How to use Distillation in a sentence
They may be prepared by the dry distillation of the ammonium salts.
Notwithstanding the inconsistency of his allocation of substances to the different groups (for instance, acetic acid was placed in the vegetable class, while the acetates and the products of their dry distillation, acetone, &c., were placed in the mineral class), this classification came into favour.
The metal is usually obtained from the flue-dust (produced during the first three or four hours working of a zinc distillation) which is collected in the sheet iron cones or adapters of the zinc retorts.
Under such conditions, distillation takes place at higher temperatures than the normal boiling-points of the constituent hydrocarbons of the oil, and a partial cracking results.
Thus in cows' butter, tributyrin, C 3 H 5 (O C 4 H 7 0) 3, and the analogous glycerides of other readily volatile acids closely resembling butyric acid, are present in small quantity; the production of these acids on saponification and distillation with dilute sulphuric acid is utilized as a test of a purity of butter as sold.Advertisement
Petroleum spirit is tested for specific gravity, range of boilingpoints, and results of fractional distillation.
This subject is treated in the article Solution; for the properties of liquid mixtures reference should also be made to the article Distillation.
They may be separated by fractional distillation.
The distillate is purified by treatment with lime and calcium chloride, and subsequent distillation.
The ore, even if it is not blende, must be roasted or calcined in order to remove all volatile components as completely as possible, because these, if allowed to remain, would carry away a large proportion of the zinc vapour during the distillation.Advertisement
On dry distillation it is resolved into trimethylamine and methyl alcohol.
If the substance operated upon be practically pure to start with, or the product of distillation be nearly of constant composition, the operation is termed "purification by distillation" or "rectification"; the latter term is particularly used in the spirit industry.
If a complex mixture be operated upon, and a separation effected by collecting the distillates in several portions, the operation is termed "fractional distillation."
This variation is termed "distillation under reduced pressure or in a vacuum."
The vaporization of a substance below its normal boiling-point can also be effected by blowing in steam or some other vapour; this operation is termed "distillation with steam."Advertisement
Distillation appears to have been practised at very remote times.
The Alexandrians prepared oil of turpentine by distilling pine-resin; Zosimus of Panopolis, a voluminous writer of the 5th century A.D., speaks of the distillation of a "divine water" or "panacea" (probably from the complex mixture of calcium polysulphides, thiosulphate, &c., and free sulphur, which is obtained by boiling sulphur with lime and water) and advises "the efficient luting of the apparatus, for otherwise the valuable properties would be lost."
The Arabians greatly improved the earlier apparatus, naming one form the alembic; they discovered many ethereal oils by distilling plants and plant juices, alcohol by the distillation of wine, and also distilled water.
The apparatus differs very slightly from that employed in ordinary distillation.
The main objection to the Hempel is the retention of liquid in the beads, and the consequent inapplicability to the distillation of small quantities.Advertisement
On this fact depends "rectification or purification by distillation."
In this we have the theory of "distillation under reduced pressure."
The theory of fractional distillation, or the behaviour of liquid mixtures when heated to their boiling-points, is more complex.
The composition of the distillate is determinate (by Avogadro's law) if the molecular weights and vapour pressure of the components at the temperature of distillation be known.
These con-, ditions pertain in cases where distillation with steam is successfully practised, the relatively high volatility of water being counterbalanced by the relatively high molecular weight of the other component; for example, in the case of nitrobenzene and water the ratio is I to 5.Advertisement
As the distillation proceeded one layer would diminish more rapidly than the other until only the latter would remain; this would then distil as a completely miscible mixture.
The distillation of completely miscible mixtures is the most common practically and the most complex theoretically.
At one time it was thought that these mixtures of constant boiling-point (an extended list is given in Young's Fractional Distillation) were definite compounds.
When the substance operated upon is of uncertain composition, as, for example, coal, wood, coal-tar, &c., the term destructive distillation is employed.
Dry distillation is extremely wasteful even when definite substances or mixtures, such as calcium acetate which yields acetone, are dealt with, valueless by-products being obtained and the condensate usually requiring much purification.
For the distillation of liquids the retort is usually a cylindrical pot placed vertically; cast iron is generally employed, in which case the bottom is frequently incurved and thicker than the sides in order to take up the additional wear and tear.
Glass stills heated by a sand bath are sometimes employed in the final distillation of sulphuric acid; platinum, and an alloy of platinum and iridium with a lining of gold rolled on (a discovery due to Heraeus), are used for the same purpose.
The simple distillation of sea-water, and the production thereby of a certain proportion of chemically fresh water, is a very simple problem; but it is found that water which is merely evaporated and recondensed has a very disagreeable flat taste, and it is only after long exposure to pure atmospheric air, with continued agitation, or repeated pouring from one vessel to another, that it becomes sufficiently aerated to lose its unpleasant taste and smell and become drinkable.
The technology of distillation is best studied in relation to the several industries in which it is employed; reference should be made to the articles COAL-TAR, GAS, PETROLEUM, SPIRITS, NITRIC ACID, &c. (C. E.*)
By electrolysing an aqueous solution of the chloride with a mercury cathode, a liquid and a solid amalgam, SrHgn, are obtained; the latter on heating gives a mixture of Sr 2 Hg 5 and SrHg 5, and on distillation an amalgam passes over, and not the metal.
This water cannot be entirely removed by fractional distillation, and to prepare anhydrous or "absolute" alcohol the commercial product must be allowed to stand over some dehydrating agent, such as caustic lime, baryta, anhydrous copper sulphate, &c., and then distilled.
They are both obtained by passing chlorine over tellurium, the product being separated by distillation (the tetrachloride is the less volatile).
Amorphous carbon is obtained by the destructive distillation of many carbon compounds, the various kinds differing very greatly as regards physical characters and purity, according to the substance used for their preparation.
When the distillation is finished the iron box, after cooling, is unclamped and the product turned out beneath the surface of paraffin.
If a more dilute acid than this be distilled, water passes over in excess and the residue in the retort reaches the above composition and boiling point; on distillation of a stronger acid, excess of acid passes into the distillate and the boiling point rises until the values of the constant boiling mixture are reached.
The alcohol is removed by distillation in vacuo, and by further concentration in vacuo a solution may be obtained which evolves 580 volumes of oxygen.
It is also formed in the destructive distillation of many substances, as wood, coal, caoutchouc, bones, resin and the fixed oils.
The chief consideration here is that the stable form must have the lower vapour pressure, otherwise, by distillation, it would transform in opposite sense.
On dry distillation they yield nitriles and ammonia.
The potato is largely cultivated, not merely for food, but for distillation into spirits.
The hydrocarbons are separated from the "Stupp" by means of alcohol, the soluble portion on distillation giving first phenanthrene and then a mixture of pyrene and fluoranthene.
From the tar distillate, the chrysene can be fractionally precipitated, and the fluoranthene can be separated from most of the pyrene by fractional distillation in a partial vacuum.
Distillation of its calcium salt gives benzophenone with small quantities of other substances, but if the calcium salt be mixed with calcium formate and the mixture distilled, benzaldehyde is produced.
The valuation of pyrolusite is generally carried out by means of a distillation with hydrochloric acid, the liberated chlorine passing through a solution of potassium iodide, and the amount of iodine liberated being ascertained by means of a standard solution of sodium thiosulphate.
It was by weighing that in 1770 he proved that water is not converted into earth by distillation, for he showed that the total weight of a sealed glass vessel and the water it contained remained constant, however long the water was boiled, but that the glass vessel lost weight to an extent equal to the weight of earth produced, his inference being that the earth came from the glass, not from the water.
It needs not distillation, but expansion and illustration from contemporary and antecedent thought and literature.
It is impossible, beginning with the natural world, to explain the mind by any process of distillation or development, unless consciousness or its potentiality has been there from the first.
The right to manufacture and the right to retail are both monopolies of government permitted to private individuals only upon terms. Distillation of country spirits is allowed according to two systems - either to the highest bidder under strict supervision, or only upon certain spots set apart for the purpose.
The tichloride GaC1 3 is similarly formed when the metal is heated in a rapid stream of chlorine, and may be purified by distillation in an atmosphere of nitrogen.
Rengade (Comptes rendus, 1907, 1 44, P. 920), by partially oxidizing the metal in a current of dry oxygen and removing excess of metal by distillation in vacuo, has obtained oxides of composition Rb202 (yellowish white), Rb203 (black) and Rb204 (yellow).
They can be distinguished from the corresponding bromides and iodides by the fact that on distillation with a mixture of potassium bichromate and concentrated sulphuric acid they yield chromium oxychloride, whereas bromides and iodides by the same treatment give bromine and iodine respectively.
It is usually obtained by the distillation of amber, or by the fermentation of calcium malate or ammonium tartrate.
The sodium salt on distillation with phosphorus trisulphide gives thiophene.
Distillation with zinc dust gives pyrrol.
It had served to draw Young's attention to the question of oil-production, and in 1850 he took out his fundamental patent for the distillation of bituminous substances.
This is effected by stirring the molten metal with a pole of green wood (" poling "); the products which arise from the combustion and distillation of the wood reduce the oxide to metal, and if the operation be properly conducted " tough-pitch " copper, soft, malleable and exhibiting a lustrous silky fracture, is obtained.
By distillation a spirit called mescal is prepared.
It is prepared by boiling the needles in a solution of soda to remove the resin, which process loosens the fibre and renders its separation easy; it has some resemblance to coarse wool, and is spun and woven into blankets and garments that are said to be warm and durable; it is also used for stuffing cushions; an essential oil, obtained by a previous distillation of the leaves, has medicinal virtues attributed to it by some German practitioners.
Bunsen in 1854 electrolysed a thick paste of barium chloride and dilute hydrochloric acid in the presence of mercury, at 10o C., obtaining a barium amalgam, from which the mercury was separated by a process of distillation.
In psoriasis the epidermis separates in flakes at various spots which have not been subjected to pressure, and to cure it ointment containing tar or other products of the dry distillation of wood is employed.
Antimony trichloride ("Butter of Antimony"), SbCl 31 is obtained by burning the metal in chlorine; by distilling antimony with excess of mercuric chloride; and by fractional distillation of antimony tetroxide or trisulphide in hydrochloric acid solution.
From this iodide the trimethyl stibine may be obtained by distillation with an alloy of potassium and antimony in a current of carbon dioxide.
The prosperity of the town is largely due to the great slate-quarries of the vicinity, but the distillation of liqueurs from fruit, cable, rope and thread-making, and the manufacture of boots and shoes, umbrellas and parasols are leading industries.
It is obtained on fusing many resins (galbanum, asafoetida, &c.) with caustic potash, or by the distillation of Brazil-wood extract.
It is found among the products formed in the destructive distillation of wood, sugar, cellulose, &c., and for this reason it is always present in crude wood spirit, from which the greater portion of it may be recovered by fractional distillation.
On the large scale it is prepared by the dry distillation of calcium acetate (CH3C02)2Ca= CaCO3 +CH3COCH3.
On distillation with sulphuric acid, it is converted into mesitylene C 9 H 12 (symmetrical trimethyl benzene).
When the rock has been separated from the amalgam by a washing operation, the quicksilver is recovered by distillation in an iron retort, and the remaining crude retortsilver melted into bars and shipped to a refinery, which removes the impurities, the leading one of which is copper.
The amalgam is pressed in linen bags to eliminate a quantity of relatively silver-free liquid mercury (which is utilized as such in subsequent operations), and the remaining solid amalgam is subjected to distillation from iron retorts.
It is also found among the distillation products of bituminous coal, lignite, and various shales, and has been detected in fusel oil and crude petroleum.
On distillation with phosphorus sulphide it gives cymene.
Other aromatic members are Andropogon Nardus, a native of India, but also cultivated, the rhizome, leaves and especially the spikelets of which contain a volatile oil, which on distillation yields the citronella oil of commerce.
Another method consists in mixing the powdered bark with milk of lime, drying the mass slowly with frequent stirring, exhausting the powder with boiling alcohol, removing the excess of alcohol by distillation, adding sufficient dilute sulphuric acid to dissolve the alkaloid and throw down colouring matter and traces of lime, &c., filtering, and allowing the neutralized liquid to deposit crystals.
Gessner (Berichte, 1876, 9, p. 1507) removes chlorine by repeated shaking with water, followed by distillation over sulphuric acid; hydrobromic acid is removed by distillation with pure manganese dioxide, or mercuric oxide, and the product dried over sulphuric acid.
Owing to increased competition, and in some degree to careless harvesting, there was a great fall in prices after 1900, and the Seychellois, though still producing vanilla in large quantities, paid greater attention to the products of the coconut palm - copra, soap, coco-nut oil and coco-nuts - to the development of the mangrove bark industry, the collection of guano, the cultivation of rubber trees, the preparation of banana flour, the growing of sugar canes, and the distillation of rum and essential oils.
Phosphorus trichloride or phosphorous chloride, PC13, discovered by Gay-Lussac and Thenard in 1808, is obtained by passing a slow current of chlorine over heated red phosphorus or through a solution of ordinary phosphorus in carbon disulphide (purifying in the latter case by fractional distillation).
Hofmann had shown that conine on distillation with zinc dust gave a-propyl pyridine (conyrine).
Straw-plaiting, malting, brewing, and the cultivation and distillation of lavender and peppermint are carried on.
Originally prepared by heating alum, green vitriol and other sulphates, and condensing the products of distillation, sulphuric acid, or at least an impure substance containing more or less sulphur trioxide dissolved in water, received considerable attention at the hands of the alchemists.
They are polymers of cinnamic acid, into which they readily pass on distillation.
The /3 form results by chlorinating boiling benzene in sunlight, and may be separated from the a variety by distillation in a current of steam.
C. Harries (Ann., 1903, 328, p. 88) obtained them tolerably pure by the dry distillation of the phosphates of I.
Cyclo-hexanone, C 6 H 10 0, is obtained by the distillation of calcium pimelate, and by the electrolytic reduction of phenol, using an alternating current.
When reduced in alcoholic solution by means of sodium amalgam it yields methyl granatoline, 08H130H NCH3; this substance, on oxidation with cold potassium permanganate, is converted into granatoline, C 8 H, 5 NO, which on distillation over zinc dust yields pyridine.
Doebner (Ber., 1902, 35, pp. 2129, 2 53 8; 1903, 3 6, p. 43 18) obtained compounds, which in all probability are cyclo-octadienes, by the distillation of s-vinylacrylic acid, sorbic acid, and cinnamenyl acrylic acid with anhydrous baryta.
Of artificial productions the most fruitful and important is provided by the destructive or dry distillation of many organic substances; familiar examples are the distillation of coal, which yields ordinary lighting gas, composed of gaseous hydrocarbons, and also coal tar, which, on subsequent fractional distillations, yields many liquid and solid hydrocarbons, all of high industrial value.
The inhabitants are employed in agriculture, fishing, brewing, distillation and the manufacture of earthenware.
Prior to 1691, however, Dr John Clayton, dean of Kildare, filled bladders with inflammable gas obtained by the distillation of coal, and showed that on pricking the bladders and applying a light to the escaping gas it burnt with a luminous flame, and in 1726 Stephen Hales published the fact that by the distillation of 158 grains of Newcastle coal, 180 cub.
It is clear from these facts that, prior to Murdoch's experiments, it was known that illuminating gas could be obtained by the destructive distillation of coal, but the experiments which he began at Redruth in 1792, and which culminated in the lighting of Messrs Boulton, Watt & Co.'s engine works at Soho, near Birmingham, in 1802, undoubtedly demonstrated the practical possibility of making the gas on a large scale, and burning it in such a way as to make coal-gas the most important of the artificial illuminants.
An impression exists in Cornwall, where Murdoch's early experiments were made, that it was a millwright named Hornblower who first suggested the process of making gas to Murdoch, but, as has been shown, the fact that illuminating gas could be obtained from coal by distillation was known a century before Murdoch made his experiments, and the most that can be claimed for him is that he made the first successful application of it on a practical scale.
Coal, the raw material from which the gas is produced by a process of destructive distillation, varies very widely in composition (see Coal), and it is only the class of coals rich in hydrogen, known as bituminous coal, that can with advantage be utilized in gas manufacture.
On submitting a complex substance of this character to destructive distillation, it will be found that the yield and quality of the products will vary very considerably with the temperature existing in the retorts, with the size of the charge of coal used, with its distribution in the retort, with the length of time the distillation has been going on, and with an infinity of other factors of a more or less complex nature.
The ammonia is derived from the nitrogen present in the coal combining with hydrogen during destructive distillation, the nitrogen becoming distributed amongst all three classes of products.
The tar formed is affected to an even greater extent than the gas by alterations in the temperature at which the destructive distillation takes place.
The second liquid product of the destructive distillation of coal is the ammoniacal or gas liquor, which consists of water containing ammonia salts in solution, partly condensed from the hot gas, and partly added to wash the gas in the scrubbers.
The gas which is obtained by the destructive distillation of coal, and which we employ as our chief illuminant, is not a definite com pound, but a mechanical mixture of several gases, some Gaseous .
The series of operations connected with the manufacture and distribution of coal gas embraces the processes of distillation, condensation, exhaustion, wet purification by washing and scrubbing, dry purification, measuring, storing and distribution to the mains whence the consumer's supply is drawn.
The vertical retort was one of the first forms experimented with by Murdoch, but owing to the difficulty of withdrawing the coke, the low illuminating power of the gas made in it, and the damage to the retort itself, due to the swelling of the charge during distillation, it was quickly abandoned.
The solubility of naphthalene by various oils has led some engineers to put in naphthalene washers, in which gas is brought into contact with a heavy tar oil or certain fractions distilled from it, the latter being previously mixed with some volatile hydrocarbon to replace in the gas those illuminating vapours which the oil dissolves out; and by fractional distillation of the washing oil the naphthalene and volatile hydrocarbons are afterwards recovered.
A partly successful attempt to make use of certain portions of the liquid products of distillation of coal before condensation by the second method was the Dinsmore process, in which the coal gas and vapours which, if allowed to cool, would form tar, were made to pass through a heated chamber, and a certain proportion of otherwise condensible hydrocarbons was thus converted into permanent gases.
In carburetting poor coal gas with hydrocarbons from mineral oil it must be borne in mind that, as coal is undergoing distillation, a rich gas is given off in the earlier stages, but towards the end of the operation the gas is very poor in illuminants, the methane disappearing with the other hydrocarbons, and the increase in hydrogen being very marked.
Wright employed a coal requiring six hours for its distillation, and took samples of the gas at different periods of the time.
This may be regarded as a fair example of the changes which take place in the quality of the gas during the distillation of the coal.
When, however, the distillation has gone on for three hours, the rich portions of coal have distilled off and the temperature of the retort has reached its highest point, and this is the best time to feed in the oil.
The retort E is charged with ordinary bituminous coal which is submitted to destructive distillation by the heat communicated through the flues n 2 n 2, and is thus converted into coke.
The chief sources of the terpenes and their derivatives are the essential oils obtained by the distillation or extraction by pressure of various plants, chiefly of the Coniferae and different species of Citrus.
The essential oil is rectified by redistillation with water and alkaline carbonates, and the water which the oil carries over with it is removed by a further distillation over calcium chloride.
The separation of the oleo-resin into the essential oil-spirit of turpentine and common rosin is effected by distillation in large copper stills.
Rosin varies in colour, according to the age of the tree whence the turpentine is drawn and the amount of heat applied in distillation, from an opaque almost pitchy black substance through grades of brown and yellow to an almost perfectly transparent colourless glassy mass.
On a large scale it is treated by destructive distillation for the production of rosin spirit, pinoline and rosin oil.
The imposition of a duty gave rise to a large amount of illicit distillation, a practice which still prevails to some extent, though efficient police methods have largely reduced it.
By this method of distillation the arsenic sublimes into the receiver, leaving a residue of iron sulphide in the retort.
On distillation of equal parts of dry potassium acetate and arsenious oxide, a colourless liquid of unbearable smell passes over, which is spontaneously inflammable and excessively poisonous.
Skeat takes the ultimate root to be kar, to move, especially in a circular motion, seen in "curve," "circle," &c. The word "worm" is applied to many objects resembling the animals in having a spiral shape or motion, as the spiral thread of a screw, or the spiral pipe through which vapour is passed in distillation.
The large furnaces for the distillation of mercury at Almaden were at one time heated solely with charcoal obtained from the Cistus ladaniferus.
The distillation is generally performed in a still with an inlet for steam and an outlet to carry the vapours laden with essential oils into a condenser, where the water and oil vapours are condensed.
The process of enfleurage is used in those cases where the odoriferous substance is present to a very small extent, and is so tender and liable to deterioration that it cannot be separated by way of distillation.
Carre in France; but no very high degree of perfection was arrived at, owing to the impossibility of getting an anhydrous product of distillation.
It should be noted, however, that with an icemaking plant of moderate size and a steam-engine of good construction the weight of steam used will not neatly equal the weight of ice produced, so that the difference must be made up either by distillation, which is a costly process, or by ordinary water.
The task of checking quality falls to Ballantine's master blender at Dumbarton, to whom samples of each distillation are sent.
The data provided here represents a distillation of part of the information collected.
Ginger oil is obtained by steam distillation of dried ginger root.
It is prepared by steam distillation of the wood.
Give examples of how the products of fractional distillation of crude oil can be used.
The coal charge will, by now, have undergone destructive dry distillation.
After double distillation, the spirit was matured in new Limousin oak barrels for approximately one year.
This shows a familiarity with coal tar distillation that was probably acquired by practical experience within the GLCC.
This book is based on his 18 years of research in batch distillation.
Bitumen Also called asphalt or tar, bitumen is the brown or black viscous residue from the vacuum distillation of crude petroleum.
The fragrance raw material known as elemi oil is prepared by steam distillation of Manila elemi oil is prepared by steam distillation of Manila elemi.
The picture implied by the " distillation " approach of a liberal feminism leading into a socialist feminism is simply historically wrong.
The allergenic fraction of bee glue is found in the volatile oil derived from it by distillation.
Grape brandy Grape brandy is produced by the distillation of fermented grape brandy Grape brandy is produced by the distillation of fermented grape juice.
True amber yields on dry distillation succinic acid, the proportion varying from about 3 to 8%, and being greatest in the pale opaque or "bony" varieties.
The first commercial exploitation of importance appears to have been the distillation of the oil at Alfreton in Derbyshire by James Young,.
The existing refineries were accordingly altered so as to adapt them for the refining of petroleum; but in the manufacture of burning oil from petroleum the small stills which had been in use in the distillation of shale-oil were at first employed.
On distillation with zinc dust it forms cymene (1.4 methyl isopropyl benzene).
Many comparisons of the effectiveness of dephlegmating columns have been made (see Sidney Young, Fractional Distillation, 1903).
A coordination of the results obtained on the distillation of mixtures of this nature with the introduction of certain theoretical considerations led to the formation of three groups distinguished by the relative solubilities of the vapours in the liquid components.
For many centuries the word was used to designate any fine powder; its present-day application to the product of the distillation of wine is of comparatively recent date.
The amalgam is cleaned out periodically - fortnightly or monthly - and after filtering through linen bags to remove the excess of mercury, it is transferred to retorts for distillation (see below).
Large quantities of carbonate used to be manufactured from the aqueous residue left in the distillation of beet-root spirit, i.e.
Some bitters are prepared by simple maceration and subsequent filtration (see Liqueurs), others by the more complicated distillation process.
Aronheim, Ann., 1874, 171, p. 219); and by the action of ortho-xylylene bromide on sodium ethane tetracarboxylic ester, the resulting tetra-hydronaphthalene tetracarboxylic ester being hydrolysed and heated, when it yields hydronaphthalene dicarboxylic acid, the silver salt of which decomposes on distillation into naphthalene and other products (A.
The hydrocarbon occurs in wood-tar and in petroleum, and is prepared commercially by fractional distillation of the light oil fraction of the coal-tar distillate (see Coal Tar).
They are largely used in the arts, being separated by distillation into rosin or colophony (see RosiN), and oil or spirit of turpentine.
The mineral hydrocarbons found in nature or obtained by destructive distillation do not come within the range of this article (see Naphtha, Paraffin, Petroleum), which is restricted to the following two large groups of bodies, formed naturally within the vegetable and animal organisms, viz.
This crude pyroligneous acid is then refined by fractional distillation to yield a food grade version that is suitable for use in health products.
Companies process the leaves through steam distillation to extract the golden to clear colored tea tree oil.
Like other essential oils, tea tree oil is made by steam distillation.
Its primary ingredient is ichthammol, which is derived from the distillation of oil shale.
The distillation process gives them a higher alcohol level, usually between 40-60 percent.
Tea tree oil is derived form the leaves of the Melaleuca tree through a process of distillation.
Sugarmaking, the distillation of rice-spirit, silk-weaving, fishing and the preparation of a fish-sauce (nuoc-mam) made from decayed fish, and the manufacture of salt from sea-water and of lime are carried on in many localities.
With bromine in acetic acid solution at ordinary temperature, nicotine yields a perbromide, C10H10Br2N20 HBr 3, which with sulphur dioxide, followed by potash, gives dibromcotinine, C10H10Br2N20, from which cotinine, C10H12N20, is obtained by distillation over zinc dust.
By distillation over lime, the methyl group is removed from the pyridine ring, and the resulting a- pyridyl-Nmethylpyrrol gives i-nicotine on reduction.
The exportation in I902 only reached about 45 million gallons (and even that is double the average), while an equally abundant vintage in France and Spain rendered the exportation of the balance of 1907 impossible, and fiscal regulations rendered the distillation of the superfluous amount difficult.
The formation of formaldehyde has till recently not been satisfactorily proved, though it has been obtained from certain leaves by distillation.
This layer is separated, and the phenol recovered by a process of fractional distillation.
By the action of dilute nitric acid; orthoand para-nitrophenols are obtained, the ortho-compound being separated from the para-compound by distillation in a current of steam.
Its industries include the distillation of oil, tanning, salt-refining, brewing, and the manufacture of earthenware and casks.
By conducting the distillation slowly, so that the temperature within the chamber remains at a sufficiently low degree, it is possible to obtain the whole of the product in the form of "flowers."
If compact ("roll") sulphur is wanted the distillation is made to go on at the quickest admissible rate.
The pyrites is subjected to dry distillation from out of iron or fire-clay tubular retorts at a bright red heat.
It is also produced during the putrefaction of organic substances containing sulphur and is found among the products obtained in the destructive distillation of coal.
Evaporation and subsequent distillation under a high vacuum gives crude glycerin.
Particulars of the shales which yield oil on destructive distillation are given in the article on paraffin.
The first commercial exploitation of importance appears to have been the distillation of the oil at Alfreton in Derbyshire by James Young.
The residues from petroleum distillation have been shown to contain very dense solids and liquids of high specific gravity, having a large proportion of carbon and possessed of remarkable fluorescent properties.
As early as 1804, Humboldt expressed the opinion that petroleum was produced by distillation from deep-seated strata, and Karl Reichenbach in 1834, suggested that it was derived from the action of heat on the turpentine of pine-trees, whilst Brunet, in 1838, adumbrated a similar theory of origin on the ground of certain laboratory experiments.
The earlier supporters of the organic theory held that it was a product of the natural distillation of coal or carbonaceous matter; but though in a few instances volcanic intrusions appear to have converted coal or allied substances into oil, it seems that terrestrial vegetation does not generally give rise to petroleum.
Peckham, but others have held that it is of exclusively animal origin, a view supported by such occurrences as those in the orthoceratities of the Trenton limestone, and by the experiments of C. Engler, who obtained a liquid like crude petroleum by the distillation of menhaden (fish) oil.
In this patent, the distillation is described as being conducted in a vessel having a loaded valve or a partially closed stop-cock, through which the confined vapour escapes under any desired pressure.
In the American petroleum refineries it is found that sufficient cracking can be produced by slow distillation in stills of which the upper part is sufficiently cool to allow of the condensation of the vapours of the less volatile hydrocarbons, the condensed liquid thus falling back into the heated body of oil.
The process of distillation of lubricating oils under reduced atmospheric pressure is now in very general use, especially for obtaining the heavier products.
The products obtained by the distillation of petroleum are not in a marketable condition, but require chemical treatment to remove acid and other bodies which impart a dark colour as well as an unpleasant odour to the liquid, and in the case of lamp-oils, reduce the power of rising in the wick by capillary attraction.
In the routine examination of crude petroleum it is customary to determine the specific gravity, and the amount of water and earthy matter in suspension; the oil is also frequently subjected to a process of fractional distillation in order to ascertain whether there has been any addition of distilled products or residue.
They first invented and named the alembic for the purposes of distillation, analyzed the substances of the three kingdoms of nature, tried the distinction and affinities of alkalis and acids, and converted the poisonous minerals into soft and salutary remedies.
It is decomposed, on dry distillation, into carbon dioxide and pyromellitic acid, C i oH 6 0 8 i when distilled with lime it gives carbon dioxide and benzene.
The distillation of 1000 lb charge lasts 5-6 hours, requires 500-600 lb coke or 30 gallons reduced oil, and yields about to% metallic zinc and I% blue powder - a mixture of finely-divided metallic zinc and zinc oxide.
By this means a mixture is obtained which by distillation or the action of hydrochloric acid yields trithioaldehyde, (C2H4S)3.
The solution when subjected to distillation behaves very much like a physical solution of the oxide in hydrochloric acid, while a solution of orthostannic acid in hydrochloric acid behaves like a solution of SnC1 4 in water, i.e.
In the Belgian process the reduction and distillation are carried out in cylindrical or elliptical retorts of fire-clay, from 3 ft.
In the Silesian process the distillation is conducted in specially constructed muffles of a prismatic shape arched above, which are arranged in two parallel rows within a low-vaulted furnace, similar to the pots in a glass furnace.
Through an orifice in the outlet pipe (which is closed during the distillation by a loose plug) a hot iron rod can be introduced from time to time to clear away any solid zinc that may threaten to obstruct it.
About six or eight hours after starting the distillation is in full swing, and in twenty-four hours it is completed.
The three isomeric cresols are found in the tar obtained in the destructive distillation of coal, beech-wood and pine.
The crude cresol obtained from tar cannot be separated into its different constituents by fractional distillation, since the boiling points of the three isomers are very close together.
By fractional distillation is meant the separation of a mixture having components which boil at neighbouring temperatures.
The modes of distillation enumerated above all occur in manufacturing practice.
The theory of distillation finds a place in all treatises on physical chemistry.
Of especial importance is Sidney Young, Fractional Distillation (1903).
The distillation is then effected by heating to dull redness.
Tantalum pentafluoride, TaF5, for a long time only known in solution, may be obtained by passing fluorine over an alloy of tantalum and aluminium, and purifying by distillation in a vacuum.
Coal then meant the carbonaceous residue obtained in the destructive distillation of wood, or what is known as charcoal, and the name collier was applied indifferently to both coal-miners and charcoal-burners.
In 1895, in order to bring down its price, a distillation tax was imposed, from which a refund was paid on alcohol used for other than beverage purposes.
Methyl alcohol is also obtained in the dry distillation of molasses.
It may be prepared from osmiridium by fusing the alloy with zinc, the zinc being afterwards removed by distillation.
As secretary of the treasury (1874-1876) he prosecuted with vigour the so-called "Whisky Ring," the headquarters of which was at St Louis, and which, beginning in 1870 or 1871, had defrauded the Federal government out of a large part of its rightful revenue from the distillation of whisky.
Henri Moissan obtained the metal of 99% purity by electrolysing calcium iodide at a low red heat, using a nickel cathode and a graphite anode; he also showed that a more convenient process consisted in heating the iodide with an excess of sodium, forming an amalgam of the product, and removing the sodium by means of absolute alcohol (which has but little action on calcium), and the mercury by distillation.
Its specific gravity is 1 54, and after remelting 1 56; after distillation it is 1.52.
It is obtained by the dry distillation of nitrogenous vegetable and animal products; by the reduction of nitrous acid and nitrites with nascent hydrogen; and also by the decomposition of ammonium salts by alkaline hydroxides or by slaked lime, the salt most generally used being the chloride (sal-ammoniac, q.v.) thus 2NH 4 C1+Ca(OH) 2 =CaC1 2 +2H 2 O+2NH 3.
The commercial salt is known as salvolatile or salt of hartshorn and was formerly obtained by the dry distillation of nitrogenous organic matter such as hair, horn, decomposed urine, &c., but is now obtained by heating a mixture of sal-ammoniac, or ammonium sulphate and chalk, to redness in iron retorts, the vapours being condensed in leaden receivers.
The amount of ammonia in ammonium salts can be estimated quantitatively by distillation of the salts with sodium or potassium hydroxide, the ammonia evolved being absorbed in a known volume of standard sulphuric acid and the excess of acid then determined volumetrically; or the ammonia may be absorbed in hydrochloric acid and the ammonium chloride so formed precipitated as ammonium chlorplatinate, (NH4)2PtC16.
Almost the only manufactures of any importance are the distillation of arrack, which is principally carried on by Chinese, the burning of lime and bricks, and the making of pottery.
The industries include flour-milling, the manufacture of confectionery, iron-ware and hats, and the distillation of olive-oil.
He was an active worker in physiological chemistry, and carried out many analyses of the products of living organisms, among them being one of the gastric juice which, at the end of 1823, resulted in the notable discovery that the acid contents of the stomach contain hydrochloric acid which is separable by distillation.
In the course of history the demons sought to bind men to themselves by means of sensuality, error and false religions (among which is to be reckoned above all the religion of Moses and the prophets), while the spirits of light carried on their process of distillation with the view of gaining the pure light which exists in the world.
By dry distillation the bark yields an empyreumatic oil, called diogott in Russia, used in the preparation of Russia leather; to this oil the peculiar pleasant odour of the leather is due.
It contains, in addition to tannin, a peculiar principle called larixin, which may be obtained in a pure state by distillation from a concentrated infusion of the bark; it is a colourless substance in long crystals, with a bitter and astringent taste, and a faint acid reaction; hence some term it larixinic acid.
Chromic acid and its salts, the chromates and bichromates, can be detected by the violet coloration which they give on addition of hydrogen peroxide to their dilute acid solution, or by the fact that on distillation with concentrated sulphuric acid and an alkaline chloride, the red vapours of chromium oxychloride are produced.
Bamberger (Ber., 1900, 33, p. 3189) simultaneously with the para compound, from which it may be separated by distillation in a current of steam, the ortho compound passing over with the steam.
When reduced (in acid solution) they yield amines; distillation with reduced iron gives azo compounds, and warming with ammonium sulphide gives hydrazo compounds.
A volatile product obtained by the destructive distillation of rubber.
It may be synthetically obtained by distilling oxindole (C 8 H 8 NO) with zinc dust; by heating orthonitrocinnamic acid with potash and iron filings; by the reduction of indigo blue; by the action of sodium ethylate on orthoaminochlorstyrene; by boiling aniline with dichloracetaldehyde; by the dry distillation of ortho-tolyloxamic acid; by heating aniline with dichioracetal; by distilling a mixture of calcium formate and calcium anilidoacetate; and by heating pyruvic acid phenyl hydrazone with anhydrous zinc chloride.
Explain why water and alcohol can be separated by distillation.
By dry distillation it gives ammonium cyanide.
The distillation of petroleum, especially of such as was intended for medicinal use, was regularly carried on in the 18th century, and earlier.
Others are deprived of a part of their more volatile constituents by spontaneous evaporation, or by distillation, in vacuo or otherwise, at the lowest possible temperature.
The operation was, however, completely revolutionized in the United States by the introduction of the " cracking process," and by the division of the distillation into two parts, one consisting in the removal of the more volatile constituents of the oil, and the other in the distillation (which is usually conducted in separate stills) of the residues from the first distillation, for the production of lubricating oils and paraffin.
Various arrangements have been proposed and patented for the continuous distillation of petroleum, in which crude oil is supplied to a range of stills as fast as the distillates pass off.
In the United States a horizontal cylindrical still is usually employed in the distillation of the spirit and kerosene, but what is known as the " cheese-box " still has also been largely used.
It is generally understood that the products of fractional distillation, even in the laboratory, are not identical with the hydrocarbons present in the crude oil, but are in part produced by the action of heat upon them.
This may be brought about by a distillation under pressure, or by allowing the condensed distillate to fall into the highly heated residue in the still.
It is true that by the distillation of many herbs, resins and similar substances, several organic compounds had been prepared, and in a few cases employed as medicines; but the prevailing classification of substances by physical and; superficial properties led to the correlation of organic and inorganic compounds, without any attention being paid to their chemical composition.
Other branches of industry include carpet-weaving at Deventer, the distillation of brandy, gin and liqueurs at Schiedam, Rotterdam and Amsterdam, and beer-brewing in most of the principal towns; shoe-making and leather-tanning in the Langstraat district of North Brabant; paper-making at Apeldoorn, on the Zaan, and in Limburg; the manufacture of earthenware and faience at Maastricht, the Hague and Delft, as well as at Utrecht, Purmerend and Makkum; clay pipes and stearine candles at Gouda; margarine at Osch; chocolate at Weesp and on the Zaan; mat-plaiting and broom-making at Genemuiden and Blokzyl; diamondcutting and the manufacture of quinine at Amsterdam; and the making of cigars and snuff at Eindhoven, Amsterdam, Utrecht, Kampen, &c. Shipbuilding is of no small importance in Holland, not only in the greater, but also in the smaller towns along the rivers and canals.
The alkaloid is obtained from an aqueous extract of tobacco by distillation with slaked lime, the distillate being acidified with oxalic acid, concentrated to a syrup and decomposed by potash.
AlcohoLThe distillation of alcohol is in the hands of three classes of persons.
The distillation process in former times, especially in England, used to be carried out "per descensum."