The diseases or sicknesses of beer and wine had from time immemorial baffled all attempts at cure.
Pasteur first formulated the idea that bacteria are responsible for the diseases of fermented liquids; the corollary of this was a demand for pure yeast.
Specifically, a virus or bug passed to a pig is considered a huge threat in the medical community, because pigs can pass their diseases onto humans.
Endemic diseases are unknown and epidemics are rare.
The pear is subject to several diseases caused by fungi.
Our voyaging is only great-circle sailing, and the doctors prescribe for diseases of the skin merely.
There is much malaria in the wooded districts of the east and on the higher campos, where the daily extremes of temperature are great, lung and bronchial diseases are common.
By the Diseases of Animals Act 1896 (59 & 60 Vict.
Additionally, we have deciphered the genome of diseases, from SARS to influenza.
We don't owe millions, or have lovers, or rare diseases, or tons of life insurance, or work for the CIA, or do drugs or any of that.
And the principle at work in this technology could lead to a cure for other autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis.
Doctors came to see her singly and in consultation, talked much in French, German, and Latin, blamed one another, and prescribed a great variety of medicines for all the diseases known to them, but the simple idea never occurred to any of them that they could not know the disease Natasha was suffering from, as no disease suffered by a live man can be known, for every living person has his own peculiarities and always has his own peculiar, personal, novel, complicated disease, unknown to medicine--not a disease of the lungs, liver, skin, heart, nerves, and so on mentioned in medical books, but a disease consisting of one of the innumerable combinations of the maladies of those organs.
Hales (1727I 733) discussed the rotting of wounds, cankers, &c., but much had to be done with the microscope before any real progress was possible, and it is easily intelligible that until the theory of nutrition of the higher plants had been founded by the work of Ingenhouss, Priestley and De Saussure, the way was not even prepared for accurate knowledge of cryptogamic parasites and the diseases they induce.
It was not till De Bary (1866) made known the true nature of parasitic Fungi, based on his researches between 1853-1863, that the vast domain of epidemic diseases of plants was opened up to fruitful investigation, and such modern treatises as those of Frank (1880 and L895), Sorauer (1886), Kirchner (1890), were gradually made possible.
These enenlies are as a rule so conspicuous that we do not look on their depredations as diseases, though the gradual deterioration of hay under the exhausting effects of root-parasites like Rhinanthus, and the onslaught of Cuscuta when unduly abundant, should teach us how unimportant to the definition the question of size may be.
The annual losses due to epidemic plant diseases attain proportions not easily estimated.
Exudations and Rotting.The outward symptoms of many diseases consist in excessive discharges of moisture, often accompanied by bursting of over-turgid cells, and eventually by putrefactive changes.
No sharp line can be drawn between these diseases and some of the preceding, inasmuch as it often depends on the external conditions whether necrosis is a dry-rot, in the sense I employ the term here, or a wet-rot, when it would come under the preceding category.
394; and Timber and some of its Diseases (London, 1889).
This Strophanthus is not remarkable for its rubber - which is mere bird lime - but for the powerful poison of its seeds, often used for poisoning arrows, but of late much in use as a drug for treating diseases of the heart.
Third: It is always the case that diseases are eliminated first in the healthy, well-developed, rich countries, then gradually around the world.
Diseases are frequently diagnosed with broad terms based on a set of symptoms.
The mineral waters of Mount Clemens are beneficial to patients suffering from rheumatism, blood diseases and nervous disorders.
Wounds, &c.Marshall Ward, Timber and some of its Diseases, p. 210; Hartig, Diseases of Trees (London, 1894).
Its use in febrile diseases, at one time extensive, is now obsolete.
It would include ending all non-infectious diseases as well.
Thousands of people research diseases because they individually want to cure them.
The bugs are bad here, and they have diseases.
At Belcoo, near Enniskillen, there is a famous well called Daragh Phadric, held in repute by the peasantry for its cure of paralytic and other diseases; and 4 m.
Knit goods are manufactured, but the importance of the place is due to its sulphur springs, the waters of which are used for the treatment of skin diseases, gout, rheumatism, etc., and to the tonic air and fine scenery.
The industrial and commercial progress of Cartagena was much hindered, during the first half of the 19th century, by the prevalence of epidemic diseases, the abandonment of the arsenal, and rivalry with the neighbouring port of Alicante.
The principal reasons for the general decrease are the fall in prices through foreign competition and the closing of certain markets, the diseases of plants and the increased outlay required to combat them, and the growth of State and local taxation.
indicated the particular planet they were under led to their use in diseases and for constitutions supposed to be under the same planet.
At St Petersburg a women's medical academy, the examinations of which were even more searching than those of the ordinary academy (especially as regards diseases of women and children), was opened, but after about one hundred women had received the degree of M.D.
With regard to the parasites, which are the actual cause of malaria in man, an account of them is given under the heading of Parasitic Diseases, and little need be said about them here.
- Celli, Malaria; Christy, Mosquitoes and Malaria; Manson, Tropical Diseases; Allbutt's System of Medicine; Ross, "Malaria," Quain's Dictionary of Medicine, 3rd ed.; The Practitioner, March, 1901 (Malaria Number); Lancet (Sept.
That Diptera of the type of the common house-fly are often in large measure responsible for the spread of such diseases as cholera and enteric fever is undeniable, and as regards blood-sucking forms, in addition to those to which reference has already been made, it is sufficient to mention the vast army of pests constituted by the midges, sand-flies, horseflies, &c., from the attacks of which domestic animals suffer equally with man, in addition to being frequently infested with the larvae of the bot and warble flies (Gastrophilus, Oestrus and Hypoderma).
There are undrained, swampy districts in Campeche, in the vicinity of the Terminos Lagoon, where malarial diseases are prevalent, and the same conditions prevail along the coast where mangrove swamps are found.
Thousands of people suffering from bites from rabid animals, from all lands, have been treated in this institute, and the death-rate from this most horrible of all diseases has been reduced to less than i %.
The prevailing diseases are cholera, fever, small-pox, ophthalmia, dysentery and those of the skin among the lower classes.
The work on agriculture' of Ibn-al-Awam, who lived in the 12th century A.D., treats of the varieties of soils, manuring, irrigation, ploughing, sowing, harvesting, stock, horticulture, arboriculture and plant diseases, and is a lasting record of their skill and industry.
His remarks on horses, cattle, &c., are not less interesting; and there is a very good account of the diseases of each species, and some just observations on the advantage of mixing different kinds on the same pasture.
The Diseases of Animals Act 1896 provided for the compulsory slaughter of imported live stock at the place of landing.
Up to 1896 store cattle were admitted into the United Kingdom for the purpose of being fattened, but under the Diseases of Animals Act of that year animals imported since then have to be slaughtered at the place of landing.
With skin cancer, like all diseases, over time some people get better and some people get worse, and often we really don't know why.
A frame naturally slight had been further attenuated by rigorous habits of temperance, and thus rendered proof against the diseases of the tropics.
He sat on various royal commissions, including those on the Civil Service and Venereal Diseases, and from 1917 to 1919 was again chairman of the Independent Labour party.
In the tenth book of the Republic we find the curious argument that the soul does not perish like the body, because its characteristic evil, sin or wickedness does not kill it as the diseases of the body wear out the bodily life.
As a whole, the Malays are, however, a remarkably healthy people, and deformity and hereditary diseases are rare among them.
The subject of patent medicines is but little understood by the general public. Any medicine, the composition of which is kept secret, but which is advertised on the label for the cure of diseases, must in Great Britain bear a patent medicine stamp equal to about one-ninth of its face value.
The terrible losses sustained by whole communities of farmers, planters, foresters, &c., from plant diseases have naturally stimulated the search for remedies, but even now the search is too often conducted in the spirit of the believer in quack medicines, although the agricultural world is awakening to the fact that before any measures likely to be successful can be attempted, the whole chain of causation of the disease must be investigated.
NecrosisA number of diseases the obvious symptoms of which are the local drying up and death of tissues, in many cases with secondary results on organs or parts of organs, may be brought together under this heading.
Until the advent of the modern synthetic products buchu was valued in diseases of the urinary tract, but its use is now practically obsolete.
After the infectious diseases come the non-infectious ones such as cancer, Alzheimer's, and heart disease.
Of all the celebrated accomplishments of science, I think none is more significant than the end of certain diseases, especially the scourge of polio.
How do we know these weren't the easiest diseases to eliminate?
Well, the diseases that human beings focus on are the ones considered most unbearable.
Our battles with diseases go as far back into history as we can see.
Stakman had determined that immunity to these diseases, or at least resistance, could be bred into crops.
from the town, which yield over 500,000 gallons daily, are resorted to for the cure of rheumatism and skin diseases.
But in addition to bringing forward a fundamental and philosophical view of morbid processes, which probably contributed more than any other single cause to vindicate for pathology the place which he claimed for it among the biological sciences, Virchow made many important contributions to histology and morbid anatomy and to the study of particular diseases.
The vice of the book is excessive classification of bodily faculties, and over-subtlety in the discrimination of diseases.
In the north, however, the hot lowlands are malarial and unsuited to north European settlement, while the dry, elevated plateaus are celebrated for their healthiness, those of Catamarca having an excellent reputation as a sanatorium for sufferers from pulmonary and bronchial diseases.
Diseases am] SymptomsThe symptoms of plant diseases are, as already said, apt to be very general in their nature, and are sometimes so vaguely defined that little can be learned from them as to the causes at work.
The climate is characterized by hot days and cool nights, and is considered healthy, though the daily change tends to provoke bronchial, catarrhal and inflammatory diseases.
They were also renowned for their magicians, who had strange remedies for various diseases.
Oxen, sheep, dogs, monkeys, bats, and probably horses also suffer from similar parasitic diseases.
Venereal Diseases >>
The Cattle Diseases Prevention Act 1866 (29 & 30 Vict.
The act of 1869 was at that time the most complete measure that had ever been passed for dealing with diseases of animals.
In 1894 was passed the Diseases of Animals Act (57 & 58 Vict.
The Diseases of Animals Act 1896 (59 & 60 Vict.
The Diseases of Animals.
It is compulsory on owners to notify the authorities as to the existence of scab amongst their sheep. By the Diseases of Animals Act (1903) powers to prescribe the dipping of sheep, irrespective of the presence or otherwise of sheep scab, were conferred upon the Board of Agriculture.
On the 1st of September 1890 the Board of Agriculture assumed powers with respect to pleuro-pneumonia under the Diseases of Animals Act of that year.
The returns from Ireland under the Diseases of Animals Acts 1894 and 1896 are less significant than those of Great Britain.
The chief interest of the place centres in its brine springs which are largely impregnated with carbonic acid gas and oxide of iron, and are efficacious in chronic catarrh of the respiratory organs, in liver and stomach disorders and women's diseases.
Similarly the Greenland angekok is said to summon his torngak (which may be an ancestral ghost or an animal) by drumming; he is heard by the bystanders to carry on a conversation and obtain advice as to how to treat diseases, the prospects of good weather and other matters of importance.
The Massachusetts general hospital (1811-1821) - with a branch for mental and nervous diseases, McLean hospital (1816), in the township of Belmont (post-office, Waverley) about 6 m.
Pests and Diseases of the Cotton Plant.
- It is common knowledge that when any plant is cultivated on a large scale various diseases and pests frequently appear.
Many other diseases occur, but the above are sufficient to indicate some of the principal ones in the most important cotton countries of the world.
As regards the theory, it may be pointed out: (I) that the nature or cosmical miracles - feeding of the five thousand, stilling of the storm, withering of the fig-tree - are as wellattested as the miracles of healing; (2) that many of the diseases, the cure of which is reported, are of a kind with which moral therapeutics could not effect anything; 1 (3) that Christ's own insight regarding the power by which he wrought His works is directly challenged by this explanation, for He never failed to ascribe His power to the Father dwelling in Him.
Here a remnant of the Borinquenos, assisted by the Caribs, maintained a severe struggle with the conquerors, but in the end their Indian allies were subdued by English and French corsairs, and the unfortunate natives of Porto Rico were left alone to experience the full effect of forced labour, disastrous hurricanes, natural plagues and new diseases introduced by the conquerors.
There are pine-needle baths and a hospital for nervous diseases.
The days are usually hot and the nights cold, the variations in temperature being a fruitful cause of bronchial and pulmonary diseases.
His last work was an elaborate treatise on the Diseases of the Mind (1812).
A state sugar experiment station is maintained at Audubon Park in New Orleans, its work embracing the development of seedlings, the improvement of cane varieties, the study of fungus diseases of the cane, the improvement of mill methods and the reconciliation of such methods (for example, the use of sulphur as a bleaching and clarifying agent) with the requirements of " pure food " laws.
As for diseases, some common to Cuba and Europe are more frequent or severe in the island, others rarer or milder.
The remarkable sanitary work begun during the American occupation and continued by the republic of Cuba, has shown that the ravages of this and other diseases can be greatly diminished.
The health of the city of Hamburg and the adjoining district may be described as generally good, no epidemic diseases having recently appeared to any serious degree.
The water is used in cases of gout, rheumatism and kindred diseases.
1841) and On Diseases of Women (first published in 1838, later by V.
The Michigan school for the deaf, established in 1854, and the Oak Grove hospital (private) for the treatment of mental and nervous diseases, are here.
The government maintains experimental farms and forestry plantations and a veterinary department to cope with lung sickness, rinderpest, East Coast fever and such like diseases.
For the diseases of the stomach in general see Digestive Organs; and for special forms Gastritis, Gastric Ulcer, Dyspepsia, &C.; also Abdomen (Abdominal Surgery).
The population of the country at the censuses of 1880, 1890 and 1900 was: From 1870 to 1880 there was little increase of population, owing to the great cholera epidemic of 1872-1873, and to many epidemic diseases among children towards the end of the period.
From 1816 he published various papers in the Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal, which formed the basis of his Pathological and Practical Researches on Diseases of the Brain and Spinal Cord, and of his Researches on the Diseases of the Intestinal Canal, Liver and other Viscera of the Abdomen, both published in 1828.
Even better pasture is found in the low veld, but there stock suffers in summer from many endemic diseases, and in the more northerly regions is subject to the attack of the tsetse fly.
The Laos are very superstitious, believe in wer-wolves, and that all diseases are.
Before the discovery of the bacillus of tubercle, scrofula and tuberculosis were regarded as two distinct diseases, and it was supposed that the scrofulous constitution could be distinguished from the tubercular.
At no time has so much been done to advance our knowledge of diseases of the nervous system as during the last thirty years of the 19th century.
Much light has been thrown upon the functions and diseases of the blood-forming tissues.
The origin of the corpuscles, previously a matter of so much difference of opinion, is now pretty fairly set at rest, and has proved the key to the interpretation of the pathology of many diseases of the blood, such as the different forms of anaemia, of leucocythaemia, &c.
Hence not only must the study of our subject include the diseases peculiar to man and the higher animals, but those of the lowest forms of animal life, and of plant life, must be held equally worthy of attention.
Modern research seems to show that living protoplasm, wherever it exists, is subject to certain laws and manifests itself by certain phenomena, and that there is no hard and fast line between what prevails in the two kingdoms. So it is with the diseased conditions to which it is a prey: there is a wonderful community of design, if the term may be used in such a sense, between the diseases of animals and plants, which becomes singularly striking and instructive the more they are inquired into.
The toxic actions produced in continued fevers, in certain chronic diseases, and by intestinal parasites largely aid in producing degeneration, emaciation and atrophy.
A distinction must be drawn between the above and diseases, like syphilis and small-pox, in which the contagion of, not the tendency to, the disease is transmitted directly to the foetus in utero.
In some of the infective conditions the conflict fortifies the organism against future attacks of the same nature, as for example in the immunity following many of the acute infective diseases.
It is said to be increased in saccharine diabetes and to be greatly diminished in starvation and wasting diseases.
In acute and chronic alcoholism, in phthisis, and in other diseases this fatty condition may be very extreme, and is commonly found in association with other tissue changes, so that probably we should look on these changes as a degeneration.
It is known to occur in rheumatism, and has been described in connexion with a few other diseases.
For the special pathological details of various diseases, see the separate articles on Parasitic Diseases; Neuro-Pathology; Digestive Organs; Respiratory System; Blood: Circulation; Metabolic Diseases; Fever; Bladder; Kidneys; Skin Diseases; EYE Diseases; Heart Disease; EAR, &c.; and the articles on different diseases and ailments under the headings of their common names.
356; Hartig, Text-Book of the Diseases of Trees (Eng.
ii.; Marshall Ward, Timber and some of its Diseases (London, 1889); Massart and Bordet, " Irritability of Leucocytes," Journ.
Not that Hippocrates taught, as he was afterwards reproached with teaching, that nature is sufficient for the cure of diseases; for he held strongly the efficacy of art.
But he recognized, at least in acute diseases, a natural process which the humours went through - being first of all crude, then passing through coction or digestion, and finally being expelled by resolution or crisis through one of the natural channels of the body.
In the treatment of disease, the Hippocratic school attached great importance to diet, the variations necessary in different diseases being minutely defined.
The principles of treatment just mentioned apply more especially to the cure of acute diseases; but they are the most salient characteristics of the Hippocratic school.
The school of Cnidus, as distinguished from that of Cos, of which Hippocrates is the representative, appears to have differed in attaching more importance to the differences of special diseases, and to have made more use of drugs.
A treatise on the diseases of women, contained in the Hippocratic collection, and of remarkable practical v alue, is attributed to this school.
The school of Erasistratus was less distinguished in anatomy than that of Herophilus, but paid more attention to the special symptoms of diseases, and employed a great variety of drugs.
They were extremely successful in practical matters, especially in surgery and in the use of drugs, and a large part of the routine knowledge of diseases and remedies which became traditional in the times of the Roman empire is believed to have been derived from them.
He introduced a system which, so far as we know, was his own, though founded upon the Epicurean philosophical creed; on the practical side it conformed pretty closely to the Stoic rule of life, thus adapting itself to the leanings of the better stamp of Romans in the later times of the republic. According to Asclepiades all diseases depended upon alterations in the size, number, arrangement or movement of the "atoms," of which, according to the doctrine of Epicurus, the body consisted.
Its main principles were that it was useless to consider the causes of a disease, or even the organ affected by the disease, and that it was sufficient to know what was common to all diseases, viz.
Soranus is known by a work, still extant in the Greek original, on the diseases of women, and also by the Latin work of Caelius Aurelianus, three centuries later, on acute and chronic diseases, which is based upon, if not, as some think, an actual translation of, the chief work of Soranus, and which is the principal source of our knowledge of the methodic school.
The work on diseases of women is the only complete work on that subject which has come down to us from antiquity, and shows remarkable fullness of practical knowledge in relation to its subject.
The application of physiology to the explanation of diseases, and thus to practice, was chiefly by the theory of the temperaments or mixtures which Galen founded upon the Hippocratic doctrine of humours, but developed with marvellous and fatal ingenuity.
From faulty proportions of the same arose the intemperies (" distempers"), which, though not diseases, were the occasions of disease.
By a combination of these morbid predispositions with the action of deleterious influences from without all diseases were produced.
Galen showed extreme ingenuity in explaining all symptoms and all diseases on his system.
The nature of the struggle between the rival systems may be well illustrated by a formidable controversy about the rules for bleeding in acute diseases.
Nature was sufficient for the cure of most diseases; art had only to interfere when the internal physician, the man himself, was tired or incapable.
In the first place the 15th and 16th centuries were notable for the outbreak of certain epidemic diseases, which were unknown to the old physicians.
At the same time the discovery of new diseases, unknown to the ancients, and the keener attention which the great epidemics of plague caused to be paid to those already known, led to more minute study of the natural history of disease.
Many of the symptoms of diseases were caused by the passions and perturbations of the archeus, and medicines acted by modifying the ideas of the same archeus.
Chemical disturbances of these processes, called acridities, &c., were the cause of fevers and other diseases.
In nervous diseases disturbances of the vital "spirits" were most important.
But some parts of Willis's works, such as his descriptions of nervous diseases, and his account (the earliest) of diabetes, are classical contributions to scientific medicine.
His main avowed principle was to do without hypothesis, and study the actual diseases in an unbiassed manner.
Another important point in Sydenham's doctrine is his clear recognition of many diseases as being what would be now called specific, and not due merely to an alteration in the primary qualities or humours of the older schools.
Health depends on the maintenance of a proper" tone "in the body - some diseases being produced by excess of tone, or" spasm "; others by" atony,"or want of tone.
In a series of letters, De sedibus et causis morborum per anatomen indagatis, published when he was in his eightieth year, he describes the appearances met with at the post mortem examination as well as the symptoms during life in a number of cases of various diseases.
More importance is to be attached to his Nosology or Classification of Diseases.
In this he claimed to have made the most salutary reform because all physicians from Hippocrates had treated diseases by depletion and debilitating measures with the object of curing by elimination.
Seven-eighths of all chronic diseases are produced by itch driven inwards.'
Among the first of these were Antonio Maria Valsalva (1666-1723), still better known as an anatomist; Giovanni Maria Lancisi (1654-1720), also an anatomist, the author of a classical work on the diseases of the heart and aneurisms; and Ippolito Francisco Albertini (1662-1738), whose researches on the same class of diseases were no less important.
de Lacroix (1706-1767), gave, under the title Nosologia methodica, a natural-history classification of diseases; Jean Astruc (1684-1766) contributed to the knowledge of general diseases.
His work, entitled Observations on the Diseases of an Army, was translated into many European languages and became the standard authority on the subject.
One novelty, however, of the first importance is due to a Vienna physician of the period, Leopold Auenbrugger (1722-1809), the inventor of the method of recognizing diseases of the chest by percussion.
Broussais's chief aim was to find an anatomical basis for all diseases, but he is especially known for his attempt to explain all fevers as a consequence of irritation or inflammation of the intestinal canal (gastroenterite).
A number of other maladies, especially general diseases and those commonly regarded as nervous, were attributed to the same cause.
He was equalled if not surpassed in this excess by his follower Jean Bouillaud (1796-1881), known for his important work on heart diseases.
Except for some trifling notices of sounds heard in certain diseases, this method was entirely new.
The result of his discovery was an entire revolution in the knowledge of diseases of the chest; but it would be a mistake to forget that an essential factor in this revolution was the simultaneous study of the condition of the diseased organs as seen after death.
The same scientific bent is seen in the greater attention paid to morbid anatomy (which dates from Baillie) and the more scientific method of studying diseases.
An instance of the latter is the work of Robert Willan (1757-1812) on diseases of the skin - a department of medicine in which abstract and hypothetical views had been especially injurious.
Forbes also translated the works of Laennec and Auenbrugger, and an entire revolution was soon effected in the knowledge of diseases of the chest.
The remarkable physiological discoveries of Sir Charles Bell (1774-1842) and Marshall Hall (1790-1857) for the first time rendered possible the discrimination of diseases of the spinal cord.
Nor was the northern school wanting in special investigators, such as John Abercrombie (1780-1844), known for his work on diseases of the brain and spinal cord, published in 1828, and many others.
William Stokes (1804-1878) was especially known for his works on diseases of the chest and of the heart, and for his clinical teaching.
In the other German schools, though some great names might be found, as Moritz Heinrich Romberg (1795-1873), the founder of the modern era in the study of nervous diseases, the general spirit was scholastic and the result barren till the teaching of one man, whom the modern German physicians generally regard as the regenerator of scientific medicine in their country, made itself felt.
In this may be found the germ of the startling modern discoveries in parasitic diseases.
Hippocrates had no opportunity of verification by necropsy, and Sydenham ignored pathology; yet the clinical features of many but recently described diseases, such, for example, as that named after Graves, and myxoedema, both associated with perversions of the thyroid gland, lay as open to the eye of physicians in the past as to our own.
Upon this too static a view, both of clinical type and of post-mortem-room pathology, came a despairing spirit, almost of fatalism, which in the contemplation of organic ruins lost the hope of cure of organic diseases.
With the melting of the ice the more daring spirits dashed into the new current with such ardour that for them all traditions, all institutions, were thrown into hotchpot; even elderly and sober physicians took enough of the infection to liberate their minds, and, in the field of the several diseases and in that of post-mortem pathology, the hollowness of classification by superficial resemblance, the transitoriness of forms, and the flow of processes, broke upon the view.
Thus it came about not only that classifications of disease based on superficial likeness - such as jaundice, dropsy, inflammation - were broken up, and their parts redistributed, but also that even more set diseases began to lose their settlements, and were recognized as terms of series, as transitory or culminating phases of perturbations which might be traced to their origins, and in their earlier stages perhaps withstood.
In the effects of simpler poisons the recognition of unity in diversity, as in the affiliation of a peripheral neuritis to arsenic, illustrated more definitely this serial or etiological method of classifying diseases.
In the disease of the scalp called favus, Schonlein had discovered a minute mycelial fungus; a remarkable discovery, for it was the first conspicuous step in the attribution of diseases to the action of minute parasites.
Similarly Karl Hoffmann of Wiirzburg wasted his appreciations of the newer schools of developmental biology in fanciful notions of human diseases as reversions to normal stages of lower animals; scrofula being for him a reversion to the insect, rickets to the mollusc, epilepsy to the oscillaria, and so forth.
Again, besides giving us the clue to the nature of many diseases and to the continuity of many morbid series, by bacteriology certain diseases, such as actinomycosis, have been recognized for the first time.
It is proper to point out here how intimately a pathology thus regenerated modified current conceptions of disease, in the linking of disease to oscillations of health, and the regarding many diseases as modifications of the normal set up by the impingement of external causes; not a few of which indeed may be generated within the body itself - "autogenetic poisoning."
Again, not only in certain diseases may strange cells be found in the blood (e.g.
It is now fully recognized that diseases of infants and children, of the insane, of the generative organs of women, of the larynx, of the eye, have been brought successively into the light of modern knowledge by "specialists," and by them distributed to the profession; and that in no other way could this end have been attained.
A department of public health was formed within the precincts of the Local Government Board; government laboratories were established, and machinery was devised for the notification of infectious diseases.
In 1878 an act was passed giving like powers in the case of the infectious diseases of animals.
When, leaving the infections, we look for evidence of progress in our knowledge of more or less local diseases, we may begin with the nervous system.
In France, in the wards of the Hotel Dieu, Guillaume Benjamin Duchenne (1806-1875), in association with Trousseau and in his private clinic, pursued his memorable clinical and therapeutical researches into the diseases of the nervous system; and Jean M.
Romberg (1795-1873) and Theodor Meynert (1833-1892) also were pioneers in the study of nervous diseases, but it was not till later in the century that Germany took a high place in this department of medicine.
By similar methods nature, unassisted, betrays herself but too often; in many instances - probably originating primarily in the nervous tissues themselves - the course of disease is observed to follow certain paths with remarkable consistency, as for instance in diseases of particular tracts of the spinal cord.
Not, however, all diseases of the nervous system conduct themselves on these definite paths, for some of them pay no attention to the geography of structure, but, as one may say, blunder indiscriminately among the several parts; others, again, pick out particular parts definitely enough, but not parts immediately continuous, or even contiguous.
Diseases of the latter kind are especially interesting, as in them we see that parts of the nervous structure, separated in space, may nevertheless be associated in function; for instance, wasting of a group of muscles associated in function may depend on a set of central degenerations concurring in parts whose connexion, in spite of dissociation in space, we thus perceive.
The undiscriminating diseases, on the other hand, we suspect not to be primarily of nervous origin, but to depend rather on the agency of other constituent tissues of this system, as of the blood-vessels or the connective elements.
Many other diseases formerly regarded as primarily diseases of the nervous system are not such; but, by means of agents either introduced into the body or modified there, establish themselves after the affinities of these in contiguous associated parts of the structure, as in vascular, membranous or connective elements, or again in distant and peripheral parts; the perturbations of nervous function being secondary and consequential.
The terrible nervous sequels of some forms of inflammation of the membranes of the brain, again, are due primarily to microbic invasion rather of the membranes than of their nervous contents; and many other diseases may be added to this list.
The grave palsies in such diseases as influenza, diphtheria, beriberi, or ensuing on the absorption of lead, are in the main not central, but due to a symmetrical peripheral neuritis.
The results of these experimental researches by many inquirers into the constitution of the brain have transformed our conceptions of cerebral physiology, and thrown a flood of light on the diseases of the brain.
In mental diseases little of first-rate importance has been done.
Griesinger (1817-1868), Bevan Lewis - and in the separation from insanity due to primary disease or defect of nerve elements of such diseases as general paralysis of the insane, which probably arise, as we have said, by the action of poisons on contiguous structures - such as blood-vessels and connective elements - and invade the nervous matter secondarily.
By the genius of Rene Theophile Laennec (1781-1826), diseases of the lungs and heart were laid on a foundation so broad that his successors have been occupied in detail and refinement rather than in reconstruction.
With this broader and more accurate knowledge of the conditions of the health of the circulation a corresponding efficiency has been gained in the manipulation of certain remedies and new methods of treatment of heart diseases, especially by baths and exercises.
As regards pulmonary disease, pneumonia has passed more and more definitely into the category of the infections: the modes of invasion of the lungs and pleura by tuberculosis has been more and more accurately followed; and the treatment of these diseases, in the spheres both of prevention and of cure, has undergone a radical change.
In the treatment of effusions into the pleura and, though with less advantage, of pericardial effusions, direct mechanical interference was practised by one physician and another, till these means of attaining rapid and complete cure took their places as indispensable, and were extended from thoracic diseases to those of the abdominal and other inner parts formerly beyond the reach of direct therapeutics.
Our knowledge of diseases of the kidneys has made no great advance since the time of Richard Bright.
In the sphere of physiology and in the interpretation of associated arterial diseases much obscurity still remains; as, for instance, concerning the nature of the toxic substances which produce those bilateral changes in the kidneys which we call Bright's disease, and bring about the "uraemia" which is characteristic of it.
The diseases peculiar to women have received attention from early times, but little progress had been made in their interpretation till the 19th century.
In operations for diseases of the pelvis, ovarian dropsy, cancer of the uterus, and other grave diseases of the region, success has been stupendous.
In the subject of diseases of the skin much has been done, in the minuter observation of their forms, in the description of forms previously unrecognized, and in respect of bacterial and other causation and of treatment.
The diseases of children have not lacked the renewed attention, the successful investigation, and the valuable new lights which have been given to other departments of medicine.
Rickets, scurvy and "marasmus" may be instanced as diet diseases in children.
By the revelations of this instrument not only have the diseases of the eye been illuminated, but much light has been thrown also upon the part of the eye in more general maladies; as, for instance, in syphilis, in diabetes, in kidney diseases, and in diseases of the brain - F.
Marey, 1863) attention was drawn to the physical features of the circulation, to the signs of degeneration of the arterial tree, and less definitely to the fluctuations of blood pressure; but as we have said under the consideration of diseases of the heart, the kymographs of Ludwig and his pupils brought out these fluctuations far more accurately and completely.
By the laryngoscope, invented about 1850 by Manuel Garcia the celebrated singingmaster, and perfected by Johann Czermak (1828-1873) and others, the diseases of the larynx also have been brought into the general light which has been shed on all fields of disease; and many of them, previously known more or less empirically, submitted to precise definition and cure.
The discovery of the Rntgen rays has also extended the physician's power of vision, as in cases of aortic aneurysm, and other thoracic diseases.
The town has a spa, whose waters are efficacious in rheumatic affections and diseases of the skin.
Hospitals.-The Metropolitan Asylums Board, though established in 1867 purely as a poor-law authority for the relief of the sick, insane Metro- and infirm paupers, has become a central hospital authority for infectious diseases, with power to receive into politan its hospitals persons, who are not paupers, suffering from Asylums fever, smallpox or diphtheria.
The local sanitary authorities carry out the provisions of the Infectious Diseases (Notification and Prevention) Acts, which for London are embodied in the Public Health (London) Act 1891.
City of London Hospital for diseases of the chest; Bethnal Green (1848).
- The following works are the most important: Denny, Monographia Anoplurorum Britanniae (London, 18 43); Giebel, Insecta Epizoa (which contains the working-up of Nitzsch's posthumous materials; Leipzig, 1874); van Beneden, Animal Parasites (London, 1876); Piaget, Les Pediculines (Leiden, 1880); Megnin, Les Parasites et les maladies parasitaires (Paris, 1880); Neumann, Parasites and Parasitic Diseases of Domesticated Animals (1892); Osborn, Pediculi and Mallophaga affecting Man and the Lower Animals (Washington, 1891; U.S. Dept.
While mining is not necessarily an unhealthy occupation, miners are subject to certain diseases resulting from vitiated air, and from unusual or special conditions under which at times they are forced to work.
The climbing of ladders from deep mines not only lessens the efficiency of the men by reason of fatigue, but often tends to increase the mortality from diseases of the heart.
The care of the health of the working force should be entrusted to competent mine physicians, thoroughly familiar with the conditions under which the miners work, and with the special diseases to which they are subject.
Another argument in support of this belief, upon which much reliance has been placed, is found in the descriptions of diseases, and the words common in Greek medical writers, contained in these two works.
iravaeaa, all-healing, from 7ras, all, and ae€iveac, to heal), a universal remedy, or cure for all diseases, a term applied in the middle ages to a mythical herb supposed to possess this quality.
Many herbs have had the power of curing all diseases attributed to them, and have hence had the name of "all-heal"; such have been, among others, the mistletoe, the woundwort (Stachys palustris), the yarrow or milfoil, and the great valerian.
Epidemic diseases are rare and children's diseases mild; cholera has visited Florence several times, but the city has been free from it for many years.
Tobacco, like other cultivated plants, is subject to attack by various pests and diseases, but fortunately these are less destructive than with many crops.
The fungoid diseases of tobacco are comparatively unimportant; there are, however, some diseases of obscure origin which at times cause considerable damage.
Diseases which occur in curing are important.
The climate has a beneficial effect on pulmonary diseases, especially in their earlier stages, and is remarkable in arresting the decay of vital power consequent upon old age.
Although it had long been suspected that these insects were in some way connected with malaria and other diseases, while that the species now called Stegomyia calopus was the carrier of yellow fever had been asserted by Finlay as early as 1881, it was not until the closing years of the 19th century that the brilliant researches of Ross in India, and of Grassi and others in Italy, directed the attention of the whole civilized world to mosquitoes as the exclusive agents in the dissemination of malarial fever.
There is reason to believe that malaria, yellow fever and filariasis are not the only diseases disseminated by mosquitoes.
deal with medicine both in practice and in theory: they contain practical rules for the preservation of health according to the four seasons of the year, and treat of various diseases from fever to gout.
Wet summers are followed by an acute outbreak of liver-rot amongst sheep and this, together with the effects of other diseases that accompany wet seasons, cause the death of vast numbers of sheep, the numbers from both sources being estimated in bad years at from 12 to 3 millions in England alone.
461) in connexion with the treatment of the diseases of sheep. The fact that their eponymus is said to have been the son of Helios and Ge points to a very early settlement in the district.
(See Parasitic Diseases).
How strongly his mind revolted against the use of charms, amulets, incantations and such devices appears from his writings; and he has expressly recorded, as underlying all his practice, the conviction that, however diseases may be regarded from the religious point of view, they must all be scientifically treated as subject to natural laws (De acre, 29).
('E7rch,utcov a Kai -y'); (5) On Regimen in Acute Diseases (IIEpi cairns o Ewv); (6) On Airs, Waters, and Places (IIEpi cthpwv, l'6aTwv, Kai rorrwv); (7) On the Articulations (IIEpi etpBpwv); (8) On Fractures (IIEpi by c&v); (9) The Instruments of Reduction (M0xXix6s); (Jo) The Physician's Establishment, or Surgery (Kar' i rpEiov); (II) On Injuries of the Head (IIEpi KE0aXij TpwpaTwv); (12) The Oath ("OpKoi); (13) The Law (Nopos).
(with a few interpolations), On Airs, Waters, and Places, On Injuries of the Head (" insigne fragmentum libri Hippocratei "), the former portion of the treatise On Regimen in Acute Diseases, and the " obviously Hippocratic " fragments of the Coon Prognostics.
The desirable effects produced by alcohol on the stomach are worth obtaining only in cases of acute diseases.
The principal causes of death, both among the white and coloured inhabitants, are diseases of the lungs - including miners' phthisis and pneumonia - diarrhoea, dysentery and enteric. The death-rate among young children is very high.
The climate is unhealthy - fever, smallpox, dysentery and rheumatism being the prevailing diseases.
Mangrove swamps surround the town and epidemics of cholera, yellow fever and other tropical diseases have been frequent; but the unhealthiness of the climate is mitigated to some extent by the high tides which cover the marshes, and the invigorating breezes which blow in from the sea.
Zymotic Diseases >>
Malarial diseases are rather frequent, more so on the coast than farther inland.
Smallpox is frequent on the coast, but is diminishing before vaccination; other epidemic diseases are extremely rare.
Some, however, give rise to dangerous or fatal diseases, while others may cause ravaging epidemics; instances of these are given under the various orders.
3 Pneumonia and consumption, approximately of equal fatality (15 to 18 per 10,000 each), exceed more than twofold the diseases of next lower fatality, cancer and cholera infantum.
But whatever merits they had as clarifiers of turbid water, the advent of bacteriology, and the recognition of the fact that the bacteria of certain diseases may be water-borne, introduced a new criterion of effectiveness, and it was perceived that the removal of solid particles, or even of organic impurities (which were realized to be important not so much because they are dangerous to health per se as because their presence affords grounds for suspecting that the water in which they occur has been exposed to circumstances permitting contamination with infective disease), was not sufficient; the filter must also prevent the passage of pathogenic organisms, and so render the water sterile bacteriologically.
His chief works were First Lines of the Practice of Physic (1774); Institutions of Medicine (1770); and Synopsis Nosologicae Medicae (1785), which contained his classification of diseases into four great classes - (t) Pyrexiae, or febrile diseases, as typhus fever; (2) Neuroses, or nervous diseases, as epilepsy; (3) Cachexiae, or diseases resulting from bad habit of body, as scurvy; L and (4) Locales, or local diseases, as cancer.
Barley is liable to smut and the other fungus diseases which attack wheat, and the insect pests which prey on the two plants are also similar.
Experience shows that the most remarkable cures effected by the hot waters are in cases of gout, rheumatism, diseases of the larynx and in skin disorders.
Rinderpest and other epidemic diseases swept over the country in 1895-1896, and during the war of1899-1902the province was practically denuded of live stock.
It has a Carnegie library, and is the seat of an Evangelical Lutheran theological seminary (1865), of Lutheran homes for the aged and orphan, of the Milwaukee county hospital for the insane, of the Milwaukee sanatorium for nervous diseases, and of the north-western branch of the national soldiers' home, which has grounds covering 385 acres and with main building and barracks affording quarters for over 2000 disabled veterans, and has a hospital, a theatre, and a library of 15,000 volumes.
- (a) On the ground that animals are affected by diseases which are communicable, and are actually communicated, to man by the ingestion of their flesh, e.g.
parasites, tuberculosis; (0) on the ground that the flesh of artificially fed animals is full of excretory substances, and that, therefore, under modern conditions, flesh-eating is injurious, and may be a cause of excretory substance and uric acid deposits or rapid tissue-destroying diseases in man; e.g.
About 300 years before Christ Theophrastus wrote a History of Plants, and described about 500 species used for the treatment of diseases.
A good account of the new species and principal varieties discovered since 1880, with much information on the cultivation of lilies and the diseases to which they are subject, will be found in the report of the Conference on Lilies, in the Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society, 1901.
As contrasted with the baru or soothsaying priest, as he is called by Zimmern, we have the asipu, who was the priestmagician who dealt in conjurations (siptu), whereby diseases were removed, spells broken, or in expiations whereby sins were expiated.
Owing to a miracle which he is alleged to have worked on a child suffering from a throat affection, who was brought to him on his way to execution, St Blaise's aid has always been held potent in throat and lung diseases.
In addition to his labours on neurological and even physiological problems he made many contributions to other branches of medicine, his published works dealing, among other topics, with liver and kidney diseases, gout and pulmonary phthisis.
Liquor potassae is also used in certain skin diseases.
In former times large quantities of it were imported in a dry state into Europe for officinal purposes, the drug having the reputation of being efficacious in diseases of the skin and lungs; and even now it may be found in apothecaries' shops in the south of Europe, country people regarding it as a powerful aphrodisiac for cattle.
They are dipped in water, which is given to ailing cattle and human beings as a sovereign remedy for diseases.
Slaughtering notably free from epizootic diseases, with a fertile D soil or the growth of fodder crops and pasture, with abundance of pure air and water, and with a plentiful supply of ice, the conditions in Canada are ideal for the dairying industry.
In 1913 he became physician for tropical diseases to King's College, London.
In the vicinity is Karlshof, a celebrated establishment for the cure of epileptic diseases.
Among the hospitals is that called by the name of its founder, Cottolengo, a vast institution providing for more than 5000 persons; there are also the Ospedale Maggiore di San Giovanni, the Ospedale Mauriziano, and many other hospitals for special diseases, as well as asylums and charitable institutions of all kinds.
These dangerous diseases are slowly disappearing as sanitary conditions are improved.
Malarial fevers are also common, and diseases of the digestive organs, in great part easily preventible, figure among the principal causes of death.
Among the deaths 2789 were from tuberculosis, 1200 from smallpox, 77 8 from malarial diseases, 331 from la grippe, and 106 from beri-beri.
deep, discharge 800,000 gallons a day of strong sulphur water (temperature 103°-106° F.), which is used for treating rheumatism and skin diseases.
The heat, however, is greatly modified on the coast by the south-east trade winds, and the climate is generally considered healthy, though beri-beri and eruptive diseases are common on the coast.
That the silkworm is subject to many serious diseases is only to be expected of a creature which for upwards of 4000 years has been propagated under purely artificial conditions, and these most frequently of a very insanitary nature, and where, not the healthy life of the insect, but the amount of silk it could be made to yield, was the object of the cultivator.
Among the most fatal and disastrous of these diseases with which the cultivator had long to grapple was " muscardine," a malady due to the development of a fungus, Botrytis bassiana, in the body of the caterpillar.
On Dartford Heath is a lunatic asylum of the London County Council, and, at Long Reach, the infectious diseases hospital of the Metropolitan Asylums Board.
(d) To notify all new diseases of plants which may appear in any part of the world, indicating the districts affected, the spread of the disease, and, if possible, the efficacious means of resistance.
To account for this it is said that the blood of the race has become poisoned by the introduction of foreign diseases.
Numbers also die from diseases produced apparently from overcrowding.
The waters of Kissingen are prescribed for both internal and external use in a great variety of diseases.
It was observed by the animal magnetists at the beginning of the 19th century in France and Germany, that certain of their subjects, when in the "magnetic" trance, could foretell accurately the course of their diseases, the date of the occurrence of a crisis and the length of time needed to effect a cure.
And with certain cutaneous diseases accompanied by constitutional disturbances which afflict cattle, the affection in the skin appears on the patches bearing white hairs, the other parts remaining apparently healthy.
The Greek myth (Hesiod, Works and Days, 90) alleged that mortals lived "without ill diseases that give death to men" till the cover was lifted from the box of Pandora.
The effects of badly-executed pruning, or rather hacking, are most noticeable in the case of forest trees, the mutilation of which often results in rotting, canker and other diseases.
Potato haulms, and club-rooted cabbage crops should, however, never be mixed with ordinary clean vegetable refuse, as they would be most likely to perpetuate the terrible diseases to which they are subject.
Any who expect to get early cabbage, cauliflower, lettuce or radishes, while planting or sowing is delayed until the time of sowing tomato and egg plant in May, are sure to be disappointed of a full crop. Frequent rotation of crops should be practised in the vegetable garden, in order to head off insects and diseases; and also to make the best use of the land.
Vegetable gardens often become infested with diseases that are carried over from year to year in the old plants and litter; this is specially true of water-melons and of some diseases of tomatoes.
Massee, Plant Diseases; Rev. A.
There are twenty-eight other springs of nearly identical composition, many of which are used for bathing, and are efficacious in cases of rheumatism, gout, nervous and female disorders and skin diseases.
The Plum is subject to several diseases of fungal origin.
He saw all the mechanical difficulties that had to be overcome in mining; he learned the nature and succession of rocks, the physical properties of minerals, ores and metals; he got a notion of mineral waters; he was an eyewitness of the accidents which befel the miners, and studied the diseases which attacked them; he had proof that positive knowledge of nature was not to be got in schools and universities, but only by going to nature herself, and to those who were constantly engaged with her.
The humours and passions and diseases of different nations are different, and the physician must go among the nations if he will be master of his art; the more he knows of other nations, the better he will understand his own.
They were in German, not in Latin; they were expositions of his own experience, of his own views, of his own methods of curing, adapted to the diseases that afflicted the Germans in the year 1527, and they were not commentaries on the text of Galen or Avicenna.
The truth of Paracelsus's doctrines was apparently confirmed by his success in curing or mitigating diseases for which the regular physicians could do nothing.
Among charitable institutions are the Royal Alexandra Infirmary, the Victoria Eye Infirmary (presented by Provost Mackenzie in 1899), the burgh asylum at Riccartsbar, the Abbey Poorhouse (including hospital and lunatic wards), the fever hospital and reception house, the Infectious Diseases Hospital and the Gleniffer Home for Incurables.
Goitre and leprosy are the only endemic diseases; but the natives, being underfed, are prone to diarrhoea and dyspepsia.
The diseases to which the application has been hitherto confined are papillomata, lupus vulgaris, epithelial tumours, syphilitic ulcers, pigmentary naevi, angiomata, and pruritus and chronic itching of the skin; but the use of radium in therapeutics is still experimental.
Malformations of the pelvis, accidental injuries and the diseases and displacements to which the uterus is liable, on the one hand; and, on the other, various morbid conditions of the ovum or placenta leading to the death of the foetus, are among the direct local causes.
He published over fifty volumes containing his researches on muscular and nervous diseases, and on the applications of electricity both for diagnostic purposes and for treatment.
The Diseases of Animals Act 1894 and orders under it are for;, the purpose of securing animals from unnecessary suffering, as well as from disease.
Upper Egypt is healthier than Lower Egypt, where, especially near the coast, malarial fevers and diseases of the respiratory organs are not uncommon.
The diseases from which Egyptians suffer are very largely the result of insanitary surroundings.
Smallpox is not uncommon, and skin diseases are numerous, but the two most prevalent diseases among the Egyptians are dysentery and ophthalmia.
Their action was assisted by spells, for general use in the preparation or application, or for special diseases.
Little has yet been accomplished in identifying the diseases and the substances named in the medical papyri.
They deal for the most part with the hearing of diseases, the bites of snakes and scorpions, &c., but incidentally cast many sidelights on the mythology and superstitious beliefs.
One of the chief purposes for which magic was employed was ~o avert diseases.
It is extremely hard to draw any fixed line in Egypt between magic and medicine; but it is curious to note that simple diagnoses and prescriptions were employed for the more curable diseases, while magical formulae and amulets are reserved for those that are harder to cope with, such as the bites of snakes and the stings of scorpions.
The others were the State Psychopathic Institute at Kankakee (established in 1907 as part of the insane service) for systematic study of mental and nervous diseases; one at Lincoln having charge of feebleminded children; two institutions for the blind - a school at Jacksonville and an industrial home at Marshall Boulevard and 19th Street, Chicago; a home for soldiers and sailors (Quincy), one for soldiers' orphans (Normal), and one for soldiers' widows (Wilmington); a school for the deaf (Jacksonville), and an eye and ear infirmary (Chicago).
Ward, Timber and some of its Diseases; R.
Thus malaria and sand-fly fever, dysentery, typhoid and paratyphoid fever, cholera, smallpox, and occasionally typhus fever, eye diseases, oriental sores and indeed any disease conveyed by impure water, flies, contaminated dust or the contagion of sufferers from infectious diseases, are prevalent in the inhabited places along the Persian Gulf, and precautions must always be taken to guard against them.
He also modifies the harshness of St Mark's style, and frequently recasts his language in reference to diseases.
The plague devastated the badly drained towns, new diseases spread death, the fear of the Turks was permanent.
The waters, which are used for drinking and in baths, are efficacious in the treatment of wounds and ulcers and in cases of scrofula, gout, skin diseases, &c. There is a military hospital, founded in 1760.
Despite unparalleled importations of grain by sea and rail, despite the most strenuous exertions of the government, which incurred a total expenditure on this account of 11 millions sterling, the loss of life from actual starvation and its attendant train of diseases was lamentable.
The value of the crop was likewise seriously affected by the causes mentioned, and by various diseases which attacked the canes.
He was also regarded as an authority in diseases of the nerves and brain.
Morphine is a sheet anchor in the later stages of cancer and other painful diseases, rendering the life of the patient one of comparative comfort.
The waters of Baden-Baden are specific in cases of chronic rheumatism and gout, paralysis, neuralgia, skin diseases and various internal complaints, such as stone and uric acid.
Inhalations of thorium emanations produced from thorium nitrate through a wash-bottle inhaler are said to have a bactericidal action in diseases of the lungs.
On the day of public procession - the last took place in 1857 or 1858 - naked priests and " wives" escorted the company with songs and dances; death was the penalty of those caught peering from their houses, and, apart from this, the natives feared loathsome diseases should they gaze upon the sacred scene.
The records of the Church are also filled with the efforts of Jesus' followers to heal the diseases and satisfy the wants of men.
Among the native races the prevailing diseases, apart from those of a malarial origin, are chiefly such as arise from bad and insufficient food, from intemperance, and from want of cleanliness.
(1) See Noah Webster's History of Epidemic Diseases, 8vo (2 vols., London, 1800) (a work which makes no pretension to medical learning, but exhibits the history of epidemics in connexion with physical disasters - as earthquakes, famines, &c.); Lersch, Kleine Pest-Chronik (8vo, 1880) (a convenient short compendium, but not always accurate); "Athanasii Kircheri Chronologia Pestium" (to A.D.
The army diseases of the Civil Wars were chiefly typhus and malarial fevers, but plague was not unknown among them, as at Wallingford Castle (Willis, " Of Feavers," Works, ed.
Emerging from the remote endemic centres to which it had retreated, plague has once more taken its place among the zymotic diseases with which Western communities have to reckon, and that which has for more than a century been little more than a name and a tradition has become the familiar object of investigation, carried on with all the ardour and all the resources of modern science.
Herein it differs notably from other exotic diseases liable to similar diffusion.
Epidemic outbreaks of other diseases - for instance, cholera, diphtheria and typhoid fever - are often preceded and followed by the prevalence of mild illness of an allied type; and t he true significance of this fact is one of the most important problems in epidemiology.
It does not differ from them in its clinical features more than epidemics of other diseases are apt to vary at different times, or more than can be accounted for by difference of handling.
In plague countries the diseases with which it is most liable to be confounded are malaria, relapsing fever and typhus, or broncho-pneumonia in pneumonic cases.
The principles are the same as those which govern the prevention of other infectious diseases.
It is the crowning merit of the author that he never ceases to be an impartial spectator - a cold and curious critic. We might compare him to an anatomist, with knife and scalpel dissecting the dead body of Italy, and pointing out the symptoms of her manifold diseases with the indifferent analysis of one who has no moral sensibility.
Diseases Diseases of the Vine.
- The vine is subject to a number of diseases some of which are due to micro-organisms (moulds, bacteria), others to insect life.
The most destructive of all these diseases is that of the phylloxera.
Diseases of Wine.
One of the most common diseases, namely that producing acetous fermentation, differs from the disease caused by M.
A director of agriculture was appointed in 1896, and leaflets are issued pointing out improvements within the means of the villager, and how to deal with plant diseases and insect pests.
The greatest difficulty in his way is not temperature, but the presence of parasitic diseases to resist which his body has not been prepared, and modern knowledge is rapidly defining these dangers and the modes of avoiding them.
Amongst native-born Assamese during the decade there was a serious decrease in Nowgong and some other districts, due to kalaazar and other diseases.
process employed ritually in all religions and among all races, civilized or savage, partly as a mode of ridding persons and things of dangerous influences and diseases, especially of the demons (Persian drug, Greek pes, Armenian dev) which are or cause those diseases; and partly as a means of introducing into things and persons a sacramental or divine influence, a holy emanation, spirit or power.
In the Stadtwald, close to the town, is a women's hospital for diseases of the lungs, a government institution in connexion with the state system of insurance against incapacity and old age.
Their number does not much exceed 40,000, which is being steadily reduced by drunkenness and epidemic diseases.
Excessive drinking is said to lead to skin and other diseases, but per contra many medicinal virtues are ascribed to the preparation.
A large population is temporarily attracted to Cannstatt by the fame of its mineral springs, which are valuabl e for diseases of the throat and weaknesses of the nervous system.
So much is this the case that some diseases which are now known to be due to infection were formerly attributed entirely to the effect of cold.
We will next take the various parts of the body, and consider more in detail the therapeutic measures most commonly employed in the treatment of their diseases.
Even in cases of very acute intestinal diseases similar treatment is now pursued, and instead of treating dysentery simply by sedatives or astringents, an eliminative treatment by means of sulphate of magnesia is largely employed.
The same method of serum therapeutics has been used in other infective diseases, but not with the same success.
The virulence of infective diseases varies in different epidemics, and at different times in the same epidemic. It had been noted that many infective diseases did not attack an individual a second time, the first attack appearing to protect from subsequent ones.
Although the anti-toxins which are used in the cure of infective diseases are not dangerous to life, yet they sometimes cause unpleasant consequences, more especially an urticarial eruption almost exactly like that which follows eating mussels or other shell-fish.
The success which has been achieved has led to the use of many other organs in a raw or compressed form, or as extracts, in other diseases; e.g.
We have also considered in a general way the treatment of local diseases by passive protection, active protection and repair of waste; but both maintenance of health and repair of waste depend very largely upon the condition of the blood.
When this is healthy the attacks of microbes are resisted, wounds heal readily, and patients recover from serious diseases which in persons of debilitated constitution would prove fatal.
The most common diseases of malassimilation (or "metabolic" diseases) are gout, rheumatism and diabetes.
Exercises, passive and active, are also used in diseases of the joints, as well as massage and baths, but exercises and training are even more important in cases of cardiac disease.
Arago was now on his death-bed, under a complication of diseases, induced, no doubt, by the hardships and labours of his earlier years.
In weakened conditions of the system from improper or insufficient food, or as a result of any drain upon the body, or in anaemia from any cause, and in such diseases as syphilis or malaria, neuralgia is a frequent concomitant.
Potato Diseases There are few agricultural subjects of greater importance than the culture of the potato and the losses entailed by potato disease.
A generation afterwards Erasistratus made this the basis of a new theory of diseases and their treatment.
The heaviest losses were due to war, shipwreck and tropical diseases, but large numbers of the underpaid or unpaid soldiers deserted to the armies of native states.
1-46a, an elaborate description of the symptoms common to the earlier stages of leprosy and other skin diseases to guide the priest in deciding as to the cleanness or uncleanness of the patient; (b) xiii.
In the first place, the ancient question of " spontaneous generation " received fresh impetus from the difficulty of keeping such minute organisms as bacteria from reaching and developing in organic infusions; and, secondly, the long-suspected analogies between the phenomena of fermentation and those of certain diseases again made themselves felt, as both became better understood.
Long before any clear ideas as to the relations of Schizomycetes to fermentation and disease were possible, various thinkers at different times had suggested that resemblances existed between the phenomena of certain diseases and those of fermentation, and the idea that a virus or contagium might be something of the nature of a minute organism capable of spreading and 1 Cladothrix dichotoma, for example, which is ordinarily a branched, filamentous, sheathed form, at certain seasons breaks up into a number of separate cells which develop a tuft of cilia and escape from the sheath.
Quite distinct is the search for the germs which cause undesirable changes, or " diseases "; and great strides have been made in discovering the bacteria concerned in rendering milk " ropy," butter " oily " and " rancid," &c. Cheese in its numerous forms contains myriads of bacteria, and some of these are now known to be concerned in the various processes of ripening and other changes affecting the product, and although little is known as to the exact part played by any species, practical applications of the discoveries of the decade 1890-1900 have been made, e.g.
Bacterial diseases in the higher plants have been described, but the subject requires careful treatment, since several points suggest doubts as to the organism described being the of the disease referred to their agency.
recently it was urged that the acid contents of plants explained their immunity from bacterial diseases, but it is now known that many bacteria can flourish in acid media.
On the other hand, recent investigation has brought to light cases in which bacteria are certainly the primary agents in diseases of plants.
The demonstration by Pasteur that definite diseases could be produced by bacteria, proved a great stimulus to research in the etiology of infective conditions, and the result Historical was a rapid advance in human knowledge.
Thus the organisms of suppuration, tubercle, glanders, diphtheria, typhoid fever, cholera, tetanus, and others were identified, and their relationship to the individual diseases established.
Immunity against diseases caused by bacteria has been the subject of systematic research from 1880 onwards.
In the United Kingdom the work of Sidney Martin, in the separation of toxic substances from the bodies of those who have died from certain diseases, is also worthy of mention.
Toxic substances have also been separated by corresponding methods from the bodies of those who have died of certain diseases, and the action of such substances on animals is in some cases an important point in the pathology of the disease.
The fact that in anthrax, one of the first diseases to be fully studied, numerous bacilli are present in the blood of infected animals, gave origin to the idea that the organisms might produce their effect by using up the oxygen g ' P Y g P Yg of the blood.
In other words, the toxins of different bacteria are closely similar in their results on the body and the features of the corresponding diseases are largely regulated by the vital properties of the bacteria, their distribution in the tissues, &c. The distinction between the two varieties of toxins, though convenient.
A later research by Brieger along with Fraenkel pointed to the extracellular toxins of diphtheria, tetanus and other diseases being of proteid nature, and various other observers have arrived at a like conclusion.
In such diseases the bacteria, when introduced into the subcutaneous tissue, rapidly gain entrance to the blood stream and multiply freely in it, and by means of their toxins cause symptoms of general poisoning.
In another class of diseases, the organisms. first produce some well-marked local lesion, from which secondary extension takes place by the lymph or blood stream to other parts of the body, where corresponding lesions are formed.
.In still another class of diseases the bacteria are restricted to some particular part of the body, and the symptoms are due to toxins which are absorbed from it.
In addition, however, there occur in bacterial diseases symptoms to which the correlated structural changes have not yet been demonstrated.
It also varies with the period of life, young subjects being more susceptible to certain diseases, e.g.
The key to the artificial establishment of active immunity is given by the fact long established that recovery from an attack of certain infective diseases is accompanied by protection for varying periods of time against a subsequent attack.
Abbott, Principles of Bacteriology (7th ed., London, 1905); Crookshank, Bacteriology and Infective Diseases (with bibliography, 4th ed., London, 1896); Duclaux, Traite de microbiologie (Paris, 1899-1900); Eyre, Bacteriological Technique (Philadelphia and London, 1902); Flugge, Die Mikroorganismen (3rd ed., Leipzig, 1896); Fischer, Vorlesungen fiber Bakterien (2nd ed., Jena, 1902); Gunther, Einfiihrung in das Studium der Bakteriologie (6th ed., Leipzig, 1906); Hewlett, Manual of Bacteriology (2nd ed., London, 1902); Hueppe, Principles of Bacteriology (translation, London, 1899); Klein, Micro-organisms and Disease (3rd ed., London, 1896); Kolle and Wassermann, Handbuch der pathogenen Mikroorganismen (Jena, 1904) (supplements are still being published; this is the most important work on the subject); Lofler, Vorlesungen fiber die geschichtliche Entwickelung der Lehre von der Bacterien (Leipzig, 1887); M`Farland, Text-book upon the Pathogenic Bacteria (5th ed., London, 1906); Muir and Ritchie, Manual of Bacteriology (with bibliography, 4th ed., Edin.
The bacteriology of the infective diseases (with bibliography) is fully given in the System of Medicine, edited by Clifford Allbutt, (2nd ed., London, 1907).
The most important works on immunity are: Ehrlich, Studies in Immunity (English translation, New York, 5906), and Metchnikoff, Immunity in Infective Diseases (English translation, Cambridge, 1905).
Used externally it is an antiseptic and disinfectant, and is used 5 to 10% in ointments in the treatment of chronic skin diseases such as psoriasis and eczema of a sub-acute character.
Only in a few isolated cases has any contamination been traced to fever or other zymotic germs. In this connexion it is worth noting that the infectious diseases hospital has a separate system of drainage which is carefully disinfected, and not allowed to be employed for the purposes of manure.
How the Saracens, when they took him prisoner, he being half dead with a complication of diseases, kindly left him "un mien couverture d'ecarlate" which his mother had given him, and which he put over him, having made a hole therein and bound it round him with a cord; how when he came to Acre in a pitiable condition an old servant of his house presented himself, and "brought me clean white hoods and combed my hair most comfortably"; how he bought a hundred tuns of wine and served it - the best first, according to high authority - well-watered to his private soldiers, somewhat less watered to the squires, and to the knights neat, but with a suggestive phial of the weaker liquid to mix "si comme ils vouloient" - these are the details in which he seems to take greatest pleasure, and for readers six hundred years after date perhaps they are not the least interesting details.
The diseases for which it was chiefly taken were malarial fever, dysentery, diarrhoea, spitting of blood, rheumatism and elephantiasis.
The state supports the following charitable and correctional institutions all under the inspection of a State Department of Charities and Correction (1905); hospitals for the insane at Trenton and Morris Plains; a training-school for feeble-minded children (partly supported by the state) and a home for feeble-minded women at Vineland; a sanatorium for tuberculous diseases at Glen Gardner; a village for epileptics, with a farm of 700 acres, near Skillman, Somerset county; a state home (reform school) for boys near Jamesburg, Middlesex county, and for girls in Ewing township, near Trenton; a state reformatory for criminals sixteen to thirty years of age, near Rahway; a state prison at Trenton; a home for disabled soldiers at Kearney,' Hudson county; a home for disabled soldiers, sailors and their wives at Vineland"; and a school for the deaf at Trenton.
During the 18th century the Indian title to the soil was rapidly extinguished, and at the same time the vices and diseases of the stronger race were gradually reducing their numbers.
The dry and unusually equable temperature (mean for winter 50° F., for spring 57° F., and for autumn 64° F.) and the balmy air laden with the fragrance of the pine forests have combined to make Aiken a health and pleasure resort; its climate is said to be especially beneficial for those afflicted with pulmonary diseases.
The acts referred to include those relating to the diseases of animals, destructive insects, explosives, fish conservancy, gas meters, margarine, police, reformatory and industrial schools, riot (damages), sale of food and drugs, weights and measures.
And in a borough, whether a quarter sessions borough or not, which had in 1881 a population of less than io,000, all the powers which the borough council formerly possessed as to police, analysts, diseases of animals, gas meters, and weights and measures cease and are transferred to the county council, the boroughs becoming in fact part of the area of the county for these purposes.
Under the Isolation Hospitals Acts 1893 and 1901, a county council may provide for the establishment of isolation hospitals for the reception of patients suffering from infectious diseases on Hospi t a l s the application of any local authority within the county, or on the report of the medical officer of the county that hospital accommodation is necessary and has not been provided, or it may take over hospitals already provided by a local authority.
It is also forbidden to let houses or rooms in which infected persons have been lodging, or to make false statements to persons negotiating for the hire of such rooms. An act was passed in the year 1890, called the Infectious Diseases Prevention Act.
It also compels dairymen to notify infectious diseases existing among their servants.
The act of 1890 also forbids the keeping for more than forty-eight hours of the body of a person who has died of infectious disease in a room used at the time as a dwelling-place, sleeping-place or workshop. It provides for the bodies of persons dying of infectious diseases in a hospital being removed only for burial, and gives power to justices in certain cases to order bodies to be buried.
The diseases to which the act applies are smallpox, cholera, membranous croup, erysipelas, scarlatina or scarlet fever, typhus, typhoid, enteric, relapsing, continued or puerperal fever, and any other infectious disease to which the act has been applied by the local authority of the district in the prescribed manner.
It requires the notification to the medical officer of health of the district of every case in which a person is suffering from one of the diseases above mentioned.
Europeans are subject to the usual tropical diseases, and the country is not suited for European colonization.
The Pellegrini is exclusively surgical; the Santa Maria di Loreto is especially for the inmates of the Reclusorio and for street accidents; the Ospedale Lina for children; and the Ospedale Cotugno for infectious diseases.
and 54.5° F., are used both internally and externally, and are efficacious in cases of anaemia, nervous disorders, sexual diseases, specially for women, and heart diseases.
In some skin diseases such as psoriasis, chronic eczema and acne indurata, phosphorus is very useful, and cases of diabetes mellitus and lymphadenoma have improved under some of its compounds.
He maintained an attitude of defiance and of "Roman resolution," smiled scornfully at his questioners, making no secret of his intentions, replied to the king, who asked why he would kill him, that the pope had excommunicated him, that "dangerous diseases require a desperate remedy," adding fiercely to the Scottish courtiers who surrounded him that "one of his objects was to blow back the Scots into Scotland."
Dr Bence-Jones was a recognized authority on diseases of the stomach and kidneys.
Among the diseases against which St Vitus is invoked is chorea, also known as St Vitus's Dance.
Malarial fever is practically non-existent in Cape Colony, and diseases of the chest are rare.
The springs, the Arminius Quelle and the Liborius Quelle, for which it is famous, are saline waters of a temperature of 70° F., and are utilized both for bathing and drinking in cases of pulmonary consumption and chronic diseases of the respiratory organs.
One special feature was the importance attributed to the respiratory arrangements as a source of expression, and it was shown how the physician and surgeon might derive information regarding the nature and extent of important diseases by observing the expression of bodily suffering.
In 1810 he published a series of Letters concerning the Diseases of the Urethra, in which he treated of stricture from an anatomical and pathological point of view.
Parasitic Diseases >>
For a longer or shorter period of their lives ticks are parasitic upon vertebrate animals of various kinds; but although the belief that the bite of certain tropical species is poisonous has long been held by the natives of the countries they infest and has been recorded with corroborative evidence by European authors in books of travel, it is only of recent years that accurate information has been acquired of the part played by these Arachnids in transmitting from one host to another protozoal blood-parasites which cause serious or fatal diseases to man and other animals.
The common sheep-tick (Ixodes vicinus) of England, for example, infects cattle and dogs as well as sheep; and the pathogenetic Ixodidae above mentioned occur parasitically upon other mammals than those to which they convey the diseases specified.
The climate of Bhandara is unhealthy, - the prevailing diseases being fever, small-pox and cholera.
" Inedia," as it is called in the nomenclature of diseases by the London College of Physicians, is of two kinds, arising from want of food and from want of water.
The practice of sleeping (incubatio) in these sanctuaries was very common, it being supposed that the god effected cures or prescribed remedies to the sick in dreams. All who were healed offered sacrifice - especially a cock - and hung up votive tablets, on which were recorded their names, their diseases and the manner in which they had been cured.
Typhoid and pulmonary diseases are common.
Odessa is rising in repute as a summer sea-bathing resort, and its mud-baths (from the mud of the limans or lagoons) are considered to be efficacious in cases of rheumatism, gout, nervous affections and skin diseases.
- Wheat, like other cereals, is liable to epidemic diseases caused by parasitic organisms which prey on the plant tissues.
(1907), "Dysentery," Drs Andrew Davidson and Simon Flexner; Davidson, Hygiene and Diseases of Warm Climates (Edinburgh, 1903); Fearnside in Ind.
Amid many sufferings, however, and frequent attacks of sickness, he manfully pursued his course; nor was it till his frail body, torn by many and painful diseases - fever, asthma, stone, and gout, the fruits for the most part of his sedentary habits and unceasing activity - had, as it were, fallen to pieces around him, that his indomitable spirit relinquished the conflict.