Supposing the last of these preliminary distillations to have been completed, the residues left in the retorts are removed, and the retorts, as they lie in the hot furnace, are charged by mean: of semi-cylindrical shovels, and their adapters put on.
A fresh charge is then put in at once, the muffles being cleared only after three successive distillations.
On distilling such a mixture pure A will come over first, followed by mixtures in which the quantity of B continually increases; consequently by a sufficient number of distillations A and B can be completely separated.
For dry distillations the retorts are generally horizontal cylinders, the bottom or lower surface being sometimes flattened.
per lb, for his cast-iron pots survived 125 distillations.
The liquid so obtained is extracted with ether and the ethereal solution distilled under diminished pressure, and finally purified by repeated distillations.
Cyclo-pentene, C 5 H 8, a liquid obtained by the action of alcoholic potash on iodo-cyclo-pentane, boils at 45° C. Cyclopentadiene, C. 1 H 6, is found in the first runnings from crude benzene distillations.
Of artificial productions the most fruitful and important is provided by the destructive or dry distillation of many organic substances; familiar examples are the distillation of coal, which yields ordinary lighting gas, composed of gaseous hydrocarbons, and also coal tar, which, on subsequent fractional distillations, yields many liquid and solid hydrocarbons, all of high industrial value.
The simple pot still requires three or four consecutive time-consuming distillations (runs) to produce a wholly pure, hangover proof distillate.
In some cases, especially in dry distillations, the furnace flames play directly on the retorts, in others, such as in the case of nitric acid, the whole still comes under the action of the furnace gases to prevent condensation on the upper part of the still, while in others the furnace gases do not play directly on the base or upper portion of the still but are conducted around it by a system of flues (see Coal-Tar).
Cyclo-pentene, C 5 H 8, a liquid obtained by the action of alcoholic potash on iodo-cyclo-pentane, boils at 45Ã‚° C. Cyclopentadiene, C. 1 H 6, is found in the first runnings from crude benzene distillations.
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