Their disputes kept them from having fun.
He decided not to build the fence because there were disputes by the neighbors.
The union disputes resulted in a strike.
The parent took away the toys because of the children's ongoing disputes.
She disputes the claim tht she stole the car.
He disputes the story being told.
There had been disputes over the issue for many years.
The border disputes were the beginning of the war.
They maintained order in the markets, settled disputes, examined the quality of the articles exposed for sale, tested weights and measures, collected the harbour dues and enforced the shipping regulations.
The chief feature of the administration of Dr Campos Salles was the statesmanlike ability with which various disputes with foreign powers on boundary questions were seriously taken in hand and brought to a satisfactory and pacific settlement.
Arbitration: agreement to refer future disputes to an independent arbiter, mutually agreed at the outset.
Italy, handled and rehandled, settled and resettled, upon each of these occasions, changed masters without caring or knowing what befell the principals in any one of the disputes.
Disputes with Russia respecting Malta and the British maritime code kept the two states apart for nearly a year; and Austria was too timid to move.
In our own day labour disputes, to take another example, can scarcely ever be resolved into a question of merely pecuniary gain or loss.
In 1868 he was appointed minister to Great Britain and soon after his arrival in England negotiated the Johnson-Clarendon treaty for the settlement of disputes arising out of the Civil War; this, however, the Senate refused to ratify, and he returned home on the accession of General U.
The theological disputes between the Remonstrants and contraRemonstrants found them on different sides; and the theological quarrel soon became a political one.
Meanwhile the principality of Antioch, ruled by Tancred, after the departure of Bohemund (1104-1112), and then by Roger his kinsman (1112-1119), was, during the reign of Baldwin I., busily engaged in disputes both with its Christian neighbours at Edessa and Tripoli, and with the Mahommedan princes of Mardin and Mosul.
The enforced inactivity of a whole winter was the mother of disputes and bad blood; and when Philip sailed for the Holy Land, at the end of March 1191, the failure of the Crusade was already decided.
A few years later, in 1836-1837, large parties of emigrant Boers settled north of the Orange, and before long disputes arose between them and Moshesh, who claimed a great part of the land on which the white farmers had settled.
The British continued to intervene in the inter-tribal disputes.
Boundary disputes at once arose but were settled (1858) by the mediation of Sir George Grey, governor of Cape Colony.
Resolute in recognizing erudition as the chief concern of man, he sighed over the folly of popes and princes, who spent their time in wars and ecclesiastical disputes when they might have been more profitably employed in reviving the lost learning of antiquity.
These disputes involved questions of principle which had long occupied Henry's attention, and Becket's defiant attitude was answered by the famous Constitutions of Clarendon, in which the king defined, professedly according to ancient use and custom, the relations of Church and State.
In a political mission to settle certain disputes in the province he showed his dexterity in managing men.
Her children, in consequence of disputes, abandoned her, and her eldest son Charles Louis refused her a home in his restored electorate.
The continual disputes between the two boroughs led to the passing of an act of union in 1571, the new borough being incorporated under the title of the "Mayor, Bailiffs and Burgesses" by James I.
It lies, amidst a network of canals, immediately to the west and south of its port, which disputes with Bordeaux the rank of third in importance in France.
In the boundary disputes which have followed, Brazil seems to have pursued this traditional policy, and generally with success.
Disturbances then broke out in Rio Grande do Sul, in consequence of disputes between the official party and the people living in the country districts.
Dr Campos Salles had signalized his administration, not only by the settlement of disputes with European powers, but by efforts to arrive at a good understanding with the neighbouring South American republics.
Before long the reciprocal need of fresh territory and frontier disputes, especially concerning Poggibonsi and Montepulciano, led to an outbreak of hostilities between Florence and Siena.
In native cases the chiefs have civil jurisdiction in disputes among their own tribesmen and criminal jurisdiction over natives except in capital cases, offences against the person or property of non-natives, pretended witchcraft, cases arising out of marriages by Christian rites, &c. An appeal lies to a magistrates' court from every judgment of a native chief, and from the magistrates' judgment on such appeal to a native high court.
His administration is notable, not so much for internal affairs but from the fact that he twice acted as arbitrator in disputes in which the Boer states were involved.
But the new administration at Pretoria inherited many disputes with the Zulus, disputes which were in large measure the cause of the war of 187 9.
The possession of this property brought about frequent disputes with an adjoining landowner, Thomas de Grey, and, after many actions in the courts, his friends endeavoured to obtain, by a bill forced through the houses of parliament, the privileges which the law had not assigned to him (February 1774).
So long as vital frontier disputes were unregulated, the central Government in Belgrade held that elections could not be held, and governed for the first two years through a provisional Parliament, for which no one could claim a really representative character.
There is also a special court of arbitration in commercial disputes and another for such as arise under accident insurance.
But apart from the relief suggested being entirely inadequate, it was only to be given on certain conditions, one of which was that all future disputes which might arise between the Transvaal and the Imperial government should be referred to a court of arbitration, of which the president should be a foreigner.
They had endowed it with the manor and hundred of Faversham; this grant caused many disputes between the abbot and men of Faversham concerning the abbot's jurisdiction.
The state of turmoil caused by these religious and political disputes was increased by the possibility of Albert's early death and the necessity in that event for a regency owing to the youth of his only son, Albert Frederick.
After some family disputes the power passed to his brother Thrasybulus, who was driven out next year by a general rising.
His principles were welcomed as a return to nature by those who were weary of theoretical disputes.
In some cases a driver owns his cab, but the majority of vehicles are let to drivers by owners, and the adjustment of terms between them has led to disputes from time to time.
The frontier disputes between the Zulu and the Transvaal Boers ultimately involved the British government and were one of the causes of the war which broke out in 1879.
There were long preliminary disputes.
Thence, like so many of the Marian exiles, he proceeded to Frankfurt, where he endeavoured to compose the disputes between the "Coxians" (see Cox, Richard), who regarded the 1552 Prayer Book as the perfection of reform, and the Knoxians, who wanted further simplification.
As the disputes between Edward I.
We hear incidentally of disputes, seditions and changes, among others the expulsion of the Gamori early in the 5th century B.C. (Thuc. v.
With the Boers who had settled in the Transvaal, however, he was involved in various frontier disputes.
In the event of the company failing to comply with the demands of the department, the latter is empowered to refer the case to the Railway and Canal Commissioners, who form a special Court constituted by the Railway and Canal Traffic Act of 2888, for deciding, among other things, questions relating to rates and charges, for protecting traders from undue charges and undue preference, for regulating questions of traffic, and for deciding certain disputes between railway companies and the public. The Commissioners are then empowered to deal with the matter, and if " a railway company fail to comply with any order made by the Railway and Canal Commissioners, or to enforce the provisions of any schedule " approved by them, it is liable to a fine of a hundred pounds for every day during which the default continues.
The early policy of Ambracia was determined by its loyalty to Corinth (for which it probably served as an entrepot in the Epirus trade), its consequent aversion to Corcyra, and its frontier disputes with the Amphilochians and Acarnanians.
Soon, however, the activity of the Schoffen became specifically confined to the determination of legal disputes, and in their place a new body (Collegium) of counsellors - Ratmannen - also fourteen in number, was appointed for the general administration of local matters.
By the treaty of the 16th of April 1816, by which the territorial disputes between Austria and Bavaria were settled, the succession to the Baden Palatinate was guaranteed to Maximilian I., king of Bavaria, in the expected event of the extinction of the line of Zahringen.
He was also active for many years as Indian commissioner and surveyor-general and helped to settle the New York boundary disputes with Massachusetts and Pennsylvania.
His argumentative force was recognized at once, but the full scope of his powers was first shown on the 2nd of February 1775, when he spoke on the disputes with the colonies.
During the war with Denmark he had his first military experience, being attached to the staff of Marshal von Wrangel; he performed valuable service in arranging the difficulties caused by the disputes between the field marshal and the other officers, and was eventually given a control over him.
After Anne's accession he supported the bills in 1702 and 1704 against occasional conformity, and took a leading part in the disputes which arose between the two Houses.
Owing to this menace of the enemy and disputes over very urgent questions the Provisional National Assembly was elected with difficulty, but in session at Kaunas (Kovno) from Jan.
Its inhabitants had frequent litigations and disputes with their neighbours at Reate in connexion with the regulation of the Velinus, the waters of which are so strongly impregnated with carbonate of lime that by their deposits they tend to block up their own channel.
In 54 B.C. the people of Reate appealed to Cicero to plead their cause in an arbitration which had been appointed by the Roman senate to settle disputes about the river, and in connexion with this he made a personal inspection of Lake Velinus and its outlets.
He was interested in the theological disputes and schisms in Galatia, in the two languages spoken in Cilicia, &c. At Antioch the party remained some time.
He kept them within due bounds by using the influence of the Luxemburgers against them at the papal court; but the disputes between Poland and the order were ultimately settled by the peace of Kalisz (July 2 3, 1 343), when the knights engaged for the first time to pay tribute to the Polish crown.
In the meantime, however, angry disputes had arisen between France and England.
His first charge as primate on "Disputes in the Church" was felt to be a most powerful plea for a more catholic and a more charitable temper, and again and again during the closing years of his life he came back to this same theme.
When the authoritative version was completed all copies of Hafsa's record were destroyed, in order to prevent possible disputes and divisions.
Peters's treaty had given fresh offence and added to the disputes arising in the division of the offices of state, and the factions were on the point of fighting.
Lugard then endeavoured to settle some of the burning disputes relative to the division of lands and chiefships, &c., and to gain the confidence of both parties.
Moreover, in the autumn of 1797 his reputation for political morality (never very bright) was overclouded by questionable dealings with the envoys of the United States sent to arrange a peaceful settlement of certain disputes with France.
But the chronic frontier disputes with Tegea, which turned the two cities into bitter enemies, contributed most of all to determine their several a notable victory but lost his own life.
After the withdrawal of the Thebans from Arcadia Mantineia failed to recover its pre-eminence from Megalopolis, with which city it had frequent disputes.
In the settlement of labour disputes conciliatory methods were successful in the formative period, when the parties to disputes adopted customary attitudes of hostility and fought to the end unless they were reconciled by the Board to a final agreement or to an agreement to arbitrate.
In the same period the mediation of the Board settled disputes affecting 5560 establishments; and in the latter half of this period labour disputes involving hostilities and of the magnitude contemplatedby the statute governing the Board of Conciliation and Arbitration had almost disappeared.
disputes the identification of Keft with Crete.
After the return of Columbus and his supposed demonstration that the Indies could be reached by sailing west, disputes might obviously arise between the two powers as to their respective "spheres of influence."
It was prolonged by her entanglement in European disputes and by political causes, by the want of co-operation among the English colonies and their jealousy of control by the home government.
Sulla retired to Puteoli after his resignation of the dictatorship in 79, and ten days before his death reconciled the disputes of the citizens by giving them a constitution.
Meanwhile the keystone of the regulative system had been laid by the passing of the Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act, under which disputes between employers and unions of workers are compulsorily settled by state tribunals; strikes and lock-outs are virtually prohibited in the case of organized work-people, and the conditions of employment in industries may be, and in many cases are, regulated by public boards and courts.
In 1898 also the municipal franchise, hitherto confined to ratepayers, was greatly widened; in 1900 the English system of compensation to workmen for accidents suffered in their trade was adopted with some changes, one of the chief being that contested claims are adjudicated upon cheaply and expeditiously by the same arbitration court that decides industrial disputes.
During the life of Arminius a bitter controversy had sprung up between his followers and the strict Calvinists, led by Francis Gomar, his fellow-professor at Leiden; and, in order to decide their disputes, a synodical conference was proposed, but Arminius died before it could be held.
In the same year the disputes between the Basutos and the Boers culminated in open war.
The peace was nominal only, while the burghers were also involved in disputes with other tribes.
For the settlement of disputes between labourers and employers there is a state board, appointed by the governor and consisting of an employer of labour, a labourer and a disinterested citizen.
He believed that international controversies would ultimately be settled by judicial procedure, and in the Russo-Japanese War and the establishment of the Hague Court he took an active part in promoting the judicial settlement of disputes between nations.
In disputes between states, arbitration has long played an important part (see [[International arbitration).
The present article is restricted to arbitration under municipal law; but a separate article is also devoted to the use of arbitration in labour disputes (see Arbitration And Conciliation).
The committee of a lunatic, with the sanction of the judge in lunacy, may refer disputes to arbitration.
Under the law prior to the act of 1889 (a) an agreement to refer disputes generally, without naming the arbitrators, was always irrevocable, and an action lay for the breach of it, although the court could not compel either of the parties to proceed under it; (b) an agreement to refer to a particular arbitrator was revocable, and if one of the parties revoked that particular arbitrator's authority he could not be compelled to submit to it; (c) when, however, the parties had got their tribunal fixed, and were proceeding to carry out the agreement to refer, the act 9 and io Will.
Provisions for the arbitration of special classes of disputes are contained in many acts of parliament, e.g.
The Conciliation Act 1896 provides machinery for the prevention and settlement of trade disputes, and in 1892 a chamber of arbitration for business disputes was established by the joint action of the corporation of the city of London and the London chamber of commerce.
Under the common law of Scotland, a submission of future disputes or differences to an arbiter, or arbiters, unnamed, was ineffectual except where the agreement to refer did not contemplate the decision of proper disputes between the parties but the adjustment of some condition, or the liquidation of some obligation, contained in the contract of which the agreement to submit formed a part.
Ample provision is made in America for the arbitration of labour disputes.
In cases of mercantile partnerships, arbitration was formerly compulsory; but in 1856 (law of the 17th of July 1856) jurisdiction in disputes between parties was conferred on the Tribunals of Commerce (as to which see Code de Commerce, arts.
In the manufacturing towns of France, there are also boards of umpires (Conseils de Prud'hommes) to deal with trade disputes between masters and workmen belonging to certain specified trades.
The Railway Department was originally constituted in 1840, and performs multifarious duties under various railway acts, including the inspection of railways before they are open, inquiries into accidents, reports on proposed railways, approval of by-laws, appointment of arbitrators in disputes, as well as many duties under private railway.
Disputes resulted, and on some points Peckham gave way, but his powers as papal legate complicated matters, and he did much to strengthen the court of Canterbury at the expense of the lower courts.
To those who, in order to promote the cause of international arbitration, are desirous of acquiring a knowledge of the dangers and difficulties which beset this mode of settling disputes, the account which Palmer has left of his part in this arbitration may be commended.
He was occupied chiefly with affairs of the principalities of Anspach and Bayreuth, newly acquired by Prussia, and especially in the settlement of disputes with Bavaria as to their boundaries.
Disputes with frontier tribes led to complications with France, who asserted that the Siamese were occupying territory that rightfully belonged to Annam, which was now under French protection.
For native justice there are courts in the districts and regencies; residents act as police judges; provincial councils have judicial powers, and there are councils of priests with powers in matrimonial disputes, questions of succession, &c.
Further disputes occurred from time to time, and in 1542 a Spanish fleet came into conflict with the Portuguese off Amboyna; but after 1529 the supremacy of each power in its own sphere was never seriously endangered.
Various disputes between Great Britain and the Netherlands, arising chiefly out of the transfer of power in Java and the British occupation of Singapore (1819), were settled by treaty between the two powers in 1824.
about the Pelagians (whom he was not inclined to regard as heretical), gave from his own point of view an account of the disputes which had recently arisen within his patriarchate.3 While ordinarily Rome might have been expected to hold the balance between the contrasted schools of thought, as Leo was able later to do, it is not surprising that this implied appeal proved unsuccessful, for Celestine naturally resented any questioning of the Roman decision concerning the Pelagians and was jealous of the growing power of the upstart see of the Nova Roma of the East.
In large industrial centres there are also industrial courts to deal with disputes between employers and workpeople.
The Arminian controversy in the Reformed church, the Jansenist controversy in the Roman Catholic church, had their parallel in three separate disputes among the Lutherans lasting from 1550 to 1580.
Some disputes between Baden and Bavaria remained unsettled, and many questions arising out of the new federal constitution of Germany, which had been hurriedly patched together under the influence of the news of Napoleon's return, had to be postponed for further discussion, and were not settled until the Final Act agreed upon by the conference of German statesmen at Vienna in 1821.
Many other disputes speedily followed and when the final struggle between the English and French for possession in America came, although appropriations were made at its beginning to protect her own west frontier from the attacks of the enemy, a dead-lock between the two branches of the assembly prevented Maryland from responding to repeated appeals from the mother country for aid in the latter part of that struggle.
Yet in the next family Alonella nana (Baird) disputes the palm and claims to be the smallest of all known Arthropoda.
But after the fall of Jerusalem, partly through the need for systematizing the traditional post-biblical law, and partly through disputes with the Christians, orthodox Rabbinism received the stamp which has since characterized it.
When there were eight Groot families, disputes began to arise as to precedence at annual feasts.
There were transient disputes with the United States (1886, 1888).
From 1676 to 1759 New Hampshire suffered greatly from the Indians, and the fear of them, together with the boundary disputes and Mason's claims, retarded settlement.
It was full time, for Schelling's undoubtedly overweening self-confidence had involved him in a series of disputes and quarrels at Jena, the details of which are important only as illustrations of the evil qualities in Schelling's nature which deface much of his philosophic work.
Nevertheless his reputation was so great that he was accepted as an arbitrator in doctrinal disputes amongst the reformers.
By his theory of the disputes between the patricians and plebeians arising from original differences of race he drew attention to the immense importance of ethnological distinctions, and contributed to the revival of these divergences as factors in modern history.
These disputes, involving as they did the question of the relative powers of Congress and the states, tended to turn the Democratic-Republicans, who were becoming nationalized, back again toward their old state sovereignty principles - to prepare the way for the Jacksonian-Democratic Party.
His great literary power, his reputation for benevolence, and his known toleration and dislike of doctrinal disputes caused him to be much more favourably regarded than most churchmen by the philosophes of the 18th century.
The treaty included regulations for the improvement of commerce and navigation in the area affected by the war, and provided for the settlement of subsequent disputes by the arbitration of the United States and Mexico.
The prince had to pay 7000 thalers to the elector of Saxony and 3500 to the duke of Saxe-Weimar, and numerous disputes arose in connexion with the superiorities thus indicated.
When, owing to disputes between Icelandic and Norwegian merchants, Skuli thought of a military expedition to Iceland, Snorri promised to make the inhabitants submit to Haakon of their own free will.
In 1663 he was actually invited to choose a governor after his own mind and did so, but with no cessation of the old disputes.
This was the first time that a colonist had been called upon to assist in the settlement of international disputes.
But modern commentators, possessed by the fallacy that Aristotle like a modern author must from the first have comtemplated a whole treatise in a regular order for definite publication, lose themselves in vain disputes as to whether to go by the traditional order of books indicated by their letters and known to have existed as early as the abstract (given in Stobaeus, Ed.
So Early As The Znd Century Of Our Era, Great Disputes Had Arisen Among The Christians Respecting The Proper Time Of Celebrating Easter, Which Governs All The Other Movable Feasts.
He also settled some religious disputes in the town of Lubeck.
He held for some years the office of court-preacher at Weimar, but owing to theological disputes was compelled to resign this office in 1561.
This position was inherited from father to son, though the old Turkish idea of the rights of the elder brother often caused rebellions and violent family disputes.
This system led to disputes and neglect, and was so unworkable that we find in the texts of the Middle Kingdom the whole responsibility put upon one well-endowed "ko-servant," who passed on his office to a single heir.
After the death of Theobald in 1161, John continued as secretary to Thomas Becket, and took an active part in the long disputes between that primate and his sovereign, Henry II.
The first account of the borough and its privileges is contained in an inquisition taken in 1333 after the death of Anthony, bishop of Durham, which shows that the burgesses held the town with the markets and fairs at a fee-farm rent of 40 marks yearly, and that they had two reeves who sat in court with the bishop's bailiff to hear the disputes of the townspeople.
In the final act, the conference went farther in agreeing to the " principle of compulsory arbitration," declaring that " certain disputes, in particular those relating to the interpretation and application of the provisions of international agreements, are suitable (susceptible) to be submitted to compulsory arbitration without any restriction."
Fourthly, the convention recommends that in disputes of an international nature, involving neither national honour nor vital interests, and arising from a difference of opinion on points of fact, the parties who have not been able to come to an agreement by means of diplomacy should institute an international commission of inquiry to facilitate a solution of these disputes by an investigation of the facts.
He took part, with much charity and mildness, in the Oxford disputes against Cranmer, Latimer and Ridley; but he had no liking for the fierce bigotry and bloody measures then in force against Protestants.
From the letters patent addressed to the bailiffs of Padstow demanding the survey and delivery of ships for foreign service, the appointment of a king's butler for the port, and the frequent recourse which was had to the king's courts for the settlement of disputes of shipping, Padstow appears to have been a port of considerable repute in the 14th century.
In its most simple and attractive form - one at the same time invested with the authority of the reputed holy author - their account of the creation of the world and of man; the origin of sin and redemption, the history of the Cross, and the disputes between body and soul, right and wrong, heaven and hell, were embodied either in "Historiated Bibles" (Paleya 1) or in special dialogues held between Christ and his disciples, or between renowned Fathers of the Church who expounded these views in a simple manner adapted to the understanding of the people (Lucidaria).
They always kept up relations of some kind, especially by means of pilgrimages, and it was admitted that in any disputes which might arise with the Eastern Church the pope had the right to speak as representative of the whole of the Western Church.
Not only did the monks continue to seek from the papacy the confirmation of their privileges and property, but they also referred almost all their disputes to the arbitration of the pope.
In the court of chancery it is the practice to hear in private cases affecting wards of the court and lunatics, family disputes (by consent), and cases where a public trial would defeat the object of the action (Andrew v.
During Penn's life the colony was involved in serious boundary disputes with Maryland, Virginia and New York.
It has also the duty of deciding disputes as to the competency of the other Congregations.
This congregation was very much occupied, being empowered to deal with all disciplinary matters concerning both the secular and regular clergy, whether in the form of consultations or of contentious suits; it had further the exclusive right to regulate the discipline of the religious orders and congregations bound by the simple vows, the statutes of which it examined, corrected and approved; finally it judged disputes and controversies between the secular and regular clergy.
in 1563, and reorganized by Sixtus V.; its mission is to promote the observation of these disciplinary decrees, to give authoritative interpretations of them, and to reconcile disputes arising out of them.
This led to frequent disputes, and a mixed boundary commission was therefore appointed under the new treaty and determined more satisfactory boundaries.
The new treaty, moreover, stipulates that all future disputes shall be referred to arbitration.
He never enjoyed the confidence of the court to which he was accredited, and frittered away his influence in disputes about precedence.
9 Even in 13th century England more than half the population were serfs, and as such had no claim to the privileges of Magna Carta; disputes between a serf and his lord were decided in the latter's court, although the king's courts attempted to protect the serf's life and limb and necessary implements of work.
The sovereign undertook to consult the knights before embarking on a war, all disputes between the knights were to be settled by the order, at each chapter the deeds of each knight were held in review, and punishments and admonitions were dealt out to offenders; to this the sovereign was expressly subject.
Henry was disliked by the Bavarians and his short reign was spent mainly in disputes with his people.
No sooner was peace concluded than bitter disputes arose between the provincial States of Holland and the prince of Orange, supported by the other six provinces, upon the question of the disbanding of the military forces.
Disputes had been constantly recurring between Dutch and English traders in the East Indies and elsewhere, and the seeds were already sown of that stern rivalry which was to issue in a series of fiercely contested wars.
Friction and disputes had frequently arisen between the Dutch and the English English traders in different parts of the world, and especially in the East Indies, culminating in the so-called Massacre of Amboyna "; and the strained relations between the two nations would, but for the civil discords in England, have probably led to active hostilities during the reign of Charles I.
They defeated the Fanti, stirred up disputes at Elmina, and encamped at Mampon near Cape Coast, to the great alarm of the inhabitants.
But the full significance of his work on the theological side was not at the time perceived, and justice has barely been done to the admirable manner in which he reduced the theological disputes of the century to their ultimate elements.
For the next 500 years they were given over to their own internal disputes, until they came under the power of Ibrahim Pasha in 1832.
The chambers argued that Belgium had been induced to agree to the twenty-four articles in 1832 in the hope of thereby at once terminating all harassing disputes, but as Holland refused then to accept them, the conditions were no longer binding and the circumstances were now quite changed.
He studied at Geneva, Leyden and Paris, before becoming (1700) professor of philosophy and mathematics at the academy of Lausanne, of which he was four times rector before 1724, when the theological disputes connected with the Consensus led him to accept a chair of philosophy and mathematics at Groningen.
The hero's later years were spent in fighting against Marbod, prince of the Marcomanni, and in disputes with his own people occasioned probably by his desire to found a powerful kingdom.
The archbishop of Canterbury, Robert Kilwardby, was also his friend; but after Kilwardby's death in 1279 a series of disputes arose between the bishop and the new archbishop, John Peckham, and this was probably the cause which drove Cantilupe to visit Italy.
Allowing himself to be involved in the ecclesiastical disputes by which Hungary was divided in 1895, he was made the subject of formal complaint by the Hungarian government and in 1896 was recalled.
He made himself conspicuous by his support of Walpole on the question of the excise, and in 1 743 a union of parties resulted in the formation of an administration in which Pelham was prime minister, with the office of chancellor of the exchequer; but rank and influence made his brother, the duke of Newcastle, very powerful in the cabinet, and, in spite of a genuine attachment, there were occasional disputes between them, which led to difficulties.
In 522 the young Amalaric was proclaimed king, and four years later, on Theodoric's death, he assumed full royal power in Spain and a part of Languedoc, relinquishing Provence to his cousin Athalaric. He married Clotilda, daughter of Clovis; but his disputes with her, he being an Arian and she a Catholic, brought on him the penalty of a Frankish invasion, in which he lost his life in 531.
The disputes between England and her American colonies had reached a point at which no amicable adjustment was possible.
There are, further, Verwaltungsgerichte (administrative courts) for the adjustment of disputes between the various organs of local government, and other special courts, such as military, consular and arbitration courts (Schiedsgericht).
They are also competent to deal with all disputes as to wages, and letting and hiring, without regard to the value of the object in dispute.
Over these and other similar points many disputes had arisen, and, having been crowned emperor at Rome in April 1355, Charles decided to set these doubts at rest.
Without any inte1ference from the central authority wars were Germany waged in every part of the country, and disputes of ~~ick.
Caring little or nothing about doctrinal disputes, but a great deal about increasing his own.
At first this great king was coldly received by the Protestants, who were ignorant of his designs and did not want a stranger to profit by the internal disputes of their country.
these disputes, France formed an alliance with the two electors and with the king of Prussia against Austria; and in the war which followed the allies were at first so successful that the elector of Bavaria, through the influence of France, was crowned emperor as Charles VII.
in the midst of these disputes the attention of the nation was occupied by a question which had arisen before the outbreak of the revolutionary movementsthe soSchies- called Schleswig-Holstein question.
The constitution having been destroyed by the Blind, the elector proclaimed one of his own making; but even the chamber elected under the provisions of this despotic scheme could not tolerate his hateful tyranny, and there were incessant disputes between it and the government.
The number of states of which the empire consists has remained unaltered;i occasional disputes have been settled harmoniously in a legal The em- manner.
Bismarck, knowing that nothing would more impede the consolidation of the empire than an outbreak of local patriotism, always so jealous of its rights, generally used his influence to avoid constitutional disputes, and discouraged the discussion of questions which would require an authoritative interpretation of the constitution.
Many of the Germans were, however, not contented with this, and disputes regarding the rights of German settlers in Fiji caused some change of feeling.
It must, however, be recognized that a continuation of the ambitious policy of the last few years might easily have involved Germany in dangerous disputes.
Ragusan policy was usually peaceful, and disputes with other nations were frequently arranged by a system of arbitration called stanicum.
With full control of jurisdiction and of commerce, no great bishopric nor imperial city impeded the course of their authority, and the emperor interfered only to settle boundary disputes.
The disputes which resulted in the Crimean War revealed the fact that " gratitude " plays but a small part in international affairs.
This was the case as regards marriage; all disputes were to be tried before ecclesiastical courts, and the marriage registers were kept by the priests.
This would probably have been fatal to the coalition, but the final blow was given by a matter of very small importance arising from the disputes on nationality.
Sicily thus remained a world of its own, with interests and disputes of its own, and divided among inhabitants of various nations.
The disputes between Segesta and Selinus called in these enemies also.
Thus at Messina, where we hear nothing of Saracens, we hear much of the disputes between Greeks and Lombards.
These brought together as many copies as they could lay their hands on, and prepared an edition which was to be canonical for all Moslems. To prevent any further disputes, they burned all the other codices except that of IIaf sa, which, however, was soon afterwards destroyed by Merwan the governor of Medina.
In 1897, at a time when disputes with France upon the western frontier had reached a very active stage, the company entered upon a' campaign against the Mahommedan sovereign of Nupe.
In the Ptolemaic age matters arising out of native contracts were decided according to native law by)saoKptrat, while travelling courts of xpnuarurrai representing the king settled litigation on Greek contracts and most other disputes.
Ecclesiastical disputes tended to alienate both the native population and the Alexandrians.
Mahommed al~ulaibI, while owing to the disputes between the Turkish generals who claimed supremacy at Bagdad, Mostanlirs name was mentioned in public prayer at that metropolis on the 12th of January 1058, when a Turkish adventurer BassIri was for a time in power.
The disputes between his favorite, the vizier Ibn al-Salus, and his viceroy Baidara.
The murder of Ibrhim Bey took place in 1755, and his colleague Ri~lw~n perished in the disputes that followed upon it.
The point is of importance, as in 1892 and again in 1906 boundary disputes arose between Turkey and Egypt (see below).
Old commercial disputes and the support which the French had lent to Glendower gave a sufficient excuse for war, whilst the disordered state of France afforded no security for peace.
The French were paralysed by the disputes of Burgundians and Armagnacs.
He was sheriff of Nottingham in 1853, and in 1859 organized the first courts of arbitration for the settlement of disputes between masters and men.
It is impossible will' here to analyse the disputes as to whether, in Freeman's words, " from this time to the 14th century " (he means, to Bannockburn) " the vassalage of Scotland was an essential part of the public law of the Isle of Britain."
There were disputes with Henry, who demanded the extradition of fugitive friars, which James refused.
The committee of Estates, on hard terms, gave an indemnity to Royalists whose swords they needed; many ministers acquiesced (" The Resolutioners "), the more fanatical dissidents were called " Remonstrants," and now the kirk was rent in twain by the disputes of these two factions.
(2) They condemned oaths, and also the reference of disputes between believers to law-courts.
Theophilus, bishop of Alexandria, at the request of Siricius, had two important disputes settled by two councils held in 393 at Caesarea and Contantinople, relating respectively to the sees of Antioch and Bostra.
He thus gravitated more towards Cromwell and the army party, but he took no part either in the disputes between the army and the parliament or in the trial of the king.
Under an agreement of the 15th of December 1894, the disputes were to be decided by the Spanish sovereign as arbitrator, but nothing was accomplished.
For some years he took no very prominent part in Parliamentary life, being actively engaged outside in the interests of his railwaymen, who, besides many smaller disputes, came out in a body in the great strike of 1911.
Throughout the war; Mr. Thomas, while securing large advances of wages for the railway servants, used his unique influence with them in composing disputes and preventing any stoppage which should interfere with national interests; and for this considerable service he was made a privy councillor in 1917.
C A O p the reactionaries in Labour disputes as they would with Bolshevists, and upon the employers to recognize that the working classes could no longer be treated by them as hewers of wood and drawers of water.
In the disputes in March 1919, between the railwaymen and the Government, he was the chief leader of the men, and at a moment of crisis he flew across to Paris to discuss the question with Mr. Lloyd George, then in attendance at the Peace Conference.
The feast of tabernacles brings fresh disputes in Jerusalem, and an attempt is made to arrest Jesus.
In these disputes he usually gained something, and it was not until 1895 that he was definitely defeated in his endeavours to obtain a seaport.
In 1804, however, the family were restored to Gohad by the British government; but, owing to the opposition of Sindhia, the rana agreed in 1805 to exchange Gohad for his present territory of Dholpur, which was taken under British protection, the chief binding himself to act in subordinate co-operation with the paramount power, and to refer all disputes with neighbouring princes to the British government.
Around their tombs their descendants settle, and thus sacred villages, often of considerable size, spring up. Almost every village, too, has its saint or prophet, and disputes as to their relative sanctity and powers cause fierce feuds.
Thowt, Zhwty), the mouthpiece and recorder of the gods, and arbiter of their disputes.
It was probably due to the strength and solidity of the executive administration organized, during his lifetime, by Abdur Rahman that, for the first time in the records of the dynasty founded by Ahmad Shah in the latter part of the 18th century, his death was not followed by disputes over the succession or by civil war.
1, 1), swordsmanship, and forensic argumentation, implies that they came to eristic not from the sophistry of Socrates, but from that of the later humanists, polymaths of the type of Hippias; (2) that the fifth and sixth definitions of the Sophist, in which " that branch of eristic which brings pecuniary gain to the practitioner " is opposed to the " patience-trying, purgative elenchus " of Socrates, indicate that contemporary with Socrates there were eristics whose aims were not his; (3) that, whereas the sophist of the final definition " disputes, and teaches others to dispute, about things divine, cosmical, metaphysical, legal, political, technical, in fact, about all things," we have no ground for supposing that the Megarians and the Cynics used their eristic for any purpose except the defence of their logical heresies.
An administrative tribunal settles, without appeal, questions of tribute, disputes concerning family, village or tribal landmarks, as well as suits involving the colonial government.
He would probably have been more successful but for the confusion caused by the disputes in his own household.
In 1840 he was Privatdozent of theology at Tubingen, in 1847 professor of theology at Bern, in 1849 professor of theology at Marburg, migrating soon afterwards to the faculty of philosophy as the result of disputes with the Clerical party.
The "commercial weapons" with which he wished to prevent armed conflict proved less useful in his day than they have since been in international disputes.
These entered into disputes over the location of the capital and the custom-house, in the Franciscan question also (because the friars came some from a northern and some from a southern college), and in the question of the distribution of commands in the army and offices in the civil government.
to the peaceful settlement of international disputes, or to the conduct of warfare.
Quasi-legislation by treaty has been directed mainly to encouraging the settlement of international disputes by peaceful methods, and to regulating the conduct of warfare.
The disputes to which this attitude gave rise, known in the Church as the Syncretistic controversy, lasted during the whole lifetime of Calixtus, and distracted the Lutheran church, till a new controversy arose with P. J.
In 1382 the archbishop's visitation led to disputes with the bishops of Exeter and Salisbury, and Courtenay was only partially able to enforce the payment of a special tax to meet his expenses on this occasion.
Emund, who was given the name Slemme, had territorial disputes with Denmark in the early part of his reign.
These disputes were settled by a rectification of boundaries which assigned Blekinge to Denmark.
Steinkel also had disputes with Denmark.
of September the delegates came to an agreement, the principal points of which were: that such disputes between the two countries which could not be settled by direct diplomatic negotiations, and which did not affect the vital interests of either country, should be referred to the permanent court of arbitration at the Hague, that on either side of the southern frontier a neutral zone of about fifteen kilometres width should be established, and that within eight months the fortifications within the Norwegian part of the zone should be destroyed.
He was still secretary when the Canadian rebellion broke out in 1837; his wavering and feeble policy was fiercely attacked in parliament; he became involved in disputes with the earl of Durham, and the movement for his supercession found supporters even among his colleagues in the cabinet.
Such time as the officials could spare from the main object of enriching themselves by extortion and corruption was given up to endless official and religious ceremonies and to petty disputes of etiquette and precedence.
In order that future disputes might be amicably settled, a treaty was signed by which it was agreed that any question that might arise should be submitted to the arbitration of Great Britain or in default of that power to the Swiss Confederation.
The death of every bishop was always the signal for violent disputes among the neighbouring feudal states, each of them intriguing to secure the election of its own candidate; but, as stated above, Brabant and Gelderland had at last to recognize the fact of the supremacy of Holland over the see.
This boundary has remained unsettled, and disputes have frequently arisen between the Turkish and Persian governments with regard to their respective claims to land (Hertslet, Persian Treaties).
The functions of the representatives of the s/ar are now limited to civil cases, while all criminal cases are referred to the urf, which, however, also takes cognizahce of civil disputes, should the parties desire it.
But there was no open rupture between the two sovereigns until 1821, when the frontier disputes and complaints of Persian travellers, merchants and pilgrims culminated in a declaration of war.
The abbesses, however, retained certain rights of jurisdiction, and disputes between them and the Prussian government were frequent until the secularization of the abbey in 1803.
which broke out in Guienne in 1337,were the disputes arising in connexion with the French possessions of the English kings, in respect to which they were vassals of the kings of France; the pretensions of Edward III.
The day of such disputes was, however, drawing to a close.
He was appointed as the referee in all disputes.
Additional decisions were necessitated by the violent disputes which raged within the Franciscan order as to the observance of the rules of St Francis of Assisi, and by the multitude of subordinate questions arising from this.
From the commencement of his reign he found himself involved in disputes with Ranjit Singh, the Sikh ruler of the Punjab, who used the dethroned Saduzai prince, Shuja-ul-Mulk, as his instrument.
Though the army as a whole was monarchist, certain regiments had become imbued with revolutionary ideals, which were fortified by the unwise employment of soldiers and sailors for the suppression of industrial disputes.
But, on the other hand, he takes absolutely no interest in dogmatic subtleties and clerical disputes; he regards them as the source of great evils, and expresses his craving for peace: "one ought to adore the ineffable mystery in silence."
In the preface to his fifth book he excuses his trenching on the region of political history on the ground of his desire to spare his readers the disgust which perusal of the endless disputes of the bishops could not fail to excite, and in that to his sixth book he prides himself on never having flattered even the orthodox bishops.
Estimates of area vary widely and have been considerably confused by repeated losses of territory in boundary disputes with neighbouring states, and no figures can be given which may not be changed to some extent by further revisions.
There are good reasons for thinking that the Christian story did not originate with John of Damascus, and a strong case has been made out by Zotenberg that it reflects the religious struggles and disputes of the early 7th century in Syria, and that the Greek text was edited by a monk of Saint Saba named John, his version being the source of all later texts and translations.
The title of consul, in the sense in which it is used in international law, is derived from that of certain magistrates, in the cities of medieval Italy, Provence and Languedoc, charged with the settlement of trade disputes whether by sea or land (consules mercatorum, consules artis maxis, &c.).
By the treaty of 1816 with Sweden the United States government agreed that the consuls of the two states respectively should be sole judges in disputes between captains and crews of vessels.
Again he fully accepts the influence of the stars on the production of the metals, whereas the Latin Geber disputes it, and in general the chemical knowledge of the two is on a different plane.
Wenceslas on the occasion of these disputes displayed the weakness and irresolution that always characterized him, but Queen Sophia openly favoured the cause of Huss, who for some time was her confessor.
Indifference, perhaps founded on religious scepticism, characterized the king during the many ecclesiastical disputes that played so large a part in his reign.
Disputes arose when theologians tried to explain the latter phrase.
The theological calmness of the West, amid the violent theological disputes which troubled the Eastern patriarchates, and the statesmanlike wisdom of Rome's greater bishops, combined to give a unique position to the pope, which councils in vain strove to shake, and which in time of difficulty the Eastern patriarchs were fain to acknowledge and make use of, however they might protest against it and the conclusions deduced from it.
Political jealousies and interests intensified the disputes, and at last, after many premonitory symptoms, the final break came in 1054, when Pope Leo IX.
This liturgy and the service generally are either in Old Greek or in Old Slavonic, and frequent disputes have arisen in particular districts about the language to be employed.
The peaceful designs of Frithigern were meanwhile thwarted by the ill-treatment which the Goths suffered from the Roman officials, which led first to disputes and then to open war.
The early part of his life is taken up with various disputes, intrigues and wars within the Eastern empire, in which he has as his rival another Theodoric, son of Triarius, and surnamed Strabo.
Comines wrote well of her that she would have done more prudently if she had endeavoured to adjust the disputes of the rival factions instead of saying "I am of this party, and will maintain it" (Memoires vi.
The prerogative court, which is presided over by the chancellor as ordinary and surrogate-general, or by a vice-ordinary and vice-surrogate-general, may hear appeals from the orphans' court, and has the authority to grant probate of wills and letters of administration and guardianship, and to hear and determine disputes arising therein.
The next four decades were years of development disturbed, however, by friction between the assembly and the royal governors, and by bitter disputes, accompanied by much rioting, with the proprietors concerning land-titles (1744-1749) Independence of the absentee landlords was again claimed by virtue of the grants made by Nicolls nearly a century before.
A board of arbitration and conciliation to hear and determine labour questions and disputes was formed, and by later legislation its powers have been strengthened.
Whatever disputes there may be as to the relative strength of the various churches and sects, there can be no questioning the fact that the dominant religion in England is Protestant Christianity.
The assembly of all householders in villages of less than 30 households, and of 30 elected men in villages having from 30 to 300 households (dne from each io households in the more populous ones), constitutes the village assembly, similar to the mir, but having wider attributes, which assesses the taxes, divides the land, takes measures for the opening and support of schools, village grain-stores, communal cultivation, and so on, and elects its ataman (elder) and its judges, who settle all disputes up to fio (or above that sum with the consent of both sides).
The international disputes connected with this description are referred to below.
Both Portland Canal and Lynn Canal are of historical importance, as the question of the true location of the first and the commercial importance to Canada or to the United States of the possession of the second, were the crucial contentions in the disputes over the Alaska-Canadian boundary.
Lord Keith refused to be led into disputes, and confined himself to declaring steadily that he had his orders to obey.
Disputes arose for the first time between the crown of England and the see of Rome in the reign of William Rufus, the pope claiming to dispose of the English bishoprics; and ultimately King John, by his charter Ut liberae sent electiones totius Angliae (1214), granted that the bishops should be elected freely by the deans and chapters of the cathedral churches, provided the royal permission was first asked, and the royal assent was required after the election.
His quarrel with the Jesuits, and the recollection of some disputes with the pope he had had when king of Naples, turned him towards a general policy of restriction of the overgrown power of the church.
Naples disputes with Constantinople the claim of occupying the most beautiful site in Europe.
We see him living on terms of constant affection with his father, and in disputes with his brothers not the aggressor but the sufferer from aggression.
Alike in his troubles with his turbulent subjects and in the perennial disputes with his neighbours he pursued a strong, far-sighted and successful policy.
The chief mineral product in Bengal is coal, which disputes with the gold of Mysore for the place of premier importance in the mining industries of India.
Community of creed, ancient traditional influence, the entire absence of Russian merchants, and t the consequent avoidance of many small commercial rivalries, contributed to bring about a sort of passive preference for Russia, while the bitter disputes that had occurred with Germany on the question of railway finance had left a very hostile feeling.
There is also a State Board of Mediation and Arbitration to settle labour disputes.
The loss of the department of Panama left the republic with unsettled frontiers on every side, and some of the boundary disputes still unsolved in 1909 concern immense areas of territory.
With Ecuador and Peru the boundary disputes are extremely complicated, certain parts of the disputed territory being claimed by all three republics.
A marriage between the heiress of Castelbo and Roger Bernard, count of Foix, carried the rights of the above-named Spanish counts into the house of Foix, and hence subsequently to the crown of France, when the heritage of the feudal system was absorbed by the sovereign; but the bishops of Urgel claimed certain rights, which after long disputes were satisfied by the "Act of Division" executed in 1278.
It was a fortunate circumstance that these disputes did not so thoroughly damp Newton's ardour as he at the time felt they would.
Karlsruhe takes its name from Karl Wilhelm, margrave of Baden, who, owing to disputes with the citizens of Durlach, erected here in 1715 a hunting seat, around which the town has been built.
The two years that followed the loss of Normandy were a time of growing discontent and incessant disputes about taxation.
When called to account for the doings of his subjects, as well as for certain disputes in Gascony, the English king promised redress, and, on the suggestion of Philip, surrendered, as a formal act of apology, the six chief fortresses of Guienne, which were to be restored when reparation had been made.
was something more ambitious than a mere attempt to recover Bordeaux; succours were to go to Gascony, but he Disputes himself and the main army were to invade France from with the the north with the aid of the count of Flanders.
pedition, a2id in raising it Edward became involved in ~two desperate constitutional disputes.
his famous theses on the church door at Wittenberg, and since he had testified to his faith before the diet of Worms. All Germany was now convulsed with the first throes of the revolt against the papacy, and the echoes of the new theological disputes were being heard in England.
Under any circumstances, neither the training nor the position of judges is such as to make them fit to be the final arbiters of political disputes.
The disputes with the United States were satisfactorily composed; and not only were the differences with France terminated, but a perfect understanding was formed between the two countries, under which Guizot, the prime minister of France, and Lord Aberdeen, the foreign minister of England, agreed to compromise all minor questions for the sake of securing the paramount object of peace.
(For the details and disputes concerning the terms of this convention the reader is referred to ~the articles TRANSvAAL and SuZERAINTY.)
But the English Liberals were already a little weary of allies who were quarrelling among themselves, and whose disputes were introducing a new factor into politics.
Its main affluent is the Uaupes, which disputes with the headwaters of the Guaviari branch of the Orinoco the drainage of the eastern slope of the " oriental " Andes of Colombia.
The state gave its electoral 1 Wisconsin, as the last state to be created wholly out of the old North-West Territory, was the loser in boundary disputes with neighbouring states.
24), informs us with reference to the customary yearly celebration of the mystery of the resurrection of our Lord, that disputes prevailed not only with respect to the day, but also with respect to the manner of fasting in connexion with it.
Eventually, after several disputes and some fighting, he did homage to Alexius in January 1097; and his example was followed by the other princes.
In disputes with one another, they are judged before their own courts of justice.
When disputes occur as to the grade they can thus be instantly settled.
- Ethical controversies, like most other speculative disputes, have, during the latter part of the 10th and the beginning of the 10th century, centred round Darwinian theories.
The first disputes about the jurisdiction of the clergy were moved by Gudmund in the 13th century, bringing on a civil war, while the questions of patronage and rights over glebe and mortmainland occupied Bishop Arni and his adversaries fifty years afterwards, when the land was under Norwegian viceroys and Norwegian law.
Newspapers and periodicals were published, and the very stir which the ecclesiastical disputes encouraged did good.
The total number of agricultural co-operative societies exceeded 500 in 1910; each has its tribunal (Conseil des Prud'hommes), which arbitrates in disputes; and all together, with the state-aided Cooperative Caisse, which lends money to the smaller societies, form a single great organization known as the General Union.
(4) To deal with disputes arising out of the edict a chamber was established in the parlement of Paris (le chambre de l'edit).
There is also an iyaloda or mother of the town, to whom are submitted all the disputes of the women.
The laws were publicly promulgated or rehearsed; there were councils to deal with disputes and matters of local interest; popular sports such as horse-racing, running and wrestling were held; poems and tales were recited, and prizes were awarded to the best performers of every dan or art; while at the same time foreign traders came with their wares, which they exchanged for native produce, chiefly skins, wool and frieze.
Ormonde, who was in London, could alone restore peace; all his disputes with Desmond were at once settled in his favour, and he was even allowed to resume the exaction of coyne and livery, the abolition of which had been the darling wish of statesmen.
From 1670 to 1700 the principal questions at issue were the refusal of the settlers to subscribe to the numerous editions of the Fundamental Constitutions and disputes over the collection of quit-rents.
Disputes with Selinus over questions of boundary seem to have been frequent from 580 B.C. onwards.
Arbitration councils are available everywhere for the settlement of disputes between native workmen and their employers.
Disputes between the Galician and Lodomerian houses led to the interference of the king of Hungary, Bela III., who in 1190 assumed the title of king, and appointed his son Andreas lieutenant of the kingdom.
But this gave rise to chronic disorders and disputes, which led g p to armed intervention on the part of the Achaeans, who compelled the Spartans to submit to the overthrow of their city walls, the dismissal of their mercenary troops, the recall of all exiles, the abandonment of the old Lycurgan constitution and the adoption of the Achaean laws and institutions (188 B.C.).
The capitals of these four kingsCharibert, who died in 567, Guntram, Sigebert and Chilpericwere Paris, Orleans, Reims and Soissons all near one another and north of the Loire, where the Germanic inhabitants predominated; but their respective boundaries were so confused that disputes were inevitable.
There was no trace of a political idea in these disputes; the mutual hatred of two women aggravated jealousy to the point of causing terrible civil wars from 561 to 613, and these finally created a national conflict which resulted in the dismemberment of the Frankish empire.
The retreat of the Arabs, who were further weakened by religious disputes, enabled him to restore Frankish rule in Aquitaine in spite of Hunald, son of Odo.
In 771 Carloman, with whom Charles had had disputes, died, leaving sons; but bishops, abbots and counts all declared for Charles, save a few who took refuge in Italy with Desiderius, king of the Lombards.
The real bearing of old questions, and the meaninglessness of many disputes, were seen in the new conception of Aristotelianism given by the Metaphysics and other treatises.
Castile and Aragon alike royal officers were appointed to adjudicate on disputes within.
So far did these disputes go that Joseph resigned his crown, and was with difficulty induced to resume it.
At first the Carlists were feeble, but they gathered h ~ strength during the disputes among the Cristinos.
His constant theme was, that the party disputes were a struggle for power between the forces of revolution, which derived their strength from the fighters on the barricades, and the Christian monarchy, and that between these opposed principles no compromise was possible.
Soc., 1901) disputes with S.
At that time he had shown great ability as a pamphleteer, having published in London The Monitor (1768), seven essays previously printed in Virginia; The Political Detection: or the Treachery and Tyranny of Administration, both at Home and Abroad (1770), signed "Junius Americanus"; and An Appeal to the Justice and Interests of the People of Great Britain in the Present Disputes with America (1774), signed "An Old Member of Parliament."
Of course, it is inevitable in all disputes of the companies with foreign powers, and is extended over all decrees of the company regarding the administration of its territories, the taxation of natives, and mining regulations.
In 1657, just after his accession, he made an arrangement with his three brothers with the object of preventing disputes over their separate territories, and in 1664 he entered into friendly relations with Louis XIV.
Hyrcanus took advantage of the disputes of these rulers to advance his own kingdom.
Among these are a board of pardons, a state library committee, a board of mediation and arbitration for adjustment of labour disputes, a board of education and a railway commission.
But on account of the threatened absorption of a part of the Connecticut territory by the Colony of New York granted to the duke of York in 1664, and the news that a commission had been appointed in England to settle intercolonial disputes, they finally assented to the union in 1665.
Difficulty with Rhode Island was caused by the conflict between that colony's charter and the Connecticut charter regarding the western boundary of Rhode Island; and the encroachment of outlying Connecticut settlements on Dutch territory, and the attempt to extend the boundaries of New York to the Connecticut river, gave rise to other disputes.
Several disputes which threatened to disturb the peace of the Empire was settled through his mediation, and he compelled the citizens of Magdeburg to do homage to him.
It was strange how their disputes seemed to be building blocks.
By becoming an impartial umpire in civil disputes, the state slowly developed its own institutional autonomy from the personality of the king.
It should be possible to devise a way to resolve these sort of disputes without always creating an inconvenience for the passengers.
adjudicate on child maintenance disputes.
It also adjudicates in disputes concerning the management of their financial affairs.
adjudicate in commercial disputes of this nature.
adjudication of tenancy deposit disputes.
Shipping litigation covers all areas including admiralty, charterparty disputes, cargo claims, sale and purchase disputes and total losses.
alterative ways of dealing or resolving disputes has only developed in more recent years.
Entries in Irish annals tell of internal disputes within Alba.
David Buxton will man the registration desk and could also be appointed final arbiter of any disputes.
arbiter in these disputes.
arbitrate on disputes?
arbitrate over internal disputes.
arbitratenternational body, the League of Nations, was set up in 1920, with the intention of arbitrating future international disputes.
Any disputes arising from this Agreement or its enforceability shall be settled by binding arbitration.
Most standard form contracts provide for disputes to be resolved by arbitration.
The conferences had a limited success, despite their failure to persuade nations to adopt compulsory arbitration in international disputes.
arbitration of disputes between capital and labor shall be prescribed by law.
arbitrators in salvage disputes.
A playground buddy system is used to combat bullying, whereby older children intervene when disputes arise or befriend children on their own.
You can obtain a certificate of posting, or use registered post to avoid disputes!
chancery practice extends to the equitable aspects of company law such as minority shareholders ' disputes.
These disputes include major civil engineering and energy projects in the Middle East and South America.
Disputes over legislative competence will be decided by the courts.
conciliate responsibilities for conciliating disputes under the DDA.
construction of identity, communication and power, conflict and disputes, small talk and gossip.
Moreover, this paper disputes the contention that expertise in a given specialty automatically makes for good field research.
For example, ' A man runs and he disputes ' is not convertible with ' A man runs and a man disputes ' .
cross section of disputes.
CEDR has conducted over 1,000 mediations covering every industry sector and a wide-ranging cross section of disputes.
Disputes Where a customer raises a query regarding an outstanding debt.
demarcation disputes has been with Thailand, including several islets in the Mekong river.
The worst border demarcation disputes has been with Thailand, including several islets in the Mekong river.
disputes mediated by CEDR Solve result in settlement.
The World Trade Organization has ushered in a rules based system for deciding trade disputes.
But the JCT's new contract for homeowners and builders has a fast and efficient system to solve disputes.
His bitter disputes with the kings over the independence of the Church resulted in his twice being exiled.
In a half plan which serves of contractual disputes.
Some officials have sought to bestow new legitimacy on long-standing disputes by recasting them as part of the antiterrorist crusade " .
The legal framework for jurisdiction over patent disputes is an area of significant interest in this context.
disputes without recourse to litigation.
escalateare ways of dealing with these disagreements which prevent them escalating into major disputes.
exclusive jurisdiction over any disputes arising from these sites.
expeditious adjudication procedure for disputes arising under construction contracts.
A number of determinants were considered germane in the selection of mediation for commercial disputes.
grandee panelists are now available through CEDR Solve to facilitate in high profile disputes along with other distinguished public and business figures.
A number of land disputes from Sakaltutan illustrate my point that brothers divide the land between them, and then are almost immovable.
Andrew specializes in commercial and contractual disputes, all aspects of employment law and emergency injunctions.
interfereften difficult to deal with this e.g. PSNI may wish to avoid interfering in disputes within communities to preserve their support.
Disputes which once seemed totally intractable have been solved.
jurisdiction over any disputes arising from the Website.
The English courts shall have exclusive jurisdiction over any disputes arising from these sites.
He frequently took on cases involving custody disputes and honor killings.
Disputes about public policy toward the poor provide the clearest demonstration of the incompatibility between sectional anti-racism and egalitarian liberalism.
matrimonial property disputes.
mediate in further disputes between the minister and the heritors.
Instead, government legal disputes will be settled by mediation or arbitration whenever possible.
mediation in employment disputes?
These disputes can often cause anger and stress and if allowed to continue, can lead to increasing mistrust and even threats.
Nevertheless, although the number of disputed parades is small the effect of those disputes upon community relations has been significant.
paternity test can be obtained to settle disputes.
playground buddy system is used to combat bullying, whereby older children intervene when disputes arise or befriend children on their own.
They are also less well placed to exert commercial pressure or to enter into disputes.
News Disputes about data privacy European Computer Driving License scheme Was Y2K a non-event?
Normally, disputes regarding to rental are processed through ordinary civil proceeding.
pukka builder will have disputes just like the rest of us.
These Acts indicate a limited readiness on the part of Parliament to intervene to deal with some of the causes of disputes between neighbors.
The Chinese side always supports a peaceful resolution to the disputes through dialogs.
resolve disputes if they arise.
riven by internal disputes.
settlement of disputes and the strengthening of international cooperation.
We will work to defeat terrorism wherever it occurs and to advance economic development, democratic reforms and peaceful settlement of regional disputes.
So please spare a thought for the two sets of workers involved in the disputes detailed below.
Our fully qualified Chartered surveyors are in a position to advise on the easiest way to resolve boundary disputes.
It may be wiser to treat the two areas similarly, expecting a slightly different balance between merely systemic and clinically significant disputes.
These new disputes mobilize a wide range of people previously uninterested in trade.
unquiet life, and continually engaged in disputes with the fellows.
This has been in evidence in recent disputes, most impressively the postal workers ' wildcat walkouts late last year.
His numerous editorial and critical works spread his fame as a scholar throughout Europe, and engaged him in many of the stormy disputes which were then so common among men of letters.
A truce was to be proclaimed throughout Christendom; the pope was to be the arbiter of disputes; the emperor and the king of France were to lead the army; England, Spain and Portugal were to furnish the fleet; and the combined forces were to be directed against Constantinople.
and went far to settle the chronic disputes between the Latins and Uniate Greeks.
It is a general duty, according to canon law, upon a Moslem community to judge legal disputes on this basis, and it is an individual duty upon the ruler of the community to appoint a cadi to act for the community.
His administration was embarrassed by constantly recurring disputes with the neighbouring Dutch settlements,especially after Stamford(Conn.) and Southold (Long Island) had entered the New Haven Jurisdiction, but his prudence and diplomacy prevented an actual outbreak of hostilities.
In the disputes between Lambert at the head of the military party and the Rump in union with the council of state, he supported the latter, and upon the temporary supremacy of Lambert's party worked indefatigably to restore the Rump. With Monk's commissioners he, with Haselrig, had a fruitless conference, but he assured Monk of his co-operation, and joined with eight others of the overthrown council of state in naming him commander-in-chief of the forces of England and Scotland.
For its subsequent importance it was indebted to the elector Charles Philip, who, owing to ecclesiastical disputes, transferred his residence from Heidelberg to Mannheim in 1720.
Alexander the Great is one of the instances of the vanity of appealing from contemporary disputes to "the verdict of posterity"; his character and his policy are estimated to-day as variously as ever.
Hostilities were suspended, but disputes constantly occurred, and in 74 a general war broke out.
(See Ontario.) In both these disputes the provincial leader was the Hon.
Since 1896 its rapid material progress has produced numerous economic problems and disputes, many of which are still unsolved.
By means of this series of conciliar courts the unity of the Church is secured and made manifest; the combined, simultaneous effort of the whole is made possible; and disputes, instead of being fought out where they arise, are carried for settle ment to a larger and higher judicatory, free from local feeling and prejudice.
New measures were adopted, doctrines were adapted to the times, and ancient disputes were revived between the conservative and progressive forces.
At different times Argentina has been engaged in disputes over boundary lines with every one of her neighbours, that with Chile being only settled in 1902.
The boundary with Chile, extending across more than 32Ã‚° lat., had been the cause of disputes for many years, which at times led to costly preparations for war.
The disputes with Chile during the closing years of the 19th century led to a large increase in the navy, but in 1902 a treaty between the two countries provided for the restriction of further armaments for the next four years.
The war with Paraguay left a legacy of disputes concerning boundaries which almost led to war between the two victorious allies, Argentina and Brazil, but by the exertions of Mitre, who was sent at the close of 1872 as special envoy to Rio, a settlement was arrived at and friendly relations restored.
After disputes with Brazil, extending over fifteen years, about the territory of " Misiones," the matter had been submitted to the arbitration of the president of the United States.
Lymington was made a port in the reign of Henry I., and its large shipping trade led to frequent disputes with Southampton as to the levying of duties.
In 1533 he christened the princess Elizabeth, and his later years were troubled by disputes with Archbishop Cranmer.
There were disputes over questions of government, of commerce, of finance and of religion.
Attracted to Paris by the fame of the university, he took part in the many disputes between the orders and the secular priests, and warmly defended the latter.
At that time, owing Ã¯¿½to labour disputes, the supply of hands was short and horses were dear.
Churchill's tenure of the presidency of the Board of Trade, from April 1908, was marked by the production of a scheme in the autumn of that year for the setting up of a court of arbitration in labour disputes, consisting of three persons nominated by the Board, respectively from panels of employers, workmen and " persons of eminence and impartiality."
To the quarrels between Basuto and Boers were added interminable disputes between the Basuto and other Bechuana tribes, which continued unabated after the proclamation of British sovereignty over the Orange river regions by Sir Harry Smith in 1848.
The British continued to intervene in the inter-tribal disputes, and in 1851 Major H.
Subsequently, whether from the fact that such bold speculations were obnoxious to the general sense of propriety in Elea, or from the inferiority of its leaders, the school degenerated into verbal disputes as to the possibility of motion, and similar academic trifling.
Meanwhile it is legitimate to share the hope expressed by President Roosevelt in his message to Congress of December 1905 that some future Hague conference may succeed in making arbitration the customary method of settling international disputes in all save the few classes of cases indicated above, and that - to quote Mr Roosevelt's words - " these classes may themselves be as sharply defined and rigidly limited as the governmental and social development of the world will for the time being permit."/n==Authorities== - Among special treatises are: Kamarowsky, Le Tribunal international (traduit par Serge de Westman) (Paris, 1887); Rouard de Card, Les Destinees de l'arbitrage international, depuis la sentence rendue par le tribunal de Geneve (Paris, 1892); Michel Revon, L' Arbitrage international (Paris, 1892); Ferdinand Dreyfus, L'Arbitrage international (Paris, 1894) (where the earlier authorities are collected); A.
In December, Frederick, grand master of the Teutonic Order, died, and Albert, joining the order, was chosen as his successor early in 1511 in the hope that his relationship to Sigismund I., king of Poland, would facilitate a settlement of the disputes over east Prussia, which had been held by the order under Polish suzerainty since 1466.
Osiander's divergence from Luther's doctrine of justification by faith involved him in a violent quarrel with Melanchthon, who had adherents in Konigsberg, and these theological disputes soon created an uproar in the town.
A new Small Holdings Act (1907) for England was passed; the Trades Disputes Act (1906) removed the position of trades unions from the controversy excited over the Taff Vale decision; Mr LloydGeorge's Patents Act (1907) and Merchant Shipping Act (1906) were welcomed by the tariff reformers as embodying their own policy; a long-standing debate was closed by the passing of the Deceased Wife's Sister Act (1907); and acts for establishing a public trustee, a court of criminal appeal, a system of probation for juvenile offenders, and a census of production, were passed in 1907.
In her malignant disputes with the constable de Bourbon on the question of his wife's succession, she goaded him to extreme measures, and her rapacity showed itself also in her dealings with the surintendant des finances, J.
This was a lame way out of the difficulty, for the queen could only confer precedence within her own realms, whereas an act of parliament bestowing the title of prince consort would have made the prince's right to rank above all royal imperial highnesses quite clear, and would have left no room for such disputes as afterwards occurred when foreign princes chose to treat Prince Albert as having mere courtesy rank in his wife's kingdom.
By this enactment it is made possible, where more than 20 workers are employed, for an elected council to cooperate in securing the welfare of the workers, to see to the due execution of contracts and agreements, to settle disputes, and to take part in the management of philanthropic institutions.
In 1856-60 the state was involved in war with the adventurer William Walker (see Central America); but its subsequent history has been one of immunity from political disturbances, other than boundary disputes, and occasional threats of revolution, due chiefly to unsatisfactory economic conditions.
Lastly, the high contracting parties have agreed that in questions of a legal nature, and especially in interpretation or application of international conventions, arbitration is recognized as the most effective, and at the same time the most equitable, means of settling disputes which diplomacy has failed to adjust.