A fine oil of turpentine is distilled from the crude material; the residue forms a coarse resin.
A spirit has been distilled from acorns in process of germination, when the saccharine principle is most abundant.
It is also formed when ortho-aminodiphenylamine is distilled over lead peroxide (0.
The precipitated tellurium is then fused with potassium cyanide, the melt extracted with water and the element precipitated by drawing a current of air through the solution and finally distilled in a current of hydrogen.
Of the several individual chlorides, the following are liquids or solids, volatile enough to be distilled from glass vessels: AsC13, SbC1 3, SnCl 4, BiCl 3, HgC1 2, the chlorides of arsenic, antimony, tin, bismuth, mercury respectively.
When distilled with phosphoric anhydride they yield nitriles.
- Distilled water, i.e.
o% over the value of the factory products in 1900; among its manufactures are tobacco, cigars, chewing tobacco and snuff (value in 1905, $2,879,217), patent medicines (value in 1905, $2,133,198), flour and grist mill products ($1,089,910), men's clothing ($ 8 33, 8 35), and, of less importance, commercial and computing scales and time recorders, chemicals, distilled liquor, beer, fire-alarm apparatus, overalls, agricultural implements, wagons, electrical apparatus, refined oil, sheet metal, paper bags and envelopes, tacks and nails, window glass, glass-ware, clocks, whips and furniture (especially Morris chairs).
Their abdominal bones are like those of the marsupials; and they are furnished with pouches for their young, but have no teats, the milk being distilled into their pouches from the mammary glands.
The bottle is carefully cleansed by washing with soda, hydrochloric acid and distilled water, and then dried by heating in an air bath or by blowing in warm air.
The plummet is now placed in distilled water at 15°, and the beam brought to equilibrium by means of a rider, which we shall call I, hung on a hook; other riders are provided,;nth and ii b th respectively of I.
The two last classes number over 400,000 (1903), but the quantity of alcohol distilled by them is small.
The juice, when not boiled down to form sugar, is either drunk fresh, or fermented and distilled to form arrack.
Distilled water is a very bad conductor, though, even when great care is taken to remove all dissolved bodies, there is evidence to show that some part of the trace of conductivity remaining is due to the water itself.
It is decomposed, on dry distillation, into carbon dioxide and pyromellitic acid, C i oH 6 0 8 i when distilled with lime it gives carbon dioxide and benzene.
As the carbon content of the molecule increases, they become less soluble in water, and their smell becomes less marked with the increase in boiling point, the highest members of the series being odourless solids, which can only be distilled without decomposition invacuo.
Paraldehyde is moderately soluble in water, and when distilled with sulphuric acid is reconverted into the ordinary form.
Hofmann is as follows: the mixture is distilled with caustic potash, when the primary, secondary and tertiary amines distil over, and the quaternary ammonium salt remains behind unaffected.
When zoological records failed, Egypto-Hellenic ingenuity was never at a loss for a fanciful invention distilled from the text itself, but which to succeeding copyists appeared as part of the teaching of the original Physiologus.
of mercury, and, when of specific gravity 1.295 (corresponding to about 80% of glycerin), it is distilled under a vacuum of 28 to 29 in.
Ragozin states in his work on the petroleum industry that Johann Lerche, who visited the Caspian district in 1735, found that the crude Caucasian oil required to be distilled to render it satisfactorily combustible, and that, when distilled, it yielded a bright yellow oil resembling a spirit, which readily ignited.
In most petroleum-producing countries, however, and particularly where the product is abundant, the crude oil is fractionally distilled, so as to separate it into petroleum spirit of various grades, burning oils, gas oils, lubricating oils, and (if the crude oil yields that product) paraffin.
The charge was distilled almost to dryness, though the operation was not carried far enough to cause the residue to " coke."
The simplest modes of preparing pure glycerin are based on the saponification of fats, either by alkalis or by superheated steam, and on the circumstance that, although glycerin cannot be distilled by itself under the ordinary pressure without decomposition, it can be readily volatilized in a current of superheated steam.
Other leading manufactures are malt liquors ($21,620,794 in 1905), railway rolling-stock consisting largely of cars ($21,428,227), men's clothing ($18,496,173), planing mill products ($17,725,711), carriages and wagons ($16,096,125), distilled liquors ($15,976,523), rubber and elastic goods ($15,963,603), furniture ($13,322,608), cigars and cigarettes ($13,241,230), agricultural implements ($12,891,197), women's clothing ($12,803582), lumber and timber products ($12,567,992), soap and candles.
The acid, when distilled slowly, is decomposed and yields a and 0-angelica lactones.
When distilled over lead oxide, it forms diphenylene oxide, (C 6 H 4) 2 O: and when heated with oxalic acid and concentrated sulphuric acid, it forms aurin, C19H1403.
In the earlier stages of the development of the manufacture of mineral lubricating oils, the residues were distilled in cast-iron stills, and the lubricating properties of the products thus obtained were injured by overheating.
In the routine examination of crude petroleum it is customary to determine the specific gravity, and the amount of water and earthy matter in suspension; the oil is also frequently subjected to a process of fractional distillation in order to ascertain whether there has been any addition of distilled products or residue.
The corresponding decomposition of a glyceride into an acid and glycerin takes place when the glyceride is distilled in superheated steam, or by boiling in water mixed with a suitable proportion of caustic potash or soda.
Beer and distilled liquors are largely manufactured, and fine building stone is obtained from numerous quarries.
The crude product is very impure and possesses an offensive smell; it may be purified by forcing a fine spray of lime water through the liquid until the escaping water is quite clear, the washed bisulphide being then mixed with a little colourless oil and distilled at a low temperature.
The residue is then fused with caustic potash and nitre, dissolved in water, saturated with chlorine and distilled on the water-bath in a current of chlorine.
The only manufacturing industries of much importance are the preparation of sugar, coffee and tobacco for market, and the manufacture of cigars, cigarettes, straw hats, soap, matches, vermicelli, sash, doors, ice, distilled liquors and some machinery.
Hofmann and Schotensack decompose a mixture of phenol (3 molecules) and sodium carbonate (4 mols.) with carbonyl chloride at 140-zoo° C. When 90% of the phenol has distilled over, the residue is dissolved and hydrochloric acid added, any phenol remaining is blown over in a current of steam, and the salicylic acid finally precipitated by hydrochloric acid.
Soc., 18 9 8, 73, p. 35 2) as a colourless liquid by the addition of hydroxylamine hydrochloride to an aqueous solution of formaldehyde in the presence of sodium carbonate; the resulting solution was extracted with ether and the oxime hydrochloride precipitated by gaseous hydrochloric acid, the precipitate being then dissolved in water, the solution exactly neutralized and distilled.
In these marshes grows the nipa palm, from which a liquor is distilled - there are a number of small distilleries here.
Perfectly pure distilled sea-water dissociates, to an infinitesimal degree, into hydrogen (H) and hydroxyl (HO) ions, so that one litre of such water contains 1 X 10 7, or 1 part of a gram-molecule of either hydr010,000,000 gen or hydroxyl (a gramme-molecule of hydrogen is 2 grammes, or of hydroxyl 17 grammes).
Metallurgy The principles underlying the extraction of zinc may be summarized as: (I) the ore is first converted into zinc oxide; (2) the oxide is distilled with carbon and the distillate of metallic zinc condensed.
To obtain the metal chemically pure a specially prepared pure oxide or salt of zinc is distilled.
Moissan (ibid., 5906, 142, p. 673) has distilled this metal in a very intense electric furnace.
The tertiary amine is then distilled off, the residual products separated by filtration and finally hydrolysed by a caustic alkali.
The silver iodide is separated and the solvent distilled off.
The Arabians greatly improved the earlier apparatus, naming one form the alembic; they discovered many ethereal oils by distilling plants and plant juices, alcohol by the distillation of wine, and also distilled water.
The neck of the retort, or side tube of the flask, is connected to the condenser c by an ordinary or rubber cork, according to the nature of the substance distilled; ordinary corks soaked in paraffin wax are very effective when ordinary or rubber corks cannot be used.
The mode of heating varies with the substance to be distilled.
This method is particularly successful in the case of substances which cannot be distilled at their ordinary boiling-points (it will be seen in the following section that distilling with steam implies a lowering of boiling-point), and which can be readily separated from water.
Instances of its application are found in the separation of orthoand para-nitrophenol, the o-compound distilling and the p- remaining behind; in the separation of aniline from the mixture obtained by reducing nitrobenzene; of the naphthols from the melts produced by fusing the naphthalene monosulphonic acids with potash; and of quinoline from the reaction between aniline, nitrobenzene, glycerin, and sulphuric acid (the product being first steam distilled to remove any aniline, nitrobenzene, or glycerin, then treated with alkali, and again steam distilled when quinoline comes over).
The above theory, coupled with such facts as the variation of the composition of the constant boiling-point fraction with the pressure under which the mixture is distilled, the proportionality of the density of all mixtures to their composition, &c., shows this to be erroneous.
Distillation in a vacuum is practised in two forms: - if the pump draws off steam as well as air it is termed a "wet" air-pump; if it only draws off air, it is a "dry" air-pump. In the glycerin industry the lyes obtained by saponifying the fats are first evaporated with "wet vacuum" and finally distilled with closed and live steam and a "dry vacuum."
The details of the plant - the material and fittings of the still, the manner of heating, the form of the condensing plant, receivers, &c. - have to be determined for each substance to be distilled in order to work with the maximum economy.
The first portion of the distillate brings over the gases dissolved in the water, ammonia and other volatile impurities, and is consequently rejected; scarcely two-fifths of the entire quantity of water can be safely used as pure distilled water.
Rum is a by-product of the sugar industry, and "mescal" is distilled from the agave.
The calcium salts distilled with calcium formate yield aldehydes r distilled with soda-lime, ketones result.
Devoting himself to the economic side of geology in various parts of North America, he was enabled to bring out in 1861 A Practical Treatise on Coal, Petroleum and other Distilled Oils.
Eau de vie (" elixir of life") was in use during the 13th and 14th centuries; Arnoldus Villanovanus applied it to the product of distilled wine, though not as a specific name.
This water cannot be entirely removed by fractional distillation, and to prepare anhydrous or "absolute" alcohol the commercial product must be allowed to stand over some dehydrating agent, such as caustic lime, baryta, anhydrous copper sulphate, &c., and then distilled.
It has also been shown that gold volatilizes when a gold-amalgam is distilled.
Their favourite drink is thong, distilled from rice or barley and millet, and Marwa, beer made from fermented millet.
A small stool is then placed over the balance pan, and on this is placed a beaker of distilled water so that the solid is totally immersed.
In the United States the tax on distilled spirits was repealed in 1817, but was reimposed at the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861, and it was not until 1907 that denatured alcohol became tax-free for general purposes.
After fusion, the mass is finely powdered and treated with cold dilute hydrochloric acid; and when action has finished, nitric and sulphuric acids are added, the precipitated barium sulphate removed, the liquid distilled and the osmium precipitated as sulphide.
It can be distilled in the electric furnace.
Native spirits are distilled from the palm, salt is made and fish caught.
Only one compound of hydrogen and fluorine is known, namely hydrofluoric acid, HF or H 2 F 2, which was first obtained by C. Scheele in 1771 by decomposing fluor-spar with concentrated sulphuric acid, a method still used for the commercial preparation of the aqueous solution of the acid, the mixture being distilled from leaden retorts and the acid stored in leaden or gutta-percha bottles.
The agriculture of the republic supplies the material for several important industries, including the production of sugar, beer and spirits, starch (120 factories), syrup, glucose, chicory, coffee substitutes from rye and barley, jams. Alcohol and spirits are distilled in 1,100 distilleries employing 18,000 workmen and producing annually some.
Among the more important manufactures of the city in 1905 were the following, with the value of the product for that year: clothing ($16,972,484), slaughtering and meatpacking products ($13,446,202), foundry and machine-shop products ($11,528,768), boots and shoes ($10,596,928), distilled liquors ($9,609,826), malt liquors ($7,702,693), and carriages and wagons ($6,323,803).
The solutions are made by dissolving the purest recrystallized sulphate of copper and sulphate of zinc in distilled water.
For the zinc solution, take 55.5 parts by weight of crystals of zinc sulphate (ZnS0470H2) and dissolve in 44.5 p arts by weight of distilled water; the resulting FIG.
The most distinctive of these is probably distilled liquors, the state's whisky being famous.
In 1900 nearly 40% and in 1905 more than one-third of the state's product was distilled in Louisville.
In 1900 and in 1905 Kentucky ranked fourth among the states in the value of distilled liquors.
Distilled liquors were fourth in rank in 1900 and in 1905.
of distilled water of the temperature of 4° C., under an atmospheric pressure equal to 760 millimetres at 0° C. at sea-level and latitude 45°; the weighing being made in air, but reduced by calculation to a vacuum.
In the measurement of the cubic inch it has been found that 2 the specific mass of the cubic inch of distilled water freed from air, and weighed in air against brass weights (= 8.13), at the temperature of 62° F., and under an atmospheric pressure equal to 30 in.
" Pulque "f is the fermented drink made from this sap: " mescal " is the distilled spirit made from the leaves and roots of the plant.
The precipitate is washed and then distilled from iron retorts.
Stas recommends solution of the iodine in potassium iodide and subsequent precipitation by the addition of a large excess of water, the precipitate being washed, distilled in steam, and dried in vacuo over solid calcium nitrate, and then over solid caustic baryta.
The silver and mercury salts, when heated, yield the metal, with liberation of carbon dioxide and formation of free formic acid; and the ammonium salt, when distilled, gives some formamide, Hconh 2.
When the reaction is complete the acid is neutralized with soda, and the phenyl methyl pyrazolone extracted with ether and distilled in vacuo.
The whole tree, but especially the bark and leaves, has a very pleasant resinous odour, and from the young leaves and buds an essential oil is distilled with water.
"In the construction it is assumed that the upper scale shall constantly carry moo grains when the lower scale is empty, and the instrument sunk in distilled water at the temperature of 60° Fahr.
instrument, let the solid be placed in the upper scale pan, and let the weight now required to cause the instrument to sink in distilled water at standard temperature to the mark B be denoted by w,.
Atkins's instrument was constructed so as to weigh 700 grains, and when immersed to the mark on the stem in distilled water at 60° F.
The hydrometer therefore displaced woo grains of distilled water at 60°F.and hence the specific gravity of any other liquid was at once indicated FIG.
Its weight is so adjusted that an additional weight of 5 grammes must be placed in the upper pan to cause the instrument to sink to the mark on the stem in distilled water at the standard temperature.
A solution containing to% of pure salt is used to indicate the zero of the scale, and the point at which the instrument floats when immersed in distilled water at to° R.
The point at which the instrument floated in distilled water was marked to° by Cartier, and 30° on Cartier's scale corresponded to 32° on Baume's.
In the centesimal hydrometer of Francceur the volume of the stem between successive divisions of the scale is always, oath of the whole volume immersed when the instrument floats in water at 4° C. In order to graduate the stem the instrument is first weighed, then immersed in distilled water at 4° C., and the line of flotation 7.1 F marked zero.
F is so adjusted that when the 60 weight is placed on the lower stem the instrument sinks to the same point in distilled water when F is attached as in proof spirit when F is removed.
c. 52, § 123, it was further enacted that the same instruments and methods should be employed in determining the duty upon imported spirits as should in virtue of any Act of Parliament be employed in the determination of the duty upon spirits distilled at home.
It is the practice of the officers of the inland revenue to adjust Sikes's hydrometer at 62° F., that being the temperature at which the imperial gallon is defined as containing 10 lb avoirdupois of distilled water.
Pimaric acid closely resembles abietic acid into which it passes when distilled in a vacuum; it has been supposed to consist of three isomers.
These, which go down to depths of 700 to 1700 ft., yield crude naphtha, from which the petroleum or kerosene is distilled; while the heavier residue (mazut) is used as lubricating oil and for fuel, for instance in the locomotives of the Transcaspian railway.
The card nearly floats in a bowl filled with distilled water, to which 35% of alcohol is added to prevent freezing; the bowl is hermetically sealed with pure india-rubber, and a corrugated expansion chamber is attached to the bottom to allow for the expansion and contraction of the liquid.
The product so obtained is then redistilled under diminished pressure and finally distilled again from a sealed and evacuated apparatus (V.
If a more dilute acid than this be distilled, water passes over in excess and the residue in the retort reaches the above composition and boiling point; on distillation of a stronger acid, excess of acid passes into the distillate and the boiling point rises until the values of the constant boiling mixture are reached.
In connexion with their use as food we may observe that of recent years in Scandinavia and Russia an alcoholic spirit has been distilled from Cladonia rangiferina and extensively consumed, especially in seasons when potatoes were scarce and dear.
To produce the alkali metal, a calcined mixture of sodium carbonate, coal and chalk was strongly ignited in flat retorts made of boiler-plate; the sodium distilled over into condensers and was preserved under heavy petroleum.
It is a yellowish oil which melts at - 24° C.; it boils at 143-144° C., but cannot be distilled safely as it decomposes violently, giving nitrogen and ethyl fumarate.
In the latter method a 15% solution of caustic soda is used, and the electrodes are made of iron; the cell is packed in a wooden box, surrounded with sand, so that the temperature is kept at about 70° C.; the solution is replenished, when necessary, with distilled water.
The liquid so obtained is extracted with ether and the ethereal solution distilled under diminished pressure, and finally purified by repeated distillations.
The esters of the higher fatty acids, when distilled under atmospheric pressure, are decomposed, and yield an olefine and a fatty acid.
The principal manufactures are tobacco, cigars, cigarettes, malt liquors, distilled liquors, cotton fabrics, clothing, ice, lumber, foundry and machine shop products, carriages, waggons, furniture and boots and shoes.
This is distilled to dryness and the distillate repeatedly recrystallized from cymene.
One reason may be that analyses are generally made of tea liquors produced by distilled water, which is the very worst possible from the point of view of the commercial expert or in domestic usage.
Beryllium oxide, beryllia or glucina, BeO, is a very hard white powder which can be melted and distilled in the electric furnace, when it condenses in the form of minute hexagonal crystals.
The former is distilled from sea-water near Trapani, and the latter obtained in smaller quantities from mines.
It fuses at 290° C.; at a white heat it boils and can be distilled in hydrogen gas.
Distillation of its calcium salt gives benzophenone with small quantities of other substances, but if the calcium salt be mixed with calcium formate and the mixture distilled, benzaldehyde is produced.
Of these, the manufacture of distilled liquors was in 1900 and in 1905 the most important, Illinois leading the other states; the value of the 1900 product, which was nearly 12% less than that of 1890, was increased by 41.6%, to $54,101,805, in 1905.
There are minor manufacturing interests in tanneries, and in the manufacture of sweetmeats, malt and distilled liquors, especially rum, besides soaps, candles, starch, perfume, &c. There is one large and complete petroleum refinery (1905).
Spirit is also distilled from the palmyra, especially in the neighbourhood of Bombay and in the south-east of Madras.
There are sugar factories, where rum is also distilled and a few other manufactures, but the prosperity of the province depends on the "jungle" products obtained through the natives and from the plantations owned by Portuguese and worked by indentured labour, the labourers being generally "recruited" from the far interior.
Ann., 1834, 31, p. 625), and is prepared commercially by the gradual addition of benzene to a well-cooled mixture of concentrated nitric and sulphuric acids, the oily product being separated, washed with alkali, and then distilled.
Alcohol is distilled from nipa, coco-nuts, burs (Corypha umbraculifera), cauong (Caryota onusta), pugahan (Caryota urens) and Indian corn.
The only important exports, however, are cajeput oil, a sudorific distilled from the leaves of the Melaleuca Cajuputi or white-wood tree; and timber.
The tetrachloride, WC1 41 is obtained by partial reduction of the higher chlorides with hydrogen; a mixture of the pentaand hexa-chloride is distilled in a stream of hydrogen or carbon dioxide, and the pentachloride which volatilizes returned to the flask several times.
The chlorides of the nonmetallic elements are usually volatile fuming liquids of low boilingpoint, which can be distilled without decomposition and are decomposed by water.
Precipitated calcium carbonate may be used in place of the mercuric oxide, or a hypochlorite may be decomposed by a dilute mineral acid and the resulting solution distilled.
The acid is only known in aqueous solution, and only dilute solutions can be distilled without decomposition.
The inhabitants (Little Russians) are mostly employed in agriculture and gardening; but sugar and tobacco are manufactured and spirits distilled.
Aceto-acetic ester is a colourless liquid boiling at 181°C.; it is slightly soluble in water, and when distilled undergoes some decomposition forming dehydracetic acid C 8 H 8 0 4.
rend., 1905, 141, p. 853) distilled it in the electric furnace.
Krummholz oil, valued in Germany as an outward application in rheumatism and for bruises and sprains, is distilled from the young branches, and a fragrant white resin that exudes in some quantity from the buds is used for similar purposes and as a perfume, under the name of Hungarian balsam it is sold in the towns of Germany, being probably obtained from the Carpathians.
The mercury should be drawn from underneath, for which purpose an arrangement similar to a chemical wash bottle is suitable, and it may be poured into watch-glasses, previously dipped into strong sulphuric acid, rinsed in distilled water, and dried over a Bunsen flame.
For this purpose Koch ground up tubercle bacilli in an agate mortar and treated them with distilled water until practically no deposit remained.
The "syrup" employed for medicinal purposes consists of a concentrated or saturated solution of refined sugar in distilled water.
The simple "syrup" of the British Pharmacopoeia is prepared by adding 1000 grams (or 5 lb) of refined sugar to 500 cubic centimetres (or two pints) of boiling distilled water, heating until it is dissolved and subsequently adding boiling distilled water until the weight of the whole is 1500 grams (or 71 lb).
The cylinders are then removed from the solution and washed with distilled water, the one holding the deposited copper being washed with alcohol, dried and weighed; the increase in weight represents the copper contents of the ore.
Distilled with zinc dust morphine yields phenanthrene, pyridine and quinoline; dehydration gives, under certain conditions, apomorphine, C17H17N02, a white amorphous substance, readily soluble in alcohol, either and chloroform.
Crude acetone may be purified by converting it into the crystalline sodium bisulphite compound, which is separated by filtration and then distilled with sodium carbonate.
The basic constituents are removed by dilute sulphuric acid, the acid layer removed, and the bases liberated by alkali, separated, dried, and fractionally distilled.
The agitation over prohibition dates from 1868; the act of that year organizing a customs district forbade the importation and sale of firearms, ammunition and distilled spirits; the Organic Act of 1884 extended this prohibition to all intoxicating liquors.
To prepare it olive oil is saponified with potash, and lead acetate added; the lead salts are separated, dried, and extracted with ether, which dissolves the lead oleate; the solution is then treated with hydrochloric acid, the lead chloride filtered off, the liquid concentrated, and finally distilled under diminished pressure.
By heating the bromate it was partially converted into the bromide, and the resulting mixture was distilled with sulphuric acid.
Soc., 1900, 77, p. 648) prepares pure hydrobromic acid by covering bromine, which is contained in a large flask, with a layer of water, and passing sulphur dioxide into the water above the surface of the bromine, until the whole is of a pale yellow colour; the resulting solution is then distilled in a slow current of air and finally purified by distillation over barium bromide.
Scheele treated bone ash with nitric acid, precipitated the calcium as sulphate, filtered, evaporated and distilled the residue with charcoal.
The product is then distilled from Stourbridge clay retorts, arranged in a galley furnace, previously heated to a red heat.
The element is highly inflammable, taking fire in air at 34° and burning with a bright white flame and forming dense white clouds of the pentoxide; in perfectly dry air or oxygen, however, it may be distilled unchanged, H.
The product is extracted with carbon disulphide and the residue distilled in carbon dioxide.
Wine and plum-spirit, or the more powerful brandy distilled from grain, are drunk in great quantities by the townsfolk, more sparingly by countrymen; Rumans generally being more sober than the western Europeans.
Para-xylene is obtained when camphor is distilled with zinc chloride, but it is best prepared from para-brom-toluene or dibrombenzene, methyl iodide and sodium.
The peel is first softened by maceration; then a part of the softened peel is distilled with spirit and water, and the remainder is macerated in a portion of the distillate so obtained.
The A 3 acid is formed when the anhydride of tetrahydro rimesic acid is distilled (W.
The hydrochloride of the latter base when distilled over zinc dust yields a-propyl pyridine.
Other important manufactured products were: those of machine shops and foundries, the value of which increased from $17,228,096 in 1900 to $23,108,516 in 1905, or 34.1%; distilled liquors, the value of which had increased from $16,961,058 in 1900 to $20,520,261 in 1905, an increase of 21%; iron and steel, valued at $19,338,481 in 1900 and at $16,920,326 in 1905; carriages and wagons, valued at $12,661,217 in 1900 and at $15,228,337 in 1905; lumber and timber products, valued at $ 1 9,979,97 1 in 1900 and at $14,559,662 in 1905; and glass, valued at $14,757,883 in 1900 and at $14,706,929 in 1905 - this being 3.7% of the product value of all manufactures in the state in 1905, and 18.5% of the value of glass produced in the United States in that year.
As compared with the other states of the United States in value of manufactured products, Indiana ranked second in 1900 and in 1905 in carriages and wagons, glass and distilled liquors; was seventh in 1900 and fourth in 1905 in furniture; was fourth in 1900 and seventh in 1905 in wholesale slaughtering and meat-packing; was fifth in 1900 and sixth in 1905 in agricultural implements; and in iron and steel and flour and grist mill products was fifth in 1900 and eighth in 1905.
The common juniper is official in the British pharmacopoeia and in that of the United States, yielding the oil of juniper, a powerful diuretic, distilled from the unripe fruits.
Illuminating Gas.-The first practical application of gas distilled from coal as an illuminating agent is generally as cribed to William Murdoch, who between the years of 1792 and 1802 demonstrated the possibility of making gas from coal and using it as a lighting agent on a large scale.
If bituminous coal is distilled at a low tempera- Destruc- ture, the tar is found to contain considerable quantities of tive dis- light paraffin oils; and there is no doubt that paraffin tillation hydrocarbons are present in the original coal.
Wright found, in a series of experiments, that, when four portions of the same coal were distilled at temperatures ranging from a dull red heat to the highest temperature attainable in an iron retort, he obtained the following results as to yield and illuminating power: - Composition of the Gas.
The solubility of naphthalene by various oils has led some engineers to put in naphthalene washers, in which gas is brought into contact with a heavy tar oil or certain fractions distilled from it, the latter being previously mixed with some volatile hydrocarbon to replace in the gas those illuminating vapours which the oil dissolves out; and by fractional distillation of the washing oil the naphthalene and volatile hydrocarbons are afterwards recovered.
When, however, the distillation has gone on for three hours, the rich portions of coal have distilled off and the temperature of the retort has reached its highest point, and this is the best time to feed in the oil.
The precipitated sodium chloride is filtered, and the solution of hydroxylamine distilled in order to remove methyl alcohol, and finally fractionated under reduced pressure.
Agitated with successive quantities of sulphuric acid and distilled in a current of steam, it yields terebene, a mixture of dipentene and terpinene mainly, which is used in medicine.
Large quantities of fine bourbon whisky are distilled here; in 1905 the value of the factory product of the city was $3,878,004.
The chief care is bestowed on plums, from which is distilled a mild spirit known as raki or rakiya.
He observed that aldehydes and ketones may suffer reduction in neutral, alkaline, and sometimes acid solution to secondary and tertiary glycols, substances which he named pinacones; and also that certain pinacones when distilled with dilute sulphuric acid gave compounds, which he named pinacolines.
Distilling and Brewing.-Whisky has been extensively distilled in Ireland for several centuries.
The leading industries are the refining of sugar, fishing, trade, the weaving of jusi cloth, the making of cigars, and the cultivation of ilang-ilang-trees (Cananga odorata) for their flowers, from which a fine perfume is distilled; ilang-ilang is one of the principal exports, mostly to France.
Ten volumes of the purest coal-tar benzene were shaken for four hours with one volume of sulphuric acid, the acid layer was removed and neutralized with lead carbonate, and the lead thiophen sulphonate obtained was distilled with an equivalent quantity of ammonium chloride.
The distillate obtained was diluted with one hundred volumes of ligroin (previously purified by shaking with fuming sulphuric acid) and then shaken for one or two hours with sulphuric acid (using ten volumes of acid to one volume of the distillate), the acid layer diluted with water, neutralized by lead carbonate and the lead salt again distilled with an equivalent quantity of ammonium chloride.
It varied considerably in form and construction, but consisted essentially of three parts - a vessel containing the material to be distilled and called, from its gourd-like shape, the cucurbit or mattrass; a vessel to receive and condense the vapour, called the head or capital; and a receiver for the spirit, connected by a pipe with the capital.
To ascertain this value the volatile acids contained in 5 grammes of an oil or fat are distilled in a minutely prescribed manner, and the distilled-off acids are measured by titration with decinormal alkali.
They have an aromatic smell and a hot burning taste, and can be distilled unchanged.
Distilled water is frequently used, as well as the water produced by the condensation of the steam from the engine, which of course must be thoroughly purified and filtered.
Some of them contain much organic debris, and when distilled yield paraffin oil, wax, compounds of ammonia, &c. In these oil-shales there are clear, globular, yellow bodies which seem to be resinous.
The manufacture of malt and distilled liquors employed (1905) a capital of $3,220,899, and the value of the product was $2,400,256.
The solution is then acidified and distilled, when azoimide passes over.
After the greater portion of the alcohol has distilled off, the solution is acidified with sulphuric acid and the azoimide distilled over.
agave juice and be distilled twice.
Pure distilled water has a pH value of 7.0 adding an alkali to the water will cause the pH value to rise.
fill a large beaker about ¾ full with distilled water (not tap water ).
There are also no longer any tobacco product manufacturers based within the County, nor distilled alcoholic beverages or wine producers.
blender with a little distilled water.
cashew apple is the source of juicy pulp used to prepare fenny, a locally popular distilled liquor.
dilution ratio with distilled water.
distilled vinegar has an array of uses.
distilled water has a pH value of 7.0 Adding an alkali to the water will cause the pH value to rise.
distilled alcoholic beverages or wine producers.
distilled essence of the story, the one left behind by the " person " once living there.
distilled wisdom of three Church boards.
triple distilled, 100%25 neutral grain spirit is heated into vapor form.
Aquaman Lifeforce Distilled water is good for you, Many Links, Water distiller systems, Buy your water distiller online.
fermented with yeast and double distilled.
generative linguists ' claims that we have a system of rules in our heads distilled from experience.
Search for Galliano cocktails Gin Essentially gin is distilled grain alcohol flavored with different herbs and spices known as botanicals.
In fact it is distilled in a rather humdrum blackened building that straddles the main road south from Kirkwall.
inoculated with sterile distilled water, showed no symptoms.
To a later paper that challenges generative linguists ' claims that we have a system of rules in our heads distilled from experience.
liquor distilled from potatoes at 98% alcohol.
In Goa, India, the cashew apple is the source of juicy pulp used to prepare fenny, a locally popular distilled liquor.
The product, Glenisla, was distilled from peated malt, the peat being shipped from Shetland.
nitrate of silver, 200 grains; distilled water, 3 ounces.
Products include vacuum distilled rosin, hydrogenated rosin, polymerized rosin, maleic rosin, rosin ester, paper sizing agent and more.
tipple made from malt and barley fermented with yeast and distilled.
The solvent we use is pure gum turpentine, a natural product itself - being distilled pine sap.
Try clear distilled vinegar in the fabric conditioner compartment to keep your diapers soft.
vodka distilled in Airdrie, in Scotland.
Apply 25 drops of Zahra Tea Tree Oil to 100ml distilled water to make an antiseptic wash.
wort produced was distilled twice in pot stills giving the spirit.
It is a white crystalline solid of melting point 43Ã‚° C.; it boils at 210Ã‚° C., and it can be distilled without decomposition.
Boron can be estimated by precipitation as potassium fluoborate, which is insoluble in a mixture of potassium acetate and alcohol, For this purpose only boric acid or its potassium salt must be present; and to ensure this, the borate can be distilled with sulphuric acid and methyl alcohol and the volatile ester absorbed in potash.
The whole is then poured into ice-cold water, extracted by ether and the ethereal solution distilled (L.
Crude petroleum was experimentally distilled in the United States in 1833 by Prof. Silliman (d.
Hofmann and Schotensack decompose a mixture of phenol (3 molecules) and sodium carbonate (4 mols.) with carbonyl chloride at 140-zooÃ‚° C. When 90% of the phenol has distilled over, the residue is dissolved and hydrochloric acid added, any phenol remaining is blown over in a current of steam, and the salicylic acid finally precipitated by hydrochloric acid.
Acids convert it into the O-oxime (benz-syn-aldoxime) which melts at 125Ã‚° C. When distilled under diminished pressure the 0-form reverts to the a-modification (see Beckmann, Ber., 1887, 20, p. 2766; 1889, 22, pp. 4 2 9, 5 1 3, 1531, 1588).
On the addition of phenylhydrazine it gives a phenylhydrazone, and with hydroxylamine furnishes an oxime C6H5.CH3.C=N.OH melting at S9Ã‚°C. This oxime undergoes a peculiar rearrangement when it is dissolved in ether and phosphorus pentachloride is added to the ethereal solution, the excess of ether distilled off and water added to the residue being converted into the isomeric substance acetanilide, C6H5NHCOCH3, a behaviour shown by many ketoximes and known as the Beckmann change (see Berichte, 1886, 19, p. 988).
It is a reddish amorphous mass, insoluble in alcohol, and when distilled yields picoline (methyl pyridine) (A.
For the successful preparation of potable water from sea-water, the following conditions are essential: - Ist, aeration of the distilled product so that it may be immediately available for drinking purposes; 2nd, economy of coal to obtain the maximum of water with the minimum expenditure of fuel; and 3rd, simplicity of working parts, to secure the apparatus from breaking down, and enable unskilled attendants to work it with safety.
The bottle is then filled with distilled water, and brought to a definite temperature by immersion in a thermostat, and the stopper inserted.
The plummet is now placed in distilled water at 15Ã‚°, and the beam brought to equilibrium by means of a rider, which we shall call I, hung on a hook; other riders are provided,;nth and ii b th respectively of I.
The instrument being filled with distilled water, the number of drops required to empty the bulb and portions of the stem between two marks m and n (fig.
Mai, Ber., 1889, 22, p. 2135); from the higher alcohols by converting them into esters which are then distilled (F.
in., or 80 lb of distilled water, determined at 62Ã‚° F., with the barometer at 30 in.
of distilled water of the temperature of 4Ã‚° C., under an atmospheric pressure equal to 760 millimetres at 0Ã‚° C. at sea-level and latitude 45Ã‚°; the weighing being made in air, but reduced by calculation to a vacuum.
In the measurement of the cubic inch it has been found that 2 the specific mass of the cubic inch of distilled water freed from air, and weighed in air against brass weights (= 8.13), at the temperature of 62Ã‚° F., and under an atmospheric pressure equal to 30 in.
have adopted as a normal thermometric scale the Centigrade scale of the hydrogen thermometer, having for fixed points the temperature of pure melting ice (0Ã‚°C) and that of the vapour of boiling distilled water (100Ã‚°C), under a normal atmospheric pressure; hydrogen being taken under an initial manometric pressure of 1 metre, that is to say, at 1000/750 = 1.3158 times the normal atmospheric pressure.
"In the construction it is assumed that the upper scale shall constantly carry moo grains when the lower scale is empty, and the instrument sunk in distilled water at the temperature of 60Ã‚° Fahr.
Atkins's instrument was constructed so as to weigh 700 grains, and when immersed to the mark on the stem in distilled water at 60Ã‚° F.
The hydrometer therefore displaced woo grains of distilled water at 60Ã‚°F.and hence the specific gravity of any other liquid was at once indicated FIG.
A solution containing to% of pure salt is used to indicate the zero of the scale, and the point at which the instrument floats when immersed in distilled water at toÃ‚° R.
The point at which the instrument floated in distilled water was marked toÃ‚° by Cartier, and 30Ã‚° on Cartier's scale corresponded to 32Ã‚° on Baume's.
In the centesimal hydrometer of Francceur the volume of the stem between successive divisions of the scale is always, oath of the whole volume immersed when the instrument floats in water at 4Ã‚° C. In order to graduate the stem the instrument is first weighed, then immersed in distilled water at 4Ã‚° C., and the line of flotation 7.1 F marked zero.
It is the practice of the officers of the inland revenue to adjust Sikes's hydrometer at 62Ã‚° F., that being the temperature at which the imperial gallon is defined as containing 10 lb avoirdupois of distilled water.
It may also be prepared by oxidizing benzyl alcohol with concentrated nitric acid; by distilling a mixture of calcium benzoate and calcium formate; by the condensation of chlor-oxalic ester with benzene in the presence of aluminium chloride, the ester of the ketonic acid formed being then hydrolysed and the resulting acid distilled: C 6 H 6 +Cl CO Cooc 2 H 5 = C,H5co COOC2H5d-HC1, C 6 H 5 CO 000H =C6H5CHO+C02; by the action of anhydrous hydrocyanic acid and hydrochloric acid on benzene, an aldime being formed as an intermediate product: C 6 H 6 +HCN+HC1= C6H5CH :NH HC1, Benzaldine hydrochloride C 6 H 5 CH: NH HC1+H 2 O =NH4C1+C6H5CHO; and by the action of chromium oxychloride on toluene dissolved in carbon bisulphide (A.
in the United States) to a portion of the more volatile hydrocarbons distilled from petroleum (see Petroleum).
The fluid ounce is a measure of capacity; in the United Kingdom it is equivalent to an avoirdupois ounce of distilled water at 62Ã‚° F.; in the United States of America it is the 128th part of the gallon, =1 gill, = 456.033 grains of distilled water at its maximum density (see Weights And Measures).
It is a yellowish oil which melts at - 24Ã‚° C.; it boils at 143-144Ã‚° C., but cannot be distilled safely as it decomposes violently, giving nitrogen and ethyl fumarate.
In the latter method a 15% solution of caustic soda is used, and the electrodes are made of iron; the cell is packed in a wooden box, surrounded with sand, so that the temperature is kept at about 70Ã‚° C.; the solution is replenished, when necessary, with distilled water.
It fuses at 290Ã‚° C.; at a white heat it boils and can be distilled in hydrogen gas.
The leading ones in order of importance and the value of product in millions of dollars were: the manufacture of railway, foundry, and machine shop products (19.6 million dollars), lumber and timber industries (18.57), sugar and molasses refining (15.91), beef slaughtering (15.72), canning and preserving (13.08), flour and grist milling (13.10), the manufacture of malt, vinous and distilled liquors (9.26), leather industries (7.40), printing and publishing (6.86).
Aceto-acetic ester is a colourless liquid boiling at 181Ã‚°C.; it is slightly soluble in water, and when distilled undergoes some decomposition forming dehydracetic acid C 8 H 8 0 4.
The element is highly inflammable, taking fire in air at 34Ã‚° and burning with a bright white flame and forming dense white clouds of the pentoxide; in perfectly dry air or oxygen, however, it may be distilled unchanged, H.
It fuses at about 1550Ã‚°- 1600Ã‚°, and may be distilled in the electric furnace (H.
A Spirits, wine, cider, beer or other fermented, distilled or spiritous liquor, but not anything below 0.5% volume.
Also known as moonshine or mountain dew, it is a fiery tipple made from malt and barley fermented with yeast and distilled.
After moving to Oregon, she was moved by the soft distilled light, emerald fields and viridian streams.
Producer: Inver House Distillers Method of Production: A vodka distilled in Airdrie, in Scotland.
The wort produced was distilled twice in pot stills giving the spirit.
To lower the concentration of the chemical solution, adulterate it with distilled water.
These beverages are mixed with one or several types of distilled products (vodka, gin, whiskey, etc.) and other complimentary ingredients such as cream, soda, juice, fruit and liqueurs.
Bourbon is a spirit distilled from corn, and although it can be made many places, it is most commonly associated with Kentucky.
The alcohol can be distilled, like gin, vodka, rum or whiskey, or simply fermented, like beer and wine.
Ethanol is produced from corn which has been fermented and distilled.
The plant matter is broken down into simple sugars and starches and then fermented and distilled into alcohol.
This liquid is then fermented and distilled into a wood alcohol known as ethanol gasoline, an alternative fuel.
Then add half a teaspoon of organic liquid dish soap and ¼ cup food grade distilled white vinegar and finish filling with water.
Distilled water gives consistent results.
Place one drop of tea tree oil in twenty drops of distilled water.
Add three drops of tea tree oil to two tablespoonfuls of distilled water.
Tea tree oil antifungal mixtures can be made at home with pure tea tree oil and either a carrier oil, baking soda, or distilled water.
A number of aromatherapy products are available, including essential oils, which are 100 percent pure oils that have been steam distilled from plants.
Essential oils are also distilled from resins, such as frankincense.
While technically not an herb, L-theanine is distilled from one of the most well known herbs--green tea.
A number of herbal products companies have distilled the L-theanine from the tea and provide it in capsule or tablet form.
The root of the kava plant is harvested and distilled into tinctures, capsules and powders.
Instead, mix it with a bit of water and honey as a refreshing drink, or substitute it for distilled white vinegar when preparing sauces, salads, or marinades.
These oils are diluted in a base of alcohol and a small amount of distilled water.
These products have fewer ingredients than chemical laden foundations, and they are made with natural ingredients like such as glycerin, clay, and distilled water.
One 1.5 ounce shot of 80-proof distilled spirits.
This is due to a volatile oil present in such quantity that the fresh-cut brushwood burns readily, while from the leaves "Bay water" is distilled.
However, you can spot clean using a solution of one part distilled white vinegar to three parts water.
Raw organic apple cider vinegar goes through two fermentation processes while the standard clear vinegar is distilled.
Raw apple cider vinegar contains enzymes and life-giving nutrients while the distilled vinegar is stripped of it nutrients.
Generally, they are made out of essential oils that have been carefully blended with alcohol and distilled water.
Afterwards, strain out the solid materials and add distilled water as needed to dilute the scent.
In essence it strips the game of wandering and gives you a distilled game with all the good bits intact.
The simple answer is that they are all distilled spirits, usually from wine.
They cover everything from what is and is not allowed in the vineyard and what grapes can be grown in what areas, to the size of the kettles brandy can be distilled in and when those grapes have to be harvested.
The wine is distilled (which by law has to happen by March 31 of the next year after harvest) and you are left with the fresh spirit (called eau-de-vie…literally translated to "water of life."
The skin is washed with distilled water and dried again.
A common herbal treatment for pubic lice consists of pennyroyal oil (25%), garlic oil (25%), distilled water (50%).
Moonshine whiskey: Lead poisoning from drinking illegally distilled liquor is still a cause of death among adults in the southern United States.
Do not consume homemade liquor that has been distilled.
Change the water frequently - Remember to use distilled or filtered water.
If you don't use a water filter, then purchase distilled, spring or drinking water.
Distilled Water: Use distilled water instead of tap water to prevent introducing impurities to your shampoo mix.
A stabilized oxygen formula of 28 percent sodium chlorite in distilled water, MMR produces chlorine dioxide when mixed with lemon juice or citric acid.
When selecting a brand of oil, make sure that the supplement you choose has been refined to pharmaceutical grade or molecularly distilled.
Run the machine through a brewing cycle with white distilled vinegar.
Distilled vinegar tends to take out a variety of stains.
A small amount of good quality fragrance is always better than larger doses of poorly distilled scent.
Leaves and flowers have either been dried and used as potpourri or in scented sachets, or distilled into an oil which releases the pure fragrance over time.
Fill your bottle with the distilled water.
A dispersing solution can be a patented product, or a simple combination of witch hazel, alcohol, distilled water, and glycerin (except for vegan brands which will use alternatives to glycerin).
It's often composed of witch hazel, alcohol, distilled water and glycerin (except for vegan brands which will use alternatives to glycerin).
If you know you have hard water in your home, fill the mop with distilled water instead of tap.
Distilled white vinegar is the best and least expensive vinegar to use, and tap water is perfectly acceptable.
You can clean this area thoroughly with a mixture of white distilled vinegar, hot water and a teaspoon of dish detergent.
Use distilled or filtered water to limit the number of unwanted additions to your soap.
Mix the lye and distilled water, being careful not to get any on you or to inhale the fumes.
Using distilled, de-mineralized or rainwater gives your hand soap the best clarity.
Fortunately, purchased bar soap or soap scraps from previous projects can easily be transformed into liquid soap with the addition of distilled water.
You will need the fresh leaves or the fresh or dried root of the plant and some distilled water.
Add half a cup of soapwort leaves or root to four cups of distilled water in a large enamel pan.
If needed, you can purchase water testing kits from your local appliance store or simply buy distilled water in the amount that is needed for your project.
The Hallelujah Diet calls for natural vegetable juices and distilled water.
The authors do not specify whether the water should be distilled, purified, or enhanced with minerals.
Most vinegars found at the local grocery store have been filtered, pasteurized and distilled, eliminating the health benefits.
While many recipes call for distilled water, you should use filtered water, not distilled.
The difference means a bubbling brine vs a flat one, so avoid the distilled water.
The scents are distilled from pure essential oils and combined with vitamins, carotenoids and flavonoids.
Purchase a bottle of distilled white vinegar.
If you want to give a little basket of treats, you can also include homemade bubble bath, which is very easy to make with just distilled water, castile soap and glycerin, scented as you like.
Vinegar - Place a small amount (one-half cup to one cup) of plain distilled white vinegar in bath water.
You can mix baking soda with a little distilled water to make a paste.
It is a white crystalline solid of melting point 43° C.; it boils at 210° C., and it can be distilled without decomposition.
Pliny says that their wood was everlasting, and therefore images of the gods were made of it; he makes mention also of the oil of cedar, or cedrium, distilled from the wood, and used by the ancients for preserving their books from moths and damp; papyri anointed or rubbed with cedrium were on this account called ced ati libri.
In general, when the substance to be distilled has a vapour pressure of only 10 mm.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.