Other branches of industry are carpet-weaving, distilling, oil and oil-cake manufacture, dyeing, cooperage and the manufacture of arms and bullets.
Afar, essence), a perfume consisting of essential oil of roses, prepared by distilling, or, in some districts, by macerating the flowers.
It is usually made by distilling tartaric acid with potassium bisulphate at about zoo-250° C., the crude product being afterwards fractionated.
Nicoteine is a liquid which boils at 267° C. It is separated from the other alkaloids of the group by distilling off the nicotine and nicotimine in steam and then fractionating the residue.
The public buildings include the town hall, court house and orphan hospital; and the industries are mainly connected with the cattle trade and the distilling of whisky.
This is mixed with small coal, and when redistilled gives an enriched dust, and by repeating the process and distilling from cast iron retorts the metal is obtained.
A thiophenol, C 6 H 5 SH, is known, and is prepared by the action of phosphorus pentasulphide on phenol, or by distilling a mixture of sodium benzene sulphonate and potassium sulphydrate.
Its industries include tanning, leather-dressing and shoe-making, silk-spinning, hat-making, absinthe-distilling and oil-refining.
Its industries include cotton-spinning, brewing, distilling, and the manufacture of tobacco, earthenware and matches; native industry produces carved and inlaid furniture, bronzes and artistic metalwork, silk embroidery, &c. Hanoi is the junction of railways to Hai-Phong, its seaport, Lao-Kay, Vinh, and the Chinese frontier via Lang-Son.
Rend., 1900, 130, p. 865) by fractionally distilling the product formed in the direct action of fluorine on sulphur.
Sulphur chloride, S2C12, is obtained as a by-product in the manufacture of carbon tetrachloride from carbon bisulphide and chlorine, and may also be prepared on the small scale by distilling sulphur in a chlorine gas, or by the action of sulphur on sulphuryl chloride in the presence of aluminium chloride (0.
Lemery in 1675 by distilling green vitriol.
Soc., 1856, 7, p. 11) by the direct union of sulphur trioxide with hydrochloric acid gas, may also be obtained by distilling concentrated sulphuric acid with phosphorus oxychloride: 2H 2 SO 4 +POC1 3 =2SO 2 C1.
It may also be obtained by distilling chlorsulphonic acid with phosphorus pentachloride: 2S0 2 C1.
By rail, a market town with a charter dating from 1672, where brewing and distilling are carried on.
Michaels (Ber., 1897, 30, p. 1383) by distilling thebenol over zinc dust in a stream of hydrogen, or by the action of hydriodic acid and phosphorus at 220° C. on thebenol.
Macabebe's principal industries are the cultivation of rice and sugar cane, the distilling of nipa alcohol, and the weaving of hemp and cotton fabrics.
In an experiment on 3500 grams of paraffin produced from shale (melting point 44'5° C.) they obtained nearly 4 litres of liquid hydrocarbons, which they subjected to fractional distillation, and on examining the fraction distilling below loo° C., they found it to consist mainly of olefines.
The cracking process practically consists in distilling the oils at a temperature higher than the normal boiling point of the constituents which it is desired to decompose.
Transparent soaps are prepared by dissolving ordinary soap in strong alcohol and distilling off the greater portion of the alcohol till the residue comes to the condition of a thick transparent jelly.
It is obtained by the oxidation of xanthene (methylene diphenylene oxide) with chromic acid; by the action of phosphorus oxychloride on disodium salicylate; by heating 2 2'-dioxybenzophenone with concentrated sulphuric acid; by distilling fluoran with lime; by the oxidation of xanthydrol (R.
Von Baeyer in 1870, who obtained benzene on distilling the calcium salt with lime.
1904, p. 905) has obtained good results by distilling the substance with a mixture of potassium thiosulphate and sulphide.
Schwanert, Ann., 1860, 116, p. 2 57); by passing the vapour of dietbylamine through a redhot tube; by distilling succinimide with zinc dust (C. A.
'Bell, ' Ber., 1880, 13, p. 877); by distilling calcium pyroglutaminate: HO 2 C' CH(NH 2)'CH 2 'CH 2 'CO 2 H = C 4 H 4 NH+ C02+2H20 (L.
Brandy distilling is, after agriculture, the chief local industry.
Soc., 18 9 0, 5, p. 59 o), by distilling arsenious oxide with nitric acid and cooling the distillate, obtained a green liquid which consisted of nitrogen trioxide and peroxide in varying proportions, and concluded that the trioxide could not be obtained pure.
It may also be obtained by distilling nitric acid over phosphorus pentoxide.
Nitrosyl chloride, NOC1, is obtained by the direct union of nitric oxide with chlorine; or by distilling a mixture of concentrated nitric and hydrochloric acids, passing the resulting gases into concentrated sulphuric acid and heating the so-formed nitrosyl hydrogen sulphate with dry salt: HN03+3HCl=NOC1+C12 +H 2 O; NOC1 + H2S04 = HCl + NO SO 4 H; NO SO 4 H + NaC1 = Noci+NaHS04 (W.
The principal industries include manufactures of linen and sailcloth, bleaching, rope-making, brewing, distilling, paper-making, in addition to nurseries and freestone quarries.
Next in importance are the machine, linen, cotton and paper manufactures, the milling, brewing and distilling industries and shipbuilding.
Before it can be cupelled it has to be freed from most of the zinc, which is accomplished by distilling in a retort made of a mixture similar to that of the plumbago crucible.
It is formed when the vapours of toluene, stilbene, dibenzyl, ortho-ditolyl, or coumarone and benzene are passed through a red-hot tube; by distilling morphine with zinc dust; and, with anthracene, by the action of sodium on ortho-brombenzyl bromide (C. L.
Industry consists chiefly in fishing (sardines, &c., and coral), the manufacture of tobacco, oil-distilling, tanning, and the preparation of preserved citron§ and of macaroni and similar provisions.
The aldehydes may be prepared by the careful oxidation of primary alcohols with a mixture of potassium dichromate and sulphuric acid,-3Rï¿½CH OH+K Cr 07+4H SO = K2S04+ Cr (SO) +7H O+3Rï¿½CHO; by distilling the calcium salts of the fatty acids with calcium formate; and by hydrolysis of the acetals.
Columbium oxychloride, CbOC1 3r is formed when carbon tetrachloride, and columbic acid are heated together at 440° C.: 3CC14+Cb205 = 2CbOC1 3 +30001 2, and also by distilling the pentachloride,in acurrent of carbon dioxide, over ignited columbic acid.
Duddingston (pop. 2023), once a quiet village, has become a centre of the distilling and brewing industries.
Brewing and distilling, as other branches of industry connected with agriculture, are also greatly developed.
Its great industry is distilling, and the distilleries, about 2 m.
Brewing, distilling, cooperage, iron-founding, hatmaking and machine construction are carried on, and there are flour-mills, brick-works, saw-mills, sulphur refineries and leather and paper works.
Stannic Chloride, SnC1 4, named by Andreas Libavius in 1605 Spiritus argenti vivi sublimate from its preparation by distilling tin or its amalgam with corrosive sublimate, and afterwards termed Spiritus fumans Libavii, is obtained by passing dry chlorine over granulated tin contained in a retort; the tetrachloride distils over as a heavy liquid, from which the excess of chlorine is easily removed by shaking with a small quantity of tin filings and re-distilling.
There has been some development in the manufacture of agricultural machinery and implements, vehicles, pianos and furniture, and some older industries, such as tanning leather and the manufacture of saddles and harness, the milling of wheat and Indian corn, distilling, soap-making, &c. At Guanta there is a factory for the manufacture of patent fuel from Naricual coal and asphalt.
Mohlau, Ber., 1886, 1 9, p. 2 45 2); and by distilling acridone over zinc dust (C. Graebe, Ber., 1892, 2 5, p. 1735).
BENZENE, C 6 H 6, a hydrocarbon discovered in 1825 by Faraday in the liquid produced in the compression of the illuminating gas obtained by distilling certain oils and fats.
Mitscherlich prepared it in 1834 by distilling benzoic acid with lime; and in 1845 Hofmann discovered it in coal-tar.
Mansfield (1819-1855), who separated a benzol distilling below too from a less volatile naphtha by using a simple dephlegmator.
Distilling however prospers, and the town is important not only as regards its shipping and the deep-sea fishery, but also as a distributing centre for the islands and the seat of the superior law courts.
These distilling vessels are called retorts if they are supported only at the ends, and the furnace using them is termed a Belgian furnace.
The industries (linen, yarn-spinning, distilling, brewing, salt-refining, shipbuilding) are comparatively unimportant.
It can also be prepared by distilling meta-oxyuvitic acid with lime, or by the action of air on boiling toluene in the presence of aluminium chloride (C. Friedel and J.
557.) Titanium fluoride, TiF 4, is a fuming colourless liquid boiling at 284°, obtained by distilling a mixture of titanium oxide, fluorspar and sulphuric acid; by heating barium titanofluoride, BaTiF6 (Emrich, Monats., 1904, 25, p. 907); and by the action of dry hydrofluoric acid on the chloride (Ruff and Plato, Ber., 1904, 37, p. 673).
By distilling ammonium acetate.
Wool and cotton spinning and weaving, dyeing, distilling, paper-making and tanning are carried on here with considerable activity.
The game-pies and other delicacies of Chartres are well known, and the industries also include flour-milling, brewing, distilling, iron-founding, leather manufacture, dyeing, and the manufacture of stained glass, billiard requisites, hosiery, &c.