Directed sentence example

directed
  • Petya directed things in the yard.

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  • He directed her to the next stall.

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  • Her concern was exclusively directed toward the boy's welfare.

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  • I did as she directed.

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  • I'll be waiting on this end, Tim directed in resignation.

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  • The contemptuously respectful attitude of the younger men to the old man in his dotage was expressed in the highest degree by the behavior of Chichagov, who knew of the accusations that were being directed against Kutuzov.

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  • In India, where conditions are much more diversified and it is more difficult to induce the native cultivator to adopt new methods, attention has also been directed during recent years to the improvement of the existing races.

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  • St Jerome's mind was first seriously directed to religion while studying at Trier about 370, and St Martin of Tours came in 385 to plead with the tryant Maximus for the lives of the heretic Priscillian and his followers.

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  • Though Europeans may be indebted to China for some mechanical inventions, she was too distant to produce much direct effect, and the influence of India has been mainly directed towards the East.

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  • Victories in the field were not more effective in consolidating Napoleon's power than were his own coups d'etat and the supremely skilful use which he made of conspiracies directed against him.

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  • Marshall \Vard has directed attention to several points of their structure which bear out this view.

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  • He did not often talk about religion; he had not much of the accredited phraseology of piety even when he discoursed on spiritual topics; but more than most men he was directed by religious principle and feeling in all his conduct.

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  • Though his teaching was largely directed against superstition, he seems to have been inclined to mysticism, and perhaps for this reason various kabbalistic works were ascribed to him in later times.

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  • But all five leaders were romanized nobles, with Roman names and Roman citizenship, and their risings were directed rather against the Roman government than the Roman empire.

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  • In June 1835 Airy was appointed Astronomer Royal in succession to John Pond, and thus commenced that long career of wisely directed and vigorously sustained industry at the national observatory which, even more perhaps than his investigations in abstract science or theoretical astronomy, constitutes his chief title to fame.

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  • Many of the principal medieval attempts in apologetics are directed chiefly against him, e.g.

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  • The downwardly directed head is covered by the pronotum, and J the three terminal FIG.

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  • Actually, however, its activity, directed mainly to the discovery of political offences, degenerated into a hideous reign of terror.

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  • He first directed his attention to Novgorod, and by gradually undermining and then destroying the ancient republican liberties he reduced the haughty city, which had long styled itself Lord Novgorod the Great, to the rank of a provincial town.

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  • Her reign (1730-40) was a regime of methodical German despotism on the lines laid down by her uncle, Peter the Great, and as she was naturally indolent and much addicted to frivolous amusements, the administration was directed by her favourite Biren (q.v.) and other men of German origin.

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  • Having obtained these important concessions the tsar imagined for a moment that in any further territorial changes he would be consulted and his advice allowed due weight, and he seems even to have indulged in the hope that the affairs of Europe might be directed by himself and his new ally.

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  • The " black band " (chernaya sotnia), or " black hundreds," as they were branded by public opinion, directed their attacks especially against the Jews, and pogroms,' i.e.

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  • At first it had seemed that the new birth of Russia would lead to a revival of pan-Slavism, directed not, Neo-Slav as in the middle of the i 9th century, against Austria and pan= but against Germany.

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  • The result was the passage, in 1887, of the Interstate Commerce Act, which was directed towards the extirpation of illegal and unjust practices in commerce among the states.

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  • The points over which a train travels when directed from the main to a branch line are called " facing points " (F P), while those which it passes when running from a branch to a main line are " trailing points " (TP).

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  • He inaugurated new missionary enterprises from Hormuz to Japan and the Malay Archipelago, leaving an organized Christian community wherever he preached; he directed by correspondence the ecclesiastical policy of John III.

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  • Luther at one period (in his treatise De captivitate Babylonica) maintained, though not on historical grounds, that the offering of the oblations of the people was the real origin of the conception of the sacrifice of the mass; but he directed all the force of his vehement polemic against the idea that any other sacrifice could be efficacious besides the sacrifice of Christ.

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  • In 1210 Valdemar led a second expedition eastwards, this time directed against heathen Prussia and Samland, the chief result of which was the subjection of Mestwin, duke of Pomerania, the leading chieftain in those parts.

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  • The present outlook was hopeless, but in the enlarged horizon of time as well as space the thoughts of some of the most spiritual minds in Judaism were directed to the transcendent and ultimate.

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  • The time was one of fierce persecution directed against the Christians, and the bishop of Carthage became a prominent object of attack.

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  • After studying at the Ecole Normale Superieure he was sent to the French school at Athens in 1853, directed some excavations in Chios, and wrote an historical account of the island.

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  • All these prophylactic measures are directed against mosquitoes.

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  • This was directed against the oath of allegiance which James I.

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  • Generally it may be said that throughout his long reign Francis Joseph remained the real ruler of his dominions; he not only kept in his hands the appointment and dismissal of his ministers, but himself directed their policy, and owing to the great knowledge of affairs, the unremitting diligence and clearness of apprehension, to which all who transacted business with him have borne testimony, lie was able to keep a very real control even of the details of government.

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  • Rasun and Pekah directed their blows from the north, Philistia threatened the west flank, and the Edomites who drove out the Judaeans from Elath (on the Gulf of 'Akaba) were no doubt only taking their part in the concerted action.

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  • The reforms of Nehemiah were directed towards the establishment of a religious community at Jerusalem, in which the rigour of the law should be observed.

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  • This ruling may be interpreted as part of a campaign directed against the counsellors of Alexander or as an instance of their general principle that intention is equivalent to commission in the eye of the Law.

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  • The people whom they directed were called out to fight, at the bidding of an alien, for this and that foreigner who seemed most powerful and most likely to succeed.

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  • The scribes through the synagogues preserved the national spirit and directed it towards the religious life which was prescribed by Scripture.

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  • They also directed the national ceremonies, and preserved the popular traditions.

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  • The efforts of diplomacy were directed to allaying the resentment of the " Young Turks " on the one hand and the ardour of the Greek unionists on the other; and meanwhile the Cretan administration was carried on peaceably in the name of King George.

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  • All his energies were now directed to securing food and vessels for its transportation and to directing its distribution in Belgium.

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  • The number of senators was reduced to 50, the number of commoners to 120, and the manner of choosing senators and commoners was changed as directed in the act providing for the convention.

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  • Of scientific geographical exploration in Asia (beyond the limits of actual surveys) the modern period has been so prolific that it is only possible to refer in barest outline to some of the principal Indian expeditions, most of which have been directed either to explorers.

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  • The study of the physiology of ecdysis in its simpler forms has unfortunately been somewhat neglected, investigators having directed their attention chiefly to the cases that are most striking, such as the transformation of a maggot into a fly, or of a caterpillar into a butterfly.

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  • It cannot but suggest itself that this transference was induced by some peculiarity as to formation of cuticle, causing the growth of the wings to be directed inwards instead of outwards.

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  • But the pupa hangs from the surface by means of paired respiratory trumpets on the prothorax, the dorsal thoracic surface, where the cuticle splits to allow the emergence of the fly, being thus directed towards the upper air.

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  • In three arduous campaigns, the two first of which were conducted by the emperor himself while the third was directed by Manuel Comnenus, the Turks were defeated in detail and finally (1070) driven across the Euphrates.

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  • Beneficent social work out of the more usual type is directed by the music and bath departments of the city government.

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  • The following notes deal only with the practical side of the question, and as the United States produce some seven-tenths of the world's cotton crop attention is especially directed to the principal cotton pests of that country.

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  • A Manchester cotton-importing company was recently formed for increasing deliveries direct to Manchester, and establishing a " spot " market there, an end to which the Manchester Cotton Association had directed its efforts for some time past.

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  • Next he planned a great seven-fold work against the enemies of the Church, of which only the section directed against astrology was completed.

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  • In 385 he was appointed master of the soldiery (magister militum) in Thrace, and shortly afterwards directed energetic campaigns in Britain against Picts, Scots and Saxons, and along the Rhine against other barbarians.

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  • The Anglo-Japanese treaty of 1902, however, was ostensibly directed towards the preservation of Manchuria in Chinese hands.

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  • As chivalry directed the layman to defend what was right, so the preaching of the Crusades directed him to attack what was wrong - the possession by "infidels" of the Sepulchre of Christ.

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  • Let the truce of God be observed at home; and let the arms of Christians be directed to the winning of Jerusalem in an expedition which should count for full and complete penance.

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  • One of the great mistakes made by the Franks was the breach of the alliance in 1147 - a breach which was widened by the attack directed against Damascus during the Second Crusade; and the conquest of Damascus by Nureddin in 1154 was ultimately fatal to the Latin kingdom, removing as it did the one possible ally of the Franks, and opening the way to Egypt for the atabegs of Mosul.

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  • The only effects of this great movement were effects prejudicial to the ends towards which it was directed.

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  • But, with Syria in the hands of the Mahommedans, the attack on Egypt must necessarily be directed by sea; and thus the Crusade henceforth becomes - what the Third Crusade, here as elsewhere the turning-point in crusading history, had already in part been - a maritime enterprise.

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  • If the Third Crusade had been directed by the lay power towards the true spiritual end of all Crusades, the Fourth was directed by the lay power to its own lay ends; and the political and commercial motives, which were deeply implicit even in the First Crusade, had now become dominantly explicit.

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  • He started in 1248 with a gallant company, which contained his three brothers and the sieur de Joinville, his biographer; and after wintering in Cyprus he directed his army in the spring of 1249 against Egypt.

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  • Other writers, again, blame the com mercial cupidity of the Italian towns; of what avail, they asked with no little justice, was the Crusade, when Venice and Genoa destroyed the naval bases necessary for its success by their internecine quarrels in the Levant (as in 1257), or - still worse - entered into commercial treaties with the common enemy against whom the Crusades were directed?

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  • From 1350 onwards the Crusade assumes a new aspect; it becomes defensive, and it is directed against the Ottoman Turks, a tribe of Turcomans who had established themselves in the sultanate of Iconium at the end of the 13th century, during the confusion and displacement of peoples which attended the Mongol invasions.

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  • To arrest his progress, a Crusade, preached by Boniface IX., led by John the Fearless of Burgundy, and joined chiefly by French knights, was directed down the valley of the Danube into the Balkans; but the old faults stigmatized by de Mezieres, divisio and pro Aria voluntas, were the ruin of the crusading army, and at the battle of Nicopolis it was signally defeated.

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  • In an act of 1534, with regard to ecclesiastical appeals from the courts of the archbishops to the crown, it is provided that the appeal shall be to the king in Chancery, "and that upon every such appeal a commission shall be directed under the great seal to such persons as shall be named by the king's highness, his heirs or successors, like as in cases of appeal from the Admiralty Court."

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  • By the Irish Judicature Act of 1877 it was directed that it should be amalgamated with the Irish High Court of Justice upon the next vacancy in the office of judge, and this subsequently took place.

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  • After a series of moults it passes into the second larval stage, somewhat like the parent but differing in having each integumental ring armed with a fringe of backwardly directed short bristles.

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  • If he says that a subject is to allow himself to be moved and directed, under God, by a superior just as though he were a corpse or as a staff in the hands of an old man, he is also careful to say that the obedience is only due in all things "wherein it cannot be defined (as it is said) that any kind of sin appears."

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  • Ibrahim Pasha was encamped near it when directed by his father, at the bidding of the powers, to stay his further advance.

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  • By 1520 philanthropic churchmen directed their attention to the miserable conditions of the natives; but remedial legislation was largely nullified by the rapacity of subordinate officials, and before the end of the 16th century the natives disappeared as a distinct race.

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  • Assuming the four valencies of the carbon atom to be directed from the centre of a regular tetrahedron towards its four corners, the angle at which they meet.

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  • In this formula, the so-called " centric formula," the assumption made is that the fourth valencies are simply directed towards the centre of the ring; nothing further is said about the fourth valencies except that they exert a pressure towards the centre.

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  • The performance, directed by Hans Richter, excited extraordinary attention; but the expenses were enormous, and burdened the management with a debt of £7500.

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  • But this would not help Wagner to feel that contemporary music was really a great art; indeed it could only show him that he was growing up in a pseudo-classical time, in which the approval of persons of " good taste " was seldom directed to things of vital promise.

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  • Among the subjects to which he especially directed his attention were the explosive force of gunpowder, the construction of firearms, and a system of signalling at sea.

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  • Megalithic town walls were naturally common in that stony land, Palestine, and very typical specimens of them were found in the Palestine Exploration Fund's excavations at Bethshemesh (`Ain Shems) directed by Dr. Duncan Mackenzie, 29 whose work also threw new light on the phenomenon of the appearance in Palestine between the 12th and 10th centuries B.C. of subMycenaean (Greek) pottery, which can only be ascribed to the Philistines, whose historical position as a foreign invading force from the Aegean area (Lycia and Crete-Kaphtor) is now entirely vindicated.

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  • The lopeared breed is the oldest English variety, and has been cultivated carefully since about 1785, the aim of the breeder being directed to the development of the size of the ears, and with such success that they sometimes measure more than 23 in.

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  • Lehmann, who directed a survey of Saxony, 1780-1806, and published his Theorie der Bergzeichnung in 1799.

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  • They also came under the provisions of the acts of 1644,1650 and 1656 directed against travelling on the Lord's day.

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  • Antoninus directed that slaves treated with excessive cruelty, who had taken refuge at an altar or imperial image, should be sold; and this provision was extended to cases in which the master had employed a slave in a way degrading to him or beneath his character.

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  • In 1442, when the Portuguese under Prince Henry the Navigator were exploring the Atlantic coast of Africa, one of his officers, Antam Gonsalves, who had captured some Moors, was directed by the prince to carry them back to Africa.

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  • Theologians differed on the latter question, and Isabella directed that these Indians should be sent back to their native country.

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  • The unfortunate Niger expedition of 1841 was directed to similar ends; and it has been more and more felt by all who were interested in the subject that here lies the radical solution of the great problem.

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  • They are directed at first downwards by the side of the face, and then turn upwards and forwards, ending in the same plane as the eye.

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  • He reached the conclusion that the religious friend who directed Wesley's attention to the writings of Thomas a Kempis and Jeremy Taylor, in 1725, was Miss Betty Kirkham, whose father was rector of Stanton in Gloucestershire.

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  • He was much more interested in these and other political events than in his professional prospects; and his attention was specially directed to the events and tendencies which caused or preceded the Revolution in France.

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  • The third is the age of the plena spiritus libertas, the age of contemplation, the monastic age par excellence, the age of a monachism wholly directed towards ecstasy, more Oriental than Benedictine.

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  • Finally, we have the family Rhinocerotidae, which includes the existing representatives of the group. In this family the dentition has undergone considerable reduction, and may be represented inclusive of all the variations, by the formula i a or a m a The first upper incisor, whenpresent, has an 430r2; PP antero-posteriorly elongated crown, but the second is small; when fully developed, the lower canine is a large forwardly directed tusk-like tooth with sharp cutting-edges, and biting against the first upper incisor.

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  • In 1900 an important survey of the Hauran and neighbouring regions was made under American auspices, directed by Dr Enno Littmann; the publication of the great harvest of results was begun in 1906.

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  • The Cuban policy of Presidents Pierce and Buchanan (during 1853-1861) was vainly directed to acquiring the island.

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  • The government of intervention at first directed its main effort simply to holding the country together, without undertaking much that could divide public opinion or seem of unpalatably foreign impulse; and later to the establishment of a few fundamental laws which, when intervention ceased, should give greater simplicity, strength and stability to a new native government.

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  • Accordingly, every treatise on applied mathematics, properly so-called, is directed to the criticism of the "laws" from which the reasoning starts, or to a suggestion of results which experiment may hope to find.

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  • From the time of Eyubi Effendi until the end of the grand vizierate of Ibrahim Pasha (1730), the empire experienced periodical relief from excessive financial distress under the series of remarkable grand viziers who directed the affairs of state during that time, but the recovery was not permanent.

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  • This expedition was in reality directed against English rule in India.

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  • Meanwhile the sultan's whole efforts were directed towards the reform of the country; the newly-instituted militia was in every respect a success; it grew in numbers, and hopes were entertained that it would gain popularity.

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  • Most of its members were military officers, prominent among them being Majors Enver Bey and Niazi Bey, who directed the propaganda in Albania and Macedonia.

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  • In the present article are described the campaigns in central and eastern Europe, directed by Napoleon - no longer one amongst many French generals,.

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  • On the 26th of September, its deployment beyond the mountains was complete, and as Napoleon did not know of Mack's intention to stay at Ulm and had learned that the Russian advance had been delayed, he directed his columns by the following roads on the Danube, between Donauworth and Ingolstadt, so as to be in a position to intervene between the Austrians and the Russians and beat both in detail.

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  • Soult and Murat attacked his rearguard on the 3rd, and learning from his Cossacks that the French corps were being directed so as to swing round and enclose him, he withdrew by a night march and ultimately succeeded in getting his whole army, with the exception of von Lestocq's Prussians, together in the strong position along the Alle, the centre of which is marked by Preussisch-Eylau.

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  • Davout was turned about and directed on the enemy's right, and the VIII.

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  • The Peninsular War called for large forces of the old Grande Arsnee and for a brief period Napoleon directed operations in person; and the Austrians took advantage of the dissemination and weakness of the French forces in Germany to push forward their own preparations with renewed energy.

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  • As at Krasnoi in 1812, they went straight for their enemy and after one of the most brilliant series of artillery movements in history, directed by General Drouot, they marched right over their enemy, practically destroying his whole force.

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  • Two attempts to destroy them at anchor, though directed by Nelson himself, were repulsed on the 4th and 16th of August.

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  • It was in fact well supplied with information by means of the spy service directed by an exiled French royalist, the count d'Antraigues, who was established at Dresden as a Russian diplomatic agent.

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  • Confidential notes are directed to inspiring confidence by giving an explicit account of the views and intentions of the plenipotentiaries and their governments.

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  • She was directed not to reside within forty leagues of Paris, and after considerable delay she determined to go to Germany.

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  • It is to be remarked that the "laying on of hands," which in the Old and the New Testament alike is the usual "form" of blessing, is not used in liturgical benedictions, the priest being directed merely to extend his right hand towards the person to be blessed.

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  • The British troops were directed towards Lisbon and Cadiz, in order to secure these harbours, to prevent the subjugation of Andalusia, and to operate up the basins of the Guadiana, Tagus and Douro into Spain.

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  • The British force consisted of 9000 men from Cork, under Sir Arthur Wellesley - at first in chief command; 5000 from Gibraltar, under General (Sir Brent) Spencer; and io,000 under Sir John Moore coming from Sweden; Wellesley and Moore being directed towards Portugal, and Spencer to Cadiz.

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  • Here Ney was directed to make a firm stand; but, ascertaining that the Portuguese were at Coimbra and the bridge there broken, and fearing to be cut off also from Murcella, he burnt Condeixa, and marched to Cazal Nova.

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  • Wellington, on the 9th of April 1811, directed General Spencer to invest Almeida; he then set off himself to join Beresford before Badajoz, but after reconnoitring the fortress with his lieutenant he had at once to return north on the news that Massena was moving to relieve Almeida.

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  • An unusually bloody battle ensued, in which the French efforts were chiefly directed against the allied right, held by the Spaniards.

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  • Beresford was Feb.27, directed to turn his right, if possible cutting him off 1814.

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  • Its commerce was further extended and developed by the French occupation of Holland in 1795, when the Dutch trade was largely directed to its port.

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  • In the short rubric before the communion service the celebrating priest is directed to "put upon him.

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  • In the additional explanatory notes at the end of the book, after directions as to the wearing of surplice and hood in quire, in cathedral and collegiate churches (they are not made obligatory elsewhere), bishops are directed to wear, besides the rochet, a surplice or alb, and a cope or vestment, with a pastoral staff borne either by themselves or their chaplains.'

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  • Middendorff's journey (1844-1845) to north-eastern Siberia - contemporaneous with Castren's journeys for the special study of the Ural-Altaian languages - directed attention to the far north and awakened interest in the Amur, the basin of which soon became the scene of the expeditions of Akhte and Schwarz (1852), and later on (1854-1857) of the Siberian expedition to which we owe so marked an advance in our knowledge of East Siberia.

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  • The mouth, which is quite devoid of armature, leads imperceptibly into a short and dorsally directed oesophagus.

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  • In Discinisca and Lingula, however, the sub-oesophageal ganglion is not drawn out, but lies medianly; it gives off two posteriorly directed nerves to the stalk, which in Lingula unite and form a substantial nerve.

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  • In 793 Hescham, the successor of Abd-al-Rahman II., proclaimed a holy war against the Christians, and collected an army of Ioo,000 men, half of which was directed against the kingdom of the Asturias, while the second invaded France, penetrating as far as Narbonne.

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  • It is by the horizontal component of the earth's total force that the compass-needle is directed.

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  • If, for example, a knitting needle is stroked with the south pole of a magnet, the strokes being directed from the middle of the needle towards the two extremities alternately, the needle will acquire a north pole at each end and a south pole in the middle.

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  • In every magnet the strength of the south pole is exactly equal to that of the north pole, the action of the same magnetic force upon the two poles being equal and oppositely directed.

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  • If V denote the potential, F the resultant force, X, Y, Z, its components parallel to the co-ordinate axes and n the line along which the force is directed, then - sn = F, b?= X, - Sy = Y, -s Surfaces for which the potential is constant are called equipotential surfaces.

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  • The suspended needle is, in the absence of disturbing causes, directed solely by the horizontal component of the earth's field of magnetic force H E, and therefore sets itself approximately north and south.

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  • The magnetometric method was employed, and the metals, in the form of ovoids, were heated by a specially designed burner, fed with gas and air under pressure, which directed 90 fine jets of flame upon the asbestos covering the ovoid.

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  • Another point to which attention is directed is the exceptionally great effect which hardening has upon the magnetic properties of chrome steel; one specimen had a coercive force of 9 when annealed, and of no less than 38 when oilhardened.

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  • The creation of an external magnetic field H will, in accordance with Lenz's law, induce in the molecule an electric current so directed that the magnetization of the equivalent magnet is opposed to the direction of the field.

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  • Ewing's Experimental Researches of 1885; throughout the whole of his work special attention was directed to that curious lagging action to which the author applied the now familiar term " hysteresis."

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  • Adopting the profession of an advocate, he came to Constantinople and practised in the prefectural courts there, reaching such eminence as to attract the notice of the emperor Justinian, who appointed him in 528 one of the ten commissioners directed to prepare the first Codex of imperial constitutions.

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  • About the same time the emperor placed Tribonian at the head of a fourth commission, consisting of himself as chief and four others - Dorotheus, professor at Beyrut, and three practising advocates, who were directed to revise and re-edit the first Codex of imperial constitutions.

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  • From the latter part of the 17th century charges of Antinomianism have frequently been directed against Calvinists, on the ground of their disparagement of "deadly doing" and of "legal preaching."

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  • The king's representatives were unable to draw the frontier line by reason of the imperfection of the maps then in existence, and he therefore directed a further survey.

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  • The question of liability was then referred to commissioners appointed by each state, and, on their failing to agree, to Sir Edward Thornton, British minister at Washington, who by his award, in 1875, found there was due from Mexico to Upper California, or rather to the bishops there as administrators of the fund, an arrear of interest amounting to nearly $100,000, which was directed to be paid in gold.

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  • These must one and all be cleared away before we can enter on that era of universal peace towards the attainment of which the tsar of Russia declared, in his famous circular of 1898, the efforts of all governments should be directed.

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  • No sooner had Brazil passed under the Spanish crown, than English adventurers directed their hostile enterprises against its shores.

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  • The Portuguese government, under the administration of Carvalho, afterwards marquis of Pombal, attempted to extend to Brazil the bold spirit of innovation which directed all his efforts.

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  • Once established in Rio de Janeiro, the government of the regent was directed to the creation of an administrative machinery for the dominions that remained to him as it existed in Portugal.

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  • He based his foreign policy on alliance with Florence and France, and directed the internal affairs of the state by means of the council (collegio) of the balia, which, although occasionally reorganized for the purpose of conciliating rival factions, was always subject to his will.

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  • The control of the traffic is in the hands of the police, who, with the wharves and the tramways, are directed by the state government.

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  • Another law, 2 directed against Indians, excludes from the franchise, natives, or descendants of natives in the male line, of countries not possessing elective representative institutions.

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  • On the day before that fixed for the execution Lord Elgin, then Secretary of State for the Colonies, intervened and directed the governor to postpone the execution of the sentence.

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  • Immediately afterwards, owing to the quarrel about the Holy Places which arose in the east of Europe, public opinion suddenly veered round, and all the suspicion and hatred which had been directed against the emperor of the French were diverted from him to the emperor of Russia.

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  • The Golden Bull has been described as consecrating the humiliation of the crown by the great barons, whose usurpations it legalized; the more usually accepted view, however, is that it was directed not so much to weakening as to strengthening the crown by uniting its interests with those of the mass of the Magyar nobility, equally threatened by the encroachments of the great barons.

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  • During the long reign of Sigismund (1387-1437) Hungary was brought face to face with the Turkish peril in its most threatening shape, and all the efforts of the king were directed Turkish Turks crossed the Hellespont from Asia Minor and p began that career of conquest which made them the terror of Europe for the next three centuries.

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  • Sixty-two of its seventy-one enactments were directed against the peasants, who were henceforth bound to the soil and committed absolutely into the hands of " their natural lords."

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  • In the Hungarian diet, which met on the 2nd of July, the influence of the conservative cabinet was wholly overshadowed by that of Kossuth, whose inflammatory orations - directed against the disruptive designs of the Sla y s and the treachery of the Austrian government - precipitated the crisis.

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  • The great majority of the nation naturally desired a composition with its ruler and with Austria, and this general desire was unerringly interpreted and directed by Deak, who carried two-thirds of the deputies along with him.

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  • Considerable attention has been directed to the different styles in which the Arabian authors have treated their subject.

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  • The exploration of parts of the New World next brought to hand descriptions and specimens of many novel forms of animal life, and in the latter part of the 16th century and the Medical beginning of the 17th that careful study by " special- anatomists" of the structure a.nd life-history of particular groups of animals was commenced, which, directed micro- at first to common and familiar kinds, was gradually scopists.

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  • The efforts of the best minds in zoology had been directed for thirty years or more to ascertaining with increased accuracy and minuteness the structure, microscopic and gross, of all possible forms of animals, and not only of the adult structure but of the steps of development of that structure in the growth of each kind of organism from the egg to maturity.

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  • The first efforts of the new monarch were directed against the Wendish pirates who infested the Baltic and made not merely the political but even the commercial development of the Danish state impossible.

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  • Another historic site is Horace Street near Edgware Road, formerly Cato Street, from which the conspiracy which bore that name was directed against the ministry in 1820.

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  • The two books Against Apion are a defence or apology directed against current misrepresentations of the Jews.

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  • Kruger telegraphed that " this annexation cannot be regarded by this government otherwise than as directed against this republic. They must therefore regard it as an unfriendly act, against which they hereby protest."

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  • After July the tactics of the Boer executive were simply directed towards putting off a crisis till the beginning of October, when the grass would be growing on the veld, and meanwhile towards doing all they could in their despatches to put the blame on Great Britain.

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  • This agitation was directed with particular virulence against the high commissioner, whose recall, it was asserted, would remove the chief obstacle to peace.

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  • His attention was first directed to poetry; and more than once he competed for prizes of the French Academy, but never with success.

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  • Whilst it can hardly be allowed that Xenophanes, so far from denying, actually affirms a plurality of gods, it must be conceded to Freudenthal that Xenophanes's polemic was directed against the anthropomorphic tendencies and the mythological details of the contemporary polytheism rather than against the polytheistic principle, and that, apart from the treatise De Melisso Xenophane et Gorgia, now generally discredited, there is no direct evidence to prove him a consistent monotheist.

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  • He was aware of, though not an open advocate of the "Assassination Plot," which was directed against William.

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  • A vast amount of traffic is directed to Berlin, by means of the Havel-Spree system of canals, to the Thuringian states and the Prussian province of Saxony, to the kingdom of Saxony and Bohemia, and to the various riverine states and provinces of the lower and middle Elbe.

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  • The seventy decrees of the council begin with a confession of faith directed against the Cathari and Waldenses, which is significant if only for the mention of a transubstantiation of the elements in the Lord's Supper.

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  • The criticism freely directed against him was based rather upon the circumstances of his unfortunate private life and the misdeeds of an unscrupulous entourage which traded upon his name than upon his personal or political shortcomings.

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  • According to these orders, the Elbe army was directed to Chlumetz on the way to Pardubitz, the I.

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  • But inasmuch as the De nugis is undoubtedly, and certain satirical poems directed against the loose life of the clergy of the day most probably, his work, the speech must not be taken too literally.

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  • Treatment of disease was directed not to any special organ, nor to producing the crises and critical discharges of the Hippocratic school, but to correcting the morbid common condition or "community," relaxing the body if it was constricted, causing contraction if it was too lax, and in the "mixed state" acting according to the predominant condition.

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  • When William Harvey by his discovery of the circulation furnished an explanation of many vital processes which was reconcilable with the ordinary laws of mechanics, the efforts of medical theorists were naturally directed to bringing all the departments of medicine under similar laws.

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  • Evidence is accumulating which may end in the explanation and perhaps in the prevention of the direst of human woes - cancer itself, though at present inquiry is being directed rather to intrinsic than to extrinsic causes.

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  • The efforts of the river authorities are being directed to the deepening and improvement of the navigable channel from the sea to Strassburg, the low-water depths aimed at being TO ft.

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  • All these topics are treated with the view of showing that the world is not itself divine nor directed by divine agency.

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  • As chancellor, the statutes directed him to study theology, to train others in that study and to oversee the educational work of the diocese.

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  • Re-elected to the Convention, he was sent to Normandy, where he directed bitter reprisals against the Federalists.

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  • The York rubric directed him to do it immediately after the first saying of the Introit, which in England was thrice said.

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  • The Lambeth "opinion," as it was called, failed to convince the clergy against whom it was directed any better than the judgments of the ecclesiastical courts, but at first a considerable degree of obedience to the archbishops' view was shown.

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  • Charles directed a writ quo warranto against the corporation of London in 1683, and the Court of King's Bench declared its charter forfeited.

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  • His Irenicum vere christianum is directed against David Pareus (1548-1622), professor primarius at Heidelberg, who in Irenicum sive de unione et synodo Evangelicorum (1614) had pleaded for a reconciliation of Lutheranism and Calvinism; his Calvinista aulopoliticus (1610) was written against the "damnable Calvinism" which was becoming prevalent in Holstein and Brandenburg.

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  • The embattled castle contains the two-handed sword of Sir Almeric Tristram, the Anglo-Norman conqueror of the hill of Howth, and a portrait of Dean Swift holding one of the Drapier letters, with Wood, the coiner against whom he directed these attacks, prostrate before him.

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  • It is necessary to have the work directed by men thoroughly familiar with the characteristics of mineral deposits, and with wide experience in mining.

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  • Long-range fire on the forts directed from outside the Straits over the Gallipoli Peninsula was also tried, but the results proved disappointing.

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  • At Anzac similar work was done but the only tactical incident of much importance in that quarter was that Liman von Sanders personally directed a formidable attack upon Birdwood on the night of the 18thr9th, the assailants being defeated with severe loss.

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  • The strategic importance of Albany was fully recognized during the War of Independence, and it was against Albany that Burgoyne's expedition was directed.

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  • Bernoulli also considered the cases when (I) the chain was of variable density, (2) extensible, (3) acted upon at each point by a force directed to a fixed centre.

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  • It is expressly directed by the act of 1898 above referred to, that in regard to succession, inheritance, marriage, caste or any religious usage or institution, the law to be administered in Burma is (a) the Buddhist law in cases where the parties are Buddhists, (b) the Mahommedan law in cases where the parties are Mahommedans, (c) the Hindu law in cases where the parties are Hindus, except so far as the same may have been modified by the legislature.

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  • The making of beads was probably practised at Venice from a very early period, but the earliest documentary evidence bearing on the subject does not appear to be of earlier date than the 14th century, when prohibitions were directed against those who made of glass such objects as were usually made of crystal or other hard stones.

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  • His first work, Die Erste Liebe zu Christo, to which in modern times attention was again directed by Leo Tolstoy, appeared in 1696.

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  • Notwithstanding these inventions of the Alexandrian school, its attention does not seem to have been directed to the motion of fluids; and the first attempt to investigate this subject was made by Sextus Julius Frontinus, inspector of the public fountains at Rome in the reigns of Nerva and Trajan.

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  • The attention of Newton was also directed to the discharge of water from orifices in the bottom of vessels.

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  • The Assyrian forces became a standing army, which, by successive improvements and careful discipline, was moulded into an irresistible fighting machine, and Assyrian policy was directed towards the definite object of reducing the whole civilized world into a single empire and thereby throwing its trade and wealth into Assyrian hands.

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  • Bestuzhev's offer, communicated to the British government at the end of 1745, to attack Prussia if Great Britain would guarantee subsidies to the amount of some £6,000,000, was rejected as useless now that Austria and Prussia were coming to terms. Then he turned to Austria, and on the 22nd of May 1746, an offensive and defensive alliance was concluded between the two powers manifestly directed against Prussia.

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  • But it was eagerly taken up by the antiGustavian press, and popular suspicion was especially aroused by a fable called "The Foxes" directed against the Fersens, which appeared in Nya Posten.

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  • But in spite of his brilliant ability and his record of having lost but two cases, the bitter attacks which he directed against his fellow advocates, especially against Gerbier (1725-1788), caused his dismissal from the bar in 1775.

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  • Evidently this was directed against the self-seeking of the Roman government.

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  • During the World War he developed a polemic directed against democratichumanitarian conceptions and particularly those of President Wilson, whose influence on the peace settlement was regarded by him as injurious to Italy.

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  • He directed the negotiations which led to the establishment of a French protectorate in Tunis (1881), prepared the treaty of the 17th of December 1885 for the occupation of Madagascar; directed the exploration of the Congo and of the Niger region; and above all he organized the conquest of Indo-China.

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  • He still remained an influential member of the moderate republican party, and directed the opposition to General Boulanger.

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  • Although it had long been suspected that these insects were in some way connected with malaria and other diseases, while that the species now called Stegomyia calopus was the carrier of yellow fever had been asserted by Finlay as early as 1881, it was not until the closing years of the 19th century that the brilliant researches of Ross in India, and of Grassi and others in Italy, directed the attention of the whole civilized world to mosquitoes as the exclusive agents in the dissemination of malarial fever.

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  • He was employed, while very young, in some of his father's expeditions into the country beyond the Indus, gave promise of considerable military talents, and was appointed to the command of an army directed against the Uzbegs.

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  • His attention was directed to the question of the flow of glaciers in 1840 when he met Louis Agassiz at the Glasgow meeting of the British Association, and in subsequent years he made several visits to Switzerland and also to Norway for the purpose of obtaining accurate data.

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  • The great variety in the apparent motions of meteors proves that they are not directed from the plane of the ecliptic; hence their orbits are not like the orbits of planets and short-period comets, which are little inclined, but like the orbits of parabolic comets, which often have great inclinations.

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  • They are directed from a point in the sky near the star 7 Andromedae.

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  • Rich annual displays of meteors have often been remarked on about the 10th of August, directed from Perseus, but they do not appear to have exhibited periodical maxima of great strength.

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  • Halley's comet conforms very well, however, with a meteoric shower directed from Aquarius early in May.

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  • Grant's headquarters henceforth accompanied the Army of the Potomac, and the lieutenant-general directed the campaign in Virginia.

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  • Essling now fell to another assault of Rosenberg, and though again the French, this time part of the Guard, drove him out, the Austrian general then directed his efforts on the flank of the French centre, slowly retiring on the bridges.

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  • The elaborate and minute systematization of life, proper to the religion of Humanity, is to be directed by a priesthood.

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  • It was specially directed against the supposition of a divine communication of language to man.

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  • In the Kalligone (1800), work directed against Kant's Kritik der Urteilskraft, Herder argues for the close connexion of the beautiful and the good.

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  • His most important domestic measure was the chaining of the peasantry to the soil, a measure directed against the ever increasing migration of the down-trodden serfs to the steppes, where they became freebooters instead of tax-payers.

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  • If Japan was eminently fortunate in the men who directed her political career at that time, she was equally favored in those that presided over her literary culture.

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  • At the close of the 7th century the emperor Mommu is said to have enacted a law that wealthy persons living near the highways must supply rice to travellers, and in 745 an empress (Koken) directed that a stock of medical necessaries must be kept at the postal stations.

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  • Iyeyasu, the founder of the Tokugawa dynasty of shoguns, directed that his body should be interred at NikkO, a place of exceptional beauty, consecrated eight hundred years previously.

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  • The later stages of the negotiation were not directed by Fox, but by colleagues who took over his work at the foreign office when his health began to fail in the summer of 1806.

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  • This is not directed against doctrine as such, but against the church, its theory and its practice.

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  • While the imaginative and emotional side of Roman poetry was so powerfully represented by Lucretius, attention was directed to its artistic side by a younger genera tion, who moulded themselves in a great degree on Alexandrian models.

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  • During the ensuing years, apart from a brief return to the Cimonian policy, the resources of the league, or, as it has now become, the Athenian empire, were directed not so much against Persia as against Sparta, Corinth, Aegina and Boeotia.

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  • In spite of the precautions taken by the allies to prevent the domination of Athens at their expense, the policy of the league was almost throughout directed rather in the interests of Athens.

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  • Hence if dS and dS' are the areas of the ends, and +E and - E' the oppositely directed electric forces at the ends of the tube, the surface integral of normal force on the flux over the tube is EdS - E'dS' (20), and this by the theorem already given is equal to zero, since the tube includes no electricity.

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  • He also became chairman of the Republican state committee in 1859, and for more than twenty years personally directed every campaign of his party.

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  • His early studies were directed chiefly to morbid anatomy.

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  • For twenty-two years he directed the policy of Spain.

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  • The highest strains of the psalmists and the most fervent appeals of the prophets were progressively directed to the great end of praising and preaching the One true God, everlasting, with sincere and pure devotion.

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  • Against the Church of Rome, however, there was directed the affirmation that the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father and not from both Father and Son; this rejection of the filioque was not unwelcome to the Turks.

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  • There can be no doubt that the greater part of his attention was directed to the perusal of classical authors, and to the attempt to realize the true spirit of classical antiquity.

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  • Fertilization is effected by insects, especially by bees, which are directed in their search by the colour and fragrance of the flowers; but some pollen must also be transported by the wind to the female flowers, especially in arctic species which, in spite of the poverty of insect life, set abundant fruit.

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  • Marlborough, who personally directed the operations on his left wing, not only formed his line of battle successfully, but also began seriously to press the forces that had been sent to check his deployment.

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  • In his investigations respecting cycloidal lines and various spiral curves, his attention was directed to the loxodromic and logarithmic spirals, in the last of which he took particular interest from its remarkable property of reproducing itself under a variety of conditions.

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  • He studied medicine and became a physician, but his attention was early directed also to geometrical studies.

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  • His labours in the decline of life were chiefly directed to the doctrine of probabilities in reference to practical purposes, and in particular to economical subjects, as, for example, to inoculation, and to the duration of married life in the two sexes, as well as to the relative proportion of male and female births.

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  • Poynting has separated the two effects experimentally on the principle that the radiometer pressure acts along the normal, while the radiation pressure acts along the ray which may be directed obliquely.

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  • His care was now directed to the administration of the affairs of the freed provinces.

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  • Cromwell directed Colonel Harrison, on the refusal of Lenthall to quit the chair, to pull him out - and Lenthall submitted to the show of force.

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  • Everywhere democracies were replaced by oligarchies directed by bodies of ten men (decarchies, 6EKapXiac) under the control of Spartan governors (harmosts, appoarai).

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  • Ochino was banished from Zurich, and, after being refused a shelter by other Protestant cities, directed his steps towards Poland, at that time the most tolerant state in Europe.

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  • Louis' own army, originally collected for the relief of Charleroi in December, advanced on Maastricht, and after a brief siege, in which Vauban directed the besiegers, captured this most important fortress (June 29th, 1673).

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  • One of the first measures to which he directed his attention was the withdrawal of the power of nominating juries from the judges, and the imparting, of a right of peremptory challenge to prisoners.

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  • It was useful as marking definitely the boundary of the Roman sway, and as assuring the Romans that no inroad could be made without intelligence being had of it beforehand, while the limes itself and the system of roads behind it enabled troops to be directed rapidly to any threatened point, and the fortified positions could be held against large numbers till reinforcements arrived.

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  • The two works form one coherent body of opinion, not systematically expressed, it is true, but based on the same principles, involving the same conclusions, and directed to the same philosophical end.

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  • So far as we can discover, no persecution was directed against Christians as Christians till Domitian's time.

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  • When the internal disorders had been repressed and Arabia completely subdued, he directed his generals to foreign conquest.

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  • It was left, however, to Louis Philippe, and particularly to Napoleon III., to complete them, and their successful realization was celebrated in 1858, in the presence of the queen of England, against whose dominions they had at one time been mainly directed.

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  • Tirpitz himself maintains that his naval aspirations were directed not towards a war with Great Britain, but to the creation of a state of naval equilibrium or of German superiority, which would have enabled Germany to insist upon the unreserved cooperation of British policy in her world aims. It was probably true that Germany's policy was directed rather towards being so strong at sea as to make England unwilling to fight her unless absolutely necessary, than towards actually challenging British naval supremacy.

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  • His first tractate (1535, first printed 1627) is directed against the "horrible and gross blasphemy of John of Leiden" - though the genuineness of this tract has been doubted.

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  • The questions, what is the total amount of available coal in the coalfields of Great Britain and Ireland, and how long it may be expected to last, have frequently been discussed since the early part of the 19th century, and particular attention was directed to them after the publication of Stanley Jevons's book on The Coal Question in 1865.

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  • The Dicotylinae differ from the Suinae in that the upper canines are directed downwards (instead of curving upwards) and have sharp cutting-edges, while the toes are four in front and three behind (instead of four on each foot), and the stomach is complex instead of simple.

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  • Lightfoot, however, has proved that Polycarp's statements may equally well be directed against Corinthianism or any other form of Docetism, while some of his arguments are absolutely inapplicable to Marcionism.

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  • The supreme court has three sessions a year, while each district-court judge is directed to hold at least one session a year in each county of his district, and no two districtcourt judges may sit together on the same case.

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  • Among other places he went to Heidelberg and Halle, and had his attention directed at Heidelberg to the canons of scripture criticism published by Gerhard von Ma.stricht, and at Halle to C. Vitringa's Anacrisis ad Apocalypsin.

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  • Macdonald, who had been in charge of a railway survey to Uganda, was directed to inquire into the claims put forward by France for compensation for the priests.

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  • Before the Alexandrians had begun to produce original works, their researches were directed towards the masterpieces of ancient Greek literature.

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  • In 1775 he took part in the negotiations between Leicester House and Pitt, directed against the duke of Newcastle, and in 1757 in the conferences between the two ministers which led to their taking office together.

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  • But the league arranged by Zwingli was directed against the house of Habsburg, and Luther did not deem it right to oppose a prince by force of arms.

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  • The very first anathemas of the council were directed against those innovations which the Protestants had most at heart.

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  • The new sovereign's first proclamation was directed against all such preaching as might lead to contention and the breaking of the common quiet.

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  • First, for many years the Free-Soilers gained strength; then in 1855 in an extraordinary party upheaval the Know-Nothings quite broke up Democratic, Free-Soil and Whig organizations; the FreeSoilers however captured the Know-Nothing organization and directed it to their own ends; and by their junction with the anti-slavery Whigs there was formed the Republican party.

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  • In the war between Mexico and the United States the most decisive campaign was that of General Winfield Scott directed .against the Mexican capital.

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  • His principal efforts as a reformer were directed towards the improvement of the liturgy, and the reformation of the monastic orders of the East.

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  • If now the telescope be directed on the target and this level be brought to the centre of its run, the angle of sight can be read - if afterwards any range ordered is put on the sight and the gun truly layed, this bubble will be found in the centre of its run - so that if thereafter the target becomes obscured the gun can be relayed by elevating till the bubble is in the centre of its run, or at a completely concealed target the angle of sight can, if the range and difference of level are known or can be measured from somewhere near the gun, be put on by means of the micrometer screw, and the gun subsequently layed by putting the range in yards or degrees on the sight drum and elevating or depressing till the bubble is central.

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  • An automatic sight is a sight connected in such a manner with the elevating gear of the gun, that when the sight is directed on the water-line of a target at any range the gun will ---- have the proper quadrant g B elevation for that range.

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  • The bishop, or count, on whose lands the peace was violated was vested with judicial power, and was directed, in case he was himself unable to execute sentence, to summon to his assistance the laymen and even the clerics of the diocese, all of whom were required to take a solemn oath to observe and enforce the peace.

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  • On the 6th of July 1894, despite Governor Altgeld's protest, he directed the military forces of the United States to clear the way for trains carrying the mails.

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  • He directed that the movements of the troops when they drew near the allied outposts should be covered as far as possible by accidents of ground, for there was no great natural screen to cover his strategical concentration.

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  • The orders for the French advance next day, among the finest ever issued, directed that the army should march at dawn and move to the Sambre at Marchienne and Charleroi.

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  • The left wing was directed to push up the Gosselies-Quatre Bras road, and Pajol's cavalry followed the Prussians who retired along the Gilly-Fleurus road.

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  • Immediately afterwards, hearing that Ney had 20,000 men in front of him, he sent the "pencil-note" by General La Bedoyere which directed Ney to detach D'Erlon's corps to Ligny.

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  • Unable to revive the African dominion, William directed his attack on Egypt, from which Saladin threatened the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem.

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  • His energies were, however, directed to the organization, not yet of victory, but of defence.

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  • The breath directed horizontally across the open end, impinged against the sharp inner edge of the pipes, creating the regular series of pulses which generate the sound waves within the tubes.

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  • The third modified this provision by requiring the approval of only a majority of the members elected to each house of the second legislature, and directed that the legislature should call a convention to revise the constitution at least once in twenty years if the people requested it.

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  • Two other French attacks had at the same time been directed against New England, and to meet the dangerous situation Leisler performed the one statesmanlike act of his public career, notable in American history as the first step toward the union of the colonies.

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  • Governor Sloughter, as his commission directed, re-established in 1691 the assembly which James II.

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  • On his release he withdrew to Bruges, where he devoted himself to the composition of numerous works, chiefly directed against the scholastic philosophy and the preponderant authority of Aristotle.

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  • Ballance at once raised the pay of members from £150 to £240 a year, but otherwise directed his energies to constitutional reforms and social experiments.

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  • During the remaining years of his life his efforts at administration were directed mainly towards the organization and development of the great North-West.

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  • Bargain and sale of copyhold estates, which operates at common law, is still a mode of conveyance in England in the case of a sale by executors, where a testator has directed a sale of his estate to be made, instead of devising it to trustees upon trust to sell.

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  • If, for instance, a note is struck and held down on a piano, a little practice enables us to hear both the octave and the twelfth with the fundamental, especially if we have previously directed our attention to these tones by sounding them.

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  • From that moment Japanese policy was directed towards establishing her own hegemony and meeting the advance of Russia with a fait accompli.

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  • The siege approaches were first directed against theTemple Waterworks group, which was stormed on the 19th and 10th of September.

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  • And at last, after every other point 203- had been attempted, the weight of the attack was directed on 203-Metre Hill.

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  • The engineers sapped up to the ruins of the western work, saw the shelters on the reverse slope and directed artillery fire by telephone.

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  • Staffordshire, the diorites of Warwickshire, the phonolite of the Wolf Rock (to which he first directed attention), the pitchstones of Arran and the altered igneous rocks near the Land's End were investigated and described by him during the years1869-1879in the Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society and in the Geological Magazine.

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  • This work was continued during the following year by the king and his eldest son Charles, and the Christmas of 784 was spent by the royal family at Eresburg, whence Charles directed various plundering expeditions.

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  • The development of the theory of structures has been largely directed to determining the arrangements of material which are most economical, especially in the superstructure.

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  • The associations, to which the manufacturers using these materials had to belong, were directed by elected committees; at the head of each was an expert appointed by the Government, which was represented on the board by a commissioner exercising the Government's right of supervision.

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  • He wrote polemical words directed against the pagans, the Jews and heretics.

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  • There is not a trace of human kindness in his satires, which were directed against the corruption of the times, the Reformation, and especially against Luther.

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  • Similarly, the dissolution of the German Reichstag in December 1906 was a weapon directed against Ultramontanism; and, though the elections of 1907 failed to diminish the numbers of the Centre, they rendered possible the formation of a majority, in face of which that system forfeited the influence it had previously possessed.

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  • Henceforth the policy of France was directed by Richelieu, who took up in its main features the system of Protestant alliances and opposition to the power of Austria and Spain, which had been begun by Henry IV.

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  • Affairs were left to be directed by his wife and her lover Godoy (q.v.).

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  • Caesalpinus had his attention directed to the subject, and he speaks of a halitus or emanation from the male plants causing fertility in the female.

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  • Soon after the promulgation of Linnaeus's method of classification, the attention of botanists was directed to the study of Cryptogamic plants, and the valuable work of Johann Hedwig (1730-1799) on the reproductive organs of mosses made its appearance in 1782.

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  • The town of Brussels has a separate administration, which is directed by a burgomaster and sheriffs at the head of a town council, whose headquarters are in the hotel de ville.

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  • But even this error benefited science; some well directed excavations at Alaise brought many Roman remains to light, which were subsequently sent to enrich the museum at Besancon.

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  • Separated from the West, it directed its energies towards the East, and here its nearest neighbour was the Persian church.

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  • Kohen, iEpEbs, sacerdos, are, in fact, fair translations of one another; they all denote a minister whose stated business was to perform, on behalf of the community, certain public ritual acts, particularly sacrifices, directed godwards.

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  • In 1828 the sliding scale was introduced, under which the duty went up and down as the price of grain went down and up; and it was against this form of the Corn Law that the great agitation led by Cobden and Bright was directed after 1830.

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  • After the close of the war efforts were first directed to clearing the financial situation by funding the floating debt, and taking steps (never fully consummated) towards contracting the currency.

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  • In the second half of the decade a continuous large surplus in the Treasury necessarily directed attention to the state of the revenue, and gave strength" to the protests against excessive taxation.

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  • Between these two were Questions in Political Economy, Politics, Morals, &c. (1823), and a Critical Dissertation on the Nature, Measure, and Causes of Value (1825), directed against the opinions of Ricardo and his school.

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  • His arguments were drawn from the dialectic which the Eleatics had directed against the existence of the phenomenal world.

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  • The privileges conferred upon the magnates of which these councils were composed, especially upon the magnates of Little Poland, who brought the Jagiellos to the throne, directed their policy, and grew rich upon their liberality, revolted the less favoured szlachta, or gentry, who, towards the end of the 14th century, combined for mutual defence in their sejmiki, or local diets, of which originally there were five, three in Great Poland, one in Little Poland and one in Posen-Kalisz.'

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  • Indeed, it is not too much to say that, until the days of Sobieski, the Cossacks were invariably the chief cause of the breaches between the Porte and the Republic. We have seen how carefully the Jagiellos avoided participating in any of the crusades directed by the Holy See against the arch-enemies of the Cross.

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  • He was crowned, as Augustus II., on the 15th of September 1697, and his first act was to expel from the country the prince of Conti, the elect of a respectable minority, directed by the cardinal primate Michal Radziejowski (1645-1705), whom Augustus II.

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  • Alexander of Russia directed his own diplomacy, and round him he had gathered a brilliant body of men who could express but not control their master's desires.

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  • The law in question is in its present form post-exilic, and is plainly directed to the regulation of a known usage.

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  • Proctor in 1877 directed attention to the composition of the slag resulting from the burning of esparto, which they found to be strikingly similar to that of average medical bottle glass, the latter yielding on analysis 66.3% of silica and 25.1% of alkalies and alkaline.

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  • A well-nigh ubiquitous system of espionage, perhaps most fruitful when directed against official corruption, sapped the foundations of public confidence.

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  • They became a separate Moorish kingdom in 1009, which, becoming extremely obnoxious for piracy, was the object of a crusade directed against it by Pope Paschal II., in which the Catalans took the lead.

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  • In general the strong will of Charles of Anjou directed Philip's policy.

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  • The expulsion of the Jesuits gave a new impulse to the attacks directed against all schemes of education in which Latin held a prominent position.

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  • The chief of the bureau of labour statistics is directed in case of danger of a strike or lockout to seek to mediate between the parties and if unsuccessful in that, then to endeavour to secure their consent to the formation of a board of arbitration.

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  • To this end he promised religious toleration from the beginning and directed his officers accordingly; this led to the famous toleration act passed by the assembly in 1649, which, however, extended its protection only to sects of Trinitarian Christianity.

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  • It is specially directed to the question of hypothesis, and holds that a hypothesis is justifiable only on the ground that it provides an explanation.

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  • Halleck, Lincoln and Stanton, the intractable, if energetic, war secretary, now stood aside, and the efforts of the whole vast army were to be directed and co-ordinated by one supreme military authority.

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  • By a law of the 19th of December 1900, Algeria was constituted a legal personality, with power to own goods, contract loans, &c., and a decree of 1901 placed the customs department, until then directed from Paris, under the control of the governor-general, whose hands were also strengthened in various minor matters.

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  • The task of maintaining the position of France was then divided between Thomas Robert Bugeaud (1784-1849), acting independently in the west, and Damremont, who directed all his efforts towards the east.

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  • Damremont, on his part, directed a second expedition on Constantine.

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  • In 1808, as governor of the Hanse towns, he was to have directed the expedition against Sweden, via the Danish islands, but the plan came to nought because of the want of transports and the defection of the Spanish contingent.

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  • His efforts were now steadily directed to securing his restoration to the navy, and in this he succeeded in 1832; but though he was granted a "free pardon" he failed to obtain the new trial for which he was anxious, or to secure the arrears of pay he claimed.'

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  • The next stage brings us to the critical theories or conclusions which at first gradually and then rapidly, in spite of the keenest criticisms directed against them both by those who clung more or less completely to tradition and by the representatives of the earlier critical school, gained increasing acceptance, until to-day they dominate Old Testament study.

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  • Besides these works the chief efforts of textual critics since WH have been directed towards the elucidation of minor problems, and the promulgation of certain hypotheses to explain the characteristics either of individual MSS.

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  • The provision for the joint influence of Great Britain and France over the New Hebrides (1906) brought these islands into some prominence owing to the hostile criticism directed against the British government both in Australia and at home.

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  • Misled by instructions from Holland that the expedition was directed wholly against New England, Stuyvesant made no preparation for defence until just before the fleet arrived.

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  • The two men completed each other; SaintBon conceived a type of ship, Brin made the plans and directed its construction.

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  • It was convenient, too, to profess Lutheran sympathies, for Lutheranism was now an established, monarchical and comparatively respectable religion, very different from the Calvinism against which monarchs directed the Counter-reformation from political motives.

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  • In 1894-1896 Dr Murray directed some excavations in Cyprus undertaken by means of a bequest of £2000 from Miss Emma Tournour Turner.

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  • During his stay in the city of Mexico his thoughts were seriously directed towards religion, and, eventually entering the Presbyterian communion, he ruled every subsequent action of his life by his faith.

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  • His work Against the Christians was directed, not against Christ, nor even against what he believed to be Christ's teaching, but against the Christians of his own day and their sacred books, which, according to Porphyry, were the work of deceivers and ignorant people.

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  • Of more historical interest are the two books Contra Symmachum, of 658 and 1131 hexameter verses respectively, the first attacking the pagan gods, the second directed against the petition of Symmachus to the emperor for the restoration of the altar and statue of Victory which Gratian had cast down.

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  • Before his decease Smith directed that all his manuscripts except a few selected essays should be destroyed, and they were accordingly committed to the flames.

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  • In 1887 he returned to drama with the powerful tragedy Fadren, produced in Paris also as Le pere; this was followed in 1888 by Froken Julie, described as a naturalistic drama, to which he wrote a preface in the nature of a manifesto, directed against critics who had resented the gloom of Fadren.

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