Given all this, do you really believe this disease still has a chance?
Now the disease is eradicated.
Whatever her disease, it had eluded the doctors for months.
Until you can prove you've got some damn disease, you're on leave without pay.
A world without hunger, disease, ignorance, poverty, and war is not a perfect world.
New, disease resistant trees are bringing back the splendor of what has been called one of the prettiest towns in New England.
The most recent statistics show the disease to be diminishing.
Disease is a problem of technology; thus, its solution will be technological.
A future without disease as we understand the term's meaning today.
I'm sure she caught that dreadful disease from one of them and it killed her.
What evil and error are there in it, if people were dying of disease without help while material assistance could so easily be rendered, and I supplied them with a doctor, a hospital, and an asylum for the aged?
Doctors came to see her singly and in consultation, talked much in French, German, and Latin, blamed one another, and prescribed a great variety of medicines for all the diseases known to them, but the simple idea never occurred to any of them that they could not know the disease Natasha was suffering from, as no disease suffered by a live man can be known, for every living person has his own peculiarities and always has his own peculiar, personal, novel, complicated disease, unknown to medicine--not a disease of the lungs, liver, skin, heart, nerves, and so on mentioned in medical books, but a disease consisting of one of the innumerable combinations of the maladies of those organs.
33, 4), (2) that he died of a chronic stomachic disease; the latter is perhaps the most likely.
To that definition, I would respectfully offer this qualification: I would say that disease has a well-defined center and very fuzzy edges.
The expedition, which originally numbered 2500 men, was reduced by deaths at the hands of the Indians, by disease and privation, within a year to less than Soo men.
Claire gave a hint of a nod, remaining under the archway to the parlor, as if entering might subject her to some vile disease from these common folk.
He had suffered extreme pain for years before his death, and in fact broke down altogether under disease contracted in the discharge of his duty.
The terrible losses sustained by whole communities of farmers, planters, foresters, &c., from plant diseases have naturally stimulated the search for remedies, but even now the search is too often conducted in the spirit of the believer in quack medicines, although the agricultural world is awakening to the fact that before any measures likely to be successful can be attempted, the whole chain of causation of the disease must be investigated.
Four of the problems I address in this book—ignorance, disease, famine, and poverty—are purely technical problems.
By then, she'd caught some disease and died soon after.
The decrease of the disease is a direct result of the efforts made to combat it, in the form of special hospitals or pellagrosarf, economic kitchens, rural bakeries and maize-drying establishments.
In a large number of cases, however, the disease is purely local, and does not itself extend far into the organ or tissue affected.
The drawn or etiolated condition of over-shaded plants is a case in point, though here again the soft, watery plant often really succumbs to other disease agentse.g.
The study of causes or agencies inducing disease (Aetiology).
Keene was once called The Elm City before Dutch elm disease destroyed the massive trees that surrounded the grassy area at the head of the square.
The Malays formerly suffered severely from smallpox epidemics, but in the portion of the peninsula under British rule vaccination has been introduced, and the ravages of the disease no longer assume serious dimensions.
There and in Lombardy the disease known as pellagra is most widely diffused.
A stable vaccine was developed, our understanding of the disease expanded, and technology moved forward.
That spring a new disease broke out among the soldiers, a swelling of the arms, legs, and face, which the doctors attributed to eating this root.
Vice and disease, which cast such a sombre moral hue over the world, seemed to have hardly any existence for him.
All health and success does me good, however far off and withdrawn it may appear; all disease and failure helps to make me sad and does me evil, however much sympathy it may have with me or I with it.
The yellowing and subsequent casting of leaves, for instance, is a very general symptom of disease in plants, and may be induced by drought, extremes of temperature, insufficient or excessive illumination, excess of water at the roots, the action of parasitic Fungi, insects, worms, &c., or of poisonous gases, and so forth; and extreme caution is necessary in.
It includes five books; of which the first and second treat of physiology, pathology and hygiene, the third and fourth deal with the methods of treating disease, and the fifth describes the composition and preparation of remedies.
I am also a historian with a full understanding of how poverty, disease, ignorance, famine, and war have dominated life on this planet.
Occasional outbreaks of cholera occur from time to time, and in the independent states these cause terrible loss of life, as the natives fly from the disease and spread the infection in every direction.
We should impart our courage, and not our despair, our health and ease, and not our disease, and take care that this does not spread by contagion.
As much despair as she felt for each of the forty-three deaths, there would be nothing but doom, disease, and death for her people if she did not stay alive.
We may often distinguish between primary symptoms and secondary or subordinate symptoms, but for the purposes of classification in an article of this scope we shall only attempt to group the various cases under the more obvious signs of disease exhibited.
Dilophia, Rhytisma, &c. Moreover, variegations deceptively like these disease spots are known, e.g.
But a world without want and without disease, a world with opportunity for all, is a world where getting along—even when we don't see eye to eye—is going to be a good bit easier.
While in college, Borlaug heard a lecture by Elvin Stakman about plant disease in wheat, barley, and oak crops.
the infection of rats and mice with disease bacilli, or of locusts with insect-killing Fungi, and signs of the successful carrying out of such measures are not wanting.
Spotted Leaves, &c.Discoloured spots or patches on leaves and other herbaceous parts are common symptoms of disease, and often furnish clues to identification of causes, though it must be remembered that no sharp line divides this class of symptoms from the preceding.
The factors that enable us to solve for and eliminate disease are getting better all the time, like wind at our back, pushing us forward.
The cause of medical materialism is the natural bias of physicians towards explaining the health and disease of mind by the health and disease of body.
It has received its greatest support from the study of insanity, which is now fully recognized as conditioned by disease of the brain.
LICHEN (lichen Tuber), in medical terminology, a papular disease of the skin, consisting of an eruption in small thickly set, slightly elevated red points, more or less widely distributed over the body, and accompanied by slight febrile symptoms.
On a similar occasion the disease returned; with difficulty he reached Hamadan, where, finding the disease gaining ground, he refused to keep up the regimen imposed, and resigned himself to his fate.
It must not be overlooked that the living cells of the plant react upon the parasite as well as to all external agencies, and the nature of disease becomes intelligible only if we bear in mind that it consists in such altered metabolismdeflected physiologyas is here implied.
Louis Pasteur came along around this same time and proffered the germ theory of disease and a vaccine for rabies.
The ambassador recovered, but Descartes fell a victim to the same disease, inflammation of the lungs.
In every case of death from disease or unknown causes sorcery was suspected and an inquest held, at which the corpse was asked by each relative in succession the name of the murderer.
The war with France at the beginning of this reign, with its attendant evils, quartering of troops, conscription and levies of money, joined with cattle disease and scanty harvests in plunging the land again into distress, from which it recovered very slowly.
The seriousness of the damage done is illustrated by the ravages of the larch disease, apple canker, &c.
Perhaps we all have such remarkable abilities but are impaired in a way—maybe the rest of us have a disease to which these savants are immune.
In plants, however, the symptoms of disease are apt to exhibit themselves in a very general manner.
The causes of disease may be provisionally classified somewhat as follows, but it may he remarked at the outset that no one of these proximal causes, or agents, is ever solely responsible; and it is very easy to err in attributing a diseased condition to any of them, unless the relative importance of primary and subordinate agencies is discoverable.
beet-rot, turnip disease, wet-rot of potatoesthat we have to consider each case separately.
The religion consists of fear of the spirits of the wood, the sea, disease and ancestors, and of avoidance of acts traditionally displeasing to them.
of tke Fungi, &c. (1887); Frank, Die Krankh-eiten der Fflanzen (1895-1896); Sorauer, Handbuch der Pflanzenkrankheiten (i9o6); Ward, Disease in Plants (1901).
By the end of disease, we accomplish all that the preceding paragraphs describe—the full spectrum of human ailments, vanquished from the globe.
The disease struck people in childhood or in the prime of life.
In this book, I maintain the future will be without ignorance, disease, hunger, poverty, and war, and I support those assertions with history, data, and reason.
In this campaign Aurelius, after a series of successes, was attacked, according to some authorities, by an infectious disease, of which he died after a seven days' illness, either in his camp at Sirmium (Mitrovitz), on the Save, in Lower Pannonia, or at Vindobona (Vienna), on the 17th of March 180, in the fifty-ninth year of his age.
The kinds of disease due to these various agencies are very different.
Plants as agents of damage and disease may be divided into those larger forms which as weeds, epiphytes and so forth, do injury by dominating and shading more delicate species, or by gradually exhausting the soil, &c., and true parasites which actually live on and in the tissues of the plants.
The disease is due to poisoning by micro-organisms produced by deteriorated maize, and can be combated by care in ripening, drying and storing the maize.
Habitual crime is thus to be treated as a disease.
So isn't it just possible that it could end ignorance, disease, poverty, hunger, and war?
The quest to end ignorance and the quest to end disease have two important similarities.
As we move out from that defined center, we come to disorders and disabilities—impairments of bodily systems that are brought about by injury, disease, or genetics.
During his campaign and his time in office, the extent of the effect of his polio was kept from the public, but the fact he had the disease was commonly known.
What we call "heart disease" will become hundreds of individual conditions each with its own cause and, hopefully, cure.
Now let's look at how the Internet will help end disease in a more traditional, suit-and-tie kind of way.
The attack on Hispaniola, however, was a disastrous failure, and though a landing at Jamaica and the capture of the capital, Santiago de la Vega, was effected, the expedition was almost annihilated by disease; and Penn and Venables returned to England, when Cromwell threw them into the Tower.
Ask people in what way they hope the world will become better and you will certainly get replies about reducing poverty, disease, and hunger.
Cancer of the Stomach is a common disease.
It seems like he either shot himself or died of venereal disease.
She said it with a sad finality, like someone admitting to having a terminal disease.
The only thing she could think of was some kind of disease.
He bases it on the general relationship which man bears to nature as a whole; he cannot divorce the life of man from that of the universe; he cannot think of disease otherwise than as a phase of life.
If he could get potent drugs to cure disease he was content, and he worked very hard in an empirical way to make them.
The second was that the disease clearly passed from person to person, though by what mechanism was not clear.
In the early 1900s, we learned about blood types, vitamins, and Alzheimer's disease, and invented the electrocardiograph.
We will discuss the molecular machines called nanites—tiny, molecular-sized robots that will swim around in your body fighting disease, repairing damage, and alerting you to problems (and will likely dramatically increase the human lifespan).
The power of the Internet and associated technologies we have so far described, combined with our new understanding of the genome, dooms disease to eventual extinction.
The additional possibility of access to all humans' Digital Echoes, to be studied for a million unnoticed causal correlations, will hasten the demise of disease as well and will increase quality of life and longevity.
Under Hollywood's production code at the time, movies could not include nudity, criminal activity, or offensive language, or depict illegal drug use, venereal disease, or childbirth.
They infected the animals in the town with the vamp disease.
Death dealers were immune to disease, poison, and any other thing humans could throw at them.
My beautiful bride labored to the end, administrating to the fallen and the flu stricken souls of our town until she too, fell to the scourge of this most dreaded disease.
The results of these first experiments were not encouraging, owing mainly to the poor class of animals, but the exporters persevered, and the business steadily grew in value and importance, until in 1898 the number of live cattle shipped was 359,296, which then decreased to 119,189 in 1901, because of the foot-and-mouth disease.
Bright's disease >>
During the last two years of his life Ruiz Zorilla became less active; failing health and the loss of his wife had decreased his energies, and the Madrid government allowed him to return to Spain some months before he died at Burgos, on the 1 3 th of June 1895, of heart disease.
The presence of these parasites seems at times to have little effect on the host, and men in whose system it is calculated there are some 40-50 million larvae have shown no signs of disease.
The effects of these parasites have been mistaken for those of disease.
IPassing to the recognized external agencies, the physical condition of the soil is a fruitful source of disease.
As regards water, its deficiency or excess is a relative matter, and although many of the minor maladies of pot-plants in windows and greenhouses controlled by amateurs depend on its misuse, water alone is probably never a primary cause of disease.
Pythium, which causes the damping off of seedlings, reducing them to a putrid mass in a few hours, and Phytophthora, the agent of the potato disease.
Woods, Stigmonose, a Disease of Carnations, Vegetable, Physiol.
Carbolic acid is an efficient parasiticide, and is largely used in destroying the fungus of ringworm and of the skin disease known as pityriasis versicolor.
The story that he fell a victim to a disease similar to that which cut off one of the Herods (Acts xii.
Despite the general recognition of these facts, the pharmacology of colchicum has hitherto thrown no light on the pathology of gout, and the pathology of gout has thrown no light upon the manner in which colchicum exerts its unique influence upon this disease.
When sulphur is burned in air or oxygen, sulphur dioxide is produced, which is a powerful disinfectant, used to fumigate rooms which have been occupied by persons suffering from some infectious disease.
Russia, was reduced to a very low ebb, in consequence of the silkworm disease, and was only renewed with any vigour towards the end of the 'eighties.
Henry, stricken with sore disease, was unable to reap the advantage.
In the same year he was made archbishop of Besancon, but meanwhile he had been stricken with a lingering disease; he was never enthroned, but died at Madrid on the 21st of September 1586.
Of the mortality due to malarial disease a small part only is referable to the direct attack of intermittent, and chiefly to the fever in its pernicious form.
From the time of Hippocrates onwards the malarial or periodical fevers have engaged the attention of innumerable observers, who have suggested various theories of causation, and have sometimes anticipated - vaguely, indeed, but with surprising accuracy - the results of modern research; but the true nature of the disease remained in doubt until the closing years of the 19th century.
The alleged occurrence of the disease in localities free from mosquitoes or without their agency is not well attested; its absence from other localities where they abound is accounted for by their being of an innocent species, or - as in England - free from the parasite.
The "deadly" climates, to which so much dread attaches,, generally mean malaria, and the mastery of this disease would.
He has pointed out that certain areas and certain islands are entirely free from the disease, while neighbouring areas and islands are devastated.
If this factor could be discovered it might be applied to the suppression of the disease in malarious localities.
Herod was stricken with an incurable disease.
Among hospitals are the Italian, the Homoeopathic, the National for the paralysed and epileptic, the Alexandra for children with hip disease, and the Hospital for sick children.
He was the son of Richard Bright, the physician who first diagnosed " Bright's disease " in 1827, and his mother was Eliza Follett, sister of Sir William Follett, who was solicitor-general and attorney-general in Peel's administration (1834-44).
What was the secret power which enabled him to bring under the domain of scientific laws phenomena of disease which had so far baffled human endeavour?
Dumas, a native of the Alais district, where the disease was rampant, urged Pasteur to undertake its investigation.
Up to that time he had never seen a silkworm, and hesitated to attempt so difficult a task; but at the reiterated request of his friend he consented, and in June 1865 went to the south of France for the purpose of studying the disease on the spot.
The first disease investigated by Pasteur was that of chicken cholera, an epidemic which destroyed io% of the French fowls; after the application of the preventive method the death-rate was reduced to below i %.
But while the province in many parts presents a landscape of luxuriant beauty, it is a prey to the ravages of disease, principally malarial fevers due to the extensive swamps formed by waters stagnating in the forests, and to the frequent incursions of the Goklan and Yomut Turkomans, who have their camping-grounds in the northern part of the province, and until about 1890 plundered caravans sometimes at the very gates of Astarabad city, and carried people off into slavery and bondage.
As in .` the case of the apple disease it forms large irregular blackish blotches on the fruit and leaves, the injury being often very severe especially in a cool, damp season.
The fungus mycelium grows between the cuticle and the epidermis, the former being ultimately ruptured by numerous short branches bearing spores (conidia) by means of which the disease is spread.
2, Early stage of disease.
During the middle ages cattle and sheep were the chief farm animals, but the intermixture of stock consequent on the common-field system was a barrier to improvement in the breed and conduced to the propagation of disease.
The foot-and-mouth disease first appeared about 1840, having been introduced, as is supposed, by foreign cattle.
Several weeks elapsed before the true character of the disease was known, and in this brief space it had already been carried by animals purchased in Smithfield market to all parts of the country.
In 1883 foot-and-mouth disease was terribly rampant amongst the herds and flocks of Great Britain, and was far more prevalent than it has ever been since.
It was about this time that the value of a mixture of lime and sulphate of copper (bouillie bordelaise), sprayed in solution upon the growing plants, came to be recognized as a check upon the ravages of potato disease.
The growth, year after year, on the same soil of one kind of plant unfits it for bearing further crops of the kind which has exhausted it, and renders them:_less vigorous and more liable to disease.
The effect was to reduce to a minimum the risk of the introduction of disease amongst the herds and flocks of the country, and at the same time to confine the trade in store stock exclusively to the breeders of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1900 the discovery early in the year of the existence of foot-and-mouth disease amongst cattle and sheep shipped from Argentina to the United Kingdom led to the issue of an order by which all British ports were closed against live animals from the country named.
c. 125, 1867, is of historical interest, in that it contains the first mention of pleuro-pneumonia, and the exposure in any market of cattle suffering from that disease was made an offence.
c. 70) revoked all former acts, and defined disease to mean cattle plague, pleuro-pneumonia, foot-and-mouth disease, sheep-pox, sheep-scab and glanders, together with any disease which the Privy Council might by order specify.
c. 47 power was given to the Board of Agriculture to use the sums voted on account of pleuro-pneumonia for paying the costs involved in dealing with foot-and-mouth disease; under this act the board could order the slaughter of diseased animals and of animals in contact with these, and could pay compensation for animals so slaughtered.
The course of foot-and-mouth disease in Great Britain between 1877 and 1905 inclusive is told in Table XX., from which the [[Table Xx]].
- Outbreaks of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Great Britain, 1877-1905.
The disease is seen to have attained its maximum virulence in 1883.
Sheep-scab is a loathsome skin disease due to an acarian parasite.
For its size and in relation to its sheep population Wales harbours the disease to a far greater extent than the other divisions of Great Britain.
The fatal disease known as anthrax did not form the subject of official returns previous to the passing of the Anthrax Order of 1886.
A recrudescence of the disease marked the closing years of the 19th century, the outbreaks having been 748 in 1898, 853 in 1899 and 1119 in 1900.
however, the disease is strongly centred upon the metropolitan area, more than half of the outbreaks being reported from the county of London alone.
The disease was very rife in 1895, but the extensive application of the muzzling restrictions of the Board of Agriculture was accompanied by so steady a diminution in the [[Table Xxii I]].
prevalence of the disease, that it was thought the latter had been extirpated.
The trouble with this disease has been mainly in England, the outbreaks in Wales and Scotland being comparatively few.
Animals suffer from the ravages of bot flies (Oestridae) and gad flies (Tabanidae); while the tsetse disease is due to the tsetse fly (Glossina morsitans), carrying the protozoa that cause the disease from one horse to another.
Having thereby greatly offended the king, he was accused of being privy to a treasonable conspiracy and thrown into prison, where he died from torture or disease.
While engaged on this task he died, worn out with disease, on the 3rd of March 1703 in London, and was buried in St Helen's Church, Bishopsgate Street.
(a) Natural causes, either of death or of disease, are hardly, if at all, recognized by the uncivilized; everything is attributed to spirits or magical influence of some sort.
Thus the Mintra of the Malay Peninsula have a demon corresponding to every kind of disease known to them; the Tasmanian ascribed a gnawing pain to the presence within him of the soul of a dead man, whom he had unwittingly summoned by mentioning his name and who was `devouring his liver; the Samoan held that the violation of a food tabu would result in the animal being formed within the body of the offender and cause his death.
The demon theory of disease is still attested by some of our medical terms; epilepsy (Gr.
This theory of disease disappeared sooner than did the belief in possession; the energumens (EVEp-yoiwEvoc) of the early Christian church, who were under the care of a special clerical order of exorcists, testify to a belief in possession; but the demon theory of disease receives no recognition; the energumens find their analogues in the converts of missionaries in China, Africa and elsewhere.
Another way in which a demon is held to cause disease is by introducing itself into the patient's body and sucking his blood; the Malays believe that a woman who dies in childbirth becomes a langsuir and sucks the blood of children; victims of the lycanthrope are sometimes said to be done to death in the same way; and it is commonly believed in Africa that the wizard has the power of killing people in this way, probably with the aid of a familiar.
PSOROSPERMIASIS, the medical term for a disease caused by the animal parasites known as psorosperms or gregarinidae, found in the liver, kidneys and ureters.
" Wilt disease," or " frenching," perhaps the most important of the fungoid disease of cotton in the United States, is due to Neocosmospora vasinfecta.
The resistance was well maintained in succeeding generations, and races so raisedDform a practical means of combating this serious disease.
No remedy is known for the disease, and cotton should not be planted on infected land for at least three or four years.
" Boll rot," or "Anthracnose," is a disease which may at times be sufficiently serious to destroy from ro to 50% of the crop. The fungus which causes it (Colletotrichum gossypii) is closely related to one of the fungi attacking sugar-cane in various parts of the world.
Resistance to Disease.
- The method employed is to select, for seed purposes, plants which are resistant to the particular disease.
Thus sometimes a field of cotton is attacked by some disease, perhaps " wilt," and a comparatively few plants are but very slightly affected.
The eggs are now too much in one basket, and local disease, or bad weather, or some other misfortune, may diminish by serious percentages the supplies anticipated.
Medical science has never gauged, perhaps never enough set itself to gauge the intimate connexion between moral fault and disease.
Epidemics of smallpox and typhoid occur; and leprosy, imported from the Orange River and Cape Colonies, has taken firm hold on the Basuto, of whom about 9r per too() are sufferers from this disease.
He seems to have touched at the island of Tortugas, so named on account of the large number of turtles found there, and to have landed at several places, but many of his men succumbed to disease and he himself was wounded in an Indian attack, dying soon afterward in Cuba.
The anxiety, fatigue and cold to which he was thus exposed, affecting a constitution naturally weak, laid the foundation of the disease to which he afterwards succumbed.
A violent rebellion is mentioned in 1788, put down only after the loss, it is said, of ioo,000 men by disease and sword, and the expenditure of 2,000,000 taels of silver.
The hero is smitten with sore disease, but the fragmentary condition of this and the succeeding tablet is such as to envelop in doubt the accompanying circumstances, including the cause and nature of his disease.
This is apt to be met with in oldish persons with diseased vessels and feeble heart-action, especially if the blood is rendered less nutritious by the presence of diabetes or of kidney disease.
recovers from the primary shock of the operation, the disease may reappear in the stump, and lead to a fatal result.
Froissart relates that he was burned to death through his bedclothes catching fire; Secousse says that he died in peace with many signs of contrition; another story says he died of leprosy; and a popular legend tells how he expired by a divine judgment through the burning of the clothes steeped in sulphur and spirits in which he had been wrapped as a cure for a loathsome disease caused by his debauchery.
It was in far later periods and in other countries that the appearance of the dogstar was regarded as the signal of insufferable heat or prevalent disease.
Yellow fever (which first appeared in Cuba in 1647) was long the only epidemic disease, Havana being an endemic focus.
The Cuban coast was uninterruptedly full of infection, and the danger of an outbreak in each year was never absent, until the work of the United States army in 1901-1902 conclusively proved that this disease, though ineradicable by the most extreme sanitary measures, based on the accepted theory of its origin as a filth-disease, could be eradicated entirely by removing the possibility of inoculation by the Stegomyia mosquito.
Of other agricultural crops those of fruits are of greatest importance - bananas (which are planted about once in three years), pine-apples (planted about once in five years), coco-nuts, oranges, &c. The coco-nut industry has long been largely confined to the region about Baracoa, owing to the ruin of the trees elsewhere by a disease not yet thoroughly understood, which, appearing finally near Baracoa, threatened by 1908 to destroy the industry there as well.
disease and misery which usually attend the collision between natives and civilization of the trader's type being introduced.
Here he was attacked by Wellington (March 29) and, after a further engagement at Sabugal (April 3, 1811), he fell back through Ciudad to Salamanca, having lost in Portugal nearly 30,000 men, chiefly from want and disease, and 6000 in the retreat alone.
The malady causing the greatest number of deaths is that of pulmonary consumption; but better housing accommodation has of late years reduced the mortality from this disease very considerably.
His mother had suffered from phthisis; and he himself now fell a victim to the same disease.
After this every portion of the animal is thoroughly examined, for if there is any organic disease the devout Jew cannot taste the meat.
Whilst absolutely contra-indicated in all cases of valvular disease, it is of value in cases of cardiac hypertrophy with over-action.
3), who translated them from the Syriac. They are two in number, and purport to be a petition of Abgar Uchomo, king of Edessa, to Christ to visit Edessa, and Christ's answer, promising after his ascension to send one of his disciples, who should " cure thee of thy disease, and give eternal life and peace to thee and all thy people."
The higher the altitude the healthier the animals and the greater their immunity from disease.
During the six weeks previous to the relief, 200 deaths had occurred from disease alone, and altogether as many as 8424 were reported to have passed through the hospitals.
But even at this stage the disease may be unrecognizable, though the symptoms are extremely suggestive.
But in many cases the patient prefers that the abdomen should be opened for exploration for a possible operation than that he should hopelessly give himself over to the disease.
In some early cases of pyloric cancer resection of the disease may be performed, the upper end of the intestine being afterwards joined to the middle of the stomach by a kind of short-circuiting operation.
His frame was sickly and wasted with disease, yet when clad in his red cardinal's.
Herodotus mentions the existence of this class, called Enarees, and says that they suffer from a sacred disease owing to the wrath of the goddess of Ascalon whose shrine they had plundered.
The asphodel was also supposed to be a remedy for poisonous snake-bites and a specific against sorcery; it was fatal to mice, but preserved pigs from disease.
Six species of tick, including the blue tick common throughout South Africa, are found, especially in the low veld, where they are the means of the transmission of disease to cattle.
ANKYLOSTOMIASIS, or Anchylostomiasis (also called helminthiasis, "miners' anaemia," and in Germany Wurmkrank- heit), a disease to which in recent years much attention has been paid, from its prevalence in the mining industry in England, France, Germany, Belgium, North Queensland and elsewhere.
The disease was first known in Europe among the Italian workmen employed on the St Gotthard tunnel.
The American parasite described by Stiles, and called Uncinaria americana (whence the name Uncinariasis for this disease) differs slightly from the Ankylostoma.
7 600s, suffering), the science dealing with the theory or causation of disease.
Influenced by the prevailing philosophy of the day, they interpreted the phenomena of disease through its lights, and endeavoured from time to time to reduce the study of pathology to philosophical order when the very elements of philosophical order were wanting.
The complexity and mystery of action inherent in living matter have probably been accountable for much of the vague philosophy of disease in the past, and have furnished one reason at least why pathology has been so long in asserting its independence as a science.
" Vaccines " are also used as a method of treatment during the progress of the disease.
The healthy bone marrow reacts with remarkable rapidity to the demand for more blood cells which may be required by the organism; its reactions and variations in disease are very striking.
Pneumonia of the croupous type has been proved to be, as a rule, a germ disease, the nature of the germ varying according to circumstances.
It wastes in the disease known as " myxoedema," and the above product gathers in the tissues, in that disease, to such an extent as to give rise to what has been termed a " solid oedema."
When the pancreas is excised in an animal, or when it is destroyed in man by disease, grape-sugar appears in the urine.
Pathology is the science of disease in all its manifestations, whether structural or functional, progressive or regressive.
tagged on to the treatment of human disease, but unworthy of being studied for its own sake as a branch of knowledge.
Our range must embrace a much wider area - must comprise, in fact, all living matter - if we are ever to arrive at a scientific conception of what disease really means.
Disease as an entity - as something to which all living matter is subject - is what the pathologist has to recognize and to investigate, and the practical application of the knowledge thus acquired follows as a natural consequence.
Since pathology is the science of disease, we are met at the very threshold by the question: What is disease?
Disease we may define, accordingly, as any departure from the normal standard of structure or function of a tissue or organ.
If, for instance, we find that instead of the natural number of Malpighian bodies in the kidney there are only half that number, then we are entitled to say that this defect represents disease of structure; and if we find that the organ is excreting a new substance, such as albumen, we can affirm logically that its function is abnormal.
Once grant the above definition of disease, and even the most trivial aberrations from the normal must be regarded as diseased conditions, quite irrespective of whether, when structural, they interfere with the function of the part or not.
Thus an abortive supernumerary finger may not cause much, if any, inconvenience to the possessor, but nevertheless it must be regarded as a type of disease, which, trivial as it may appear, has a profound meaning in phylogeny and ontogeny.
The term " pathogenesis " has reference to the generation and development of disease, and that of " aetiology," in its present bearing, has to do with its causes.
Or again, in the case of paired organs, if one be removed by operation, or destroyed by disease, the other at once undertakes to carry on the functions of both.
There can be little doubt that all unnatural and artificial modes of life tend to deterioration of the powers of resistance of the organism to disease.
Whenever these conditions are infringed his powers of resistance to disease are lessened, and certain tendencies begin to show themselves, which are generally termed constitutional.
Thus the liability to tubercular infection is far commoner in the midst of a depraved population than in one fulfilling the primary laws of nature; rickets is a disease of great cities rather than of rural districts; and syphilis is more disastrous and protracted in its course in the depraved in health than in the robust.
Every living organism, animal and vegetable, tends to maintain a normal state of health; it is when the natural laws of health are violated that the liability to disease begins to assert itself.
The abuse of alcohol may also be mentioned here as a factor in the poduction of disease.
The tendencies to disease are in great part hereditary.
A distinction must be drawn between the above and diseases, like syphilis and small-pox, in which the contagion of, not the tendency to, the disease is transmitted directly to the foetus in utero.
According to our present knowledge of physiological and pathological processes, we must regard the cell as the ultimate biological unit - a unit of structure and a unit of function; this was first put forward by Schleiden in 1838, and by Schwann in 1839, but we owe to Virchow the full recognition of the fundamental importance of the living cell in all the processes of life, whether in health or disease.
They held that the cirrhotic kidney is simply a local manifestation of a general fibrous disease.
Their investigations on cancers found in the lower animals, and the successful transplantation of such growths into a new host of the same species (mice and rats), have greatly advanced our knowledge of the etiology of this disease.
Certain degenerative changes in the supra-renal glands may lead to Addison's disease, which is characterized by an excessive pigmentary condition of the skin and mucous membranes.
in subacute and chronic Bright's disease, lead poisoning and other obscure conditions.
Amyloid develops in various organs and tissues and is commonly associated with chronic phthisis, tubercular disease of bone and joints, and syphilis (congenital and acquired).
Nowak, however, found later that he could generate it where the turpentine failed to induce suppuration; he believes that it may arise quite apart from the influence of the organisms of suppuration, that it is not a biological product of the micro-organisms of disease, and also that it has nothing to do with emaciation.
So long as the epidermis of animals remains sound, disease germs may come in contact with it almost with impunity, but immediately on its being fissured, or a larger wound made through it, the underlying parts, the blood and soft tissues, are attacked by them.
It is invariably the result of some cause acting generally, such as renal disease, valvular defect of the heart, or an impoverished state of the blood; while a mere oedema is usually dependent upon some local obstruction to the return of blood or lymph, or of both, the presence of parasites within the tissue, such as the filaria sanguinis hominis or trichina spiralis, or the poisonous bites of insects.
Bainbridge suggests that a retention of metabolic products may cause the oedema in renal disease, Bradford having previously shown that loss of a certain amount of renal tissue caused retention of metabolic products in the tissues.
When, for instance, the cause of septic infection had been revealed, the prophylaxis of the disease became a possibility.
The whole system of treatment of tubercular disease has been altered by the discovery of the tubercle microphyte.
The treatment of the disease has now gone off in the opposite direction.
The discovery of the parasite of malaria by Laveran, and of the method by which it gains entrance to the human body, through the bite of a particular variety of mosquito, by Manson and Ross, promises much in the way of eradication of the disease in the future.
By the continuous injections under the skin, in increasing doses, of the toxins of certain pathogenic micro-organisms, such as that of diphtheria, an animal-usually the horse-may be rendered completely refractory to the disease.
Skin-grafting and regeneration of bone are among not the least remarkable applications of pathological principles to the combat with disease in recent times; and in this connexion may also be mentioned the daring acts of surgery for the relief of tumours of the brain, rendered practicable by improved methods of localization.
For the special pathological details of various diseases, see the separate articles on Parasitic Diseases; Neuro-Pathology; Digestive Organs; Respiratory System; Blood: Circulation; Metabolic Diseases; Fever; Bladder; Kidneys; Skin Diseases; EYE Diseases; Heart Disease; EAR, &c.; and the articles on different diseases and ailments under the headings of their common names.
- The science of medicine, as we understand it, has for its province the treatment of disease.
medicina: sc. ars, art of healing, from mederi, to heal) may be used very widely, to include Pathology, the theory of the causation of disease, or, very narrowly, to mean only the drug or form of remedy prescribed by the physician - this being more properly the subject of Therapeutics (q.v.) and Pharmacology.
Taking disease to be a deflexion from the line of health, the first requisite of medicine is an extensive and intimate acquaintance with the norm of the body.
Here we recognize the true Greek But this artistic completeness was closely connected with the third cardinal virtue of Hippocratic medicine - the clear recognition of disease as being equally with life a process governed by what we should now call natural laws, which could be known by observation, and which indicated the spontaneous and normal direction of recovery, by following which alone could the physician succeed.
In the fourth place, these views of the "natural history of disease" (in modern language) led to habits of minute observation and accurate interpretation of symptoms, in which the Hippocratic school was unrivalled in antiquity, and has been the model for all succeeding ages, so that even in these days, with our enormous advances in knowledge, the true method of clinical medicine may be said to be the method of Hippocrates.
The most valuable intellectual possession was a large mass of recorded observations in individual cases and epidemics of disease.
The dominating theory of disease was the humoral, which has never since ceased to influence medical thought and practice.
According to this celebrated theory, the body contains four humours - blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile, a right proportion and mixture of which constitute health; improper proportions or irregular distribution, disease.
The duty of the physician was to foresee these changes, "to assist or not to hinder them," so that "the sick man might conquer the disease with the help of the physician."
It follows from what has been said that prognosis, or the art of foretelling the course and event of the disease, was a strong point with the Hippocratic physicians.
Diagnosis, or recognition of the disease, must have been necessarily imperfect, when no scientific nosology or system of disease existed, and the knowledge of anatomy was quite inadequate to allow of a precise determination of the seat of disease; but symptoms were no doubt observed and interpreted skilfully.
In the treatment of disease, the Hippocratic school attached great importance to diet, the variations necessary in different diseases being minutely defined.
He appears to have leaned to mechanical explanations of the symptoms of disease, as was especially the case with inflammation, of which he gave the first rational, though necessarily inadequate, theory.
The most striking peculiarity of the empirics was that they rejected anatomy, regarding it as useless to inquire into the causes of things, and thus, as they contended, being the more minute in their observation of the actual phenomena of disease.
They had from early times a very complicated system of superstitious medicine, or religion, related to disease and the cure of disease, borrowed, as is thought, from the Etruscans; and, though the saying of Pliny that the Roman people got on for six hundred years without doctors was doubtless an exaggeration, and not, literally speaking, exact, it must be accepted for the broad truth which it contains.
In the treatment of disease Asclepiades attached most importance to diet, exercise, passive movements or frictions, and the external use of cold water - in short, to a modified athletic training.
His knowledge of disease and surgical skill were, as appears from the accounts given by Celsus and Caelius Aurelianus, very considerable.
Its main principles were that it was useless to consider the causes of a disease, or even the organ affected by the disease, and that it was sufficient to know what was common to all diseases, viz.
Besides this it was important only to consider whether the disease was acute or chronic, whether it was increasing, declining or stationary.
Treatment of disease was directed not to any special organ, nor to producing the crises and critical discharges of the Hippocratic school, but to correcting the morbid common condition or "community," relaxing the body if it was constricted, causing contraction if it was too lax, and in the "mixed state" acting according to the predominant condition.
In his anatomical studies Galen had a twofold object - a philosophical, to show the wisdom of the Creator in making everything fit to serve its purpose; and a practical, to aid the diagnosis, or recognition, of disease.
From faulty proportions of the same arose the intemperies (" distempers"), which, though not diseases, were the occasions of disease.
His works have been much admired for the purity of the Greek style, and his accurate descriptions of disease; but, as he quotes no medical author, and is quoted by none before Alexander of Aphrodisias at the beginning of the 3rd century, it is clear that he belonged to no school and founded none, and thus his position in the chain of medical tradition is quite uncertain.
Then some remedy had to be introduced which should be antagonistic, not to the disease in a physical sense, but to the spiritual seed of the disease.
These remedies were arcana - a word corresponding partly to what we now call specific remedies, but implying a mysterious connexion between the remedy and the "essence" of the disease.
Among many descriptions of this disease, that by John Kaye or Caius, already referred to, was one of the best, and of great importance as showing that the works of Galen did not comprise all that could be known in medicine.
The spread of syphilis, a disease equally unknown to the ancients, and the failure of Galen's remedies to cure it, had a similar effect.
Inspections of the dead, to ascertain the nature of the disease, were made, though not without difficulty, and thus the modern period of the science of morbid anatomy was ushered in.
These discoveries not only weakened or destroyed the respect for authority in matters of science, but brought about a marked tendency to mechanical explanations of life and disease.
At the same time the discovery of new diseases, unknown to the ancients, and the keener attention which the great epidemics of plague caused to be paid to those already known, led to more minute study of the natural history of disease.
The most important disease hitherto undescribed was rickets, first made known by Arnold de Boot, a Frisian who practised in Ireland, in 1649, and afterwards more fully in the celebrated work of Francis Glisson (1597-1677) in 1651.
The principle which mainly distinguished it was not merely the use of chemical medicines in addition to the traditional, or, as they were called in distinction, "Galenical" remedies, but a theory of pathology or causation of disease entirely different from the prevailing "humoral" pathology.
The "intestine movement of particles" in every body, or fermentation, was the explanation of many of the processes of life and disease.
He resembled his Greek master in the high value he set on the study of the "natural history of disease"; in the importance he attached to "epidemic constitution" - that is, to the influence of weather and other natural causes in modifying disease; and further in his conception of the healing power of nature in disease, a doctrine which he even expanded beyond the teaching of Hippocrates.
According to Sydenham, a disease is nothing more than an effort of nature to restore the health of the patient by the elimination of the morbific matter.
The reform of practical medicine was effected by men who aimed at, and partly succeeded in, rejecting all hypothesis and returning to the unbiassed study of natural processes, as shown in health and disease.
This phase is most clearly developed in Archibald Pitcairne (1652-1713), who, though a determined opponent of metaphysical explanations, and of the chemical doctrines, gave to his own rude mechanical explanations of life and disease almost the dogmatic completeness of a theological system.
Mead's treatise on The Power of the Sun and Moon over Human Bodies (1704), equally inspired by Newton's discoveries, was a premature attempt to assign the influence of atmospheric pressure and other cosmical causes in producing disease.
On this system are explained all the phenomena of life and disease.
The symptoms of disease were explained as efforts of the soul to rid itself from morbid influences, the soul acting reasonably with respect to the end of self-preservation.
The latter had, in neglecting anatomy, neglected the most solid basis for studying the natural history of disease; though perhaps it was less from choice than because his practice, as he was not attached to a hospital, gave him no opportunities.
While thus rejecting all the lessons of morbid anatomy and pathology, he put forward views respecting the causes of disease which hardly bear to be seriously stated.
All chronic maladies result either from three diseasespsora (the itch), syphilis or sycosis (a skin disease), or else are maladies produced by medicines.
(It is fair to say that these views were published in one of his later works.) In treatment of disease Hahnemann rejected entirely the notion of a vis medicatrix naturae, and was guided by his well-known principle 1 The itch (scabies) is really an affection produced by the presence in the skin of a species of mite (Acarus scabiei), and when this is destroyed or removed the disease is at an end.
" similaa similibus curantur,"which he explained as depending on the law that in order to get rid of a disease some remedy must be given which should substitute for the disease an action dynamically similar, but weaker.
In order to select remedies which should fulfil the indication of producing symptoms like those of the disease, Hahnemann made many observations of the action of drugs on healthy persons.
In the treatment of disease his practical innovations came at a fortunate time, when the excesses of the depletory system had only partially been superseded by the equally injurious opposite extreme of Brown's stimulant treatment.
This, the old "Vienna School," was not distinguished for any notable discoveries, but for success in clinical teaching, and for its sound method of studying the actual facts of disease during life and after death, which largely contributed to the establishment of the "positive medicine" of the 19th century.
The importance in science of Bichat's classical works, especially of the Anatomie generale, cannot be estimated here; we can only point out their value as supplying a new basis for pathology or the science of disease.
In his Zoonomia (1794) he expounded a theory of life and disease which had some resemblance to that of Brown, though arrived at (he says) by a different chain of reasoning.
The discovery by Richard Bright (1789-1858) of the disease of the kidneys known by his name proved to be one of the most momentous of the century.
In no department is the experimental method more continually justified than in that of the natural history of disease, which at first sight would seem to have a certain independence of it and a somewhat exclusive value of its own.
If at first in the 18th century, and in the earlier 19th, the discoveries in this branch of medical knowledge had a certain isolation, due perhaps to the prepossessions of the school of Sydenham, they soon became the property of the physician, and were brought into co-ordination with the clinical phenomena of disease.
Not only so, but the physician, thus fascinated by "types," and impressed by the silent monumentsof the pathological museum, was led to localize disease too much, to isolate the acts of nature, and to forget not only the continuity of the phases which lead up to the exemplary forms, or link them together, but to forget also that even between the types themselves relations of affinity must exist - and these oftentimes none the less intimate for apparent diversities of form, for types of widely different form may be, and indeed often are, more closely allied than types which have more superficial resemblance - and to forget, moreover, how largely negative is the process of abstraction by which types are imagined.
Thus it came about not only that classifications of disease based on superficial likeness - such as jaundice, dropsy, inflammation - were broken up, and their parts redistributed, but also that even more set diseases began to lose their settlements, and were recognized as terms of series, as transitory or culminating phases of perturbations which might be traced to their origins, and in their earlier stages perhaps withstood.
These new conceptions of the multiplicity in unity of disease, and of the fluidity and continuity of morbid processes, might have led to vagueness and over-boldness in speculation and reconstruction, had not the experimental method been at hand with clues and tests for the several series.
In the disease of the scalp called favus, Schonlein had discovered a minute mycelial fungus; a remarkable discovery, for it was the first conspicuous step in the attribution of diseases to the action of minute parasites.
As the prevalence of the conceptions signified and inspired by the word "phlogiston" kept alive ontological notions of disease, so the dissipation of vitalistic conceptions in the field of physics prepared men's minds in pathology for the new views opened by the discoveries of Pasteur on the side of pathogeny, and of J.
Of the older ontological notions of disease the strongest were those of the essence of fever and of the essence of inflammation.
As to such reforms in our conceptions of disease the advances of bacteriology profoundly contributed, so under the stress of consequent discoveries, almost prodigious in their extent and revolutionary effect, the conceptions of the etiology of disease underwent no less a transformation than the conceptions of disease itself.
It is proper to point out here how intimately a pathology thus regenerated modified current conceptions of disease, in the linking of disease to oscillations of health, and the regarding many diseases as modifications of the normal set up by the impingement of external causes; not a few of which indeed may be generated within the body itself - "autogenetic poisoning."
hope dealing elements of disease, with its first beginnings; and in the field of therapeutics, chemical and biological experiment, as in the case of digitalis, mercury and the iodides, was rapidly simplifying remedies and defining their virtues, so that these agents could be used at the bedside with more precision.
From the new regard given by physiologists and pathologists to the study of origins, and in the new hopes of thus dealing with disease at its springs, not in individuals only but in cities and nations, issued the great school of Preventive Medicine, initiated in England - E.
By the modification of physical conditions on a national scale a prodigious advance was made in the art of preventing disease.
1845) discovered the parasite of malaria, and truly conceived its relations to the disease; thus within two years were made two discoveries either of which was sufficient to make the honour of a century.
The 10th century, by means of this illumination of one of the darkest regions of disease, may diminish human suffering enormously, and may make habitable rich and beautiful regions of the earth's surface now, so far as man's work is concerned, condemned to sterility.
Moreover, freedom of trade and of travel has been promoted by a reform of the antiquated, cumbrous, and too often futile methods of quarantine - a reform as yet very far from complete, but founded upon a better understanding of the nature and propagation of disease.
Diphtheria, long no doubt a plague among mankind, was not carefully described until by Pierre Bretonneau in 1826; and since his time our conception of this disease has been extended by the study of later, secondary and incidental phases of it, such as neuritis, which had always formed part of the diphtheritic series, though the connexion had not been detected.
Thus the field of disease arising not from essential defect in the body, but from external contingencies, is vastly enlarging; while on the other hand the great variability of individuals in susceptibility explains the very variable results of such extrinsic causes.
This law has important ethical and political bearings; but in the province of disease this advance of what may be compared to the interlocking of points and signals has had wide influence not only in altering our conceptions of disease, but also in enlarging our views of all perturbations of function.
The grouping of reflex "units," and the paths wherein impulses travel and become associated, have been made out by the physiologist (Sherrington and others) working on the healthy animal, as well as by the record of disease; and not of spontaneous disease alone, for the artificial institution of morbid processes in animals has led to many of these discoveries, as in the method of A.
By similar methods nature, unassisted, betrays herself but too often; in many instances - probably originating primarily in the nervous tissues themselves - the course of disease is observed to follow certain paths with remarkable consistency, as for instance in diseases of particular tracts of the spinal cord.
It is needless to point out how such paths of disease, in their association with characteristic symptoms, have illuminated the clinical features of disease as well as the processes of normal function.
In infantile palsy, for example, and in tabes dorsalis, there is good reason to believe of that, definitely as the traces of the disease are found in certain physiologically distinct nervous elements, they are due nevertheless to toxic agents arriving by way of the blood.
Some of the most successful of the advances of medicine as a healing art have followed the detection of syphilitic disease of the vessels, or of the supporting tissues of nervous centres and of the peripheral nerves; so that, by specific medication, the treatment of paralytic, convulsive, and other terrible manifestations of nervous disease thus secondarily induced is now undertaken in early stages with definite prospect of cure.
Griesinger (1817-1868), Bevan Lewis - and in the separation from insanity due to primary disease or defect of nerve elements of such diseases as general paralysis of the insane, which probably arise, as we have said, by the action of poisons on contiguous structures - such as blood-vessels and connective elements - and invade the nervous matter secondarily.
Sufferers from mental disease are still regarded too much as troublesome persons to be hidden away in humane keeping, rather than as cases of manifold and obscure disease, to be studied and treated by the undivided attention of physicians of the highest skill.
In heart disease the chief work of the latter half of the 19th century was, in the first quarter, such clinical work as that of William Stokes and Peter Mere Latham (1789-1875); and in the second quarter the fuller comprehension of the vascular system, central and peripheral, with its cycles and variations of blood pressure, venous and arterial.
To the discovery of the parts played in disease by thrombosis and embolism we have referred above.
As regards pulmonary disease, pneumonia has passed more and more definitely into the category of the infections: the modes of invasion of the lungs and pleura by tuberculosis has been more and more accurately followed; and the treatment of these diseases, in the spheres both of prevention and of cure, has undergone a radical change.
It was in the management of pleurisies that the aid of surgical means first became eminent in inward disease.
In the department of abdominal disease progress has been made, not only in this enormous extension of means of cure by operative methods, but also in the verification of diagnosis.
The first recognition of a disease may be at a necropsy, but then usually by irresponsible pathologists; it is another matter when the physician himself comes under rebuke for failing to seize a way to cure, while the chance remained to him, by section of the abdomen during life.
The abdomen is still "full of surprises"; and he who has most experience of this deceptive region will have least confidence in expressing positive opinions in particular cases of disease without operative investigation.
Nor must we forget the unfolding of a new chapter of disease, in the nosology of the pancreas.
In diabetes this organ seems to play a part which is not yet precisely determined; and one fell disease at least has been traced to a violent access of inflammation of this organ, caused perhaps by entry of foreign matters into its duct.
In the sphere of physiology and in the interpretation of associated arterial diseases much obscurity still remains; as, for instance, concerning the nature of the toxic substances which produce those bilateral changes in the kidneys which we call Bright's disease, and bring about the "uraemia" which is characteristic of it.
Lardaceous disease, however, here and in other regions, now appears to be due to the specific toxins of pyogenetic micro-organisms. In stone of the kidney a great advance has been made in treatment by operative means, and the formation of these stones seems to recent observers to depend less upon constitutional bent (gout) than upon unhealthy local conditions of the passages, which in their turn again may be due to the action of microorganisms.
To Thomas Addison's descriptions of certain anaemias, and of the disease of the suprarenal capsules which bears his name, something has been added; and W.
By the laryngoscope, invented about 1850 by Manuel Garcia the celebrated singingmaster, and perfected by Johann Czermak (1828-1873) and others, the diseases of the larynx also have been brought into the general light which has been shed on all fields of disease; and many of them, previously known more or less empirically, submitted to precise definition and cure.
Of such we may cite tuberculosis of the larynx, formerly as incurable as distressing; and "adenoids" - a disease revealed by intrascopic methods - which used grievously to thwart and stifle the growth both of mind and body in children, are now promptly removed, to the infinite advantage of the rising generation.
The plague was scarcely stayed before the whole city was in flames, a calamity of the first magnitude, but one which in the end caused much good, as the seeds of disease were destroyed, and London has never since been visited by such an epidemic. On the 2nd of September 1666 the fire broke out at one o'clock in the morning at a house in Pudding Lane.
Ankylostomiasis is a disease which finds a congenial habitat in the warm damp atmosphere of mines, and has become a veritable scourge in some mining regions.
As a result of disease, and of casualties in action and from bombardment, the British divisions recruited in the United Kingdom were constantly far short of establishment, no proper provision having been made for keeping them up to strength.
Like their adversaries, the Turks had suffered much from disease during the summer.
He besieged Florence without success, and died of disease in 1313.
The most destructive form of fungoid disease 1.
The disease was first noticed in England in 1845; in 1848 it appeared at Versailles; by 1851 it had spread through all the wine-producing countries of Europe, being specially virulent in the lands bordering on the Mediterranean; and in the following year it made its appearance in Madeira.
The disease is characterized by the appearance of a mycelium forming white or greyish-white patches on the young leaves; this spreads quickly and attacks the older leaves and branches, and ultimately reaches the grapes.
The disease spreads by the mycelium growing ever the epidermis of the plant.
The perithecia are only produced exceptionally in Europe, but this stage of the life-history is common in the United States and causes a widely spread disease among the American vines.
The means which have proved most efficacious, both as a remedy and a preventive of this disease, is to scatter flowers of sulphur over mthe vines, before the morning dew has evaporated.
This disease has been successfully treated with a spray of copper sulphate and lime, or sulphate of iron; solutions of these salts prevent the conidia from germinating.
Anthracnose is the name usually given to a disease which was formerly known as "charbon," "pech" or "brenner."
The centre of the spots on the grapes becomes darker as the disease advances, and a red line appears dividing the dark brown border into an outer and an inner rim and giving a very characteristic appearance to the diseased plant.
These are minute, oval, colourless spores, which serve to spread the disease over the vineyard and from place to place.
The complete life-history of this form is at present unknown; and information as to where the fungus passes the winter, and in what form, would probably afford some useful indications as to the method that should be adopted to combat the disease.
As a preventive to its attacks the copper sulphate sprays and a solution (50%) of iron sulphate have been found very useful, as well as care in planting on well-drained soil that does not lie too low, the disease seldom appearing in dry, well-exposed vineyards.
A great deal of confusion still exists with regard to this disease.
A similar disease which of late has frequently been found in England, and which is ascribed to the fungus Gloeosporium ampelophagum, is very similar to it.
Massee recommends that the shoots should be dredged with flowers of sulphur at intervals of ten days, while the disease continues to spread, a small quantity of quicklime in a finely powdered con FIG.
The disease spreads from grape to grape, so that as a rule many of the grapes in a bunch are destroyed.
During the summer of 1864 the prisoners suffered greatly from hunger, exposure and disease, and in seven months about a third of them died.
But the evidence in favour of the view that tapeworms normally excrete toxin into the body of their host in such amount as to occasion disease is not generally accepted as conclusive.
In hydatid disease there is, as a rule, a marked increase in the number of those white corpuscles which possess a specially staining affinity with the dye eosin, and are therefore known as eosinophile cells.
PE.) Soil and Disease.
- The influence of different kinds of soil as a factor in the production of disease requires to be considered, in regard not only to the nature and number of the microorganisms they contain, but also to the amount of moisture and air in them and their capacity for heat.
Among the most noteworthy workers at the problems involved in the question of the influence of soil in the production of disease we find yen Foder, Pettenkofer, Levy, Fleck, von Naegeli, Schleesing, Muntz and Warrington.
Again, all accounts of diphtheria show a tendency on the part of the disease to recur in the same districts year after year.
An analysis of the innumerable outbreaks in various parts of Europe indicates that the geological features of the affected districts play a less important part in the incidence of the disease than soil dampness.
Observations made at the most diverse parts of the globe, and the general distribution area of the disease, show that mere questions of elevation, or even configuration of the ground, have little or no influence.
On the other hand, the same observations go to show that the disease is met with oftener on the more recent formations than the older, and this fact, so far as concerns the physical characters of the soil, is identical with the questions of permeability to air and water.
For warmth, for dryness, for absence of fog, and for facility of walking after rain, just when the air is at its purest and its best, there is nothing equal to gravel; but when gravel has been rendered foul by infiltration with organic matters it may easily become a very hotbed of disease.
" Mosaic disease " is the name given to a condition in which the leaves are more or less sharply differentiated into light and dark green patches.
This disease is probably bacterial in origin.
The disease is checked by raising the temperature above 110° F., and reducing the humidity of the barn.
Careful examination of a large number of individuals of one variety growing under similar conditions reveals differences in such characters as number of leaves per plant, the size and shape of the leaves, tendency to form suckers, time of maturing and resistance to disease.
These salts have been extensively employed internally, and indeed they are still largely employed in the treatment of the more severe and difficult cases of nervous disease.
He died in his 72nd year of heart disease on the 4th of May 1875.
The drug is largely employed in cases of Bright's disease and dropsy from any cause, being especially useful when the liver shares in the general venous congestion.
The Heruli remained heathen until the overthrow of their kingdom, and retained many striking primitive customs. When threatened with death by disease or old age, they were required to call in an executioner, who stabbed them on the pyre.
FAITH HEALING, a form of "mind cure," characterized by the doctrine that while pain and disease really exist, they may be neutralized and dispelled by faith in Divine power; the doctrine known as Christian Science holds, however, that pain is only an illusion and seeks to cure the patient by instilling into him this belief.
An animistic theory of disease was held by Pastor J.
Used in this sense faith healing is indistinguishable from much of savage leech-craft, which seeks to cure disease by expelling the evil spirit in some portion of the body.
This severe blow left General Grant penniless, just at the time when he was beginning to suffer acutely from the disease which finally caused his death.
Tsetse-flies are of great economic and pathological importance as the disseminators of tsetse-fly disease (nagana) and sleeping sickness.
It is important to note that although sleeping sickness (of which the chief foci are at present the Congo Free State and Uganda) has hitherto been associated with one particular species of Glossina, it has been shown experi mentally both that other tsetse-flies are able to transmit the parasite of the disease, and that G.
It commonly results from injury, as the tearing or cutting of a blood-vessel, but certain forms result from disease, as in scurvy and purpura.
There he was informed that the pain had its origin in a disease which must soon prove fatal.
Francis died on the 31st of March 1547, of a disease of the urinary ducts according to some accounts, of syphilis according to others.
They possess - not in Hebrew, of which they are altogether ignorant, but in Ethiopic (or Geez)- the canonical and apocryphal books of the Old Testament; a volume of extracts from the Pentateuch, with comments given to Moses by God on Mount Sinai; the Te-e-sa-sa Sanbat, or laws of the Sabbath; the Ardit, a book of secrets revealed to twelve saints, which is used as a charm against disease; lives of Abraham, Moses, &c.; and a translation of Josephus called Sana Aihud.
Heraclius died of his disease in 642.
For a long time he struggled bravely with this cruel disease, never omitting except from absolute necessity any of his official duties except during a brief period of rest abroad, which failed to produce the desired effect.
One of his great merits is that he was the first to dissociate medicine from priestcraft, and to direct exclusive attention to the natural history of disease.
But when we come to study his observations on the natural history of disease as presented in the living subject, we recognize at once the presence of a great clinical physician.
This art could, he held, be only obtained by the application of experience, not only to disease at large, but to disease in the individual.
Although the treatises IIEpi Kpwviuwv cannot be accepted as authentic, we find in the Ilpoyvwvr,KOV evidence of the acuteness of observation in the manner in which the occurrence of critical days in disease is enunciated.
Of these Adams accepts as certainly genuine the 2nd, 6th, 5th, 3rd (7 books), 4th, 7th, 8th, 9th and 12th, and as " pretty confidently acknowledged as genuine, although the evidence in their favour is not so strong," the 1st, Loth and 13th, and, in addition, (14) On Ulcers (IIEpi EXKc v); (15) On Fistulae (IIEpi vu piyywv); (16) On Hemorrhoids (IIEpi aipoppot&e); (17) On the Sacred Disease (IIEpi iepi l s yob o- According to the sceptical and somewhat subjective criticism of Ermerins, the whole collection is to be regarded as spurious except Epidemics, books i.
The troops suffered greatly from disease, heat, want of water and the obstinate resistance of the inhabitants.
In chronic disease and in health the use of alcohol as an aid to digestion is without the support of clinical or laboratory experience, the beneficial action being at least neutralized by undesirable effects produced elsewhere.
Their hostility to Captain Cook in 1774, which earned from him the name of Savage for the island, was due to their fear of foreign disease, a fear that has since been justified.
His death was variously attributed to disease, the effects of lightning, or a wound received in a campaign against the Huns; but it seems more probable that he was murdered by the soldiers, who were averse from further campaigns against Persia, at the instigation of Arrius Aper, prefect of the praetorian guard.
After wearisome and disheartening failures, embittered by the pain of an internal disease, Wolfe crowned his work by the decisive victory on the Plains of Abraham (13th of September 1759) by which the French permanently lost Quebec. Twice wounded earlier in the fight, he had refused to leave the field, and a third bullet passing through his lungs inflicted a mortal injury.
He bore the acute agony of the disease which killed him with manly patience, and he died piously at the Escorial on the 13th of September 1598.
" The symptoms of the disease, by means of which an infected spot may be readily recognized, are as follows: The vines are stunted and bear few leaves, and those small ones.
When the disease reaches an advanced stage the leaves are discoloured, yellow or reddish, with their edges turned back, and withered.
If, however, the insect were content with this method of reproduction the disease could be isolated by surrounding the infected patches with a deep ditch full of some such substance as coal-tar, which would prevent the insects spreading on to the roots of healthy vines.
The disease steadily spread outwards in concentric circles from its first place of lodgment near Roquemaure.
In 1868 Planchon proved that the disease was due to a new species of phylloxera, which was invariably found on the roots of the affected vines, and to which he accordingly gave the prophetic name of Phylloxera vastatrix.
In France, where the disease was by far the most prevalent - owing in great part to the obstinacy with which the vine-growers at first refused to take any reasonable precautions against its spread - M.
The value of the fruit crop, for which Delaware has long been noted, also increased during the same decade, but disease and frost caused a marked decline in the production of peaches, a loss balanced by an increased production of apples, pears and other orchard fruits.
Lugard little thought that in bringing these Sudanese, already (some of them) infected with the sleeping-sickness of the Congo forests, he was to introduce a disease which would kill off some 250,000 natives of Uganda in eight years.
The readiness with which the American Indian succumbed to disease is well known.
Innumerable forms of filters made with these and other materials were put on the market, and were extolled as removing impurities of every kind from water, and as affording complete protection against the communication of disease.
But whatever merits they had as clarifiers of turbid water, the advent of bacteriology, and the recognition of the fact that the bacteria of certain diseases may be water-borne, introduced a new criterion of effectiveness, and it was perceived that the removal of solid particles, or even of organic impurities (which were realized to be important not so much because they are dangerous to health per se as because their presence affords grounds for suspecting that the water in which they occur has been exposed to circumstances permitting contamination with infective disease), was not sufficient; the filter must also prevent the passage of pathogenic organisms, and so render the water sterile bacteriologically.
He did a lot of research so he is not confused by the enigma of the pain that comes with the disease.
Living at the time he did, when the doctrines of the humoral pathologists were carried to an extreme extent, and witnessing the ravages which disease made on the solid structures of the body, it was not surprising that he should oppose a doctrine which appeared to him to lead to a false practice and to fatal results, and adopt one which attributed more to the agency of the solids and very little to that of the fluids of the body.
Hundreds of thousands were slaughtered; hundreds of thousands set marching for Syria and Mesopotamia perished on the way by hardship, disease, starvation; those who escaped became fugitives; from first to last at least three-quarters of a million Armenians perished in Asia Minor in a population of less than two millions.
The golden statues were votive offerings; thus a man and his wife offer four statues for the health of their four children, and a man offers to Dhu Samai statues of a man and two camels, in prayer for his own health and the protection of his camels from disease of the joints.
On his return to London he published an Enquiry into the Nature, Cause, and Cure of a Singular Disease of the Eyes, with a dedication to the Royal Society.
All this time he was in hiding in cellars and sewers, where he was attacked by a horrible skin disease, tended only by the woman Simonne Evrard, who remained true to him.
The skin disease he had contracted in the subterranean haunts was rapidly closing his life; he could only ease his pain by sitting in a warm bath, where he wrote his journal; and accused the Girondins, who were trying to raise France against Paris.
He stands in history as a bloodthirsty monster, yet in judging him one must remember the persecutions he endured and the terrible disease from which he suffered.
Two of his tracts, (1) On Gleets, (2) A Disease of the Eyes, were reprinted, ed.
They were called the " media of the whole circle of the zodiac "; 11 each ten-day period of the Egyptian year was consecrated to the decanal god whose section of the ecliptic rose at its commencement; the body was correspondingly apportioned, and disease was cured by invoking the zodiacal regent of the part affected.
In September 1825 Ibrahim, at the order of the sultan, had joined Reshid before the town; piecemeal the outlying forts and defences now fell, until the garrison, reduced by starvation and disease, determined to hazard all on a final sortie.
Lilies are, under certain conditions favourable to the development of the disease, liable to the attacks of three parasitic fungi.
The spores formed on the delicate grey mould are carried during the summer from one plant to another, thus spreading the disease, and also germinate in the soil where the fungus may remain passive during the winter producing a new crop of spores next spring, or sometimes attacking the scales of the bulbs forming small black hard bodies embedded in the flesh.
The diseased stems should be removed and burned before the leaves fall; as the bulb is not attacked the plant will start growth next season free from disease.
His health had been for some years gradually declining, and disease in the shape of gout gaining upon him.
leather or excrement, with leprosy, madness and any form of disease.
The water must in ritual washings run off in order to carry away the miasma or unseen demon of disease; and accordingly in baptism the early Christians used living or running water.
The town surrendered on the 7th of September, but disease and the defeat of the fleet by the Aragonese navy at Las Farmiguas Islands led to a retreat, during which, on the 5th of October, the king died.
- The total loss of life in the Union forces during the four years of war was 359,528, and of the many thousands discharged from the services as disabled or otherwise unfit, a large number died in consequence of injuries or disease incurred in the army.
There are a number of warm mineral springs, containing principally salts of lime, used with success by both Arabs and Europeans in several kinds of disease.
The acetate and the citrate are valuable mild diuretics in Bright's disease and in feverish conditions, and by increasing the amount of urine diminish the pathological fluids in pleuritic effusion, ascites, &c. In tubal nephritis they aid the excretion of fatty casts.
But he lost 15,000 men in the course of his seven days' retreat, and 20% of the remainder became ineffective from disease contracted in the swamps of the Chickahominy, while enormous quantities of valuable stores at White House on the Pamunkey had been burnt to avoid seizure by the enemy.
Rheumatism on the Atlantic seaboard, and malaria on both coasts, are the commonest forms of disease; but, as a whole, Costa Rica is one of the healthiest of tropical lands.
Karman, who had long been suffering from an incurable disease, died in the same year.