The cardinal de Retz in his leisurely age at Commercy found amusement in presiding at disputations between the more moderate Cartesians and Don Robert Desgabets, who interpreted Descartes in an original way of his own.
The hardships of his imprisonment, and the long disputations at Oxford, told severely on his health, but he endured all with unbroken cheerfulness.
All this time he was preaching every day, writing homilies, disputations, lectures, and finding time to work hard at his great work the Summa Theologiae.
It was the town council which made arrangements for religious disputations, and provided for the housing and maintenance of the preachers.
He used often to organize formal disputations with Albigensian leaders, lasting a number of days.
This was the signal for public disputations in which Farel took the leading part on the Reformation side, with the result that by decree of the 27th of August 1535 the mass was suppressed and the reformed religion established.
He took his part in the theological disputations of the time, at Marburg (1529), the Concordia at Wittenberg (1536), the Convention at Schmalkalden (1537), the discussions at Hagenau and Worms (1540).
It was the excitement caused by their attempt, and the heterodox conclusions which were its first result, that lifted these Scholastic disputations into the central position which they henceforth occupied in the life of the middle ages.
Another early Monophysite was Simeon of Beth Arsham, who by a series of journeys and disputations within the Persian empire did all he could to prevent the triumph of Nestorianism among the Persian Christians.
Though still comparatively young, Gerhard had already come to be regarded as the greatest living theologian of Protestant Germany; in the numerous "disputations" of the period he was always protagonist, while on all public and domestic questions touching on religion or morals his advice was widely sought.
Dirck Coornhert argued, in private conferences and public disputations, that it was wrong to punish heretics, and his great opponents were, as a rule, the ministers, who maintained that there was no room for more than one religion in a state.
Here in 1550 he published two disputations, the one De lege et evangelio and the other De justifications, which aroused a controversy still unclosed at his death on the 17th of October 1552.
He was apparently much in East Friesland till 1541; in North Holland, with Amsterdam as centre, from 1541 to 1543; again till '545 in East Friesland (where he held a disputation at Emden with John a Lasco in January 1 544); till 1547 in South Holland; next, about Lubeck; at Wismar in1553-1554(he held two disputations with Martin Micronius at Norden in February 1 554); lastly at Wustenfelde, a village near Oldesloo, between Hamburg and Lubeck, where he died on the 13th of January 1 559.
After working as a vine-dresser and then as a goldsmith he became a travelling doctor, and displayed great skill in disputations on medical subjects; but his controversial power soon found a wider field for its exercise in the great theological question of the time.
He became Zwingli's best helper, and after more than a year of earnest preaching and four public disputations in which the popular verdict had been given in favour of Oecolampadius and his friends, the authorities of Basel began to see the necessity of some reformation.
This was a lecture-hall, or rather a hall for the religious disputations customary among the Cistercians.
The small cloister beyond, with its scribes' cells, library, hall for disputations, &c., is the centre of the literary life of the community.
About 1549 Cranmer sent him to the Tower of London, and while there "he was borrowed out of prison" to take part in seven public disputations against Hooper, Jewel and others.
His works are chiefly reports of his disputations, such as that which appears in the Scisme Unmask't (Paris, 1658), in which the definition of a schism is discussed with two Romanist opponents.
The philological lectures of Johann Friedrich Christ (1700-1756) and Johann August Ernesti (1707-1781) proved, however, more attractive than those on theology, and he attended the philosophical disputations presided over by his friend A.
He attached no value to mere scholarship; scholastic disputations he utterly ignored and despised - and especially the discussions on medical topics, which turned more upon theories and definitions than upon actual practice.
The framework of both is a narrative purporting to be written by Clement (of Rome) to St James, the Lord's brother, describing at the beginning his own conversion and the circumstances of his first acquaintance with St Peter, and then a long succession of incidents accompanying St Peter's discourses and disputations, leading up to a romantic recognition of Clement's father, mother and two brothers, from whom he had been separated since childhood.
442 et seq.), disputations being apparently the only test applied in its early history.
When Protagoras included in his course grammar, style, interpretation of the poets, and oratory, supplementing his own continuous expositions by disputations in which he and his pupils took part, he showed a not inadequate appreciation of the requisites of a literary education; and it may be conjectured that his comprehensive programme, which Prodicus and others extended, had something to do with the development of that versatility which was the most notable element in the Athenian character.
To this period belong several famous rhetorical and philosophical works, the Brutus, Orator, Partitiones Oratoriae, Paradoxa, Academica, de Finibus, Tusculan Disputations, together with other works now lost, such as his Laus Catonis, Consolatio and Hortensius.
Thus in the Tusculan Disputations v.
He was much fascinated by the Stoic morality, and it has been noticed that the Tusculan Disputations and de Officiis are largely Stoic in tone.
The de Officiis, Tusculan Disputations and Cato Major are found in a number of 9th-century MSS.
Men bred in the cloister and the lecture-room of the logicians, trained in scholastic disputations, versed in allegorical interpretations of the plainest words and most apparent facts, could not find the key which might unlock those stores of wisdom and of beauty.
Lastly, I confess that I have as vast contemplative ends as I have moderate civil ends; for I have taken all knowledge to be my province; and if I could purge it of two sorts of rovers, whereof the one with frivolous disputations, confutations and verbosities, the other with blind experiments and auricular traditions and impostures, hath committed so many spoils, I hope I should bring in industrious observations, grounded conclusions and profitable inventions and discoveries - the best state of that province.
Like others who have gone through the conventional course of instruction, he kept a place in his memory for the various charms of Virgil and Horace, of Tacitus and Ovid; but the master whose page by night and by day he turned with devout hand, was the copious, energetic, flexible, diversified and brilliant genius of the declamations for Archias the poet and for Milo, against Catiline and against Antony, the author of the disputations at Tusculum and the orations against Verres.
His works include Ad Sabinum, a commentary on the jus civile, in over 50 books; Ad edictum, a commentary on the Edict, in 83 books; collections of opinions, responses and disputations; books of rules and institutions; treatises on the functions of the different magistrates - one of them, the De officio proconsulis libri x., being a comprehensive exposition of the criminal law; monographs on various statutes, on testamentary trusts, and a variety of other works.
He chose to accept the latter, journeyed in February 1341 to Naples, was honourably entertained by the king, and, after some formal disputations on matters touching the poet's art, was sent with magnificent credentials to Rome.