The site was occupied in very early times, as the discoveries since 1882 show.
Besides, if any dramatic discoveries were made, with Fred O'Connor on the job, Dean would learn the results soon enough.
Recent discoveries have done little or nothing for treatment.
But we did not begin the story until August; the first few weeks of my stay at the seashore were so full of discoveries and excitement that I forgot the very existence of books.
After all our discoveries and inventions no man will go by a pile of wood.
It was aided very materially by the dearth of workers consequent on the gold discoveries, when every man could command his own price.
To a certain extent these works embody the more important discoveries of their author.
In 1883 he went to Kiel, becoming Privatdozent, and there he began the studies in Maxwell's electro-magnetic theory which a few years later resulted in the discoveries that rendered his name famous.
We should come home from far, from adventures, and perils, and discoveries every day, with new experience and character.
Of discoveries superficially sensational there are few or none to record, and the weight of his work is for the most part to be appreciated only by professed physicists.
Cook having completed the survey of the east coast, to which he gave the name of New South Wales, sighted and named Cape York, the northernmost point of Australia, and took final possession of his discoveries northward from 38° S.
In the restoration of the outlines of ancient and medieval geography in Asia Sven Hedin's discoveries of the actual remains of cities which have long been buried under the advancing waves of sand in the Takla Makan desert, cities which flourished in the comparatively recent period of Buddhist ascendancy in High Asia, is of the very highest interest, filling up a blank in the identification of sites mentioned by early geographers and illustrating more fully the course of old pilgrim routes.
Previous to the gold discoveries of 1851 they may be included, from 1839, in a general summary view.
Any general statement as to the debt owed by early European civilizations to western Asia would at present be premature, for though important discoveries have been made in Crete and Babylonia the best authorities are chary of positive conclusions as to the relations of Cretan civilization to Egypt and Babylonia.
How much potential is there in millions of discoveries like that?
It is a very interesting souvenir of Columbus, and of the Fair White City; but I cannot imagine what discoveries I have made,--I mean new discoveries.
The mines were known to the Carthaginians, as discoveries of lamps, coins, &c. (now in the museum at Cagliari), testify.
From archaeological discoveries it would appear that the ancient town was preceded by a prehistoric settlement of the Bronze Age, the dwellings of which rested upon piles - one, indeed, of the so-called terremare, which are especially frequent in the neighbourhood of Parma.
I remember the eagerness with which I made discoveries about them.
Some of his discoveries, including those of Pandora's Pass and the Darling Downs, were of great practical utility.
This was the first of the many rich discoveries in the same district which have made Western Australia the chief gold-producer of the Australian group. In 1907 there were eighteen goldfields in the state, and it was estimated that over 30,000 miners were actively engaged in the search for gold.
Dr Charles Pickering (1805-1878), who studied the Australians on the spot, writes: 1 In his Discoveries in Central Australia, E.
In 1622 the " Leeuwin," or " Lioness," made some discoveries on the south-west coast; and during the following year the yachts " Pera " and " Arnheim " explored the shores of the Gulf of Carpentaria.
On his return to England he published an account of his voyage, which resulted in his being sent out in the " Roebuck " in 1699 to prosecute his discoveries further.
Austin, and the brothers Gregory, whose discoveries have great importance from a geographical point of view.
from the university of Dublin, he neither sought nor received the ordinary rewards to which his discoveries would entitle him.
of France, and he was obliged to leave the enterprise of South American discoveries to his wealthy nobles.
The atomic theory has been of priceless value to chemists, but it has more than once happened in the history of science that a hypothesis, after having been useful in the discovery Present and the co-ordination of knowledge, has been aban- position doned and replaced by one more in harmony with later of the discoveries.
Some specimens of these trinkets he sent back to Spain with a report of his discoveries.
At the beginning of 1860, when the excitement of the gold discoveries was wearing off, five of the states had received from the home government the boon of responsible government, and were in a position to work out the problem of their position without external interference; it was not, however, until 1890 that Western Australia was placed in a similar position.
Before coming, however, to the history of federation, and the evolution of the Labour party, we must refer briefly to some other questions which have been of general interest very soon after the gold discoveries, the European miners objecting strongly to the presence of these aliens upon the diggings.
Hertz himself gave an admirable account of the significance of his discoveries in a lecture on the relations between light and electricity, delivered before the German Society for the Advancement of Natural Science and Medicine at Heidelberg in September 1889.
One of his discoveries led to the black-bulb thermometer.
In some of these we see a return to Greek theories, though the influence of physical discoveries, more especially those of Copernicus, Kepler and Galileo, is distinctly traceable.
But in the prodigious number of supporting discoveries that have been made no single negative factor has appeared, and the evolution from their predecessors of the forms of life existing now or at any other period must be taken as proved.
(Stuttgart, 1881); and P. Villari's Machiavelli (London 1892); also C. Yriarte, Cesar Borgia (Paris, 1889), an admirable piece of writing; Schubert-Soldern, Die Borgia and ihre Zeit (Dresden, 1902), which contains the latest discoveries on the subject; and E.
Like most great teachers he published a text-book, and his Traite de Chimie elementaire, theorique et pratique (4 vols., Paris, 1813-16), which served as a standard for a quarter of a century, perhaps did even more for the advance of chemistry than his numerous original discoveries.
His chief publications are: Cretan Pictographs and Prae-Phoenician Script (1896); Further Discoveries of Cretan and Aegean Script (1898); The Mycenaean Tree and Pillar Cult (1901); Scripta Minoa (1909 et seq.); and reports on the excavations at Knossos.
Investigations of every kind which have been based on original sources of knowledge may be styled "research," and it may be said that without "research" no authoritative works have been written, no scientific discoveries or inventions made, no theories of any value propounded; but the word also has a somewhat restricted meaning attached to it in current usage.
It does not seem that any maritime trade followed these discoveries, and indeed it is doubtful whether his contemporaries accepted the truth of Pytheas's narrative; Strabo four hundred years later certainly did not, but the critical studies of modern scholars have rehabilitated the Massilian explorer.
Abu Zaid also wrote on India, and his work is the most important that we possess before the epoch-making discoveries of Marco Polo.
The king of Portugal next despatched Bartolomeu Diaz in 1486 to continue discoveries southwards; while, in the following year, he sent Pedro de Covilhao and Affonso de Payva to discover the country of Prester John.
The discoveries of Columbus awakened a spirit of enterprise in Spain which continued in full force for a century; adventurers flocked eagerly across the Atlantic, and discovery followed Sp aniards discovery in rapid succession.
In the same year Alonso de Ojeda, accompanied by Juan de la Cosa, from whose maps we learn much of the discoveries of the 16th century navigators, and by a Florentine named Amerigo Vespucci, touched the coast of South America somewhere near Surinam, following the shore as far as the Gulf of Maracaibo.
In 1534 Jacques Cartier set out to continue the discoveries of Verazzano, and visited Newfoundland and the Gulf of St Lawrence.
discoveries expressed in the new terms of the orders Ciconiiformes and' Charadriiformes.
This fact naturally led to his crediting himself with many discoveries which he afterwards found had been already established, often by more direct and elegant processes than his own.
Another of Roberval's discoveries was a very general method of drawing tangents, by considering a curve as described by a moving point whose motion is the resultant of several simpler motions.
Further discoveries like Sellin's find at Ta`annek may elucidate the problem.
Newton, History of Discoveries at Cnidus, Halicarnassus and Branchidae).
In his eighteenth year, while still a student in Edinburgh, he contributed two valuable papers to the Transactions of the same society - one of which, " On the Equilibrium of Elastic Solids," is remarkable, not only on account of its intrinsic power and the youth of its author, but also because in it he laid the foundation of one of the most singular discoveries of his later life, the temporary double refraction produced in viscous liquids by shearing stress.
To apply these discoveries to the malaria of man was an obvious step. In working out the details the Italian school have again taken a prominent part.
[The genuineness of such discoveries is naturally a matter for historical criticism to decide.
In 1895 he obtained a libation-table from the Dictaean cave with a linear dedication in the prehistoric writing (" Further Discoveries," &c., J.H.S.
These ancient indications of a Minoan connexion with Sicily have now received interesting confirmation in the numerous discoveries, principally due to the recent excavations of P. Orsi, of arms and painted vases of Late Minoan fabric in Bronze Age tombs of the provinces of Syracuse and Girgenti (Agrigentum) belonging to the late Bronze Age.
(For later discoveries see further CNossus.) Phaestus.
To begin with a comparatively small, though not unimportant, matter, Pasteur's discoveries on fermentation inaugurated a new era in the brewing and wine-making industries.
"There is no greater charm," says Pasteur, "for the investigator than to make new discoveries; but his pleasure is heightened when he sees that they have a direct application to practical life."
As to the money value of these discoveries, T.
These discoveries were promptly recognized.
was conferred upon Brewster by Marischal College, Aberdeen; in 1815 he was made a member of the Royal Society of London, and received the Copley medal; in 1818 he received the Rumford medal of the society; and in 1816 the French Institute awarded him one-half of the prize of three thousand francs for the two most important discoveries in physical science made in Europe during the two preceding years.
Brewster's own discoveries, important though they were, were not his only, perhaps not even his chief, service to science.
Dandolo published in Italian several treatises on agriculture, vine-cultivation, and the rearing of cattle and sheep; a work on silk-worms, which was translated into French by Fontanelle; a work on the discoveries in chemistry which were made in the last quarter of the 18th century (published 1796); and translations of several of the best French works on chemistry.
The introduction of new plants, which made it possible to dispense with the bare fallow, and still later the application to husbandry of scientific discoveries as to soils, plant constituents and manures, brought about a revolution in farming.
He must be in touch with the actual life of the community he is studying, and cultivate " that openness and alertness of the mind, that sensitiveness of the judgment, which can rapidly grasp the significance of at first sight unrelated discoveries or events."
Subsequent discoveries, however, have made it clear that Mycenae was not its chief centre in its earlier stages, or, perhaps, at any period; and, accordingly, it is more usual now to adopt a wider geographical title.
A wide range in space was proved by the identification of the Inselsteine and the Ialysus vases with the new style, and a wide range in time by collation of the earlier Theraean and Hissarlik discoveries.
These were followed by certain discoveries made in the S.
Various summaries, controversial articles, &c., formerly quoted, are now superseded by recent discoveries.
Hitherto, from the nature of the case, the works aforesaid treated of scarcely any but the birds belonging to the orbis veteribus notus; but the geographical discoveries of the 16th century began to bear fruit, and many animals of kinds un suspected were, about one hundred years later, made known.
His opportunities of becoming acquainted with birds were hardly inferior to Brisson's, for during Latham's long lifetime there poured in upon him countless new discoveries from all parts of the world, but especially from the newly-explored shores of Australia and the islands of the Pacific Ocean.
Of those travellers then the first to be here especially named is Marsigli, the fifth volume of whose Danubius Pannonico-Mysicus is devoted to the birds he met with in the valley of the Danube, and appeared at the Hague in 1725, followed by a French translation in 1744.8 Most of the many pupils whom Linnaeus sent to foreign countries submitted their discoveries to him, but Kalm, Hasselqvist and Osbeck published separately their respective travels in North America, the Levant and China.
With all this it is not surprising to find, though the fact has been generally overlooked, that Blyth's proposed arrangement in many points anticipated conclusions that were subsequently reached, and were then regarded as fresh discoveries.
C. Marsh, by finding the imperfect fossilized tibia of a bird in the middle cretaceous shale of Kansas, Marsh, began a series of wonderful discoveries of great im portance to ornithology.
Bacon's fame in popular estimation has always rested on his mechanical discoveries.
His other works are mainly accounts of his travels: Sketches of the Natural, Political and Civil State of Switzerland (London, 1779), Account of the Russian Discoveries between Asia and America (London, 1780), Account of Prisons and Hospitals in Russia, Sweden and Denmark (London, 1781), Travels into Poland, Russia, Sweden and Denmark (London, 1784), Travels in Switzerland (London, 1789), Letter on Secret Tribunals of Westphalia (London, 1796), Historical Tour in Monmouthshire (London, 1801).
Kane and Margaret Fox (New York, 1866); "Discoveries of Dr Kane," in Jour.
He also published (1767) a treatise on the History and Present State of Electricity, which embodies some original work, and (1772) a History of Discoveries relating to Vision, Light and Colours, which is a mere compilation.
Of remains of the Roman period, however, there are none above ground, though various discoveries have been made from time to time within the city walls, the modern streets corresponding more or less, as it seems, with the ancient lines.
These discoveries of Geoffroy and Scheele formed the basis of Chevreul's researches by which he established the constitution of oils and the true nature of soap. In the article Oils it is pointed out that all fatty oils and fats are mixtures of glycerides, that is, of bodies related to the alcohol glycerin C 3H5(OH)3 i and some fatty acid such as palmitic acid (C 16 H 31 0 2)H.
account of Newton's life and discoveries.
After Maclaurin's death his account of Newton's philosophical discoveries was published by Patrick Murdoch, and also his algebra in 1748.
Numerous and costly excavations have been carried out by the Greek government and by native and foreign scientific societies, while accidental discoveries have been frequently made during the building of the modern town.
We must here group these important epochs together, as distinguished from the later period of Roman rule, and confine ourselves to a brief notice of their principal monuments and a record of the discoveries by which they have been illustrated in recent years.
The former wealth of the town is mainly proved by the discoveries made in its extensive necropolis from 1828 onwards - Greek vases, bronzes and other remains - many of which are now in the Vatican.
His indiscretion was repeatedly responsible for the king of Prussia's discoveries of the plans laid against him.
of Asoka, of the Guptas of Maghada, or of the ancient Hindu kingdom of Vidarbha (Berar); and inscriptions and numerous discoveries of coins prove that, during the middle ages, the open spaces were occupied by a series o Rajput dynasties.
From the Alexandrians the science passed to the Arabs, who made discoveries and improved various methods of separating substances, and afterwards, from the 11th century, became seated in Europe, where the alchemical doctrines were assiduously studied until the 15th and 16th centuries.
The beginning of the i 9th century was attended by far-reaching discoveries in the nature of the composition of compounds.
Dumas did not adopt the best methods for emphasizing his discoveries.
The earliest discoveries in inorganic chemistry are to be found in the metallurgy, medicine and chemical arts of the ancients.
These discoveries were followed by Daniel Rutherford's isolation of nitrogen in 1772, and by K.
Pitchblende attained considerable notoriety towards the end of the 19th century on account of two important discoveries.
Every year is attended by fresh " discoveries " in this prolific source of elementary substances, but the paucity of materials and the predilections of the investigators militate in some measure against a just valuation being accorded to such researches.
A new and energetic spirit was introduced by Scheele; among other discoveries this gifted experimenter isolated and characterized many organic acids, and proved the general occurrence of glycerin (Olsiiss) in all oils and fats.
For all his Wagnerian impatience, his progress was no struggle from out of a squalid environment; on the contrary, one of his latest discoveries was the greatness of his master Haydn.
l5 Baron Oppenheim's excavations at Tell Halaf have resulted in the recovery of reliefs of barbaric style, simulating the Syro-Hittite, from the palace of a local king, Kapara, of about the same period as Sinjirli and Sakchegozii (Toth-9th centuries B.C.), and pottery of all ages, going back to the chalcolithic period.ls The neolithic and chalcolithic pottery of Mesopotamia and Persia is one of the chief archaeological discoveries of late years in the Near East, and attention has recently been directed to it again by the important finds at Abu Shahrein (the ancient Eridu) and Tell el `Obeid, near Ur.
Peet, resulted in interesting discoveries, some of which tend to show that the cult of the Aten or Solardisk was not so rigidly enforced by the heretic king Akhenaton as has been supposed, and that ordinary people were allowed to worship other gods than the sun-disk, at any rate in connexion with funerary ceremonies.
Prof. Petrie resumed operations in Middle Egypt after the war:, and made interesting discoveries (1921).
24), still adheres to the erroneous Ptolemaic delineation of southern Asia, and the same error is perpetuated by Henricus Marvellus Germanus on a rough map showing the Portuguese discoveries up to 1489.
The maritime discoveries and surveys of that age of great discoveries were laid down upon so-called " plane-charts," that is, charts having merely equidistant parallels indicated upon them, together with the equator, the tropics and polar FIG.
The chart of the world by Juan de la Cosa, the companion of Columbus, is the earliest extant which depicts the discoveries in the new world (150o), Nicolaus de Canerio, a Genoese, and the map which Alberto Cantino caused to be drawn at Lisbon for Hercules d'Este of Ferrara (1502), illustrating in addition the recent discoveries of the Portuguese in the East.
This, however, is not the whole of the past history of the muskox group; and in this connexion it may be mentioned that palaeontological discoveries are gradually making it evident that the poverty of America in species of horned ruminants is to a great extent a feature of the present day, and that in past times it possessed a considerable number of representatives of this group. One of the latest additions to the list is a large sheep-like animal from a cave in California, apparently representing a new generic type, which has been described by E.
Of medieval literary Greek papyri very few relics have survived, but of documents coming down to the 8th and 9th centuries an increasing number is being brought to light among the discoveries in Egypt.
Some additional discoveries were described by Marc Antonio Boldetti in his Osservazioni, published in 1720; but, writing in the interests of the Roman Church with an apologetic, not a scientific object, truth was made to bend to polemics, and little addition to our knowledge of the catacombs is to be gained from his otherwise important work.
D.) Modern Discoveries.
All new discoveries made by the active Commissione di archeologia sacra are chronicled with as little delay as possible in the Nuovo Bulletino de archeologia cristiana published in Rome.
Stanley's discoveries "Congo" has become the general name for the river from its mouth to Stanley Falls, despite an effort on the part of Stanley to have the stream re-named Livingstone.
Of the ancient city, which occupied the same site as the modern town, hardly anything is now visible, and the discoveries of the ancient street pavement have not been noted with sufficient care to enable us to recover the plan.
Mining for the precious metals ceased at a very early date, after rich discoveries were made on the continent.
Newton's Philosophical Discoveries, and dedication to John Wilkes), examines the properties of matter.
In 1819 he returned to England, and published in the following year an account of his travels and discoveries entitled Narrative of the Operations and Recent Discoveries within the Pyramids, Temples, Tombs and Excavations in Egypt and Nubia, &c. He also exhibited during 1820-1821 facsimiles of the tomb of Seti I.
(1899), pp. 265-329; Joseph Fischer, The Discoveries of the Norsemen in America, translated from German by B.
The fully authenticated remains of palaeolithic man are few, and discoveries are confined to certain areas, e.g.
Further discoveries have resulted in the division of the Palaeolithic Age into various epochs or sequences according to the faunas associated with the implements or the localities where found.
This second visit resulted in the discovery of thirteen ancient cities, and in 1841 appeared An Account of Discoveries in Lycia, being a Journal kept during a Second Excursion in Asia Minor.
His chief discoveries were at Xanthus, Pinara, Patara, Tlos, Myra and Olympus.
6th, 1907), probably the longest and most argumentative papal utterance extant, also aims primarily at Loisy, although here the vehemently scholastic redactor's determination to piece together a strictly coherent, complete a priori system of "Modernism" and his self-imposed restriction to medieval categories of thought as the vehicles for describing essentially modern discoveries and requirements of mind, make the identification of precise authors and passages very difficult.
The Horologium oscillatorium, published with a dedication to his royal patron in 1673, contained original discoveries sufficient to have furnished materials for half a dozen striking disquisitions.
The importance of the discoveries lies in the fact that the ditch which in later times divided the provinces of Africa vetus and Africa nova was at the time of the Third Punic War the boundary of Carthaginian territory (R.
The most interesting of his discoveries, now generally known as the " Wiedemann effect," is the following: If we magnetize longitudinally a straight wire which is fixed at one end and free at the other, and then pass an electric current through the wire (or first pass the current and then magnetize), the free end of the wire will twist in a certain direction depending upon circumstances: if the wire is of iron, and is magnetized (with a moderate force) so that its free end has north polarity, while the current through it passes from the fixed to the free end, then the free end as seen from the fixed end will twist in the direction of the hands of a watch; if either the magnetization or the current is reversed, the direction of the twist will be reversed.
His title to be honoured as the " Father of Magnetic Philosophy " is based even more largely upon the scientific method which he was the first to inculcate and practise than upon the importance of his actual discoveries.
The greatest of Gilbert's discoveries was that the globe of the earth was magnetic and a magnet; the evidence by which he supported this view was derived chiefly from ingenious experiments made with a spherical lodestone or lerrella, as he termed it, and from his original observation that an iron bar could be magnetized by the earth's force.
Thomson (afterwards Lord Kelvin) in 1849 that while no physical evidence could be adduced in support of the hypothesis, certain discoveries, especially in electromagnetism, rendered it extremely improbable (Reprint, p. 344).
The amazing discoveries made by J.
But it is necessary to remember, in the light of recent discoveries, that the sixth prosomatic pair of appendages is carried on the seventh somite of the whole series, there being two prosthomeres or somites in front of the mouth, the first carrying the eyes, the second the chelicerae; also that the first mesosomatic or genital somite is not the seventh or even the eighth of the whole series of somites which have been historically present, 1 See the article Arthropoda for the use of the term " prosthomere."
It was during this period that he first formed those ideas on the theory of functions of a complex variable which led to most of his great discoveries.
Some of his brilliant rival's most conspicuous discoveries were implicitly contained in his writings, and wanted but one step for completion.
The discoveries of silver brought great wealth to the margraves, but they resorted at times to bedes, which were contributions from the nobles and ecclesiastics who met in a kind of diet.
He proceeded south as far as La Plata, naming the places he surveyed on the way from the days on which the respective discoveries were made.
As early as 1618 a code of laws for the regulation of the mining industry had been drawn up by Philip III., the executive and judicial functions in the mining districts being vested in a provedor, and the fiscal in a treasurer, who received the royal fifths and superintended the weighing of all the gold, rendering a yearly account of all discoveries and produce.
His mathematical discoveries were extended and over shadowed by his contemporaries.
This latter process is growing every year, and is coupled with great improvements in agricultural methods, such as more intensive cultivation, the use of the most modern implements and the application of scientific discoveries.
in 1787, of an entire group of remarkable discoveries.
It is also supposed that they anticipated discoveries of the solutions of higher equations.
Cardan or Cardano, who was at that time writing his great work, the Ars Magna, could not restrain the temptation of crowning his treatise with such important discoveries, and in 1 545 he broke his oath and gave to the world Tartalea's rules for solving cubic equations.
Contemporaneously with the remarkable discoveries of the Italian mathematicians, algebra was increasing in popularity in Germany, France and England.
The discoveries of Johann Kepler and Bonaventura Cavalieri were the foundation upon which Sir Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz erected that wonderful edifice, the Infinitesimal Calculus.
The ancient city walls have been almost entirely destroyed in recent times to provide building material,' and the place is famous for the discoveries made in its tombs.
Apart from his special discoveries in the anatomy of plants and animals, and his descriptions of new species, the great merit of Linnaeus was his introduction of a method of enumeration and classification which may be said to have created systematic zoology and botany in their present form, and establishes his name for ever as the great organizer, the man who recognized a great practical want in the use of language and supplied it.
Thompson made three great discoveries, which seem to have fallen in his way in the most natural and simple manner, but must be regarded really as the outcome of extraordinary genius.
Huxley (1825-1895), all of whom individually contributed very greatly by their special discoveries and researches to the increase of exact knowledge.
Mailer's studies on the larval forms of Echinoderms and the discoveries of Vaughan Thompson were appreciated.
Although to-day the great diamond mines are south of the Vaal River, the early discoveries of diamonds were made chiefly on the northern bank of the Vaal, near the site of the town now known as Barkly West.
Layard, Discoveries in the Ruins of Nineveh and Babylon (1853); G.
Smith, Assyrian Discoveries (1875); R.
- The discoveries made at Mycenae and other centres of "Mycenaean" civilization, and those of more recent date due to the excavations of Dr A.
The discoveries made in pathological bacteriology, indeed, must be held to be among the most brilliant of the age.
The discoveries of recent years in the south-eastern portion of Sicily, including especially the objects found in Sicel and Greek cemeteries, may be studied here.
These discoveries not only weakened or destroyed the respect for authority in matters of science, but brought about a marked tendency to mechanical explanations of life and disease.
Sydenham showed that these processes might be profitably studied and dealt with without explaining them; and, by turning men's minds away from explanations and fixing them on facts, he enriched medicine with a method more fruitful than any discoveries in detail.
Mead's treatise on The Power of the Sun and Moon over Human Bodies (1704), equally inspired by Newton's discoveries, was a premature attempt to assign the influence of atmospheric pressure and other cosmical causes in producing disease.
More important in their results than any of these works were the discoveries of Edward Jenner, respecting the prevention of small-pox by vaccination, in which he superseded the partially useful but dangerous practice of inoculation, which.
This, the old "Vienna School," was not distinguished for any notable discoveries, but for success in clinical teaching, and for its sound method of studying the actual facts of disease during life and after death, which largely contributed to the establishment of the "positive medicine" of the 19th century.
Darwin's work shows, however, the tendency to connect medicine with physical science, which was an immediate consequence of the scientific discoveries of the end of the 18th century, when Priestley and Cavendish in England exercised the same influence as Lavoisier in France.
Shortly after 1815, however, when the continent of Europe was again open to English travellers, many English doctors studied in Paris, and the discoveries of their great French contemporaries began to be known.
The combination of clinical and anatomical research led, as in the hands of the great French physicians, to important discoveries by English investigators.
The remarkable physiological discoveries of Sir Charles Bell (1774-1842) and Marshall Hall (1790-1857) for the first time rendered possible the discrimination of diseases of the spinal cord.
Joseph Skoda (1805-1881) extended, and in some respects corrected, the art of auscultation as left by Laennec. Karl Rokitansky (1804-1878), by his colossal labours, placed the science of morbid anatomy on a permanent basis, and enriched it by numerous discoveries of detail.
In this may be found the germ of the startling modern discoveries in parasitic diseases.
It was the concepts derived from the experimental methods of Harvey, Lavoisier, Liebig, Claude Bernard, Helmholtz, Darwin, Pasteur, Lister and others which, directly or indirectly, trained the eyes of clinicians to observe more closely and accurately; and not of clinicians only, but also of pathologists, such as Matthew Baillie, Cruveilhier, Rokitansky, Bright, Virchowto name but a few of those who, with (as must be admitted) new facilities for necropsies, began to pile upon us discoveries in morbid anatomy and histology.
If at first in the 18th century, and in the earlier 19th, the discoveries in this branch of medical knowledge had a certain isolation, due perhaps to the prepossessions of the school of Sydenham, they soon became the property of the physician, and were brought into co-ordination with the clinical phenomena of disease.
As the prevalence of the conceptions signified and inspired by the word "phlogiston" kept alive ontological notions of disease, so the dissipation of vitalistic conceptions in the field of physics prepared men's minds in pathology for the new views opened by the discoveries of Pasteur on the side of pathogeny, and of J.
As to such reforms in our conceptions of disease the advances of bacteriology profoundly contributed, so under the stress of consequent discoveries, almost prodigious in their extent and revolutionary effect, the conceptions of the etiology of disease underwent no less a transformation than the conceptions of disease itself.
1845) discovered the parasite of malaria, and truly conceived its relations to the disease; thus within two years were made two discoveries either of which was sufficient to make the honour of a century.
The discoveries of the separate paths of sensory and motor impulses in the spinal cord, and consequently of the laws of reflex action, by Charles Bell and Marshall Hall respectively, in their illumination of the phenomena of nervous function, may be compared with the discovery in the region of the vascular system of the circulation of the blood; for therein a key to large classes of normal and aberrant functions and a fertile principle of interpretation were obtained.
The grouping of reflex "units," and the paths wherein impulses travel and become associated, have been made out by the physiologist (Sherrington and others) working on the healthy animal, as well as by the record of disease; and not of spontaneous disease alone, for the artificial institution of morbid processes in animals has led to many of these discoveries, as in the method of A.
Besides the attainments mentioned above, in respect of operative progress, many important revisions of older rule-of-thumb knowledge have come about, and not a few other substantial discoveries.
There remains only the huge division of his correspondence, which is constantly being augmented by fresh discoveries, and which, according to Georges Bengesco, has never been fully or correctly printed, even in some of the parts longest known.
Roach Smith is a strong advocate for the bridge, and remarks, " It would naturally be erected somewhere in the direct line of road into Kent, which I cannot but think pointed towards the site of Old London Bridge, both from its central situation, from the general absence of the foundations of buildings in the approaches on the northern side, and from discoveries recently made in the Thames on the line of the old bridge " (Archaeologia, xxix.
Benedetto Castelli (1577-1644), and Evangelista Torricelli (1608-1647), two of the disciples of Galileo, applied the discoveries of their master to the science of hydrodynamics.
The system of reckoning time by limmi was of Assyrian origin, and recent discoveries have made it clear that it went back to the first days of the monarchy.
In this section an attempt is made to indicate briefly the causes which have led to so great a diversity of opinion, and to describe in outline the principles underlying the chief schemes of chronology that have been suggested; a short account will then be given of the latest discoveries in this branch of research, and of the manner in which they affect the problems at issue.
and another reason for their calculations resulting in so high a figure is suggested by the recent discoveries: they may in all good faith have reckoned as consecutive a number of early dynasties which were as a matter of fact contemporaneous.
3 He announced his discoveries in 1880, and proclaimed the fact that a great Hittite empire, extending from Kadesh to Smyrna, had risen from the dead.
So far, the majority of our Hittite inscriptions, like those first found at Hamah, are in relief (cameo); but the incised characters, first observed in the Tyana district, have since been shown, by discoveries at Marash, Babylon, &c., to have had a wider range.
Discoveries of ruins and tombs have also been made.
No laboratories were accessible to ordinary students, who had to content themselves with what the universities could give in the lectureroom and the library, and though both at Bonn and Erlangen Liebig endeavoured to make up for the deficiencies of the official instruction by founding a students' physical and chemical society for the discussion of new discoveries and speculations, he felt that he could never become a chemist in his own country.
His record of this expedition, Discoveries in the Ruins of Nineveh and Babylon, which was illustrated by another folio volume, called A Second Series of the Monuments of Nineveh, was published in 1853.
Yam, on the borders of Jauf, a vast sandy plain, extending eastwards to El Jail and El Hazm, where Halevy made his most important discoveries of Sabaean inscriptions: here he explored Main, the ancient capital of the Minaeans, Kamna on the banks of the W.
Neither of these officers was able to follow up their discoveries, but in 1843 Adolph von Wrede landed at Mukalla and, adopting the character of a pilgrim to the shrine of the prophet Hud, made his way northward across the high plateau into the W.
Interesting archaeological discoveries were made, and a valuable topographical survey was carried out, covering the whole Midian coast from the head of the Gulf of Akaba to the mouth of the Wadi Hamd, and including both the Tehama range and the Hisma valley behind it; while the importance of the W.
The alchemists gave great attention to the method, as is shown by the many discoveries made.
Prior to 1830, little was known of the process other than that organic compounds generally yielded tarry and solid matters, but the discoveries of Liebig and Dumas (of acetone from acetates), of Mitscherlich (of benzene from benzoates) and of Persoz (of methane from acetates and lime) brought the operation into common laboratory practice.
The action of lithontriptic medicines,, especially lime-water, was one of the questions of the day, and through his investigations of this subject Black was led to the chemical discoveries associated with his name.
From 1716 to 1718 he published a scientific periodical, called Daedalus hyperboreus, a record of mechanical and mathematical inventions and discoveries.
of Modern Discoveries, 1802, and another in 2 vols., 1812).
The record of the journey across Africa, with its surprising anticipations of subsequent discoveries, yields in interest to no work of the kind known to us; and the semipiratical Quaker who accompanies Singleton in his buccaneering expeditions is a most life-like character.
The first of these (well illustrated) contains a new life and particulars of the author's discoveries.
Recent discoveries have made it practically certain that there existed, prior to the extant romances, a collection of short episodic poems, devoted to the glorification of Arthur's famous nephew and his immediate kin (his brother Ghaeris, or Gareth, and his son Guinglain), the authorship of which was attributed to a Welshman, Bleheris; fragments of this collection have been preserved to us alike in the first continuation of Chretien de Troyes Perceval, due to Wauchier de Denain, and in our vernacular Gawain poems. Among these "Bleheris" poems was one dealing with Gawain's adventures at the Grail castle,where the Grail is represented as non-Christian, and present s features strongly reminiscent of the ancient Nature mysteries.
The United States (California) after 1848, and Australia after 1851, were responsible for enormous increases in the total production, which has been subsequently enhanced by discoveries in Canada, South Africa, India, China and other countries.
Undoubtedly the greatest of the gold discoveries made in the latter half of the 19th century was that of the Witwatersrand district in the Transvaal.
It shared to the full in all the quickening that transformed so many departments of civilization during that epoch, and has been specially influenced by the missionary enterprise, the discoveries of science, the fuller knowledge of the Bible, the awakened zeal for social service.
He was a scholar, with a scholar's tastes and cravings for knowledge, easily excited, bent on scholarly discoveries.
It would have been a bold, not to say a reckless, dreamer who dared predict that any future researches could restore to us the lost knowledge that had been forgotten for more than two millenniums. Yet the Victorian era was scarcely ushered in before the work of rehabilitation began, which was to lead to the most astounding discoveries and to an altogether unprecedented extension of historical knowledge.
Indeed, approximate accuracy is not attained until we are within sixteen hundred years of our own era; but the sequence of events of a period preceding this by two thousand years is well established, and the recent discoveries of Professor Petrie carry back the record to a period which cannot well be less than five thousand, perhaps not less than six thousand years B.C. Both from Egypt and Mesopotamia, then, the records of the archaeologist have brought us evidence of the existence of a highly developed civilization for a period exceeding by hundreds, perhaps by thousands, of years the term which had hitherto been considered the full period of man's existence.
But even were direct evidence of the knowledge of the art of writing in Greece of the early day altogether lacking, none but the hardiest sceptic could doubt, in the light of recent archaeological discoveries elsewhere, that the inhabitants of ancient Hellas of the "Homeric Age" must have shared with their contemporaries the capacity to record their thought in written words.
It is the basis of the famous Canon of kings, also called Mathematical Canon, preserved to us in the works of Ptolemy, which, before the astonishing discoveries at Nineveh, was the sole authentic monument of Assyrian and Babylonian history known to us.
His independent discoveries in mathematics are numerous and important.
During a residence of ten years in Groningen, his controversies were almost as numerous as his discoveries.
Through the influence of Leibnitz he received from the king of Prussia a gold medal for his supposed discoveries; but Nicolaus Hartsoeker and some of the French academicians disputed the fact.
This contains but a fragment of his scientific discoveries, but it is sufficient to put him in the very foremost rank, though its full value was not recognized until pointed out by Lord Kelvin in 1848 and 1849.
The discoveries of Copernicus were eagerly accepted by him, and he used them as the lever by which to push aside the antiquated system that had come down from Aristotle, for whom, indeed, he had a perfect hatred.
Although in the years 1870-1903 the amount raised was 5,694,928,507 tons, this later estimate was higher by 10,707,382,769 tons than that of the previous commission, the excess being accounted for partly by the difference in the areas regarded as productive by the two commissions, and partly by new discoveries and more accurate knowledge of the coal seams. In addition it was estimated that in the proved coalfields at depths greater than 4000 ft.
conjectured that thunder and lightning were electrical manifestations; in the same year he planned the lightning-rod (long known as " Franklin's rod "), which he described and recommended to the public in 1753, when the Copley medal of the Royal Society was awarded him for his discoveries.
Each particular science has its own subject matter and special principles (&ac apxai) on which the superstructure of its special discoveries is based.
Hohnel, Discoveries of Lakes Rudolf and Stephanie (1894); F.
He appears soon to have found that single lenses of very short focus were preferable to the compound microscopes then in use; and it is clear from the discoveries he made with these that they must have been of very excellent quality.
His discoveries were for the most part made public in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, to the notice of which body he was introduced by R.
Though his researches were not conducted on any definite scientific plan, his powers of careful observation enabled him to make many interesting discoveries in the minute anatomy of man, the higher animals and insects.
On his return he removed to Berlin, where he lived as a royal pensioner till his death, which occurred on the 18th of February 18 His investigations in elliptic functions, the theory of which he established upon quite a new basis, and more particularly his development of the theta-function, as given in his great treatise Fundamenta nova theoriae functionum ellipticarum (Konigsberg, 1829), and in later papers in Crelle's Journal, constitute his grandest analytical discoveries.
Recent discoveries near Tell Sandahannah (or Mareshah) have revealed the presence of North Arabian (Edomite) names about the 2nd century B.C.'
So far, however, of the cities lying within or immediately exposed to Philistine influence, the discoveries at Gezer are unique.'
Smith, "Archaeological Discoveries in North-Western America," Bull.
Several of the bones, however, could not be understood until the much later discoveries of Mr S.
At first he occupied himself with ordinary routine work, but being far from satisfied with the scope which this afforded, he seized eagerly upon the opportunity for novel research, offered by Kirchhoff's discoveries in spectrum analysis.
During the next twenty years the gold discoveries, the public works expenditure, and the development of agriculture; multiplied the number of colonists five times to 498,000 in April 1881.
The Ivory Coast is stated to have been visited by Dieppe merchants in the 14th century, and was made known by the Portuguese discoveries towards the end of the 15th century.
Other works attributed to him were: - A Treatise on Discoveries; Respecting Good and Evil Things; On Remarkable Things in Various Countries (it is doubtful whether these were separate works, or merely extracts from the Histories); A Treatise on my Country, on the history and antiquities of Cyme, and an essay On Style, his only rhetorical work, which is occasionally mentioned by the rhetorician Theon.
Other discoveries about Butte followed, and the output of copper increased from I I,01I long tons in 1883 to 129,805 long tons in 1906, more than 99.6% from Silverbow county.
He was arrested on the spot, and when his lodgings were searched a quantity of powder and shot was found, with the rules of a secret society, called" Young England,"whose members were pledged to meet," carrying swords and pistols and wearing crape masks."These discoveries raised the surmise that Oxford was the tool of a widespread Chartist conspiracy - or, as the Irish pretended, of a conspiracy of Orangemen to set the duke of Cumberland on the throne; and while these delusions were fresh, they threw well-disposed persons into a paroxysm of loyalty.
But the recent discoveries of Tasman, Schouten and other Dutch navigators, and his friendship for Blaeu and xxvri.
Being called upon to arrange the plants in the garden, he necessarily had to consider the best method of doing so, and, following the lines already suggested by his uncle, adopted a system founded in a certain degree on that of Ray, in which he embraced all the discoveries in organography, adopted the simplicity of the Linnean definitions, and displayed the natural affinities of plants.
In 1703 Samuel Morland, in a paper read before the Royal Society, stated that the farina (pollen) is a congeries of seminal plants, one of which must be conveyed into every ovum or seed before it can become prolific. In this remarkable statement he seems to anticipate in part the discoveries afterwards made as to pollen tubes, and more particularly the peculiar views promulgated by Schleiden.
These important discoveries mark a new epoch in embryology, and may be said to be the foundation of the views now entertained, which were materially aided by the subsequent elucidation of the process of cytogenesis, or cell-development, by Schleiden, Schwann, Mohl and others.
C. Seward and others, and has led to important discoveries on the nature of extinct groups of plants and also on the phylogeny of existing groups.
Galvao (Lisbon, 1563 and 1731), of which a translation entitled Discoveries of the World was made for Richard Hakluyt and reprinted by the Hakluyt Society (London, 1862).
A shock was thus given to the credit of the clergy in the province of literature, equal to that which was given in the province of science by the astronomical discoveries of the 17th century.
But while supplementing in some important respects Layard's excavations, this later work added relatively little to his discoveries whether of objects or of facts.
Layard, Nineveh and its Remains (London, 1849) George Smith, Assyrian Discoveries (London, 1883); Hormuzd Rassam, Ashur and the Land of Nimrod (London and New York, 18 97).
Legendre had pursued the subject which would now be called elliptic integrals alone from 1786 to 1827, the results of his labours having been almost entirely neglected by his contemporaries, but his work had scarcely appeared in 1827 when the discoveries which were independently made by the two young and as yet unknown mathematicians Abel and Jacobi placed the subject on a new basis, and revolutionized it completely.
For modern discoveries see P. di Tucci in Notizie degli scavi (1880), 480; G.
The extensive discoveries of papyri in Egypt have greatly extended our knowledge of the administration of that country in the times of the Ptolemies, and have materially added to the existing remains of Greek literature.
The aim of that association is " to promote the development, and maintain the well-being, of classical studies, and in particular (a) to impress upon public opinion the claim of such studies to an eminent place in the national scheme of education; (b) to improve the practice of classical teaching by free discussion of its scope and methods; (c) to encourage investigation and call attention to new discoveries; (d) to create opportunities of friendly intercourse and co-operation between all lovers of classical learning in this country."
But by this time he had determined that it was his duty not to work at fresh discoveries but to aid in diffusing existing knowledge among the people at large, and he accordingly refused the offer, and returned to St Petersburg, where he joined the revolutionary party.
They discovered astronomy, and inscribed their discoveries on two pillars, one of which, says Josephus, survived in his time.
No fresh discoveries since the time of Hobbes have furnished any " testimony of other history " to the origin of the books of the Old Testament: this must still be determined by the statements and internal evidence of the Old Testament itself, and a deeper criticism has given to the final consideration that the Old Testament received its present form after the Exile a far greater significance than Hobbes perhaps guessed.
On the evidence which they had WH were undoubtedly justified, but discoveries and investigation have gone far to make it impossible to hold this view any longer.
The discoveries of papyri in Upper Egypt during recent years, containing original letters written by persons of various classes and in some cases contemporary with the Epistles of the New Testament, have immensely increased our knowledge of the Greek of the period, and have cleared up not a few difficulties of language and expression.
In the ensuing account a constant repetition of the names of the main archipelagoes will be found; it may of course be assumed that each successive voyager added something to the knowledge of them, but on the other hand, as has been said, islands were often rediscovered and renamed in cases where later voyagers took no account of the work of their predecessors, or where the earlier voyagers were unable clearly to define the positions of their discoveries.
In Micronesia, since the discoveries of the early Spanish navigators, the Carolines, Mariana and Pelew Islands had been recognized as Spanish territory until 1885, when Germany began to establish herself in the first-named group. Spain had never occupied this group, but protested against the German action, and Pope Leo XIII.
- For the results of the various voyages of explorers see their narratives, especially those of Captain Cook, and among the earlier Collections of voyages see especially Captain James Burney, Chronological History of the Discoveries in the South Sea or Pacific Ocean - from the earliest navigators to 1764 - (London, 1803-1817).
Several discoveries of important missing documents and MSS.
There is no doubt that there is a considerable historical element in the legend; recent discoveries in Crete (q.v.) prove the existence of a civilization such as the legends imply, and render it probable that not only Athens, but Mycenae itself, was once subject to the kings of Cnossus, of whom Minos was greatest.
The solar explanation of Minos as the sun-god has been thrown into the background by the recent discoveries.
These investigations have yielded many important discoveries, not only of new stars, and of large numbers of variable stars, but also of a wholly new class of double stars whose binary character is only revealed by peculiarities in their spectra.
A series of sermons on the relation between the discoveries of astronomy and the Christian revelation was published in January 1817, and within a year nine editions and 20,000 copies were in circulation.
The invention of logarithms has been accorded to John Napier, baron of Merchiston in Scotland, with a unanimity which is rare with regard to important scientific discoveries: in fact, with the exception 01 the tables of Justus Byrgius, which will be referred to further on, there seems to have been no other mathematician of the time whose mind had conceived the principle on which logarithms depend, and no partial anticipations of the discovery are met with in previous writers.
Such restorations are possible because of the intimate fitness of animals and plants to their environment, and because such fitness has distinguished certain forms of life from the Cambrian to the present time; the species have altogether changed, but the laws governing the life of certain kinds of organisms have remained exactly the same for the whole period of time assigned to the duration of life; in fact, we read the conditions of the past in a mirror of adaptation, often sadly tarnished and incomplete owing to breaks in the palaeontological record, but constantly becoming more polished by discoveries which increase the understanding of life and its all-pervading relations to the non-life.
Progress in these two lines is by no means uniform; while, for example, palaeontology enjoyed a sudden advance early in the 19th century through the discoveries and researches of Cuvier, guided by his genius as a comparative anatomist, it was checked by his failure as a natural philosopher.
Successive discoveries gradually revealed the world of extinct Reptilia; in 1821 Charles Konig (1784-1851), the first keeper of the mineralogical collection in the British Museum, described Ichthyosaurus from the Jurassic; in the same year William Daniel Conybeare (1787-1857) described Plesiosaurus; and a year later (1822) Mosasaurus; in 1824 William Buckland described the great carnivorous dinosaur Megalosaurus; while Gideon Algernon Mantell (1790--1852) in 1848 announced the discovery of Iguanodon.
discoveries in North America by Leidy, Cope and Marsh, and the ensuing phylogenies gave enormous prestige to palaeontology.
We were in the midst of more thorough examination of the ancient world of Patagonia, of the Pampean region and of its submerged sister continent Antarctica, when the scene shifted to North Africa through the discoveries of Hugh J.
These latter discoveries supply us with the ancestry of the elephants and many other forms. They round out our knowledge of Tertiary history, but leave the problems of the Cretaceous mammals and of their relations to Tertiary mammals still unsolved.
Recent discoveries of vertebrates are of the same significance, the most primitive fishes being traced to the Ordovician or base of the Silurian, 2 which proves that we shall discover more 2 Professor Bashford Dean doubts the fish characters of these Ordovic Rocky Mountain forms. Frech admits their fish character but considers the rocks infaulted Devonic.
Successive discoveries have revealed certain grand centres, such as (1) the marsupial radiation of Australia, (2) the littleknown Cretaceous radiation of placental mammals in the northern hemisphere, which was probably connected in part with the peopling of South America, (3) the Tertiary placental radiation in the northern hemisphere, partly connected with Africa, (4) the main Tertiary radiation in South America.
Unless new discoveries provide the clue, or some reasonable explanation can otherwise be found, there seems to be no reason why we should not regard the " sayings " as containing material which ought to be taken into account in the critical study of the teaching of Jesus.
Gold mines are worked in the Tati district, the first discoveries having been made there in 1864.
Other alleged discoveries, such as' the construction of early Roman history out of still earlier ballads, have not been equally fortunate; but if every positive conclusion of Niebuhr's had been refuted, his claim to be considered the first who dealt with the ancient history of Rome in a scientific spirit would remain unimpaired, and the new principles introduced by him into historical research would lose nothing of their importance.
More important, from the standpoint of protozoology, than these interesting medical discoveries have been the investigations by A.
On his voyage from this Vineland to Greenland, Leif rescued some shipwrecked men, and from this, and his discoveries, gained his name of "The Lucky" (hinn heppni).
The less trustworthy history of the Flatey Book makes Biarni Heriulfsson in 985 discover Helluland (Labrador?) as well as other western lands which he does not explore, not even permitting his men to land; while Leif Ericsson follows up Biarni's discoveries, begins the exploration of Helluland, Markland and Vinland, and realizes some of the charms of the last named, where he winters.
i.; Juul Dieserud, "Norse Discoveries in America," in the Bulletin of the American Geographical Society (February, 1901); G.
A preliminary study of optics led to the publication, in 1604, of his Astronomiae pars optica, containing important discoveries in the theory of vision, and a notable approximation towards the true law of refraction.
His imagination, thus kindled, animated him to those severe labours of which his great discoveries were the fruit.
But the fantastic relations imagined by him of planetary movements and distances to musical intervals and geometrical constructions seemed to himself discoveries no less admirable than the achievements which have secured his lasting fame.
P. Pullan, History of Discoveries at Halicarnassus (1862-1863); J.
In 1848 he was chosen president of the Manchester Philosophical Society, of which he had been a member since 1826, and to which, both previously and subsequently, he contributed many of the more important results of his discoveries.
Archaeological discoveries in India, Persia, Assyria and Egypt show that in the polished stone age quaternary man had domesticated the horse, while a Chinese treatise, the Goei-leaotse, the fifth book of the Vouking, a sort of military code dating from the reign of the emperor Hoang-Ti (2637 years B.C.), places the cavalry on the wings of the army.
Discoveries in other Cordilleran territories, notably in Montana and Idaho, made up, however, in part for the deficiency of California, so that in I 860 the total amount of gold produced in the United States was estimated at not less than $45,000,000.
In the latter part of the decade1850-1859the territories adjacent to California on the east, north and south were overrun by thousands of miners from the Sierra Nevada goldfields, and within a few years an extraordinary number of discoveries were made, some of which proved to be of great importance.
Antimony, bismuth, selenium, tellurium, chromic iron ore, tin, nickel, cobalt, vanadium, titanium, molybdenum, uranium and tantalum are produced in the United States in small amounts, but such production in several cases has amounted to only slight discoveries, and in general they are of little importance in the market.
As far as the circlesquaring functions are concerned, it would seem that Gregory was the first (in 1670) to make known the series for the arc in terms of the tangent, the series for the tangent in terms of the arc, and the secant in terms of the arc; and in 1669 Newton showed to Isaac Barrow a little treatise in manuscript containing the series for the arc in terms of the sine, for the sine in terms of the arc, and for the cosine in terms of the arc. These discoveries 1 See Euler, ” Annotationes in locum quendam Cartesii," in Nov.
This view has been fairly well supported by later discoveries; but, in addition to pyridine and quinoline nuclei, alkaloids derived from isoquinoline are known.
Moreover, it is clear that Aristotle addressed himself to readers as well as hearers, as in concluding his whole theory of syllogisms he says, " There would remain for all of you or for our hearers (763,7 co y uµWV rt T&?v ipcpoapEVwv) a duty of according to the defects of the investigation consideration, to its discoveries much gratitude " (Sophistical Elenchi, 34, 184 b 6).
The years1885-1888were given up to investigations in Asia Minor, his discoveries and conclusions being communicated to the Journal of Hellenic Studies and other magazines and reviews.
Their affinities with the lower Crustacea were recognized by Cuvier and his contemporaries, but it was one of the brilliant discoveries of that remarkable and too-little-honoured naturalist, J.
of Discoveries (1864); G.
Even the position of the Solomon Islands was now in uncertainty, for the Spaniards, fearing lest they should lose the benefits expected to accrue from these discoveries, kept secret the narratives of Mendana and Quiros.
The Solomon Islands were thus lost sight of until, in 1767, Philip Carteret lighted on their eastern shores at Gower Island, and passed to the north of the group, without, however, recognizing that it formed part of the Spanish discoveries.
The announcement of the first discoveries made through the application of spectroscopy, then called spectrum analysis, appealed to the imagination of the scientific world because it revealed a method of investigating the chemical nature of substances independently of their distances: a new science was thus created, inasmuch as chemical analysis could =rT?
The characteristics of Pappus's Collection are that it contains an account, systematically arranged, of the most important results obtained by his predecessors, and, secondly, notes explanatory of, or extending, previous discoveries.
These discoveries form, in fact, a text upon which Pappus enlarges discursively.
It may on the contrary be confidently asserted with regard to the first three Gospels that the local colouring in them is predominantly Palestinian, and that they 1 The character of Tatian's Diatessaron has been much disputed in the past, but there can no longer be any reasonable doubt on the subject after recent discoveries and investigations.
3 But this life is to be a human life still, to be in touch with all that is noble and of good report in art and literature, keenly interested in all the discoveries of science, active in all movements of social progress.
7), started in the West the long series of discoveries and translations of hitherto unknown relics.
By the discoveries which we have mentioned their number was notably increased.
But with the decline of dogmatic belief and the spread of religious doubt - as the special sciences also grow more general, and the natural sciences become more speculative about matter and force, evolution and teleology - men begin to wonder again about the nature and origin of things, just as it was the decay of polytheism in Greek religion and his own discoveries in natural science which impelled Aristotle to metaphysical questions.
Starting from Lavoisier's discoveries, he held that life is metabolism, a perpetual circulation.
The study of evolution, without considering how many conditions are required for " the integration of matter and the dissipation of motion " to begin, and the undoubted discoveries which have resulted from the study of inorganic and organic evolution, have led men to expect too much from this one law of Nature.
i.) that it is peculiarly characteristic of all the pretended discoveries of the middle ages that when the historians mention them for the first time they treat them as things in general use.
Gunpowder, the compass, the Arabic numerals and paper, are nowhere spoken of as discoveries, and yet they must have wrought a total change in war, in navigation, in science, and in education.
But Faraday's chemical work, however important in itself, was soon completely overshadowed by his electrical discoveries.
The first period of Faraday's electrical discoveries lasted ten years.
Thus these two great discoveries were elaborated, like his earlier one, in about three months.
The discovery of the magnetic rotation of the plane of polarized light, though it did not lead to such important practical applications as some of Faraday's earlier discoveries, has been of the highest value to science, as furnishing complete dynamical evidence that wherever magnetic force exists there is matter, small portions of which are rotating about axes parallel to the direction of that force.
We have given a few examples of the concentration of his efforts in seeking to identify the apparently different forces of nature, of his far-sightedness in selecting subjects for investigation, of his persistence in the pursuit of what he set before him, of his energy in working out the results of his discoveries, and of the accuracy and completeness with which he made his final statement of the laws of the phenomenon.
Incited by the discoveries of Galileo, Pascal and Torricelli, he attempted the, creation of a vacuum.
vii.; " Journeys and Discoveries," ibid., vols.
x., xi., xii., &c.; Roborovski, " Journeys and Discoveries," Proceedings of Roy.
More than either of these two thinkers he was acquainted with the discoveries of modern science, and was thus enabled to correct or modify the highly imaginative speculations of Schelling.
Fearless and patient navigators, they ventured into regions where no one else dared to go, and, always with an eye to their monopoly, they carefully guarded the secrets of their trade routes and discoveries, and their knowledge of winds and currents.
Recent discoveries in Crete have brought to light the existence of a Cretan or " Minoan " sea-power of remote antiquity, and it is clear that a great deal of what used to be described as Phoenician must receive quite a different designation.
1 Burrows, Discoveries in Crete (1907), 140 sqq.
For further information see Senegal, Gold Coast, Ivory Coast, French Guinea, Portuguese Guinea, Liberia, &C. For the history of European discoveries, consult G.
His first separate publication was Meteorological Observations and Essays (1793), which contained the germs of several of his later discoveries; but in spite of the originality of its matter, the book met with only a limited sale.
The following discoveries in geometry are attributed to Thales (I) the circle is bisected by its diameter (Procl.
Proclus, too, in his summary of the history of geometry before Euclid, which he probably derived from Eudemus of Rhodes, says that Thales, having visited Egypt, first brought the knowledge of geometry into Greece, Assyrian Discoveries, p. 409.
This difficulty has, however, been lessened since the translation and publication of the papyrus Rhind by Eisenlohr; 1 and it is now generally admitted that, in the distinction made in the last passage quoted above from Proclus, reference is made to the two forms of his work - aL a - Tr Epov pointing to what he derived from Egypt or arrived at in an Egyptian manner, while indicates the discoveries which he made in accordance with the Greek spirit.
Other discoveries in astronomy are attributed to Thales, but on authorities which are not trustworthy.
of Discoveries at Halicarnassus, Cnidus, &c. (1863).
Remains of the Roman city are not visible above ground, but various discoveries made are recorded by G.
The two great essential discoveries were first that the rapid passage of air through molten cast iron raised its temperature above the melting point of low-carbon steel, or as it was then called " malleable iron," and second that this low-carbon steel, which Bessemer was the first to make in important quantities, was in fact an extraordinarily valuable substance when made under proper conditions.
As Blair's account has perished, we cannot tell how far the minstrel has faithfully followed his authority, but some comparatively recent discoveries have confirmed the truth of portions of the narrative which had previously been doubted.
Burrows, The Discoveries in Crete (1907); A.
species, whilst on the other hand assemblages judged to be species are merged, or degraded to sub-species, if they are found to intergrade by discoveries of linking forms. A species, in short, is a subjective conception, and some writers, as for instance E.
These words show the futility of ascribing to Adam's account Columbus's knowledge of lands in the West, as many overzealous advocates of the Norse discoveries have done.
(Boston, 1892); Juul Dieserud, "Norse Discoveries in America," in Bulletin of the American Geographical Society, vol.
A rush of prospectors at once took place to the banks of the Orange and Vaal rivers, and resulted in considerable discoveries, so that in 1870 there was a mining camp of no less than 10,000 persons on the " River Diggings."
These have been for the most part discoveries in alluvial deposits of the goldfields, and the stones were small.
After this it rose rapidly into importance as a manufacturing and commercial town, becoming, after Nuremberg, the centre of the trade between Italy and the north of Europe; its merchant princes, the Fuggers and Welsers, rivalled the Medici of Florence; but the alterations produced in the currents of trade by the discoveries of the 15th and 16th centuries occasioned a great decline.
Pascal's work as a natural philosopher was not less remarkable than his discoveries in pure mathematics.
An account of his work is given in Assyrian Discoveries, published early in 1875.
Year after year fresh discoveries are made that carry back our knowledge of the early history of Egypt.
The gap in our knowledge of the development of Palaeolithic into Neolithic civilization has recently been partially filled in by discoveries in north Germany and France of objects showing rather more developed forms than those of the former period, but still unaccompanied by earthenware.
Kretschmayr's excellent Geschichte von Venedig (Gotha, 1905) should be consulted: it contains a bibliography of the authorities and all the latest researches and discoveries; C. Cipolla and G.
In the first volume a chapter "De plantis in genere" contains an account of all the anatomical and physiological knowledge of the time regarding plants, with the recent speculations and discoveries of Caesalpinus, Grew, Malpighi and Jung; and Cuvier and Dupetit Thouars, declaring that it was this chapter which gave acceptance and authority to these authors' works, say that "the best monument that could be erected to the memory of Ray would be the republication of this part of his work separately."
Barth's Travels and Discoveries in North and Central Africa (London, 1857-1858) is a standard authority.
The explanation of the fact may partly be that the mechanical and other discoveries of the most ingenious minds among them, when not in constant requisition by later generations, were misunderstood or forgotten, and even in other cases were preserved only as rules of thumb by the craftsmen and experts, who would jealously hide them as secrets of trade.
Thanks to Wincklers discoveries, the cuneiform text of this treaty from Boghaz Keui can now be compared with the hieroglyphic text at Karnak.
He appears to have invented the fiction which afterwards was repeatedly employed, by which the money spent on mosque-building was supposed to have been furnished by discoveries of buried treasure.
He explained his inventions and described his discoveries in language so lucid and so characteristic that he claims an honoured place in the literature of the country of whose culture, in other branches, he is one of the most distinguished ornaments.
Further light was thrown on the relations of Franz Josef Land and Spitsbergen during 1897 by the discoveries of Captain Robertson of Dundee, and Wyche's Land was circumnavigated by Mr Arnold Pike and Sir Savile Crossley.
Proceeding to England, he was introduced to Sir Isaac Newton, who found in him one of the earliest defenders of his discoveries.
We should expect the albuminous state of the seed to be an antecedent one to the exalbuminous condition, and the recent discoveries in fertilization tend to confirm this view.
Among the most interesting discoveries made in the island is the Parian Chronicle.
William was a pioneer in astronomical research and perhaps owes his most lasting fame to his discoveries in this branch of study.
- C. Fellows, Journal Asia Minor (1839) and Discoveries in Lycia (1841); T.
This narrative clearly intends to account for the origin of these various arts as they existed in the narrator's time; it is not likely that he thought of these discoveries as separated from his own age by a universal flood; nor does the tone of the narrative suggest that the primitive tradition thought of these pioneers of civilization as members of an accursed family.
Prehellenic Period The greatest advance during the decade 1910-20 was made in the knowledge of prehistoric Greece, to which increasing interest had been directed 'since the first discoveries of Sir Arthur Evans in Crete in 1900.
Other discoveries at Tiryns were a beehive tomb, perfectly preserved and used throughout the classical period, some pottery vases which bear painted inscriptions in characters said to be derived from the Cretan script, and an accidental find of Mycenaean treasure in 1915 by a labourer employed in the agricultural school.
The other discoveries on this site have been nearly all of Roman date.
Seager's brilliant discoveries at Mokhlos were published (with coloured plates of the Early Minoan stone vases) in 1912.
The reexamination of Delphi by the French School was still going on in 1921, but on a small scale, while the publication of the first discoveries, made in 1892, was still unfinished.
In the .next war, the landing of the Allied forces at Salonica led to some archaeological discoveries in the occupied territory.
Among Sicilian discoveries must be counted a remarkable archaic statue of a seated goddess which was in Paris at the outbreak of war, and was soon afterwards acquired by the Berlin Museum.
Burrows, The Discoveries in Crete (1913); E.
The discoveries of1888-1889(with references to previous works) are described by E.
The striking archaeological discoveries of recent years have both confirmed and added to our knowledge of the earliest period.
These discoveries definitely determine the district occupied by the Sakiya republic in the 6th and 7th centuries B.C. The boundaries, of course, are not known; but the clan must have spread 30 m.
It has been abandoned jungle since the 3rd century A.D., or perhaps earlier, so that the ruined sites, numerous through the whole district, have remained undisturbed, and further discoveries may be confidently expected.
Edhem Bey (1904), and by chance discoveries, fine-art products have come to light on the site.
His scientific studies and discoveries awaken only an historical interest.
Barth, Travels and Discoveries in North and Central Africa (London, 1857-1858); G.
And yet subsequent discoveries, which followed in rapid succession, have established that Siredon is but the larval form of the salamander Amblystoma, a genus long known from various parts of North America; and Cuvier's conclusions now read much better than they did half a century after they were published.
Before reviewing the history of these discoveries, it is desirable to say a few words of the characters of the axolotl (larval form) and of the Amblystoma (perfect or imago form).
No fresh discoveries of minerals likely to be of high economic value to Afghanistan have been made of late years.
p. 289, note) dissents from this view, which is also held by Dr Otto Franke of Berlin, stating that Dr Stein's discoveries in Chinese Turkestan " strongly confirm the view " held by himself.
But, as has been remarked by Dr Robert Grant (History of Physical Astronomy, p. 515), we are no more warranted in drawing so important a conclusion from casual remarks, however sagacious, than we should be justified in stating that Seneca was in possession of the discoveries of Newton because he predicted that comets would one day be found to revolve in periodic orbits.
Indeed, in its practical form the principle of the instrument has remained unchanged from the time of the Dollonds to the present day; and the history of its development may be summed up as consisting not in new optical discoveries but in utilizing new appliances for figuring and polishing, improved material for specula and lenses, more refined means of testing, and more perfect and convenient methods of mounting.
focal length with which his early brilliant astronomical discoveries were made.
The fame of these instruments was rapidly spread by the brilliant discoveries which their maker's genius and perseverance accomplished by their aid.
16, but no discoveries were reported and no account appears to have been published in any European language.
Notwithstanding subsequent discoveries of stupendous paintings in the gardens of the Villa Farnesina on the banks of the Tiber, the monochromes of Herculaneum remain among the finest specimens of the exquisite taste and consummate skill displayed by the ancient artists.
Perhaps his two most important discoveries were his method of treating glaucoma and his new operation for cataract.
Other discoveries include a few new squirrels and bats, and the occurrence of a lemur (Nycticebus tardigradus) in Tawi Tawi.
The systematic search made at Harvard Observatory is responsible for a large proportion of the recent discoveries.
Only at the very end, when the disease from which he was suffering left him no hope, did he complain with some bitterness of the hardship of leaving this world where the many discoveries being made pointed to yet greater discoveries to come.
In the article Deportation it is shown how the discoveries in the southern seas led to the adoption of penal exile in preference to other suggested improvements in the English prison systems. The penitentiary scheme proposed by Howard was not, however, abandoned.
In this paper he made public the results of his discoveries in the cave of Aurignac, where evidence existed of the contemporaneous existence of man and extinct mammals.
The important discoveries in the Madeleine cave and elsewhere were published by Lartet and Christy under the title Reliquiae Aquitanicae, the first part appearing in 1865.
Wundt's comprehensive view that logic looks backwards to psychology and forward to epistemology was hundreds of years ago one of the many discoveries of Aristotle.
" We have only further to add that many scientific discoveries about sound, heat, light, colour and so forth, which it is the fashion to represent as hypotheses to explain facts, are really analytical deductions from the facts to their real grounds in accordance with mechanical laws.
On the whole the probabilities of the two sites seem to balance, and it is practically impossible without further discoveries to decide between them.
The Californian discoveries had given rise to a general search for metalliferous deposits in the Atlantic states, and this had been followed by wild speculations.
Meanwhile the gold discoveries culminated and surpassed " three centuries of wild talk about gold in California."
These discoveries, subsequently amplified in his Le Stelle cadenti (1873) and in his Norme per le osservazioni dellestelle cadenti dei bolidi (1896) gained for him the Lalande prize of the Academy of Sciences, Paris, in 1868, and the gold medal and foreign associateship of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1872.
Little is positively known of the wild stock to which we owe our tame birds, nor can the period of its reintroduction (for there is apparently no evidence of its domestication being continuous from the time of the Romans) be assigned more than roughly to that of the African discoveries of the Portuguese.
Great discoveries in Cappadocia, Assyria and Egypt were then only at their beginning, and any statement was liable to be quickly disproved by the appearance of new evidence.
The discoveries of the last quarter of the 19th century carried back our knowledge of the Latin alphabet by at least two centuries, although the monuments of an early age which have been discovered are only three.
Arundell, Visit to the Seven Churches (1828), and Discoveries, &c. (1834) C. Fellows, Excursion in A.
Newton, Travels (1867), and Discoveries at Halicarnassus, &c. (1863); Dilettanti Society, Ionian Antiquities (1769-1840); J.
Beaufort, Karamania (1817) C. Fellows, Discoveries in Lycia (1841); T.
Among the most curious of recent discoveries is that relating to some of the parasitic Cymothoidae, as to which Bullar has shown that the same individual can be developed first as a male and then as a female.
The history of Roman Catholicism in the New World begins with the Norse discoveries of Greenland and Vinland the Good.
The Revival of Learning must be regarded as a function of that vital energy, an organ of that mental evolution, which brought into existence the modern world, with its new conceptions of philosophy and religion, its reawakened arts and sciences, its firmer grasp on the realities of human nature and the world, its manifold inventions and discoveries, its altered political systems, its expansive and progressive forces.
At the same time the texts of ancient authors supplied hints which led to discoveries so far-reaching in their results as those of Copernicus, Columbus and Galileo.
Camoens, in the Lusiad, if we may here group Portugal with Spain, was the first modern poet to compose an epic on a purely modern theme, vying with Virgil, but not bending to pedantic rules, and breathing the spirit of the age of heroic adventures and almost fabulous discoveries into his melodious numbers.
To say that it displaced the centre of gravity in politics and commerce, substituting the ocean for the Mediterranean, dethroning Italy from her seat of central importance in traffic, depressing the eastern and elevating the western powers of Europe, opening a path for Anglo-Saxon expansiveness, forcing philosophers and statesmen to regard the Occidental nations as a single group in counterpoise to other groups of nations, the European community as one unit correlated to other units of humanity upon this planet, is truth enough to vindicate the vast significance of these discoveries.
The apparent absence of human remains in the beds yielding dingo teeth and bones (which are almost certainly not older than the Pleistocene) is of only negative value, and liable to be upset by new discoveries.
Aided by a public stipendium, he spent a year or more studying in the Jardin des Plantes, under the friendly eye of Cuvier, and in making zoological discoveries at Cagliari and other places on the Mediterranean.
for 1784 and 1785, contain his great discoveries of the compound nature of water and the composition of nitric acid.
The copper output was of slight importance until 1889 - $ 1, 457,749 in 1905, and $1,544,918 in 1907; and that of zinc was nil until 1902, when discoveries made it possible to rework for this metal enormous dumps of waste material about the mines, and in 1906 the zinc output was valued at $5,304,884.
In 1859 various discoveries were made in the mountains.
An account of his electrical discoveries is given in the De magnete, lib.
The origin of the electromotive force in the pile has been much discussed, and Volta's discoveries gave rise to one of the historic controversies of science.
One of the first discoveries made with it was its power to electrolyse or chemically decompose certain solutions.
The discoveries of Stephen Gray and C. F.
After he had educated himself by the study of the phenomena of lines of magnetic force in his discoveries on electromagnetic induction, he applied the same conception to electrostatic phenomena, and thus created the notion of lines of electrostatic force and of the important function of the dielectric or non-conductor in sustaining them.
Lastly, I confess that I have as vast contemplative ends as I have moderate civil ends; for I have taken all knowledge to be my province; and if I could purge it of two sorts of rovers, whereof the one with frivolous disputations, confutations and verbosities, the other with blind experiments and auricular traditions and impostures, hath committed so many spoils, I hope I should bring in industrious observations, grounded conclusions and profitable inventions and discoveries - the best state of that province.
Practically all the archaeological discoveries above detailed have been made since 1877.
of the Magnalia; The Short History of New England (1694); Bonifacius, usually known as Essays To Do Good (Boston, 1710; Glasgow, 1825; Boston, 1845), one of his principal books and one which had a shaping influence on the life of Benjamin Franklin; Psalterium Americanum (1718), a blank verse translation of the Psalms from the original Hebrew; The Christian Philosopher: A Collection of the Best Discoveries in Nature, with Religious Improvements (1721); Parentator (1724), a memoir of his father; Ratio Disciplinae (1726), an account of the discipline in New England churches; Manuductio ad Ministerium: Directions for a Candidate of the Ministry (1726), one of the most readable of his books.
He was a genius in all the known branches of learning; at twenty-three his physiological discoveries had made him famous throughout Europe.
18J5), who has made great discoveries in the 16th and 17th centuries, and who has published, besides a good book about Shakespeare, studies in which a profound learning is relieved by elegance of delivery.
The papyrus discoveries in Egypt have a peculiar interest, for they are mainly the letters of people unknown to fame, and having no thought of publicity.
in view of archaeological and other discoveries, but still largely uncritical.
Wood, Discoveries at Ephesus (1877); E.
In optics we owe to him not only important optical discoveries of his own, but the credit of stimulating the genius of A.
1869 gold had been found in the Lydenburg and Zoutpansberg districts in the Transvaal, and diggers had resorted there from different parts of the world; moreover, in the far interior, in the territories of Mashonaland, Thomas Baines had reported discoveries of gold.
It was, however, the discoveries of diamonds and gold that chiefly determined the development of the country.
The revenue which these discoveries brought into the Transvaal treasury increased the importance of that state.
It is of especial botanical interest, because, in accordance with Robert Brown's discoveries, the Cycadeae and Coniferae were placed in the new group Phanerogames gymnospermes.
That he anticipated in any manner the inductive philosophy cannot be contended; his botanical studies did not lead him, like his contemporary Konrad von Gesner, to any idea of a natural system of classification, and he rejected with the utmost arrogance and violence of language the discoveries of Copernicus.
New discoveries are frequently made.
Dr Hovey made and published (1909) a new handbook embodying all known discoveries of importance, with four sketch-maps of the routes of usual exhibition.
By the help of these discoveries we are able to reconstruct a fairly detailed picture of English civilization in the age preceding the invasion of Britain.
(3) In 1415 began a period of crusades and discoveries, culminating in the discovery of an ocean-route to India (1497-1499).
The Period of Discoveries: 1415-1499.
- Before describing in outline the course of the discoveries which were soon to render Portugal the foremost colonizing power in Europe it is necessary to indicate the main causes which contributed to that result.
It may be said without exaggeration that the Portuguese of the " age of discoveries " and the Portuguese of the 17th and later centuries were two different races.
The epic achievements of the Portuguese in that century, the discoveries and the wars in Africa, hardly find an echo, even in the verses of those who had taken part in them.
His Lusiads, cast in the Virgilian mould, celebrates the combination of faith and patriotism which led to the discoveries and conquests of the Portuguese, and though the Epic voyage of Vasco da Gama occasioned its composition and formed the skeleton round which it grew, its true subject is the peito illustre lusitano.
The principal form taken by prose writing in the 16th century was historical, and a pleiad of distinguished writers arose to narrate the discoveries and conquests in Asia, Africa and the ocean.
The first news of the gold discoveries of January 1848 was received with incredulity at San Francisco (to give Yerba Buena the name it formally assumed in.
He maintained that there is a rapid variation of density near the surface of a liquid, and he gave very strong reasons, which have been only strengthened by subsequent discoveries, for believing that this is the case.
California gold discoveries drew particular attention to the country south of the Gila, which was wanted also for a transcontinental railway route.
The California gold discoveries and overland travel directed many prospecting adventurers to Arizona.
Numerous articles in the Bulletin de correspondance hellenique record the various discoveries at Delos as they were made.
The discoveries that some species of nitrifying bacteria and perhaps pigmented forms are capable of carbon-assimilation, that others can fix free nitrogen and that a number of decompositions hitherto unsuspected are accom fished by Schizomycetes have ut thequestions of P Y Y, P d nutrition and fermentation in quite new lights.
Quite distinct is the search for the germs which cause undesirable changes, or " diseases "; and great strides have been made in discovering the bacteria concerned in rendering milk " ropy," butter " oily " and " rancid," &c. Cheese in its numerous forms contains myriads of bacteria, and some of these are now known to be concerned in the various processes of ripening and other changes affecting the product, and although little is known as to the exact part played by any species, practical applications of the discoveries of the decade 1890-1900 have been made, e.g.
Much as the decade from 1880 to 1890 abounded with investigations on the reactions of bacteria to heat, so the following decade was remarkable for discoveries regarding the effects of other forms of radiant energy.
Apart from the resolution of doubts as to the power of spores to withstand such temperatures for long periods, the discoveries of Miguel, Globig and others have shown that there are numerous bacteria which will grow and divide at such temperatures, e.g.
By 1876 the anthrax bacillus had been obtained in pure culture by Koch, and some other pathogenic bacteria had been observed in the tissues, but it was in the decade 1880-1890 that the most important discoveries were made in this field.
In the last decade of the 19th century the chief discoveries were of the bacillus of influenza (1892), of the bacillus of plague (1894) and of the bacillus of dysentery (1898).
Of the discoveries of new organisms the most important is that of the Spirochaete pallida in syphilis by Schaudinn and Hoffmann in 1905; and although proof that it is the cause of the disease is not absolute, the facts that have been established constitute very strong presumptive evidence in favour of this being the case.
After the success of his fantastic story The Time Machine (1895) he gave his time chiefly to the writing of romances, in which the newest scientific and technical discoveries were used to advance his views on politics and sociology.
Higgins on "Recent Discoveries of the Apparatus used in playing the Game of Kottabos" (Archaeologia, li.
It was in that year that the discoveries by Boucher de Perthes of flintimplements in France and England were first held to have clearly proved the great antiquity of man.
The production of this lode declined in 1876, but the total production of this country was increased by discoveries in Colorado (Leadville) and Nevada (Eureka); and in more recent years silver-producing areas in other states (Montana, Utah, Idaho) have been exploited.
Australia came into notice chiefly by reason of the discoveries at Broken Hill, New South Wales; these mines producing 36,608 oz.
One of his first discoveries at the Pneumatic Institution on the 9th of April 17 9 9 was that pure nitrous oxide (laughing gas) is perfectly respirable, and he narrates that on the next day he became "absolutely intoxicated" through breathing sixteen quarts of it for "near seven minutes."
Many discoveries were made, including the ruins of a theatre, amphitheatre, city walls and gates, baths, aqueducts, pagan and Christian cemeteries, basilicas and many fragments of houses and arches.
Although it is certain that the four great geographical landmarks which to-day serve to keep Hudson's memory alive, namely the Hudson Bay, Strait, Territory and River, had repeatedly been visited and even drawn on maps and charts before he set out on his voyages, yet he deserves to take a very high rank among northern navigators for the mere extent of his discoveries and the success with which he pushed them beyond the limits of his predecessors.
Wallace also published an account of what he held to be the greatest discoveries as well as the failures of the 19th century, The Wonderful Century (1899).
The Nachlass contains further researches on this subject, and also researches (unfortunately very fragmentary) on the lemniscate-function, &c., showing that Gauss was, even before 1800, in possession of many of the discoveries which have made the names of N.
It was first recorded by James McBrien in 1823, as occurring in grains in the sands of the Fish river, between Rydal and Bathurst; and though further discoveries were made, they were kept secret as far as possible.
His discoveries, co-ordinated and arranged in vast corpora inscriptionum, stand now alongside Herodotus or Livy, furnishing a basis for their criticism.
Melloni's reputation as a physicist rests especially on his discoveries in radiant heat, made with the aid of the thermomultiplier or combination of thermopile and galvanometer, which, soon after the discovery of thermoelectricity by T.
Very little was known about Alaska previous to 1896, when the gold discoveries in the Klondike stimulated public interest regarding it.
As early as 1861 gold discoveries were made on the Stikine river; repeated discoveries, culminating in the Cassiar district "boom," were made in British Columbia from 1857 to 1874; colourings along the Yukon were reported in 1866-1867 and systematic prospecting of the upper river began about 1873.
Juneau was founded in 1880; the same year the opposition of the Indians was withdrawn that had prevented the crossing of the mountain passes to the interior, and after 1880 repeated and scattered discoveries were made on the Lewes, Pelly, Stewart and other streams of the Upper Yukon country in Canada.
As early as 1883-1885 there was a considerable mining excitement due to these discoveries, and a much greater one in 1887 after the discovery of coarse gold on Forty Mile Creek in American territory; but these were as nothing to the picturesque and feverish rush that followed the location of the first Klondike claim in Canadian territory in August 1896.
Since the gold discoveries a wonderful advance has been made in the exploration of the country.
He had followed with interest Galileo's scientific discoveries and a respectful admiration grew up between them.
Hittorf, made many important discoveries in the spectroscopy of gases.
This expectation has hardly been fulfilled, but of late years the notion of a variety of the human race, geologically ancient, differing from any known in historic times, and with characters approaching the simian, has been supported by further discoveries.
There have been recently no discoveries to rival in novelty those which followed the exploration of the bonecaves and drift-gravels, and which effected an instant revolution in all accepted theories of man's antiquity, substituting for a chronology of centuries a vague computation of hundreds of thousands of years.
It seems as if anthropology had in this direction reached the limits of its discoveries.
Recent discoveries have, however, established the fact that there existed in the Palaeozoic era fernlike plants which produced true seeds of a highly specialized type; this group, for which Oliver and Scott proposed the term Pteridospermae in 1904, must also be included in the Spermophyta.
One of the most important discoveries made during the latter part of the 19th century was that by Ikeno, a Japanese botanist, who first demonstrated the existence of motile male cells in the genus Cycas.
Burney, History of Voyages and Discoveries in the South Sea (London, 1803-1817); J.
Among other remarkable discoveries were those of the wild camel, ancestor of the domesticated species, and of the early type of horse, now known by his name (Equus prjewalskii).
The undulatory theory of light, first founded upon experimental demonstration by Thomas Young, was extended to a large class of optical phenomena, and permanently established by his brilliant discoveries and mathematical deductions.
He was the first in England to verify Benjamin Franklin's hypothesis of the identity of lightning and electricity, and he made several important electrical discoveries.
When Livingstone began his work in Africa the map was virtually a blank from Kuruman to Timbuktu, and nothing but envy or ignorance can throw any doubt on the originality of his discoveries.
discoveries during these last years were both extensive and of prime importance as leading to a solution of African hydrography.
Maclean, Recent Discoveries illustrating Early Christian Life and Worship (London, 1904).
Dayanand's treatment of the Vedas was peculiar, and consisted of reading into them his own beliefs and modern scientific discoveries.
These are the few salient points (other, of course, than the epochs of his more important discoveries and inventions presently to be considered) in the uneventful life of this great man.
It is characteristic of most of Hamilton's, as of nearly all great discoveries, that even their indirect consequences are of high value.
The discoveries, papers and treatises we have mentioned might well have formed the whole work of a long and laborious life.
Some recent discoveries have proved that certain statements in the song usually regarded as anachronisms are quite accurate; but no nearer approach has been made towards fixing its exact date, or that of any of the three bits into which it has been cut up. In this song the story appears in its full-blown shape, the name of Winckelriet being given.
Maclean, Recent Discoveries illustrating Early Christian Worship (Lond., 1904); J.
It is to-day a "Monumento Nacional" of Spain, and has yielded I remarkable discoveries to the skilful excavations of Dr Schulten (1905-1910), who has traced the Celtiberian town, the lines of Scipio and several other Roman camps dating from the Numantine Wars.
His main discoveries, however, were in the field of physiology: he wrote valuable and suggestive papers on respiration, on the senses of bats, &c., while he made experiments (1768) to disprove the occurrence of spontaneous generation, showing in opposition to J.
This work, apart from its value to artists and psychologists, is of interest historically, as there is no doubt the investigations of the author into the nervous supply of the muscles of expression induced him to prosecute inquiries which led to his great discoveries in the physiology of the nervous system.
These discoveries as a whole must be regarded as the greatest in physiology since that of the circulation of the blood by William Harvey.
for discoveries in science; and when William IV.
The publication of these discoveries led to a series of controversies which lasted for several years, in which Newton had to contend with the eminent English natural philosopher Robert Hooke; Lucas, mathematical professor at Liege; Linus, a physician in Liege, and many others.
He subsequently published many papers in the Philosophical Transactions on various parts of the science of optics, and, although some of his views have been found to be erroneous, and are now almost universally rejected, his investigations led to discoveries which are of permanent value.
Pemberton, A View of Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophy (1728); Colin Maclaurin, Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophical Discoveries (1775); F.
Brewster, Memoirs of the Life, Writings, and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton (1855; new ed.
His discoveries were afterwards verified by Godwin Austen, and ultimately by the Committee of the British Association, whose explorations were carried on under the guidance of Wm.
While the value of McEnery's discoveries was in dispute the exploration of the cave of Brixham near Torquay in 1858 proved that man was coeval with the extinct mammalia, and in the following year additional proof was offered by the implements that were found in Wookey Hole, Somerset.
Recent discoveries, however, point to a different conclusion, and indicate that the Gawain stories represent an early tradition, and that we must seek in them rather than in the Perceval versions for indications as to the ultimate origin of the Grail.
Several scholars - notably Bhagvanlal Indraji, Mr Lewis Rice and Hofrath Biihler - have treated of the remarkable archaeological discoveries lately made.
This was the time of rapid development in the universities, where not only were the scholastic philosophy i~ and systematic theology eagerly studied, but figures, ~j1,iJlife appear like that of the great Roger Bacon, a scientific researcher of the first rank, whose discoveries in optics and chemistry caused his contemporaries to suspect him of magical arts.
The first English scholars of the Renaissance, like Erasmus on the continent, did not see the logical outcome of their own discoveries, nor realize that the campaign against obscurantism would develop into a campaign against Roman orthodoxy.
A much more interesting relationship of the creodont carnivora has, however, been established on the evidence of recent discoveries in Egypt.
Recent discoveries have demonstrated the African origin of the elephants (Proboscidea) and hyraxes (Hyracoidea), the latter group being still indeed mainly African, and in past times also limited to Africa and the Mediterranean countries.
The evidence of recent discoveries is all in favour of the insular, or French, view.
Christianity to come to terms with scientific discoveries, and few Catholics will care to deny it.
These discoveries were followed by others made by Dr M.
A little before the date of these last discoveries, others of a somewhat similar nature were made by D.
For the archaeological discoveries, see the books of Sven Hedin already quoted; M.
After the discoveries of gold in the last decade of the 19th century it wholly lost its commercial primacy, but business improved after the discovery of gold in 1905 on Chicagoff Island, about 50 m.
" If Locke made few discoveries, Socrates made none."
The formulation of the general theory is due to Augustin Louis Cauchy, whose work was the forerunner of the brilliant discoveries made in the following decades by Hone-Wronski and J.
The farreaching discoveries of Sylvester and Cayley rank as one of the most important developments of pure mathematics.
The outcome of his discoveries was, not only to perfect the geometrical plan of the solar system, but to enhance very materially the predicting power of astronomy.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.