her voice dissolved into a sob.
The residue is dissolved in alcohol and to the cold saturated solution a cold alcoholic solution of picric acid is added.
lodphenol is obtained by the action of iodine a.nd iodic acid on phenol dissolved in a dilute solution of caustic potash.
The cobaltous salts are formed when the metal, cobaltous oxide, hydroxide or carbonate, are dissolved in acids, or, in the case of the insoluble salts, by precipitation.
Submerged leaves are usually filamentous or narrowly ribbonshaped, thus exposing a large amount of surface to the water, some of the dissolved gases of which they must absorb, and into which they must also excrete certain gases.
He was voted guilty by the Commons; but while the Lords were disputing whether the accused peer should have bail, and whether the charges amounted to more than a misdemeanour, parliament was prorogued on the 30th of December and dissolved three weeks later.
chiefly, they provide a number of channels, penetrating every part of the leaf, along which water and dissolved salts are conveyed to, and elaborated food-substances from, the mesophyll cells.
the 17th Ferdinand dissolved parliament and recalled the army.
The increasing development of the wood as the tree grows older is largely due to the demands for the conduction of water and mineral matters dissolved in it, which are made by the increased number of leaves which from year to year it bears, and which must each be put into communication with the central mass by the formation of new vascular bundles.
For instance, a Fungus epidemic is impossible unless the climatic conditions are such as to favor the dispersal and germination of the spores; and when plants are killed off owi~ig to the supersaturation of the soil with water, it is by no means obvious whether the excess of water and dissolved materials, or the exclusion of oxygen from the root-hairs, or the lowering of the temperature, or the accumulation of foul products of decomposition should be put into the foreground.
These substances can, however, be dissolved out in water, and the green coloring matter of the chloroplast then becomes visible.
The estates of only twenty-four leaders of the defeated cause were forfeited by Cromwell, and the national church was left untouched though deprived of all powers of interference with the civil government, the general assembly being dissolved in 1653.
The marriage, which had not been consummated, was dissolved by a special act of parliament.
(After Kleinenberg, from Gegenbaur.) access of water to the contents; when the cnidocil is stimulated it sets in action a mechanism or perhaps a series of chemical changes by which the plug is dissolved or removed; as a result water penetrates into the capsule and causes its contents to swell, with the result that the thread is everted violently.
Being brought before the bar of the House of Lords he made submission as to his conduct in declaring parliament dissolved by the prorogation, and in violating the Lords' privileges by bringing a habeas corpus in the King's Bench.
It was dissolved in 1547.
But harmony was not thus to be restored; hardly had the council dissolved when the church was plunged into the Monophysite controversy.
If this is approved the meeting proceeds; if not, the meeting is dissolved.
Until his fiery energy made itself felt, hardly any army on either side actually suffered rout; but at Marston Moor and Naseby the troops of the defeated party were completely dissolved, while at Worcester the royalist army was annihilated.
to allow him to dissolve parliament, entrusted Signor Giolitti, a Piedmontese deputy, sometime treasury minister in the Crispi cabinet, with the formation of a ministry of the Left, which contrived to obtain six months supply on account, and dissolved the Chamber, The ensuing general election (November 1892), marked by unprecedented violence and abuse of official pressure upon B k the electorate, fitly ushered in what proved to be scandals, the most unfortunate period of Italian history since the completion of national unity.
Pressed by Cavallotti, Rudini in March 1897 dissolved the Chamber and conducted the general election in such a way as to crush by government pressure the partisans of Crispi, and greatly to strengthen the (Socialist, Republican and Radical) revolutionary parties.
In October 1904, after the September strikes, the Chamber was dissolved, and at the general elections in November a ministerial majority was returned, while the deputies of the Extreme Left (Socialists, Republicans and Radicals) were reduced from 107 to 94, and a few mild clericals elected.
The document embodying the alterations in the draft act was signed on the 11th of May and the convention dissolved.
In the afternoon he dissolved the council in spite of John Bradshaw's remonstrances, who said, "Sir, we have heard what you did at the House this morning ...; but you are mistaken to think that the parliament is dissolved, for no power under heaven can dissolve them but themselves; therefore take you notice of that."
In 1836 the Diet was dissolved.
They possess a delicate Laticiferous layer of protoplasm, with numerous small nuclei lining Tissue the walls, while the interior of the tube (corresponding with the cell-vacuole) contains a fluid called latex, consisting of an emulsion of fine granules and drops of very various substances suspended in a watery medium in which various other substances (salts, sugars, rubber-producers, tannins, alkaloids and various enzymes) are dissolved.
He formed a comprehensive theory of the variations of climate with latitude and season, and was convinced of the necessity of a circulation of water between the sea and rivers, though, like Plato, he held that this took place by water rising from the sea through crevices in the rocks, losing it .s dissolved salts in the process.
The addition of more acid would produce an additional supply of sulphur (by the action of the H2S203 on the dissolved H 2 S); but this thiosulphate sulphur is yellow and compact, while the polysulphide part has the desired qualities, forming an extremely fine, almost white, powder.
Hyposulphurous acid, H 2 S 2 0 4, was first really obtained by Berthollet in 1789 when he showed that iron left in contact with an aqueous solution of sulphur dioxide dissolved without any evolution of gas, whilst C. F.
Gay-Lussac in 181q, is usually obtained in the form of its barium salt by suspending freshly precipitated hydrated manganese dioxide in water and passing sulphur dioxide into the mixture until all is dissolved; the barium salt is then precipitated by the careful addition of barium hydroxide.
After holding more than 200 sittings the so-called Commission was dissolved without getting beyond the realm of theory and pia desideria.
It was dissolved, therefore, on the 16th of June 1907, and the electoral law which had given such unsatisfactory results was modified by imperial ukase.
3 Four days later the government dissolved the Duma, M.
apart from the punishment which afterwards fell on its authors,4 was to show how little the majority of the dissolved Duma had represented the Russian people.
The excuse for which the government had been waiting Alteration was thus provided, and two days later the Duma was by ukaz dissolved.
The National Verein, its work being done, was now dissolved; but Bennigsen was chiefly instrumental in founding a new political party - the National Liberals, - who, while they supported Bismarck's national policy, hoped to secure the constitutional development of the country.
For example, when metallic zinc is dissolved in dilute sulphuric acid with production of zinc sulphate (in solution) and hydrogen gas, a definite quantity of heat is produced for a given amount of zinc dissolved, provided that the excess of energy in the initial system appears entirely as heat.
In view of the annexation of new provinces under the peace treaties and of the altered state of public opinion on internal policy, he dissolved the Chamber on April 7 1921, and was confirmed in power by the elections on May 15.
James Hamilton, 3rd marquess of Hamilton, was the king's commissioner; and when the Assembly insisted on proceeding with the trial of the bishops, he formally dissolved the meeting under pain of treason.
In the ordinary process of soap-making the glycerin remains dissolved in the aqueous liquors from which the soap is separated.
Its solvent power is also utilized in the production of various colouring fluids, where the colouring matter would not dissolve in water alone; thus aniline violet, the tinctorial constituents of madder, and various allied colouring matters dissolve in glycerin, forming liquids which remain coloured even when diluted with water, the colouring matters being either retained in suspension or dissolved by the glycerin present in the diluted fluid.
Nitrate of soda, Peruvian guano and superphosphate of lime in the form of bones dissolved by sulphuric acid were now added to the list of manures, and the practice of analysing soils became more general.
After a highly useful career, under the presidency till 1813 of Sir John Sinclair, the Board of Agriculture was dissolved in 1819, but left in its statistical account, county surveys and other documents much interesting and valuable information regarding the agriculture of the period.
After a successful trial of a few years this association was dissolved, transferring its functions to the Highland and Agricultural Society.
He had become convinced that his comrades in the Utilitarian Society, never more than ten, had not the stuff in them for a world-shaking propaganda; the society itself was dissolved; the Parliamentary Review was a failure; the Westminster did not pay its expenses; Bentham's Judicial Evidence produced little effect on the reviewers.
We cannot suppose that there occurred, at or about the commencement of the 19th century, a breach of historical continuity of such a character that institutions, customs, laws and social conventions were suddenly swept away, the bonds of society loosened, and the state and people of England dissolved into an aggregate of competing individuals.
Stoke, however, was dissolved in the following reign, and Parker received a pension equivalent to £400 a year in modern currency.
This body received the right of deciding by senatus consulta all questions not provided for by the constitution; the Corps Legislatif and Tribunate might also thenceforth be dissolved at its bidding.
Austria now proposed the terms named above with the addition that the Confederation of the Rhine must be dissolved, and that Prussia should be placed in a position as good as that which she held in 1805, that is, before the campaign of Jena.
Many insects have aquatic larvae, some of which take in atmospheric air at intervals, while others breathe dissolved air by means of tracheal gills.
When the worn-out cells are broken down, the urates are carried dissolved in the blood to the Malpighian tubes for excretion.
Other aquatic larvae have the tracheal system entirely closed, and are able to breathe dissolved air by means of tubular or leaf-like gills.
Young resembling parents, but aquatic in habit, breathing dissolved air by thoracic tracheal gills.
Aquatic larvae with distinct maxillulae, breathing dissolved air by abdominal tracheal gills.
In 1772 the king's marriage with Caroline Matilda, who had been seized and had confessed to criminal familiarity with Struensee, was dissolved, and the queen, retaining her title, passed her remaining days at Celle, where she died on the 11 th of May 1775.
Under the dominion of the Roman republic its national league was dissolved, but was revived by Augustus, who also restored to Phocis the votes in the Delphic Amphictyony which it had lost in 346 and enrolled it in the new Achaean synod.
The relationship of landlord and tenant may be altered either voluntarily, by the act of the parties, or involuntarily, by the operation of law, and may also be dissolved.
Tenancy is dissolved by the expiry of the term for which it was created, or by forfeiture of the tenant's interest on the ground of the breach of some condition by the tenant and re-entry by the landlord.
The relationship of landlord and tenant is created, altered and dissolved in the same way, and the rights and duties of parties are substantially identical.
1876), daughter of Alfred, duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, was dissolved in 1901.
In1643-1644the colony was expanded into the New Haven Jurisdiction, embracing the towns of New Haven, Guilford, Milford, Stamford and Branford in Connecticut, and, on Long Island, Southold; but this "Jurisdiction" was dissolved in 1664, and all these towns (except Southold) passed under the jurisdiction of Connecticut, according to the Connecticut charter of 1662.
It is a strong acid, and dissolved in water decomposes carbonates and attacks iron and zinc.
The system is largely employed in Russia, and its use has been frequently attempted in the United States, but the results have not been satisfactory, on account, it is said, of the much greater quantity of dissolved gas contained in the American oil, the larger proportion of kerosene which such oil yields, and the less fluid character of the residue.
On the death of Malik Shah, the last of the great Seljukian emperors (1092), the empire dissolved.
p. 240) that this truce was already practically dissolved before Raynald struck, and that Raynald's "action may reasonably be viewed as the practical outcome of the feeling of a party."
Soap when dissolved in a large amount of water suffers hydrolysis, with formation of a precipitate of acid salt and a solution containing free alkali.
Both husband and wife were extreme examples of the licentious manners of the time, but they not unfrequently lived together for considerable periods, and nearly always on good terms. Later, however, Marguerite was established in the castle of Usson in Auvergne, and after the accession of Henry the marriage was dissolved by the pope.
These are washed with ammonium chloride until the filtrate is colourless, ignited, fused with caustic potash and nitre, the melt dissolved in water and nitric acid added to the solution until the colour of potassium ruthenate disappears.
The residue is then fused with caustic potash and nitre, dissolved in water, saturated with chlorine and distilled on the water-bath in a current of chlorine.
This is then dissolved in water, reduced by alcohol and ignited in oxygen.
Balard completed for many years Berzelius's group of " halogen " elements; the remaining member, fluorine, notwithstanding many attempts, remained unisolated until 1886, when Henri Moissan obtained it by the electrolysis of potassium fluoride dissolved in hydrofluoric acid.
In this case, the precipitate is dissolved in as little as possible hydrochloric acid and boiled with ammonium acetate, acetic acid and ferric chloride.
The last two are dissolved out by cold, very dilute hydrochloric acid, and the residue is tested for nickel and cobalt.
The carbonates are dissolved in hydrochloric acid, and calcium sulphate solution is added to a portion of the solution.
(a) Gravimetric. - This method is made up of four operations: (I) a weighed quantity of the substance is dissolved in a suitable solvent; (2) a particular reagent is added which precipitates the substance it is desired to estimate; (3) the precipitate is filtered, washed and dried; (4) the filter paper containing the precipitate is weighed either as a tared filter, or incinerated and ignited either in air or in any other gas, and then weighed.
In general analytical work the standard solution contains the equivalent weight of the substance in grammes dissolved in a litre of water.
Pure sodium carbonate is prepared by igniting the bicarbonate, and exactly 53 grammes are dissolved in water, forming a strictly normal solution.
A known weight of the test substance is dissolved and a portion of the solution is placed in a tube similar to those containing the standard solutions.
The product is dissolved in water, and the calcium haloid estimated in the usual way.
Hofmann and Schotensack decompose a mixture of phenol (3 molecules) and sodium carbonate (4 mols.) with carbonyl chloride at 140-zoo° C. When 90% of the phenol has distilled over, the residue is dissolved and hydrochloric acid added, any phenol remaining is blown over in a current of steam, and the salicylic acid finally precipitated by hydrochloric acid.
did, in fact, call together at Pavia a council, which it was necessary to transfer almost at once to Siena, owing to an epidemic, and which had to be dissolved owing to circumstances still imperfectly known, just as it was beginning to discuss the subject of reform (1424).
The corporation, which in 1298 included a mayor, barons and bailiffs, was dissolved by an act of 1883.
The sulphur is dissolved by superheated water forced down pipes, and the water with sulphur in solution is forced upward by hot air pressure through other pipes; the sulphur comes, 99% pure, to the surface of the ground, where it is cooled in immense bins, and then broken up and loaded directly upon cars for shipment.
Soc., 18 9 8, 73, p. 35 2) as a colourless liquid by the addition of hydroxylamine hydrochloride to an aqueous solution of formaldehyde in the presence of sodium carbonate; the resulting solution was extracted with ether and the oxime hydrochloride precipitated by gaseous hydrochloric acid, the precipitate being then dissolved in water, the solution exactly neutralized and distilled.
became apparent; the parliament was dissolved, the constitution was suspended and its author exiled.
All march discipline disappeared, the men dissolved into hordes of marauders and even the sternest of the marshals wrote piteous appeals to the emperor for supplies, and for permission to shoot some of their stragglers.
potassium sulphide dissolved in 3 gallons of water.
The source of the carbon of organic tissues is carbonic acid; that of the nitrogen in the proteids is the nitrates, nitrites and salts of ammonia dissolved in sea-water; the material of the shells or other skeletons is the silica, phosphate and calcium of the salts of sea-water (and, in rare cases, the salts of strontium).
Distilled water is a very bad conductor, though, even when great care is taken to remove all dissolved bodies, there is evidence to show that some part of the trace of conductivity remaining is due to the water itself.
He pointed out that it followed that the electric forces did not cause the interchanges between the opposite parts of the dissolved molecules but only controlled their direction.
As we have seen, Grotthus imagined that it was the electric forces which sheared the ions past each other and loosened the chemical bonds holding the opposite parts of each dissolved molecule together.
the solution dilute enough) for the intermolecular forces between the dissolved particles to be inappreciable.
Arrhenius pointed out that these exceptions would be brought into line if the ions of electrolytes were imagined to be separate entities each capable of producing its own pressure effects just as would an ordinary dissolved molecule.
(2) As the concentration of the solutions increases, the ionization as measured electrically and the dissociation as measured osmotically might decrease more or less together, though, since the thermodynamic theory only holds when the solution is so dilute that the dissolved particles are beyond each other's sphere of action, there is much doubt whether this second relation is valid through any appreciable range of concentration.
It is not unlikely, therefore, that even a compound as stable in the solid form as potassium chloride should be thus dissociated when dissolved.
The number of undissociated molecules is then I - a, so that if V be the volume of the solution containing I gramme-molecule of the dissolved substance, we get q= and p= (I - a)/V, hence x(I - a) V =yd/V2, and constant = k.
We can calculate the heat of formation from its ions for any substance dissolved in a given liquid, from a knowledge of the temperature coefficient of ionization, by means of an application of the well-known thermodynamical process, which also gives the latent heat of evaporation of a liquid when the temperature coefficient of its vapour pressure is known.
If sulphuric acid be added to the vessel containing the zinc, these conditions are unaltered and still no zinc is dissolved.
When one gramme of zinc is dissolved in dilute sulphuric acid, 1670 thermal units or calories are evolved.
Planck 2 enables us to calculate the diffusion constant of dissolved electrolytes.
According to the molecular theory, diffusion is due to the motion of the molecules of the dissolved substance through the liquid.
When the dissolved molecules are uniformly distributed, the osmotic pressure will be the same everywhere throughout the solution, but, if the concentration vary from point to point, the pressure will vary also.
The dissolved salts (potassium, sodium, ammonium, calcium, magnesium, &c.) of the latex are generally nearly entirely absent from the wellprepared rubber.
Caoutchouc is not dissolved by water or alcohol, and is not affected except by the strongest acids.
For this reason the acid copper-bath is not used for iron or zinc objects, a bath containing copper cyanide or oxide dissolved in potassium cyanide being substituted.
He hoped, by organizing a fraternity of armed laymen as pioneers, to restore fertility to the Sahara; but this community did not succeed, and was dissolved before his death.
The zinc and some lead are oxidized; part of the zinc passes off with the fumes, part is dissolved by the litharge, forming a melted mixture which is skimmed off and reduced in a blast-furnace or a reverberatory smelting furnace.
When carbonic acid is present the dissolved oxide is soon precipitated as basic carbonate, so that the corrosion of the lead becomes continuous.
It is artificially obtained by adding hydrochloric acid to a solution of lead salt, as a white precipitate, little soluble in cold water, less so in dilute hydrochloric acid, more so in the strong acid, and readily soluble in hot water, from which on cooling, the excess of dissolved salt separates out in silky rhombic needles.
Powdered galena is dissolved in hot hydrochloric acid, the solution allowed to cool and the deposit of impure lead chloride washed with cold water to remove iron and copper.
The residue is then dissolved in hot water, filtered, and the clear solution is mixed with very thin milk of lime so adjusted that it takes out one-half of the chlorine of the PbC1 2.
Mesosomatic segments furnished with large plate-like appendages, the 1st pair acting as the genital operculum, the remaining pairs being provided with branchial lamellae fitted for breathing oxygen dissolved in water.
Richard was completely in their power; he identified himself with their cause, and the same night dissolved the parliament.
soc. chim., 1904 [31, 31, p.1306) prepares aldehydes by the gradual addition of disubstituted formamides (dissolved in anhydrous ether) to magnesium alkyl haloids, the best yields being obtained by the use of diethyl formamide.
The precipitate is then dissolved in sulphuric acid, the requisite amount of potassium sulphate added and the solution allowed to crystallize.
It is then dissolved in hydrofluoric acid and heated in order to expel silicon fluoride; finally the columbium, tantalum and titanium fluorides are separated by the different solubilities of their double fluorides (C. Marignac, Ann.
Columbium pentafluoride, CbF5, is obtained when the pentoxide is dissolved in hydrofluoric acid.
When this was dissolved in 146 B.C., they remained independent under the title of the "Confederation of the Lacedaemonians" or "of the Free-Laconians" (rcocvov rcov AarceSacµoviwv or 'EXeuBepoXarcwvwv), the supreme officer of which was a QTparriyos (general) assisted by a Taylas (treasurer).
They exhibit an intense blue colour when in the liquid condition or dissolved in alkali and possess a very sharp smell.
On the 7th of March the diet of Kremsier was dissolved, and immediately afterwards a proclama- tion tion was issued in the name of the emperor Francis Joseph establishing a united constitution for the whole empire, of which Hungary, cut up into half a dozen administrative districts, was henceforth to be little more than the largest of several subject provinces.
On the 19th of February 1906 the parliament was dissolved, without writs being issued for a new election, a fact accepted by the country with an equanimity highly disconcerting The agreement with the crown which had made this course possible included the postponement of the military questions that had evoked the crisis, and the acceptance of the principle of Universal Suffrage by the Coalition leaders, who announced that their main tasks would be to repair the mischief wrought by the " unconstitutional " Fejervary cabinet, and then to introduce a measure of franchise reform so wide that it would be possible to ascertain the will of the whole people on the questions at issue between themselves and the crown.
After the States-general was dissolved he remained in Paris, and the next year he became almoner to Anne of Austria, the child-queen of Louis XIII.
3d., it was dissolved, but revived under Mary I.
1910 failed miserably, and after a year of temporizing, he suddenly threw off all pretence at legal forms, dissolved the Diet almost before it had met, and in Dec. 1911 ordered new elections.
19 1912 was replaced as Ban by a little known official Mr. Cuvaj, who promptly dissolved the Diet before it had even met, and proceeded to muzzle the press, to close the university and to arrest several prominent politicians.
All the municipal councils in Dalmatia (with the solitary exception of Zara, which had an Italian majority) were dissolved at an early stage in the war.
Among the Slovenes of Istria and Carniola there were also numerous arrests, and the Matica Slovenska, the chief Slovene literary society, was dissolved and its funds confiscated.
By agreement between the two colonies the council was dissolved in 1908.
In 1908 the inter-colonial council was dissolved, but the railways continued to be administered as a joint concern by a railway board on which the governments of both colonies were represented.
One part of cream of tartar, two of alum and two of common salt are dissolved in boiling water, and the solution is boiled with granulated metallic tin (or, better, mixed with a little stannous chloride) to produce a tin solution; and into this the articles are put at a boiling heat.
The solutions are oxidized, precipitated with ammonia, the precipitate dissolved in hydrochloric acid, and re-thrown down by boiling with sodium sulphate.
The blood suffers first; its pigment is dissolved out and soaks into the surroundings, imparting to them the pink hue so diagnostic of commencing gangrene.
This is accomplished by a twofold agency, for while numbers of them are seized upon by the granulation phagocytes, others are broken up and dissolved by the liquid filling the granulation interspaces (Afanassieff).
The action is very rapid, and the product, which rises to the top of the acids, is separated and washed successively with cold and then tepid water, and finally with water made slightly alkaline with sodium carbonate or hydroxide, to remove all adhering or dissolved acids which would otherwise render the product very unstable.
Though the glory of Salerno had departed, the school actually existed till it was finally dissolved by an edict of the emperor Napoleon I.
The dissolved monastery of the Charterhouse, which had been bought and sold by the courtiers several times, was obtained from Thomas, earl of Suffolk, by Thomas Sutton for 13,000.
Dumas obtained barium methyl carbonate by the action of carbon dioxide on baryta dissolved in methyl alcohol (Ann., 1840, 35, p. 283).
All other metals, including palladium, are dissolved as nitrates, the oxidizing part of the reagent being generally reduced to oxides of nitrogen.
In addition to its usefulness in maintaining a turgid state of the young cells without which growth cannot proceed, water is itself a plant food-material and as absorbed from the soil contains dissolved in it all the mineral food constituents needed by plants for healthy nutrition.
This is generally effected by adding the calculated amount of potassium chloride (of which immense quantities are obtained as a by-product in the Stassfurt salt industry) dissolved in hot water to a saturated boiling solution of sodium nitrate; the common salt, which separates on boiling down the solution, is removed from the hot solution, and on cooling the potassium nitrate crystallizes out and is separated and dried.
aromatic substances, sugar, liquorice, common salt and saltpetre, &c., dissolved in water.
In the case of acetate the precipitation is quite complete; from a sulphate or chloride solution the greater part of the metal goes into the precipitate; in the presence of a sufficiency of free HC1 the metal remains dissolved; sulphide of ammonium precipitates the metal completely, even in the presence of ammonium salts and free ammonia.
The grand-ducal government of the Seekreis was dissolved, and Hecker gradually gained reinforcements.
The pure salt is dissolved in hot water and decomposed with ammonia to produce a slightly ammoniacal hydrated oxide; this, when ignited in platinum, leaves pure TiO 2 in the form of brownish lumps, the specific gravity of which varies from 3.9 to 4.25, according to the temperature at which it was kept in igniting.
Titanium sesquisulphate, T12(S04)3.8H20, obtained by concentrating the violet solution formed when the metal is dissolved in sulphuric acid, is interesting since it forms a caesium alum, CsTi(S04)2.12H20.
A dissolved in B and B dissolved in A, since both of these solutions emit vapours of the same composition (this follows since the same vapour must be in equilibrium with both solutions, for if it were not so a cyclic system contradicting the second law of thermodynamics would be realizable).
water free from salts and to some extent of the dissolved gases which are always present in natural waters, is of indispensable value in many operations both of scientific and industrial chemistry.
The first portion of the distillate brings over the gases dissolved in the water, ammonia and other volatile impurities, and is consequently rejected; scarcely two-fifths of the entire quantity of water can be safely used as pure distilled water.
The manor of Wembley belonged to the priory of Kilburn until that foundation was dissolved by Henry VIII.
When that occurs, the cyst is dissolved and the minute fluke works its way down the alimentary canal into some part of which it inserts its suckers and commences to feed on the blood of its host.
The abbey was converted in 1543 into a collegiate church for secular priests, and was dissolved by Edward VI., who granted it to Sir Nicholas Bagenal, marshal of Ireland.
(1189) at once dissolved the friendship between Richard and Philip. Not only did Richard continue the continental policy of his father, but he also refused to fulfil his contract with Philip's sister, Alais, to whom he had been betrothed at the age of three.
From the time that Governor Thomas Boone, in 1762, pronounced his election to the legislature improper, and dissolved the House in consequence, Gadsden was hostile to the British administration.
The last of the Unreformed parliaments was dissolved on the 3rd of December 1832.
Parliament was dissolved on the 29th of December.
died, and Parliament, having been prorogued by the young queen in person, was dissolved on the 17th of the following month.
Parliament was dissolved in June 1841.
Parliament was dissolved on the 23rd of July 1847.
Mr Disraeli introduced and carried a makeshift budget, and the government tided over the session, and dissolved parliament on the fitted by an unique combination of financial, administrative and rhetorical gifts.
Parliament was dissolved on the 11th of November.
Parliament was dissolved in July 1865, and the university elected Mr Gathorne Hardy in his place.
Parliamentwas dissolved on the 26th of June.
Parliament was dissolved on the 28th of June 1892.
1823, when, on the refusal of the chambers to vote the military budget, the grand-duke dissolved them and levied the taxes on his own authority.
The grand-duke returned on the 19th of August, and at once dissolved the diet.
Many electrolytic methods have been proposed for the purification of sugar; in some of them soluble anodes are used for a few minutes in weak alkaline solutions, so that the caustic alkali from the cathode reaction may precipitate chemically the hydroxide of the anode metal dissolved in the liquid, the precipitate carrying with it mechanically some of the impurities present, and thus clarifying the solution.
When parliament was dissolved at the end of the session of 1784, the country showed its sentiments by unseating 180 of the followers of Fox and North.
Debray in the case of rhodium, iridium and ruthenium, which evolve heat when they are dissolved in zinc. When the solution of the rhodium-zinc alloy is treated with hydrochloric acid, a residue is left which undergoes a change with explosive violence if it be heated in vacuo to 400°.
In the cases of aluminium dissolved in tin and of mercury or bismuth in lead, it is at least probable that the molecules in solution are Al 2j Hg 2 and Bit respectively, while tin in lead appears to form a molecule of the type Sn4.
Meanwhile the friendship between Bolingbroke and Harley, which formed the basis of the whole Tory administration, had been gradually dissolved.
However fiercely conducted, it failed, though the Uniate Church with slighter powers of resistance was now completely forced into Orthodoxy, its ceremonial being definitely forbidden and its monasteries dissolved.
p. 358; " Ors the Dielectric Constants of Metallic Oxides dissolved or suspended in Ice cooled to the Temperature of Liquid Air," id.
His marriage with Elisabeth Christine, daughter of Duke Charles of Brunswick, contracted in 1765, was dissolved in 1769, and he soon afterwards married Frederika Louisa, daughter of the land grave Louis IX.
- In this process moistened gold ores are treated with chlorine gas, the resulting gold chloride dissolved out with water, and the gold precipitated with ferrous sulphate, charcoal, sulphuretted hydrogen or otherwise.
In the " dry " methods the silver is converted into sulphide or chloride, the gold remaining unaltered; in the " wet " methods the silver is dissolved by nitric acid or boiling sulphuric acid; and in the electrolytic processes advantage is taken of the fact that under certain current densities and other circumstances silver passes from an anode composed of a gold-silver alloy to the cathode more readily than gold.
Or the alloy is dissolved in aqua regia, the solution filtered from the insoluble silver chloride, and the gold precipitated by ferrous chloride.
One process depends upon the fact that, with a suitable current density, if a very dilute solution of silver nitrate be electrolysed between an auriferous silver anode and a silver cathode, the silver of the anode is dissolved out and deposited at the cathode, the gold remaining at the anode.
It was governed by a mayor and twelve aldermen, but by 1864 their privileges had become merely nominal, and the corporation was dissolved in 1885 under the Municipal Corporations Act.
Benefices may be exchanged by agreement between incumbents with the consent of the ordinary, and they may, with the consent of the patron and ordinary, be united or dissolved after being united.
In the wet process the ores, in which the bismuth is present as oxide or carbonate, are dissolved out with hydrochloric acid, or, if the bismuth is to be extracted from a matte or alloy, the solvent employed is aqua regia or strong sulphuric acid.
The blackish brown sulphide precipitated from bismuth salts by sulphuretted hydrogen is insoluble in ammonium sulphide, but is readily dissolved by nitric acid.
The nove della militia were, however, dissolved; and on the 7th of November 1512 Machiavelli was deprived of his appointments.
The formation of the blue mud is largely aided by the putrefaction of organic matter, and as a result the water deeper than 120 fathoms is extraordinarily deficient in dissolved oxygen and abounds in sulphuretted hydrogen, the formation of which is brought about by a special bacterium, the only form of life found at depths greater than 120 fathoms in the Black Sea.
The analyses of modern chemists have now revealed the existence of 32 out of the 80 known elements as existing dissolved in sea-water, and it is scarcely too much to say that the remaining elements also exist in minute traces which the available methods of analysis as yet fail to disclose.
If this estimate is correct there exists dissolved in the ocean a quantity of silver equal to T3,300 million metric tons, that is to say 46,700 times as much silver as has been produced from all the mines in the world from the discovery of America down to 1902.
Sorensen and Martin Knudsen after a careful investigation decided to abandon the old definition of salinity as the sum of all the dissolved solids in sea-water and to substitute for it the weight of the dissolved solids in 1000 parts by weight of sea-water on the assumption that all the bromine is replaced by its equivalent of chlorine, all the carbonate converted into oxide and the organic matter burnt.
The water of the ocean, like any other liquid, absorbs a certain amount of the gases with which it is in contact, and thus sea-water contains dissolved oxygen, nitrogen and carbonic acid absorbed from the atmosphere.
The first useful determinations of the dissolved gases of sea-water were made by Oskar Jacobsen in 1872.
The former determination is made by driving out the dissolved gases from solution and collecting them in a Torricellian vacuum, where the volume is measured after the carbonic acid has been removed.
As a rule the amount of both gases dissolved in sea-water is found to be that which is indicated by the temperature of the water in situ.
The distribution of dissolved oxygen in the depths of the open ocean is still very imperfectly known.
The respiration of marine animals in the depths of deep basins in which there is no circulation adds to the carbonic acid at the expense of the dissolved oxygen.
It is only the water that freezes; the dissolved salts are excluded in the process in a regular order according to temperature.
Gases, consisting principally of light carburetted hydrogen or marsh gas, are of ten present in considerable quantity in coal, in a dissolved or occluded state, and the evolution of these upon exposure to the air, especially when a sudden diminution of atmospheric pressure takes place, constitutes one of the most formidable dangers that the coal miner has to encounter.
Thomas, of the gases dissolved or occluded in coals from South Wales basin shows them to vary considerably with the class of coal.
This fact having been fully demonstrated, acetylene dissolved in this way was exempted from the Explosives Act, and consequently upon this exemption a large business has grown up in the preparation and use of dissolved acetylene for lighting motor omnibuses, motor cars, railway carriages, lighthouses, buoys, yachts, &c., for which it is particularly adapted.
The introduction of acetylene dissolved under pressure in acetone contained in cylinders filled with porous material drew attention again to this use of the gas, and by using a special construction of blowpipe an oxy-acetylene flame is produced, which is far hotter than the oxy-hydrogen flame, and at the same time is so reducing in its character that it can be used for the direct autogenous welding of steel and many minor metallurgical processes.
In the previous year the German Confederation, to which the grand-duchy of Luxemburg had belonged since 1815, had been dissolved; but the Prussians maintained their garrison in Luxemburg, which was not included in the new North German Confederation, while King William III.
In 1730 the partnership was dissolved, and Franklin, through the financial assistance of two friends, secured the sole management of the printing house.
P. Morton & Company (dissolved 1899), with a London branch which had Sir John Rose (1820-1888) as its principal member.
The Danish governor-general then dissolved the assembly, but Jon SigurOsson and all the members with him protested to the king against these unlawful proceedings.
His unfortunate first marriage with his cousin Charlotte Frederica of MecklenburgSchwerin was dissolved in 1810.
The emperor was forced to leave Germany immediately after the diet had dissolved, and was prevented by a succession of wars from returning for nearly ten years.
During the same years the monasteries, lesser and greater, were dissolved, and the chief shrines were despoiled, notably that of St Thomas of Canterbury.
The double fluoride is decomposed with hot concentrated sulphuric acid; the mixed sulphate is dissolved in water; and the zirconia is precipitated with ammonia in the cold.
The council, like the minor advisory councils which have been from early times called together for the guidance of particular churches on occasions of special difficulty, is each time dissolved at its adjournment.
Under, this custom of " stated supplies " ordination may be granted to those whose ministry in a particular church is made and dissolved by no other process than a mutual agreement.
Kieft promised the concessions to gain the board's consent to waging war, but later denied its authority to exact promises from him and dissolved it.
Its influence on the general history of Europe ceased when the old Empire was dissolved.
Frederick, alleging the danger of acting without the concurrence of Prussia, refused, and dissolved the diet.
While in Austria the marriage of non-Catholics could be dissolved, so as to make a new marriage possible, paragraph iii.
of the civil code provided that " the tie of a valid marriage between Catholic persons can be dissolved only by the death of one of the parties.
He, however, consented to take part in an ecclesiastical commission formed by the emperor from among the dignitaries of the Gallican Church, but in 1810 the commission was dissolved.
The Old Party also adopted a new constitution, but it too was dissolved in 1895.
In New York his deputy, Francis Nicholson, was soon afterwards deposed by Jacob Leisler; and the inter-colonial union was dissolved.
The Edison electric meter, like those of Sprague and Lane-Fox, was based upon the principle that when an electric current flows through an electrolyte, such as sulphate of copper or sulphate of zinc, the electrodes being plates of copper or zinc, metal is dissolved off one plate (the anode) and deposited on the other plate (the cathode).
The shunted voltameter was then inserted in series with the electric supply mains leading to the house or building taking electric energy, and the current which passed dissolved the zinc from one plate and deposited it upon the other, so that after a certain interval of time had elapsed the altered weight of the plates enabled the quantity of electricity to be determined from the known fact that an electric current of one ampere, flowing for one hour, removes 1.2533 grammes of zinc from a solution of sulphate of zinc. Hence the quantity in amperehours passing through the electrolytic cell being known and the fraction of the whole quantity taken by the cell being known, the quantity supplied to the house was determined.
Thus the sulphate constitutes the minerals anhydrite, alabaster, gypsum, and selenite; the carbonate occurs dissolved in most natural waters and as the minerals chalk, marble, calcite, aragonite; also in the double carbonates such as dolomite, bromlite, barytocalcite; the fluoride as fluorspar; the fluophosphate constitutes the mineral apatite; while all the more important mineral silicates contain a proportion of this element.
Most natural waters contain it dissolved in carbonic acid; this confers "temporary hardness" on the water.
The dissipation of the dissolved carbon dioxide results in the formation of "fur" in kettles or boilers, and if the solution is falling, as from the roof of a cave, in the formation of stalactites and stalagmites.
It occurs dissolved in most natural iwaters, which it renders "permanently hard."
Representatives from each side were now summoned before him to Chalcedon, and at last, yielding to the sense of the evident majority, he gave a decision in favour of the "orthodox," and the council of Ephesus was dissolved.
It possesses a strong ammoniacal smell, and on digestion with alcohol the carbamate is dissolved and a residue of ammonium bicarbonate is left; a similar decomposition taking place when the sesquicarbonate is exposed to air.
Moissan in 1886 by the electrolysis of pure anhydrous hydrofluoric acid containing dissolved potassium fluoride.
To make room for these we have to remember that the atomic nucleus has remained entirely undefined and beyond our problem; so that what may occur, say when two molecules come into close relations, is outside physical science - not, however, altogether outside, for we know that when the vital nexus in any portion of matter is dissolved, the atoms will remain, in their number, and their atmospheres, and all inorganic relations, as they were before vitality supervened.
The Benedictine abbey of St Blasius was founded in 1063 and dissolved at the Reformation.
The origin of the liberum veto is obscure, but it was first employed by the deputy Wiadislaus Sicinski, who dissolved the diet of 1652 by means of it, and before the end of the 17th century it was used so frequently and recklessly that all business was frequently brought to a standstill.
1 Thus the Sapiehas, who had been living on rapine for years, dissolved the diet of 1688 by means of the veto of one of their hirelings, for fear of an investigation into their conduct.
These were the men who, a little later, at the bidding of their "benefactors," dissolved one inconvenient diet after another; for it is a significant fact that during the reigns of the two Augustuses every diet was dissolved in this way by the hirelings of some great lord or, still worse, of some foreign potentate.
By the Treaty of Chaumont of March 1 o, 1814, these four powers bound themselves together in a bond which was not to be dissolved when peace was concluded.
When dissolved in water it yields some NaOH and H202; on crystallizing a cold 'solution Na202.8H20 separates as large tabular hexagonal crystals, which on drying over sulphuric acid give Na 2 0 2.2H 2 0; the former is also obtained by precipitating a mixture of caustic soda and hydrogen peroxide solutions with alcohol.
A solution in hydrochloric acid, consisting of the chloride and hydrogen peroxide, is used for bleaching straw under the name of soda-bleach; with calcium or magnesium chlorides this solution gives a solid product which, when dissolved in water, is used for the same purpose (Castner, Journ.
They should be dissolved in warm water and taken in the morning, fasting.
The society was " dissolved " 7 73 ?
The constable dissolved this union, and after lengthy negotiations obtained the dispensation of the pope.
To prepare the cadmium amalgam, one part of pure cadmium is dissolved in six parts of pure mercury, and the product while warm and fluid is placed in one limb of the cell and warmed, to ensure perfect contact with the platinum wire.
These deposits, in addition to common salt, include the following minerals: sylvine, KC1; carnallite, KC1 MgC12.6H20 (transparent, deliquescent crystals, often red with diffused oxide of iron); kainite, K 2 SO 4 MgSO 4 MgC1 2 6H 2 O (hard crystalline masses, permanent in the air); kieserite MgS04 H20 (only very slowly dissolved by water); besides polyhalite, MgSO 4 K 2 SO 4.2CaSO 4.2H20anhydrite, CaSO 4; salt, NaC1, and some minor components.
It forms the acid fluoride KHF 2 when dissolved in aqueous hydrofluoric acid, a salt which at a red heat gives the normal fluoride and hydrofluoric acid.
(1) The salt is dissolved in water with the help of steam, and the solution is cooled down to from 60° to 70°, when a quantity of impure common salt crystallizes out, which is removed.
The carnallite produced is dissolved in hot water and the solution allowed to cool, when it deposits a coarse granular potassium chloride containing up to 99% of the pure substance.
To purify the crude product it is dissolved in hot water and the solution filtered and allowed to cool, when the bulk of the dissolved salt crystallizes out with characteristic promptitule.
In 1897 the state joined the Greater Republic of Central America, established in 1895 by Honduras, Nicaragua and Salvador, but dissolved in 1898.
Till Amos (with the solitary exception of Micaiah ben Imlah, in i Kings xxii.) prophecy was optimist - even Elijah, if he denounced the destruction of a dynasty and the annihilation of all who had bowed the knee to Baal, never doubted of the future of the nation when only the faithful remained; but the new prophecy is pessimist - it knows that Israel is rotten to the core, and that the whole fabric of society must be dissolved before reconstruction is possible.
It was therefore only as the God of Israel that the true God could be known within Israel; and so on the one hand the little society of faith - which had not in reality the least tinge of political coherence - is thought of as yet forming the true kernel of the nation qua nation, while on the other hand the state of Judah profits by the prophetic religion inasmuch as the nation must be saved from destruction in order that the prophetic faith - which is still bound up with the idea of the nation - may not be dissolved.
In a word, when the nation is dissolved into its individual elements the continuity and ultimate victory of true faith depends on the relation of Yahweh to individual souls, out of which the new state shall be built up (Jer iii.
Some of them were ultimately dissolved or suppressed through political or ecclesiastical opposition, the Roman Church proving especially hostile.
Strindberg's first marriage was an unfortunate one, and was dissolved in 1893.
He eventually became dictator, dissolved Congress (May 31, 1834) and the state legislatures, and substituted creatures of his 1834 own for the governors of the states and mayors of towns, then retiring into private life.
If a favourable change in the surrounding medium sets in, the Trypanosomes are able to undergo the reverse process, namely disagglomeration; the parasites liberate themselves and the rosette is dissolved.
There had already been serious revolts and raids, and after the battle of Leipzig the Russians drove the king from Cassel (October 1813), the kingdom of Westphalia was dissolved and the old order was for a time re-established.
A small part of the revenues went to the maintenance of a grammar-school, but in 1841 the collegiate body was dissolved, and its revenues, then amounting to about £8000 a year, were transferred to the ecclesiastical commissioners.
Sulphuric acid is now added to the liquid, and any alkaline sulphides and sulphites present are decomposed, while iodides and bromides are converted into sulphates, and hydriodic and hydrobromic acids are liberated and remain dissolved in the solution.
In the former process it is obtained in the form of a dilute aqueous solution, in which also the colouring matters of the wine, salts, &c., are dissolved; and this impure acetic acid is what we ordinarily term vinegar.
Mendeleeff also devoted much study to the nature of such "indefinite" compounds as solutions, which he looked upon as homogeneous liquid systems of unstable dissociating compounds of the solvent with the substance dissolved, holding the opinion that they are merely an instance of ordinary definite or atomic compounds, subject to Dalton's laws.
Silver cyanide, AgNC, is formed as a white precipitate by adding potassium cyanide to silver nitrate solution; or better, by adding silver nitrate to potassium silver cyanide, KAg(NC) 2, this double cyanide being obtained by the addition of one molecular proportion of potassium cyanide to one molecular proportion of silver nitrate, the white precipitate so formed being then dissolved by adding a second equivalent of potassium cyanide.
In the latter case the precipitate is dissolved in water, reprecipitated by ether, and washed with ether-alcohol.
Transferred to the central point of the administration, he had ample opportunity of regarding with other eyes the situation of the kingdom, and in consequence of his remonstrances he fell rapidly in the favour of Charles Both in 1710 and 1713 Horn was in favour of summoning the estates, but when in 1714 the diet adopted an anti-monarchical attitude, he gravely warned and ultimately dissolved it.
ANTIPYRINE (phenyldimethyl pyrazolone) (C11H12N20), is prepared by the condensation of phenylhydrazine with acetoacetic ester, the resulting phenyl methyl pyrazolone being heated with methyl iodide and methyl alcohol to loo-110° C.: CH 0=N CH3 C-N CH3 >N C6H5 - II >N C6H6 CH 2 -CO HC-CO Phenyl methyl pyrazolone Antipyrine On the large scale phenylhydrazine is dissolved in dilute sulphuric acid, the solution warmed to about 40° C. and the aceto-acetic ester added.
In analysing the syllogism, he first says that a premiss is an affirmative or negative sentence, and then that a term is that into which a premiss is dissolved, i.e.
So in some respects is the lifehistory, with a true larval preparatory stage, unlike the parent form, and living an aquatic life, breathing dissolved air by means of a paired series of abdominal tracheal gills.
They resemble the May-flies in their " hemimetabolous " lifehistory; the young insects are markedly unlike their parents, inhabiting fresh water and breathing dissolved air, either through tracheal gills at the tip of the abdomen, or by a branching system of air-tubes on the walls of the rectum into which water is periodically admitted.
On his abdication the amalgamation was dissolved, and the Franciscan element fled to the East and was finally suppressed by Boniface VIII.
It occurs dissolved in sea water and in most mineral waters, especially in those at Epsom (from which place it takes its name), Seidlitz, Saidschutz and Pullna.
Wohler reduced the sesquioxide by zinc, and obtained a shining green powder of specific gravity 6.81, which tarnished in air and dissolved in hydrochloric acid and warm dilute sulphuric acid, but was unacted upon by concentrated nitric acid.
Dissolved in hydrochloric acid at - 20°, it yields with solutions of the alkaline chlorides compounds of the type MC1 CrOC1 3, pointing to pentavalent chromium.
The reply of the chambers was a protest against "the unjust distrust of the sentiment and reason of France"; whereupon they were first prorogued, and on the 16th of May dissolved.
Wellington the proposal seemed premature; he would prefer to wait till "the assembly had published its conduct by its acts"; for if the new chambers were to prove as intractable as the dissolved Chambre introuvable, the monarchy would not be able to dispense with its foreign tutors.
To boil off say 300 lb of thrown silk, about 60 lb of fine white soap is shred, and dissolved in about 200 gallons of pure water.
Before the silk can be manipulated by machinery to any advantage, the gum coating must be removed, really dissolved and washed away - and according to the method used in achieving this operation the result is either a " schappe " or a " discharged yarn."
When about too lb of silk has been bagged, the whole is placed in a large wooden tub and covered with boiling water in which 12 to 20 lb of white curd soap has previously been dissolved.
He mentioned as an important exception the case of ferric ferrocyanide, which, when dissolved in oxalic acid, transmits the rays in great abundance, though the same rays be absorbed both by ferrocyanides and by ferric salts.
The abbey was dissolved (12th of July 1559), and within a year Feckenham was sent by Archbishop Parker to the Tower (loth of May 1560), according to Jewel, "for having obstinately refused attendance on public worship and everywhere declaiming and railing against that religion which we now profess" (Parker Society, first series, p. 79).
It is rapidly dissolved by dilute acids, with the evolution of hydrogen and the formation of magnesium salts.
Since 1867, when the political unity, under a governor, was dissolved, the Moluccas are often named by the Dutch the "Great East" (Groote Oost).
In return for the excesses of the democracies Rome dissolved the league, which, however, was allowed to revive under Augustus, and merged with the other central Greek federations in the Achaean synod.
of Prussia; but as early as 1786 the academy which had been founded about nine years before was raised by Archbishop Maximilian Frederick of Cologne to the rank of a university, and continued to exercise its functions till 1794, when it was dissolved by the last elector.
But the East was lost; the union of 1274 was quickly dissolved; and the reconciliation of the two Churches again entered into the category of chimeras.
Thus, in the third, fourth and fifth general sessions it was enacted, with characteristic precipitation, that an ecumenical council could not be dissolved or set aside by the pope, without its consent: the corollary to which was, that the present council, notwithstanding the flight of John XXIII., continued to exist in the full possession of its powers, and that, in matters pertaining to belief and the eradication of schism, all men - even the pope - were bound to obey the general council, whose authority extended over all Christians, including the pope himself.
Far worse, however, were the conflicts which Eugenius had to support against the Council of Basel - already dissolved on the 18th of December 1431.
The case was characteristic of the whole Catholic monarchical party, which, owing to the pope's interference in French politics, became disintegrated and dissolved, a fate that was all the more painful seeing that the Ralliement failed to influence the course of events.
roughly proportional to the amount of salt dissolved.
Pfeffer, made known the phenomena of the osmotic pressure which is set up by the passage of solvent through a membrane impermeable to the dissolved substance or solute.
For gases such as oxygen and nitrogen dissolved in water the solubility as thus defined is independent of the pressure, or the mass of gas dissolved is proportional to the pressure.
When a variable quantity is at a minimum a slight change in the system does not affect its value, and therefore, when a solution is saturated, the increase in the available energy of the liquid phase produced by dissolving in it some of the solid must be equal to the decrease in the available energy of the solid phase, caused by the abstraction from the bulk of that part dissolved.
membranes which allow a solvent to pass freely but are impervious to a solute when dissolved in that solvent.
It was found, for instance, that a film of insoluble copper ferrocyanide, deposited in the walls of a porous vessel by the inward diffusion and meeting of solutions of copper sulphate and potassium ferrocyanide, would allow water to pass, but retained sugar dissolved in that liquid.
Let us suppose that we possess a partition such as that described above, which is permeable to the solvent but not to the solute when dissolved in it, and let us connect the solution and solvent of fig.
The corresponding correction in solutions consists in counting only the volume of the solvent in which the solute is dissolved, instead of the whole volume of the solution.
It is not the heat effect when solid is dissolved in a large excess of solvent, and may differ so much from that effect as to have an opposite sign.
Certain solvents, such as water, liquid ammonia or liquid hydrocyanic acid, possess the power of making some solutes, such as mineral salts and acids, when dissolved in them, conductors of electricity.
The passage of dissolved substances through animal and vegetable membranes was the subject of many early experiments.
The first to make systematic experiments on the free diffusion of dissolved substances with no separating membrane was Thomas Graham (1804-1869), who immersed in a large volume of water a wide-mouthed bottle containing a solution, and after some time measured the quantity of substance which had diffused into the water.
The osmotic pressure of a solution depends on the concentration, and, if we regard the difference in that pressure as the effective force driving the dissolved substance through the solution, we are able to obtain the equation of diffusion in another form.
We should thus expect to find it in increased proportion in the dissolved gases of rain-water.
The weight of a mixture of argon and nitrogen prepared from the dissolved gases showed an excess of 24 mg.
dissolved it in 1650.
The acid so obtained usually contains more or less water and some dissolved nitrogen peroxide which gives it a yellowish red colour.
On the 2nd of September the diet was dissolved; the taxes were continued by electoral ordinance; and the country was placed under martial law.
The substances used as tests in these reactions are caustic potash and calcium hypochlorite; the former being the substance dissolved in an equal weight of water and the latter a saturated extract of bleaching powder in water.
He took the same course soon afterwards with four other papers, two of which - "On the quantity of acids, bases and salts in different varieties of salts" and "On a new and easy method of analysing sugar," contain his discovery, regarded by him as second in importance only to the atomic theory, that certain anhydrous salts when dissolved in water cause no increase in its volume, his inference being that the "salt enters into the pores of the water."
Already the report was abroad that the queen was bent on marriage with Bothwell, whose last year's marriage with the sister of Huntly would be dissolved, and the assent of his wife's brother purchased by the restitution of his forfeited estates.
They are most quickly available when dissolved in sulphuric acid.
When dissolved in water they form active liquid manures.
The professors were deprived, the parliament dissolved, and, on the 27th of November, the ministry dismissed.
The monastery evidently also held another fair there called St Ellen's fair, for in 1583 Queen Elizabeth granted this fair and St Paul's fair and the market "lately belonging to the dissolved monastery of Pontefract" to one Henry Burdett, and Ralph and Henry his sons for their lives.
Many fossils are mineralized with pyrites, which has evidently been reduced by the action of decomposing organic matter on a solution of ferrous sulphate, or perhaps less directly on ferrous carbonate dissolved in water containing carbonic acid, in the presence of certain sulphates.
At Rio Tinto the ore is divided into three classes: (I) The poorest, containing an average of about I i% of copper, which is treated locally by leaching with water and liquor containing ferric sulphate, whereby the copper is dissolved out and afterwards precipitated by pig-iron, whilst the residue is exported as ordinary iron-pyrites.
The abbey was dissolved in 1539.
With nitrous acid (obtained from amyl nitrite and gaseous hydrochloric acid, the ketone being dissolved in acetic acid) they form isonitroso-ketones, R CO CH:NOH (L.
Those parts nearest the fly and best supplied develop barren hyphae only; in a zone at the periphery, where the products of putrefaction dissolved in the water form a dilute but easily accessible supply, the zoosporangia are developed in abundance; oogonia, however, are only formed in the depths of this radiating mycelium, where the supplies of available food materials are least abundant.
It readily forms addition products with chlorine and with hydrogen; the dichloride, C10H8C12, is obtained as a yellow liquid by acting with hydrochloric acid and potassium chlorate; the solid tetrachloride, C,o 11 8 C1 4, results when chlorine is passed into naphthalene dissolved in chloroform.
Thus, sudden cooling from a red heat leaves the carbon not in definite combination as cementite, but actually dissolved in (3and 7-allotropic iron, in the conditions known as martensite and austenite, not granitic but glass-like bodies, of which the " hardened " and " tempered " steel of our cutting tools in large part consists.
The different substances are as it were dissolved in each other in a state which has the indefiniteness of composition, the absolute merging of identity, and the weakness of reciprocal chemical attraction, characteristic of aqueous solutions.
The heat evolved by this process of solidification retards the fall of temperature; but after this the rate of cooling remains regular until T (750°) on the line Sa (Ar 3) is reached, when a second retardation occurs, due to the heat liberated by the passage within the pasty mass of part of the iron and carbon from a state of mere solution to that of definite combination in the ratio Fe 3 C, forming microscopic particles of cementite, while the remainder of the iron and carbon continue dissolved in each other as austenite.
To take a second case, molten hypo-eutectoid steel of 0.20% of carbon on freezing from K to x passes in the like manner to the state of solid austenite, -y-iron with this 0.20% of carbon dissolved in it.
Looking at the matter in a broad way, in all these carbon-iron alloys, both steel and cast irons, part of the carbon may be dissolved in the iron, usually as austenite, e.g.
the carbon which is not dissolved, or the " undissolved carbon," forms either the definite carbide, cementite, Fe C, or else exists in the free state as graphite.
Oxygen, probably dissolved in the iron as ferrous oxide FeO, also makes the metal red-short.
Consequently, when we deoxidize calcium in the iron blastfurnace, it greedily absorbs the sulphur which has been dissolved in the iron as iron sulphide, and the sulphide of calcium thus formed separates from the iron.
Hence in the act of solidifying it expels any excess of gas which it has dissolved while liquid, and this gas becomes entangled in the freezing mass, causing gas bubbles or blowholes, as at A and B in fig.
These additions seem to act in part by deoxidizing the minute quantity of iron oxide and carbonic oxide present, in part by increasing the solvent power of the metal for gas, so that even after freezing it can retain in solution the gas which it had dissolved when molten.
In this process the amine salt is dissolved in absolute alcohol and diazotized by the addition of amyl nitrite; a crystalline precipitate of the diazonium salt is formed on standing, or on the addition of a small quantity of ether.
Hantzsch (Ber., 18 9 6, 2 9, p. 947 1898, 31, p. 1253) has shown that the chlorand bromdiazoniumthiocyanates, when dissolved in alcohol containing a trace of hydrochloric acid, become converted into the isomeric thiocyanbenzene diazonium chlorides and bromides.
Well-dried hydroxylamine hydrochloride is dissolved in methyl alcohol and mixed with sodium methylate; a solution of methyldichloramine in absolute ether is then added and an ethereal solution of diazomethane distils over.
To purify the oxide, it is dissolved in dilute hydrochloric acid until the acid is neatly neutralized, the solution is cooled, filtered, and baryta water is added until a faint permanent white precipitate of hydrated barium peroxide appears; the solution is now filtered, and a concentrated solution of baryta water is added to the filtrate, when a crystalline precipitate of hydrated barium peroxide, Ba0 2 8 H 2 0, is thrown down.
Bronstedt found that at 25°, 10 c.c. of benzene dissolved 0.25 and o 18 gr.
In Portugal and Spain they were dissolved in 1834-1835; in Italy in 1866; in the Prussian dominions in 1871.
The felspathoid minerals, sodalite, haiiyne and nosean, which crystallize in isometric dodecahedra, are very frequent components of the phonolites; their crystals are often corroded or partly dissolved and their outlines may then be very irregular.
When the religious houses were dissolved by Henry VIII., in the case of the greater abbeys and priories the exemptions from payment of tithes enjoyed by them passed to the Crown or the persons to whom the Crown assigned them, and thus any lands which might have been thus exempted, whether they had been actually so or not, were presumed to be exempt; and a further exemption was created by parsonages coming into the same hands as tithable lands, which lasted so long as such union continued.
As soon as the parliament was dissolved he had its proceedings reversed, and next year secured a more subservient assembly.
41 4), was not dissolved before he had ready " a little treatise in English," in which he sought to prove that the points of the royal prerogative which the members were determined to dispute before granting supplies " were inseparably annexed to the sovereignty which they did not then deny to be in the king."
Llan Egwest, dissolved in 1535, was given by James I.
Its dissolved and its suspended matters must both be taken into account.
If it is to be used for warping, or in any way for adding to the solid material of the irrigated land, then the nature and amount of the suspended material are necessarily of more importance than the character of the dissolved substances, provided the latter are not positively injurious.
For use on ordinary water-meadows, however, not only is very clear water often found to be perfectly efficient, but water having no more than a few grains of dissolved matter per gallon answers the purposes in view satisfactorily.
River water, especially that which has received town sewage, or the drainage of highly manured land, would naturally be considered most suitable for irrigation, but excellent results are obtained also with waters which are uncontaminated with manurial matters, and which contain but 8 or io grains per gallon of the usual dissolved constituents of spring water.
It has been contended that irrigation water suffers no change in composition by use, since by evaporation of a part of the pure water the dissolved matters in the remainder would be so increased as to make up for any matters removed.
To remove the iron, the precipitate is again dissolved in ammonium carbonate and steam is blown through the liquid, when beryllium oxide is precipitated.
This process is repeated several times, and the final precipitate is dissolved in hydrochloric acid and precipitated by ammonia, washed and dried.
I do not expect the Union to be dissolved - I do not expect the house to fall - but I do expect it will cease to be divided.
For this purpose a united army was to serve under an imperial general, and all leagues were to be dissolved.
He became a Protestant, dissolved the order, and received in fief of the king of Poland the duchy of Prussia.
On the 26th of June the diet was dissolved, nothing having been done but to reveal the widening gulf between the principle of monarchy and the growing forces of German Liberalism.
The old diet, without being formally dissolved, (an omission that was to have notable consequences) broke up, and the national representatives had before them a clear field.
But the discussions in Brandenburg were no more successful than those in Berlin; and at last, on the 5th of December, the king dissolved the assembly, granted a constitution about which it had riot been consulted, and gave orders for the election of a representative chamber.
Hassenpflug, being detested by the chamber, dissolved it in June 1850; but the new one was not less hostile, and refused to sanction the collection of the taxes until it had considered the budget.
For this offence it also was dissolved, and orders were issued for the raising of the taxes without its consent.
The Union was dissolved; and after Austria had despatched an ultimatum formulating her demands, Baron Manteuffel met Prince Schwarzenberg at Olmutz, and, by a convention signed on the 2gth of November i85o, virtually yielded everything he insisted upon.
The Prussian diet of 1862 was no whit more tractable than its predecessor, but fell to attacking the prof essional army and advocating the extension of the militia (Landwchr) system; on the 11th of March the king dissolved it in disgust, whereupon the Liberal ministry resigned, and was succeeded by the Conservative cabinet of Prince Hohenlohe.
So great was the popular feeling, that a repressive measure would easily have been carried; Bismarck, however, while the excitement was at its height, dissolved the Reichstag, and in the elections which took place immediately, the Liberal parties, who had refused to vote for the first law, lost a considerable number of seats, and with them their control over the Reichstag.
Since 1869 they continued to exist only as voluntary associations with no public duties; many had been dissolved, and this is said to have brought about bad results in the management of lodging-houses, the condition of apprentices, support during illness, and the maintenance of labor bureaus.
Bismarck refused to accept this compromise, and the Reichstag was dissolved.
The House was immediately dissolved.
Parliament was at once dissolved.
When Pertz resigned his editorial position in 1874 and the Gesellschaft was dissolved, twenty-four folio volumes had been published.
distant, was founded in 1232 for Austin canonesses, and dissolved in 1539.
The marriage of his parents, who were second cousins, was dissolved as unlawful by the pope, but the legitimacy of the children was recognized.
Not until the Chamber had been dissolved by military force (February 19, 1906) and an open breach of the constitution seemed within sight did they come to terms with the crown and form an administration.
The first three were immediately dissolved.
The Reichsrath and all the diets were dissolved.
In 1872 the diet was dissolved; and the whole influence of the government was used to procure a German majority.
Parliament was dissolved in the summer, and Taaffe, by private negotiations, first of all persuaded the Bohemian feudal proprietors to give the Feudalists, who had long been excluded, a certain number of seats; secondly, he succeeded where Potocki had failed, and came to an agreement with the Czechs; they had already, in 1878, taken their seats in the diet at Prague, and now gave up the policy of " passive resistance," and consented to take their seats also in the parliament at Vienna.
This matter having been settled, parliament was dissolved.
The Reichsrath was immediately dissolved, the emperor having determined to make a final attempt to get together a parliament with which it would be possible to govern.
In June 1865 parliament was dissolved, and Bright was returned for Birmingham without opposition.
The stomach is globular, rather muscular, with a pair of tendinous centres like those of birds; its size is comparatively small, but the digestion is so rapid and powerful that every bone of the creature's prey is dissolved whilst still being stowed away in the wide and long gullet.
A fiery oration from Nansen dissolved some feeble opposition; and simultaneously Bishop Svane carried the clergy along with him.
The pensionary parliament was dissolved in January 1678-1679, and was succeeded by one still more determined in its antipopery spirit.
Generally speaking this salt, which may contain up to 15% of impurities, goes into commerce just as it is, but in some cases it is taken first to the refinery, where it either is simply washed and then stove-dried before being sent out, or is dissolved in fresh water and then boiled down and crystallized like white salt from rock-salt brine.
The salt has been dissolved out of its original matrix, and the cavity so formed has then been filled with fine clayey or other mineral matter, forming a cubic cast.
Sometimes, to get rid of these impurities, the brine is treated in a large tub-`(bessoir) with lime; on settling it becomes clear and colourless, but the dissolved lime forms a skin on its surface in the pan, retards the evaporation and impedes the crystallization.
The process goes on until a relatively small quantity of water has by instalments dissolved and hydrated the 2CaSO 4 H 2 O, and has deposited CaSO 4.2H 2 O in felted crystals forming a solid mass well cemented together.
The setting of Keene's cement takes place by the same sort of process which has been described for the setting of plaster of Paris, the chief differences being that the substance dissolved is anhydrous calcium sulphate and that the operation takes a longer time.
For small articles, shellac dissolved in spirits of wine is a very convenient cement.
Jewellers' or Armenian cement consists of isinglass with mastic and gum ammoniac dissolved in spirit.
This corporation continued to administer the affairs of the borough until it was dissolved under the Municipal Corporations Act in 1835, when the property belonging to it was vested in charity commissioners.
When exposed to the air it becomes quickly covered with a film of oxide; the tarnished metal when plunged into water reassumes its metallic lustre, the oxide film being quickly dissolved.
An act of 1545 dissolved chantries, colleges and other religious foundations; and in the autumn of 1546 the Spanish ambassador was anticipating further anti-ecclesiastical measures.
The residue is then dissolved in water, decolorized by animal charcoal and saturated at 50 C. with oxalic acid.
The precipitate is dissolved in boiling water, decolorized by potassium permanganate and decomposed by barium carbonate.
In this reaction urea is heated in a dry tube until it gives off ammonia freely; the residue is dissolved in water, made alkaline with caustic soda, and a drop of copper sulphate solution is added, when a fine violet-red coloration is produced.
Riegler (ibid., 18 94, 33, p. 49) decomposes urea solutions by means of mercury dissolved in nitric acid, and measures the evolved gas.
It was dissolved under Edward VI., and a charter was obtained for Walden, appointing a treasurer and chamberlain and twentyfour assistants, all elective, who, with the commonalty, formed the corporation.
Long negotiations ensued, and in March 1875 the old firm was dissolved.
On the front, too, the Russian attack came to a standstill and ebbed, for Soimonov's overcrowded battalions jostled one another and dissolved on the narrow and broken plateau.
Hydrogen they held to be the phlogiston of metals, and they supported this view by pointing out that it was liberated when metals were dissolved in acids.
In 1880 the Victoria University, Manchester, was established, in which teaching and examining were again united; and in the universities since established, with the exception of the Royal University of Ireland (which was created in 1880 as an examining body on the model of London, but which was dissolved under the Irish Universities Act 1908, and replaced by the National University of Ireland and the Queen's University of Belfast), the precedent of Victoria has been followed.
The sulphate, Ce(SO 4) 2.4H 2 O, is formed when the basic sulphate is dissolved in sulphuric acid; or when the dioxide is dissolved in dilute sulphuric acid, and evaporated in vacuo over sulphuric acid.
It is partly dissolved by cold alcohol, the remainder being soluble in ether.
These are the external gills, through which the animal breathes the oxygen dissolved in the water.
But the peace of Antalcidas dissolved this connexion, and barred Argive pretensions to control all Argolis.
The dibrominated product so obtained was then fused with caustic potash, the melt dissolved in water, and on the addition of hydrochloric acid to the solution, alizarin was precipitated.
The melt is dissolved in water and the dyestuff is liberated from the sodium salt by hydrochloric or sulphuric acid, or is converted into the calcium salt by digestion with hot milk of lime, then filtered and the calcium salt decomposed by acid.
This is dissolved in cold concentrated sulphuric acid, in which it forms a yellowish red solution, but on heating to ioo° C. the colour changes to red and violet, and on pouring out upon ice, the monomethyl ether of alizarin is precipitated.
For the second time in the course of this war a conclusive settlement of Afghan affairs seemed now to have been attained; and again, as in 1879, it was immediately dissolved.
The Hanseatic League, however, having never been officially dissolved, Lubeck still enjoyed its traditional connexion with Bremen and Hamburg.
Ferdinand succeeded in getting a reactionary ministry appointed, and dissolved parliament in May 1815, after concluding a treaty with Austria - now freed by Murat's defection from her engagements with him - for the recovery of his mainland dominions by means of an Austrian army paid for by himself.
Parliament was dissolved, the National Guard disbanded and the army recalled from the Po.
The Austrian victories in Lombardy had strengthened the court party, or Camarilla as it was called, and on the 13th of March the assembly was again dissolved, and never summoned again.
When the council was dissolved Martin V.
The metal is obtained from zinc blende (which only contains it in very small quantity) by dissolving the mineral in an acid, and precipitating the gallium by metallic zinc. The precipitate is dissolved in hydrochloric acid and foreign metals are removed by sulphuretted hydrogen; the residual liquid being then fractionally precipitated by sodium carbonate, which throws out the gallium before the zinc. This precipitate is converted into gallium sulphate and finally into a pure specimen of the oxide, from which the metal is obtained by the electrolysis of an alkaline solution.
The Principal Troubles Arose From Damp In The Lagging Which Necessitated The Rejection Of Several Trials, And From Dissolved Air In The Water, Causing Loss Of Heat By The Formation Of Steam.
A kind of thick paste, known as jujube paste, was also made of a composition of gum arabic and sugar dissolved in a decoction of jujube fruit evaporated to the proper consistency.
It was restored by Henry IV., but was dissolved by act of parliament in the reign of Henry V., who bestowed it on his newly-founded charter-house at Sheen.
Soc., 1904, p. 203) have made an exhaustive study of its reactions, and find that it is decomposed by the halogens (dissolved in carbon tetrachloride) with liberation of carbon monoxide and formation of a nickel halide.
Dewar and Jones suggest that in the latter reaction it is the metallic nickel which is probably the reducing agent effecting the change, since it is only dissolved in any quantity when the anthracene hydrocarbon is produced.
Raoult (Comptes Rendus, 1886-87) employed other solvents besides water, and showed that the relative lowering for different solvents and different dissolved substances was the same in many cases for solutions in which the ratio of the number of gramme-molecules n of the dissolved substance to the number of molecules N of the solvent was the same, or that it varied generally in proportion to the ratio n/N.
The most important apparent exceptions to Raoult's law in dilute solutions are the cases, (I) in which the molecules of the dissolved substance in solution are associated to form compound molecules, or dissociated to form other combinations with the solvent, in such a way that the actual number of molecules n in the solution differs from that calculated from the molecular weight corresponding to the accepted formula of the dissolved substance; (2) the case in which the molecules of the vapour of the solvent are associated in pairs or otherwise so that the molecular weight m of the vapour is not that corresponding to its accepted formula.
Thus for calcium chloride the depression of the freezing-point, when n =7, N= l oo, is nearly 60° C. At this point n" = Jo nearly, and the depression should be only 10 4° C. These and similar discrepancies have been very generally attributed to a loose and variable association of the molecules of the dissolved substance with molecules of the solvent, which, according to H.
Van't Hoff showed that the osmotic pressure P due to a number of dissolved molecules n in a volume V was the same as would be exerted by the same number of gas-molecules at the same temperature in the same volume, or that PV = ROn.
It was from this congregation that Luther went forth, and great numbers of the German Augustinian Hermits, among them Wenceslaus Link the provincial, followed him and embraced the Reformation, so that the congregation was dissolved in 1526.
If this be dissolved in water and the solution concentrated, some silicic acid separates and the filtrate deposits triclinic prisms of tungstosilicic acid.
It is sparingly soluble in cold water, but is easily dissolved by potassium carbonate or ammonia.
The principal treaties affecting the distribution of territory between the various states of Central Europe are those of Westphalia (Osnabruck and Miinster), 1648; Utrecht, 1713;1713; Paris and Hubertusburg, 1763; for the partition of Poland, 1772, 1793; Vienna, 1815; London, for the separation of Belgium from the Netherlands, 1831, 1839; Zurich, for the cession of a portion of Lombardy to Sardinia, 1859; Vienna, as to SchleswigHolstein, 1864; Prague, whereby the German Confederation was dissolved, Austria recognizing the new North German Confederation, transferring to Prussia her rights over SchleswigHolstein, and ceding the remainder of Lombardy to Italy, 1866; Frankfort, between France and the new German Empire, 1871.
In 1823 Nicaragua joined the Federal Union of the five Central American states, which was dissolved in 1839.
The gas fumes strongly in moist air, and it is rapidly dissolved by water, one volume of water at o° C. absorbing 503 volumes of the gas.
It has a cathedral, rebuilt in 1814, and some 30 other churches, together with many old conventual buildings now used for secular purposes, their religious communities having been dissolved by Mosquera and their revenues devoted in great measure to education.
On the creation of the republic of Colombia, Bogota became its capital, and when that republic was dissolved into its three constituent parts it remained the capital of Nueva Granada.
When the Burgesses undertook in May 1769 to declare in vigorous resolutions that the right and power of taxation, direct and indirect, rested with the local assembly, the governor hastily dissolved them, but only to find the same men assembling in the Raleigh tavern in Williamsburg and issuing forth their resolutions in defiance of executive authority.
It is slowly dissolved by water with the formation of the acid.
In the case of red wines colouring matter is dissolved from the skins and a certain amount of mineral matter and tannin is extracted.
In May following, when the House of Burgesses was dissolved, he was among the members who met at the Raleigh tavern and adopted a non-importation agreement; and he himself kept the agreement when others did not.
In the plains where drainage is poor, especially in the S., the soils contain too much alkali; but in the highlands most of this has been dissolved and carried away by the rains, and the soils are well adapted for grazing grounds.
The period of the Commonwealth was filled with the strife between these two parties, its bitterness not lessened by the fact that the assembly dissolved in 1653 by Cromwell's soldiers was not allowed to meet again in his protectorate.
Prerogative, despite Bacon's advice and efforts, clashed more than once with liberty; Salisbury's bold schemes for relieving the embarrassment caused by the reckless extravagance of the king proved abortive, and the House was dissolved in February 1611.
The parliament which met in April 1614, in which Bacon sat for Cambridge Univeristy, and was dissolved in June, after a stormy session, was by no means in a frame of mind suitable for the king's purposes.