the literary distinctions which he had received, "None has touched me more than the title of foreign member of the American Institute for Education."
He was a member of the Old Testament revision committee, and his work was recognized by several honorary distinctions, LL.D.
The distinctions between Sanskrit and Iranian are also clear.
He was not a philosophical thinker or theologian, though he insisted, with an energy and persistency before unknown, on certain distinctions of great importance when properly worked out and applied, e.g.
There may well be room for relative distinctions in any system of thought, however coherent; but it looks as if Ritschl's distinction hardened into absolute dualism.
Other distinctions are named after an interval of two centuries.
In the jointed or spelt wheats the distinctions lie in the presence of awns, the direction of the points of the glumes (straight, bent outwards, or turned inwards), the form of the ear as revealed on a cross-section, and the entire or cleft palea.
Similarly, their opponents refute their arguments by showing that they are based ultimately upon a recognition of certain distinctions which are moral distinctions (i.e.
imply a moral consciousness capable of discriminating between right and wrong in particular cases), and that these moral distinctions conflict with the conclusions which they reach.
This controversy Peter the Lombard endeavoured to compose by the scholastic art of taking distinctions, of which he was a master.
" essential and eternal distinctions of good and evil " as independent of mere will, whether human or divine.
These distinctions, he insists, have an objective reality, The cognizable by reason no less than the relations of Cambridge space or number; and he endeavours to refute moralists, Hobbism - which he treats as a " novantique philo- C d sophy," a mere revival of the relativism of Protagoras - chiefly by the following argumentum ad hominem.
This theory had already been advanced by Cumberland and others, but Shaftesbury was the first to make it the cardinal point in his system; no one had yet definitely transferred the centre of ethical interest from the Reason, conceived as apprehending either abstract moral distinctions or laws of divine legislation, for the emotional impulses that prompt to social duty; no one had undertaken to distinguish clearly, by analysis of experience, the disinterested and self-regarding elements of our appetitive nature, or to prove inductively their perfect harmony.
The identification is slightly qualified in Hutcheson's posthumously published System of Moral Philosophy (1755), in which the general view of Shaftesbury is more fully developed, with several new psychological distinctions, including Butler's, separation of " calm " benevolence - as well as, after Butler, " calm self-love " - from the " turbulent " passions, selfish or social.
In this way the utilitarian method is freed from the subversive tendencies which Butler and others had discerned in it; as used by Paley, it merely explains the current moral and jural distinctions, exhibits the obvious basis of expediency which supports most of the received rules of law and morality and furnishes a simple solution, in harmony with common sense, of some perplexing casuistical questions.
The former, for instance, has three instead of two toes on each foot, it has no apparent tail, its wings are far better developed, and when folded cover the body, and its head and neck are clothed with feathers, while internal distinctions of still deeper significance have since been 1 What prompted his bestowal of this name, so well known in classical mythology, is not apparent.
His chief distinctions, however, were won in the realms of anthropology by his researches into the lives of the cave-dwellers of prehistoric times, labours which have borne fruit in his books Cave-hunting (1874); Early Man in Britain (1880);(1880); British Pleistocene Mammalia (1866-1887).
The first of these three points of view deals with the form or idea as self-contained in the principles of its own being, apart from those connexions and distinctions which it receives in real (sensuous) science, and through the act of intellect.
The science, falsely so called, of the several theological schools, their groundless distinctions and sophistical demonstrations, he regarded as the great source of heresy and scepticism.
The scholastic distinctions between corruptible and incorruptible substances, between absolute gravity and absolute levity, between natural and violent motions, if they did not wholly disappear from scientific phraseology, ceased thenceforward to hold the place of honour in the controversies of the learned.
The difference of the relations of these two states towards the comity of nations had corresponding internal distinctions.
But the distinctions between Class Disnoble and not noble, between town and country, were tinctions.
Catalan, then, makes no distinctions save in the gender and the number of its nouns.
Linnaeus's copy of the book evinces the great assiduity with which he studied it; he laboured throughout to remedy the defect of the want of synonyms, sub-joined his own generic names to nearly every species, and particularly indicated the two remarkable passages where the germination of plants and their sexual distinctions are explained.
Tribes can hardly be distinguished, but there are distinctions, chiefly territorial.
As he grew older, however, his social successes ceased, and he began to dream of more lasting distinctions, stimulated by the success of Maupertuis as a mathematician, of Voltaire as a poet, of Montesquieu as a philosopher.
Among other distinctions he came out as fourth classic in 1830, and in 1833 was elected fellow of St John's.
He received many honorary academical distinctions.
These distinctions can be recognized on petrified specimens, as well as on the casts, but their taxonomic value is somewhat doubtful.
Otters are widely distributed, and, as they are much alike in size and coloration, their specific distinctions are by no means well defined.
In 1847 he obtained the Prix Volney - one of the principal distinctions awarded by the Academy of Inscriptions - for the manuscript of his "General History of Semitic Languages."
antinomian controversies in history have clarified the legitimate distinctions between law and gospel and between justification and sanctification.
arbitrary class distinctions.
argued that the failure to observe these distinctions has led to an unnecessarily narrow view of attribution research and therapy.
blurring of distinctions in these ten areas create a substantial concern with the sermon.
He claims that one of his distinctions at school was that he was once called a cad by the Headmaster.
Despite these distinctions, responsibility is frequently conflated with liability.
The requirement of a specific " shocking " event results in the drawing of fine distinctions which are simply not defensible.
This book will equip you with a foundation for biblical discernment that will enable you to make careful distinctions in your thinking about truth.
There is a comprehensive analysis of the visual presentation of information - with subtle distinctions noted between pie charts and bar charts.
Whatever racial, class, or gender distinctions might have been operative beforehand now count for nothing.
Coupland: You guys, being British, know more about class distinctions than I do.
distinctions of rank.
Under economic duress, occupational distinctions between the two have tended to disappear.
evolveough overlap between types may occasionally blur the distinctions, this typology is presented to better understand evolving touristic landscapes.
There was no lessening of his opposition to " class distinctions and imperialist exploitation, no defection to " the forces of reaction " .
fugal writing to make the distinctions apparent.
Distinctions focusing on gender, or which are explicitly gendered, were given a different prominence in each table.
He said the act was " replete with seemingly irrational distinctions " .
These infinitesimal distinctions between man and man are too paltry for an Omnipotent Being.
presupposed in order to make the relevant distinctions.
pronominal elements include deictic distinctions, interrogation and indefiniteness.
Again, this requires him to dismiss as products of later scholasticism, without cogent grounds, the many suttas that draw such distinctions.
simplicity in mind, I think it is possible to draw a couple of important distinctions.
theorize the ways in which the social distinctions are incorporated into subjective dispositions.
tic students achieved distinctions whilst six others were rated with merits.
transcends social, ethnic and gender distinctions.
Unity in Christ totally transcends social, ethnic and gender distinctions.
Sobieski had well earned these distinctions by his extraordinary military capacity, but he was now to exhibit a less pleasing side of his character.
Thirteen bishops subscribed this proposition: that in the New Testament there is no mention made of any distinctions or degrees in orders but only deacons and priests or bishops.
- The later Jewish Sabbath, observed in accordance with the rules of the Scribes, was a very peculiar institution, and formed one of the most marked distinctions between the Hebrews and other nations, as appears in a striking way from the fact that on this account alone the Romans found themselves compelled to exempt the Jews from all military service.
Of these the Dora (called for distinctions sake Dora Riparia), which unites with the greater river just below Turin, has its source in the Mont GenÃƒ¨vre, and flows past Susa at the foot of the Mont Cenis.
It is Clarke's defence of free will, Clarke's idealist theory of eternal " fitness " as the basis of ethical distinctions, perhaps Clarke's teaching on immortality, that Butler regards as " the common known arguments " and authoritative enunciations of truth in the regions of philosophy or Natural Theology.'
Wallace remarks) knows nothing of the distinctions between past and future, because it implies an eternal present."
We see at Athens strong signs of social distinctions, even at a late period of the democracy; we see that, though the people might be led by the low-born demagogue - using that word in its strict and not necessarily dishonourable meaning - their votes most commonly fell on men of ancient descent.
In this usage the word would be equivalent to the more recent and scarcely less abused term, transcendentalism, and as such it is used even by a sympathetic writer like Carlyle; but this looseness of phraseology only serves to blur important distinctions.
One of his chief objects was the abolition of distinctions between the provinces and the mother country, finally carried out by Caracalla, while at the same time he did not neglect reforms that were urgently called for in Italy.
One of XXII 4 a the most characteristic anatomical distinctions between the porpoise and other members of the Delphinidae is the form of the teeth (numbering twenty-three to twenty-six on each side of each jaw), which have expanded, flattened, spade-like crowns, with more or less marked vertical grooves, giving a tendency to a bibbed or often trilobed form (fig.
The distinctions of sex are ' These editors have discovered (1907) a gospel fragment of the 2nd century which represents a dialogue between our Lord and a chief priest - a Pharisee.
Those who maintain that all these forms of synthesis are hasty and superficial stand by the conviction that the right philosophic attitude is to accept provisionally the main distinctions of common sense, above all the distinction of personal and impersonal; but to press forward to the underlying unity so far as experience and reflection justify.
The distinctions made by him above amount to a formal criticism of categories, and in the same spirit he teaches that no one of the categories can be applied in its literal sense to God (see further Gilbert De La Porree).
Moreover, Abelard evidently did not mean to imply that the distinctions of genera and species are of arbitrary or merely human imposition.
the future discovery of new genera may abolish many among such distinctions as may now be drawn.
Like many of the leading modern utilitarians, they combined with their psychological distrust of popular judgments of right and wrong, and their firm conviction that all such distinctions are based solely on law and convention, the equally unwavering principle that the wise man who would pursue pleasure logically must abstain from that which is usually denominated "wrong" or "unjust."
We are compelled to envisage this eternal process under the form of time, to apply temporal distinctions to that which is extraor supra-temporal.
The rejection of the Parmenides would involve the paradox of a nameless contemporary of Plato Plato's episodic use of logical distinctions is frequent.
On the other hand, minds of a different and more concrete character so emphasize the distinctions God, Son and Holy Spirit, that a tritheistic construction appears - three individuals in the one Godhead: these individuals appearing, as for example in the Father and the Son, even in opposition to each other.
Thus the table of social precedence attached to the Cochin report shows that while a Nayar can pollute a man of a higher caste only by touching him, people of the Kammalan group, including masons, blacksmiths, carpenters and workers in leather, pollute at a distance of 24 ft., toddy-drawers at 36 ft., Pulayan or Cheruman cultivators at 48 ft., while in the case of the Paraiyan (Pariahs) who eat beef the range of pollution is no less than 64 ft."In this bewildering maze of social grades and class distinctions, the Brahman, as will have been seen, continues to hold the dominant position, being respected and even worshipped by all the others."
Theologians might draw their fine-spun distinctions between realms where the pope was actually infallible' and realms where he was not; but Pius knew well that loyal Catholic common sense would brush their technicalities aside and hold that on any conceivable question the pope was fifty times more likely to be right than any one else (see Vatican Council and Infallibility) .
Or, again, a dominant action in any three of the estates might enact laws highly detrimental to the interests of the remaining estate - a danger the more to be apprehended as in no other country in Europe were class distinctions so sharply defined as in Sweden.
Thus the tribal distinctions began to recede, and the ground was prepared for that amalgamation of the Iranians into a single, uniform nation, which under the Sassanids was completely perfectedat least for west of Iran.
Divorce is granted to either spouse for either adultery or malicious desertion, the distinctions established by the English law between husband and wife in respect of divorce being disregarded.
They can standardize in a thousand more ways to a world economy, while maintaining their values, traditions, and distinctions.
I warn you, mothers, that my sympathies do not always make the usual phil-anthropic distinctions.
I do not wish to split hairs, to make fine distinctions, or set myself up as better than my neighbors.
The prince, who generally kept very strictly to social distinctions and rarely admitted even important government officials to his table, had unexpectedly selected Michael Ivanovich (who always went into a corner to blow his nose on his checked handkerchief) to illustrate the theory that all men are equals, and had more than once impressed on his daughter that Michael Ivanovich was "not a whit worse than you or I."
"In our temples we recognize no other distinctions," read the Grand Master, "but those between virtue and vice.
Beware of making any distinctions which may infringe equality.
With simplicity in mind, I think it is possible to draw a couple of important distinctions.
Habitus represents Bourdieu 's attempt to theorize the ways in which the social distinctions are incorporated into subjective dispositions.
Two tic students achieved distinctions whilst six others were rated with merits.
The distinctions are not that important.
Of course you can take part in live auctions or internet based auctions, but there are a few other distinctions you should know.
The situational distinctions for cat-catching will differ depending on whether you are attempting to catch a feral animal or an indoor animal that is also a cherished pet.
This free tool from the Distinctions Cabinetry website is similar to the Merillat Planner, though it only offers preset room shapes to choose from for the floor plan.
What sets the Distinctions tool apart is its exhaustive selection of cabinetry styles to choose from, including specially-designed corner cabinets and shelving units to maximize the kitchen's cabinet space.
If your dream kitchen includes an island for that extra cooking prep space, the Distinctions tool is your best bet.
Clothes used to have much stronger distinctions - certain fabrics and cuts were only worn in certain seasons.
As you move up the fashion hierarchy into the mid-level brands, you will see more distinctions in the materials used and the overall design.
All of these distinctions might not matter to you, or you may care a great deal.
Distinctions® Womens’ Clothing: Thanks to Distinctions' superb selection of Eileen Fisher plus size clothing, you can mix and match to create a veritable endless array of wardrobe options.
In 1987, the winery earned two distinctions.
And this is one of the key distinctions that apps have with widgets.
Among the distinctions that separate this form of periodontitis are the low incidence of bacteria in the periodontal pocket, minimal plaque formation, and mild inflammation.
Yeganeh, Robin, et al. "Clinical Distinctions Between Selective Mutism and Social Phobia: An Investigation of Childhood Psychopathology."
Children do not appear to make racial distinctions before they are of preschool age but age and sex discriminations are made earlier.
There is evidence that infants make categorical distinctions between males and females and between adults and children before they are a year old.
The peer groups of adolescence, especially teens, are often based on athletic, social, or academic interests and abilities; on distinctions of race, ethnicity, and social class; and on proclivities such as drug use and delinquency.
There are several different types of discount purses, and knowing the distinctions between each variety will help savvy shoppers make the wisest possible purchase for their budget as well as their fashion sense.
These cyclical distinctions are common in zodiac systems, although calendars may differ greatly.
Many experts think that uniforms eliminate the class and social distinctions that normally exist in schools.
Both awards are distinctions among peers and fans.
Thankfully, the images supported by each brand name designer make these distinctions simple for the common consumer.
This trope’s development even presented itself in the television series Battlestar Galactica in the forms of Head Six and Head Baltar as well as in the distinctions between the Ascended Ancients and their foes the Ori in Stagate: SG1.
Union Civil War uniform colors included branch of service distinctions that were put into place long before the war started.
Along with uniform colors, other distinctions are evident among Civil War uniforms.
If you have noticed differences in clothing being worn in photos of British soldiers in uniform, it is because the British army currently has several uniform distinctions and uniforms can vary from one regiment to another.
This can include distinctions such as wearing ceremonial uniforms or combat dress.
Within this classification of uniforms, there are several distinctions.
It is easy to see that such conclusions ignore important distinctions, and are, indeed, to a large extent an abuse of language.
Of these the Dora (called for distinctions sake Dora Riparia), which unites with the greater river just below Turin, has its source in the Mont GenÃ¨vre, and flows past Susa at the foot of the Mont Cenis.
They were accepted by a population eager for repose, who had merged old class distinctions in the conflicts of preceding centuries.
He will not have the Ontological argument; but he asserts Natural Law, and relies upon the cosmological and design arguments - with various refinements and distinctions, differently stated in his two Summae.
These distinctions led Sir Joseph Hooker to claim for the two divisions the rank of primary regions.
Its chief distinctions are that during the later Republic and earlier Empire it yielded excellent soldiers, and thus much aided the success of Caesar against Pompey and of Octavian against Antony, and that it gave Rome the poet Virgil (by origin a Celt), the historian Livy, the lyrist Catullus, Cornelius Nepos, the elder and the younger Pliny and other distinguished writers?
There were very wide distinctions within the French noblesse, but they all formed one privileged class as distinguished from the rolurier.
But the result did not lead to the abolition of all distinctions between the orders.
As an authority on the Inquisition he stood in the highest rank of modern historians, and distinctions were conferred on him by the universities of Harvard, Princeton, Pennsylvania, Giessen and Moscow.
In the midst of these distinctions, a profound melancholy.
Others, as most legislators, politicians, lawyers, ministers, and office-holders, serve the state chiefly with their heads; and, as they rarely make any moral distinctions, they are as likely to serve the devil, without intending it, as God.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.