The diplomatic career now lies open before you.
"We are not diplomatic officials, we are soldiers and nothing more," he went on.
By very dexterous military and diplomatic operations Vitellius succeeded completely.
In the study were four gentlemen of the diplomatic corps.
Never did the diplomatic talents of the prince of Orange shine brighter than at this difficult crisis.
famous for the attempts of that prince to extend the diplomatic relations of Spain to the remotest parts of the earth.
The diplomatic corps and the Emperor himself were to be present.
I confess I do not understand: perhaps there are diplomatic subtleties here beyond my feeble intelligence, but I can't make it out.
From the middle of the 18th century the ancestors of Ferdinand de Lesseps followed the diplomatic career, and he himself occupied with real distinction several posts in the same calling from 1825 to 1849.
In attendance on him was the head of the imperial staff, Quartermaster General Prince Volkonski, as well as generals, imperial aides-de-camp, diplomatic officials, and a large number of foreigners, but not the army staff.
In this his diplomatic ability was conspicuously evident, and it was also largely owing to his influence that Cardinal Chiaramonte was elected as Pius VII.
While Cynthia hemmed and hawed about the most diplomatic way to suggest that the Dawkinses might billet down to two rooms from the three they now occupied, the situation cured itself.
He did not find Prince Andrew in Olmutz that day, but the appearance of the town where the headquarters and the diplomatic corps were stationed and the two Emperors were living with their suites, households, and courts only strengthened his desire to belong to that higher world.
Article 4 allotted the pontiff an annuity of 3,225,000 lire (~I29,ooo) for the maintenance of the Sacred College, the sacred palaces, the congregations, the Vatican chancery and the diplomatic service.
During Somerset's protectorate he entered public life and was made a secretary of state, being sent on an important diplomatic mission to Brussels.
Aloys Karolyi entered the Austrian diplomatic service, and was attached successively to embassies at various European capitals.
The observance of such days was a bar to attending even to important diplomatic business or setting out on a journey Such nubattu days fell on the 3rd, 7th and 16th of the intercalary month of Elul, and were noted as the nubattu of Marduk and his consort.
It was not without secret satisfaction, therefore, that Prince Gorchakov watched the repeated defeats of the Austrian army in the Italian campaign of 1859, and he felt inclined to respond to the advances made to him by Napoleon III.; but the germs of a Russo-French alliance, which had come into existence immediately after the Crimean War, ripened very slowly, and they were completely destroyed in 1863 when the French emperor wounded Russian sensibilities deeply by giving moral and diplomatic support to the Polish insurrection.
Prince Andrew stayed at Brunn with Bilibin, a Russian acquaintance of his in the diplomatic service.
Of the three sons of Count Franz, the eldest, Friedrich (1810-1881), entered the diplomatic service; after holding other posts he was in 1850 appointed president of the restored German Diet at Frankfort, where he represented the anti-Prussian policy of Schwarzenberg, and often came into conflict with Bismarck, who was Prussian envoy.
Anti-Italian demonstrations occurred periodically also at Vienna, while in Dalmatia and Croatia Italian fishermen and workmen (Italian citizens, not natives) were subject to attacks by gangs of half-savage Croats, which led to frequent diplomatic incidents.
With so intellectual a guest as she considered Prince Andrew to be, she felt that she had to employ her diplomatic tact.
For diplomatic history, see F.
After the war he was sent on a special diplomatic mission to France, on account of the presence of French troops in Mexico; and from June 1868 to March 1869 he served as secretary of war under President Andrew Johnson, after the retirement of E.
In March 1473 Morton was made Master of the Rolls, and Edward found employment for his diplomatic talents; he was sent on a mission to Hungary in 1474, and was one of the negotiators of the Treaty of Pecquigny in 1475.
Young men read books before attending Helene's evenings, to have something to say in her salon, and secretaries of the embassy, and even ambassadors, confided diplomatic secrets to her, so that in a way Helene was a power.
Ending in a military disaster and a diplomatic humiliation, it had failed to attain even the narrow object for which it had been created.
In return for these services Bismarck helped Russia to recover a portion of what she had lost by the Crimean War, for it was thanks to his connivance and diplomatic support that she was able in 1871 to denounce with impunity the clauses of the treaty of Paris which limited Russian armament in the Black Sea.
Entering the diplomatic service at an early age, he was appointed successively to the legations of Madrid, Vienna, Berlin and Versailles, but in 1871 returned to Italy, to devote himself to political and social studies.
Nanfan died in 1507, but the king made Wolsey his chaplain and employed him in diplomatic work.
He pictured the vanity of his diplomatic career in comparison with Pierre's happiness.
Firth (1902); The Diplomatic Relations between Cromwell and Charles X.
In December 1898 he convoked a diplomatic conference in Rome to discuss secret means for the repression of anarchist propaganda and crime in view of the assassination of the empress of Austria by an Italian anarchist (Luccheni), but it is doubtful whether results of practical value were achieved.
de Lesseps then retired from the diplomatic service, and never afterwards occupied any public office.
Upon the fall of the Saracco cabinet (9th February 1901) Visconti Venosta was succeeded at the foreign office by Signor Prinetti, a Lombard manufacturer of strong temperament, but without previous diplomatic experience.
Educated at the universities of Bonn and Heidelberg, he obtained a position in Florence through the influence of an Englishman, William Craufurd, but soon he entered the Prussian diplomatic service and was employed in Florence, in Constantinople and in Rome.
His first diplomatic work of importance was the negotiation of a marriage between the grand duchess Olga and the crown prince Charles of Wurttemberg.
In return for Russia's service in preventing the aid of Austria from being given to France, Gorchakov looked to Bismarck for diplomatic support in the Eastern Question, and he received an instalment of the expected support when he successfully denounced the Black Sea clauses of the treaty of Paris.
to open diplomatic relations with Abyssinia, but was murdered (1703) in Sennar.
Stamboloff, pursued systematically an anti-Russian policy, but the cabinet of St Petersburg confined itself officially to breaking off diplomatic relations and making diplomatic protests, and unofficially to giving tacit encouragement to revolutionary agitation.
Convinced that the onward march of the Colossus could not be permanently arrested by mere diplomatic conventions, the cabinet of Tokio suddenly broke off diplomatic relations and commenced hostilities (February 8, 1 9 04).
All the diplomatic questions concerning Russia from 1762 to 1783 are intimately associated with the name of Panin.
He did not lose sight either of the welfare of his army or of the doings of the enemy, or of the welfare of the people of Russia, or of the direction of affairs in Paris, or of diplomatic considerations concerning the terms of the anticipated peace.
Besides filling many diplomatic offices, a Jew (0.
those on the Germanic mark and on the allodium and beneficium) were models of learning and sagacity, all were dominated by his general idea and characterized by a total disregard for the results of such historical disciplines as diplomatic. From this crucible issued an entirely new work, less well arranged than the original, but richer in facts and critical comments.
He was descended from an old Hanoverian family, his father, Karl von Bennigsen, being an officer in the Hanoverian army, who rose to the rank of general and also held diplomatic appointments.
Assyrian) script and language were now used, not merely in the diplomatic correspondence between Egypt and Asia, but also for matters of private and everyday life among the Palestinian princes themselves.
And Bilibin repeated the actual words of the diplomatic dispatch, which he had himself composed.
During his diplomatic career he had more than once noticed that such utterances were received as very witty, and at every opportunity he uttered in that way the first words that entered his head.
The president, with the advice and consent of the senate, appoints judges, diplomatic agents, governors of territories, and officers of the army and navy above the rank of colonel.
In the anxious year which followed, the prince gave evidence of considerable military and diplomatic ability.
An embassy from the Parthians now came to solicit alliance with Rome, and Sulla was the first Roman who held diplomatic intercourse with that remote people.
a simple diplomatic uniform (for this he was rebuked by Secretary of State W.
What the diplomatic matter might be he did not care, but it gave him great pleasure to prepare a circular, memorandum, or report, skillfully, pointedly, and elegantly.
It must be observed that the denunciation of a concordat by a nation does not necessarily entail the separation of the church and the state in that country or the rupture of diplomatic relations with Rome.
The last backwash of the movement from the west occurs: a backwash which serves to solve the apparently insuperable diplomatic difficulties and ends the military movement of that period of history.
After July 1516 Douglas appears to have been in possession of his see, and to have patched up a diplomatic peace with Albany.
On the occasion of the Metrical Congress, which met in Paris in 1872, he, however, successfully protested against the recognition of the Vatican delegate, Father Secchi, as a representative of a state, and obtained from Count de Rmusat, French foreign minister, a formal declaration that the presence of Father Secchi on that occasion could not constitute a diplomatic precedent.
The Italian government attached little importance to the occurrence, and believed that a diplomatic expression of regret would suffice to allay Austrian irritation.
the latter aspired to obtaining a firm footing on the Baltic coast and establishing direct relations, diplomatic and commercial, with the Western Powers.
The historical figures at the head of armies, who formerly reflected the movement of the masses by ordering wars, campaigns, and battles, now reflected the restless movement by political and diplomatic combinations, laws, and treaties.
Uriburu was neither a politician nor a statesman, but had spent the greater portion of his life abroad in the diplomatic service.
The refusal of Aegina was veiled under the diplomatic form of "sending the Aeacidae."
The diplomatic pressure failed and war became inevitable.
His jealousy for the political autonomy of Canada was noticeable in his attitude at the Colonial conference held at the time of King Edward's coronation, and marked all his diplomatic dealings with the mother country.
Owing to various diplomatic considerations the Russian armies--just those which might have destroyed his prestige--do not appear upon the scene till he is no longer there.
In any case the native Frank, accustomed to commercial intercourse and diplomatic negotiations with the Mahommedans, could hardly share the unreasoning passion to make a dash for the "infidel."
But before St Louis sailed for Damietta there intervened the miserable failure of one Crusade, and the secular and diplomatic success of another.
Opinions were much divided in ancient times as to the personal character of Maecenas; but the testimony as to his administrative and diplomatic ability was unanimous.
He resisted the navy, the mainspring of Washington's foreign policy; he opposed commercial treaties and diplomatic intercourse in a similar fashion.
We hear of direct diplomatic intercourse between the courts of Alexandria and Pataliputra, i.e.
He was continually employed on diplomatic errands until 1455, when, owing apparently to ill-health, he received apartments in the palace of the counts of Hainaut at Salle-le-Comte, Valenciennes, with a con siderable pension, on condition that the recipient should put in writing "choses nouvelles et morales," and a chronicle of notable events.
Weak health, consequent on over-study, prevented him from obtaining the highest academical honours, but he graduated as doctor in theology at the age of twenty-two, and then entered the Accademia dei Nobili ecclesiastici, a college in which clergy of aristocratic birth are trained for the diplomatic service of the Roman Church.
His hope that his support of the British government in Ireland would be followed by the establishment of formal diplomatic relations between the court of St James's and the Vatican was disappointed.
About 1607 Schoppe entered the service of Ferdinand, archduke of Styria, afterwards the emperor Ferdinand II., who found him very useful in rebutting the arguments of the Protestants, and who sent him on several diplomatic errands.
With zeal for the faith, and boldness and energy, he combined diplomatic skill in his dealings with his exalted protectors.
chap. i., and Wharton's Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States (6 vols., Washington, 1889).
The Histoire de la Louisiane, et de la cession de colonie par la France aux EtatsUnis (Paris, 1829; in English, Philadelphia, 1830) by Barbe-Marbois has great importance in diplomatic history.
Government was maintained under the Cuban flag, - the diplomatic and consular relations with even the United States remaining in outward forms unchanged; and the regular forms of the constitution were scrupulously maintained so far as possible.
1 In the following year permanent diplomatic relations were established by England with the Porte by the despatch of William Harebone as ambassador, Queen Elizabeth urging as her special claim to the sultan's friendship their common mission to fight " idolators."
The execution of the patriarch Gregorios, as technically responsible for the revolt, was an outrage to all Christendom; and it led at once to a breach of diplomatic relations with Russia.
An account of the collapse of the Turkish power before Mehemet Ali, and of the complicated diplomatic developments that followed, is given in the article Mehemet Ali.
On the 22nd Menshikov and the whole of the Russian diplomatic staff left Constantinople; and it was announced that, at the end of the month, the tsar's troops would enter the Danubian principalities.
respecting the rupture of diplomatic relations between Turkey and Greece, &c.," in State Papers, lix.
As the diplomatic crisis approached, spies were sent into Prussia, and simultaneously with the orders for preliminary concentration the marshals received private instructions, the pith of which cannot be better expressed than in the following two quotations from Napoleon's correspondence: " Mon intention est de concentrer toutes mes forces sur l'extremite de ma droite en laissant tout l'espace entre le Rhin et Bamberg entierement degarni, de maniere a avoir pres de 200,000 hommes reunis sur un meme champ de bataille; mes premieres marches menacent le coeur de la monarchie prussienne " (No.
But the invasion was so far little more than a threat made for diplomatic purposes.
It was in fact well supplied with information by means of the spy service directed by an exiled French royalist, the count d'Antraigues, who was established at Dresden as a Russian diplomatic agent.
Diplomatic notes are written communications exchanged between diplomatic agents or between them and the ministers of foreign affairs of the government to which they are accredited; they differ from ordinary letters in having a more formal character and in dealing with matters of more immediate and definite importance: e.g.
the notification of adhesion to a treaty, of the re-establishment of diplomatic relations after a war, &c. Sometimes, by agreement, a mere exchange of notes has the force of a convention.
Notes ad referendum are addressed by diplomatic agents to their own governments asking for fresh powers to deal with points not covered by their instructions, which they have had to "refer."
In 1799 Bonaparte, through whose influence his release had been obtained, sent him to the Hague to consolidate the alliance between France and the Batavian Republic. In this mission he was entirely successful, and he is credited with another diplomatic success in the inception of the Austrian marriage.
The new archbishop, without being one of the English divines who have made notable contributions to theological learning, already had a great reputation for ecclesiastical statesmanship; and in subsequent years his diplomatic abilities found ample scope in dealing not only with the difficulties caused in the church by doctrinal questions, but pre-eminently with the education crisis, and with the new problems arising in the enlarged Anglican Communion.
But the king's diplomatic skill enabled him to satisfy the church without surrendering any rights of consequence (1106); and he skilfully threw the blame of his previous conduct upon his counsellor, Robert of Meulan.
The indirect consequence of this incident was that in 1866, on the categoric demand of Prince Michael of Servia, and under the diplomatic pressure of the great powers, the sultan withdrew the Turkish garrison from the citadel and delivered it to the Servians.
In the autumn of 1779 he was appointed secretary to John Adams, who had been selected as minister plenipotentiary to negotiate treaties of peace and commerce with Great Britain, and in December 1780 he was appointed diplomatic representative to the Russian government.
Her usually keen judgment and her diplomatic tact again and again recall Peter the Great.
This triumphant issue was mainly due to the diplomatic ability of the new vice chancellor, Alexius BestuzhevRyumin, whom Elizabeth, much as she disliked him personally, had wisely placed at the head of foreign affairs immediately after her accession.
In 1770 the Council of the Confederation was transferred from its original seat in Silesia to Hungary, from whence it conducted diplomatic negotiations with France, Austria and Turkey with the view of forming a league against Russia.
The appointment, criticised at the time as withdrawing from the regular diplomatic corps one of its most coveted posts, proved a great success.
Mr. Bryce, already favourably regarded in America as the author of a classical work on the American Commonwealth, made himself thoroughly at home in the country; and, after the fashion of American ministers or ambassadors in England, he took up with eagerness and success the role of public orator on matters outside party politics, so far as his diplomatic duties permitted.
He was entrusted with various diplomatic negotiations, and took part in the crusade of Hungary against the Sultan Bayezid, during which he was taken prisoner, and died shortly after the battle of Nicopolis (1397).
Educated at the Ecole Normale Superieure, he taught for some years in the lycee at Algiers before he joined the diplomatic service in 1871.
Petropolis has since become the summer residence of the diplomatic corps and of the higher officials of the Federal government, and was the capital of the state of Rio de Janeiro from 1893 to 1903.
Violent accusations followed, indignantly repudiated; a diplomatic correspondence ensued, and a demand was made, and supported by the grand duke, for an apology, which the professor refused to make, preferring rather to lose his chair.
21, 1793), the chief French diplomatic agent, Chauvelin, was ordered to leave England, while the French Convention declared war (Feb.
After a space, in which he held no diplomatic post, he became ambassador of the French Republic at Naples; but, while repairing thither with De Semonville he was captured by the Austrians and was kept in durance by them for some thirty months, until, at the close of 1795, the two were set free in return for the liberation of the daughter of Louis XVI.
In 1804 he became Minister; in 1807 he was named count, and in 1809 he received the title of duc de Bassano, an honour which marked the sense entertained by Napoleon of his strenuous toil, especially in connexion with the diplomatic negotiations and treaties of this period.
In 1552 he was raised to the dignity of Rigsraad (councillor of state); in 1554 he successfully accomplished his first diplomatic mission, by adjusting the differences between the elector of Saxony and the margrave of Brandenburg.
As the chief councillor of Prince Zsigmond Bathory, he advised his sovereign to contract an alliance with the emperor instead of holding to the Turk, and rendered important diplomatic services on frequent missions to Prague and Vienna.
But the issues involved affected the stability of the Dual Monarchy and its position in Europe; and neither the king-emperor nor his Austrian advisers, their position strengthened by the success of Baron Aehrenthal's diplomatic victory in the Balkans, were prepared to make any substantial concessions to the party of Independence.
1874-1876); Diplomatic Records of the Time of King Matthias (Mag.
For the medieval history of Hungary the Mdtydskori diplomatikai emlekek (Diplomatic Memorials of the Time of Matthias Corvinus), issued by the academy under the joint editorship of Ivan Nagy and Baron Albert Nyary, affords interesting material.
He had, however, already shown his ability, his firmness, and his diplomatic skill, and conducted the negotiations on the part of the queen-mother with Luynes, the king's representative.
ed., London, 1856); Claudius Rondeau, Diplomatic Dispatches from Russia (St Petersburg, 1889-1892).
He was employed also on various diplomatic missions by the emperor and the elector.
The last seventeen years of Retz's life were passed partly in his diplomatic duties (he was again in Rome at the papal election of 1668), partly at Paris, partly at his estate of Cornmercy, but latterly at St Mihiel in Lorraine.
Another article reserved to her majesty " the control of the external relations of the said state, including the conclusion of treaties and the conduct of diplomatic intercourse with foreign powers," and the right to march troops through the Transvaal.
- A state of extreme diplomatic tension lasted all the summer.
Here the advantage of his training under the duke of Wellington was seen in the soundness of his generalship, and his diplomatic experience stood him in good stead in dealing with the generals and admirals, British, French and Turkish, who were associated with him.
In August 1904 these loans and arrears of interest brought the foreign debt up to £5,618,725, which in 1905 was converted into a " diplomatic " debt of £5,229,700 (3%).
Diplomatic relations between the two countries, which had been broken off in consequence of the dispute, were resumed in 1897.
In consequence, France broke off diplomatic relations.
Wood, Venezuela: Two Years on the Spanish Main (London); and the Anuario estadistico de los Estados Unidos de Venezuela (Caracas); Diplomatic and Consular Reports.
He had left the army for some time; he now entered the diplomatic service and was appointed secretary to the embassy at Naples.
Lamartine was in Switzerland, not in Paris, at the time of the Revolution of July, and, though he, put forth a pamphlet on "Rational Policy," he did not at that crisis take any active part in politics, refusing, however, to continue his diplomatic services under the new government.
The leader of the Opposition from the first denounced the diplomatic steps taken by Lord Milner and Mr Chamberlain, and objected to all armed intervention or even preparation for hostilities.
About this time personal considerations induced Giry to devote the greater part of his activity to the study of diplomatic, which had been much neglected at the Ecole des Chartes, but had made great strides in Germany.
As assistant (1883) and successor (1885) to Louis de Mas Latrie, Giry restored the study of diplomatic, which had been founded in France by Dom Jean 1Vlabillon, to its legitimate importance.
His visiting espionage, as unkind critics put it - his secret diplomatic mission, as he would have liked to have it put himself - began in the summer of 1722, and he set out for it in company with a certain Madame de Rupelmonde, to whom he as usual made love, taught deism and served as an amusing travelling companion.
It was in this same year that he received the singular diplomatic mission to Frederick which nobody seems to have taken seriously, and after his return the oscillation between Brussels, Cirey and Paris was resumed.
His son, Louis Charles Elie Decazes, duc de Gliicksberg (1819-1886), was born at Paris, and entered the diplomatic career.
During an illness, which kept him virtuous by confining him to his room, he studied French and English, gaining a mastery of these languages which, at that time exceedingly rare, opened up for him opportunities for a diplomatic career.
He accompanied the chancellor on all his journeys; was present at all the conferences that preceded and followed the war; no political secrets were hidden from him; and his hand drafted all important diplomatic documents.
And, apart from their value as historical documents, Gentz's writings are literary monuments, classical examples of nervous and luminous German prose, or of French which is a model for diplomatic style.
It was not till 1862 that the king at length yielded, and his relations with Britain were placed on a definite diplomatic basis.
In 1867 a treaty was concluded at Mandalay providing for the free intercourse of trade and the establishment of regular diplomatic relations.
He frankly took up the policy of Gregory VII., but, while pursuing it with equal determination, showed greater flexibility and diplomatic skill.
fought the battle of Kadesh with Rameses II., on at least equal terms. Both now and previously the diplomatic correspondence of the Hatti monarchs shows that they treated on terms of practical equality with both the Babylonian and the Egyptian courts; and that they waged constant wars in Syria, mainly with the Amorite tribes.
Besides the Istituto di studii superiori there is the Istituto di scienze sociali "Cesare Alfieri," founded by the marchese Alfieri di Sostegno for the education of aspirants to the diplomatic and consular services, and for students of economics and social sciences (about 50 students); an academy of fine arts, a conservatoire of music, a higher female training-college with 150 students, a number of professional and trade schools, and an academy of recitation.
It was the necessary apprenticeship to his brilliant diplomatic career.
Copenhagen was then a whirlpool of diplomatic intrigue, for George I.
It is particularly notable for its account of the diplomatic relations of the United States during this period, and for its essential impartiality.
Cultivation under shade was recently tried with satisfactory results; " 166.65 acres cultivated under cheesecloth produced in 1903 10 bales of wrappers and 1.5 bales of fillers of tobacco per acre, the output under the old system having been 4'5 bales of tobacco per acre of which only 10% represented wrappers of good colour " (Diplomatic and Consular Report on Cuba, 1904, No.
After wandering for many months, chiefly in Persia, and having abandoned his intention of proceeding to Ceylon, he returned in 1842 to Constantinople, where he made the acquaintance of Sir Stratford Canning, the British ambassador, who employed him in various unofficial diplomatic missions in European Turkey.
against Simeon of Bulgaria; and the khakan was honoured in diplomatic intercourse with the seal of three solidi, which marked him as a potentate of the first rank, above even the pope and the Carolingian monarchs.
His eleventh-hour conversion could not avert the conflict of interests which led to the war of 1904-5, from which Russia emerged defeated, but enabled him to veil a serious diplomatic error by relinquishing the odium of failure to his successor, Rosen.
He also raised his brother to the office of Procurator of the Holy Synod and his Goadachev relations to high diplomatic appointments.
An accomplished man of letters, a competent critic of art, a linguist of rare perfection and charming in manner, but cynical and pleasureloving, he was certainly one of the chief diplomatic personages in the reign of the last of the tsars.
After the Franco-German War the embarrassed Bey turned towards Great Britain for advice, and a British protectorate - suggested by the proximity of Malta - was not an impossibility under the remarkable influence of the celebrated Sir Richard Wood, British diplomatic agent at the court of Tunis from 1855 to 1879.
In 1883 the new situation under the French protectorate was recognized by the British government withdrawing its consular jurisdiction in favour of the French courts, and in 1885 it ceased to be represented by a diplomatic official.
Under the new act marriages of non Catholics solemnized by diplomatic or consular officers or by ministers of dissenting churches, if properly registered, are valid, and those solemnized before the passing of this act were to be valid if registered before the end of 1899.
Von Tschudi, Reisen durch Seidamerika (5 vols., Leipzig, 1866-1868); idem, Travels in Peru (London, 1847); Charles Wiener, Perou et Bolivie (Paris, 1880); Frank Vincent, Around and about South America (New York, 1890); Marie Robinson Wright, The Old and New Peru (Philadelphia, 1909); the Consular and Diplomatic Reports of Great Britain and the United States; Handbook of Peru and Bulletins of the Bureau of American Republics; and the departmental publications of the Peruvian Government.
Sir Isaac Wake (c. 1580-1632), the diplomatist, was a kinsman of the archbishop. He commenced his diplomatic career in Venice, and then he represented his county for sixteen years at Turin; he was knighted in 1619, and after being sent on various special missions by James I.
In April 1677 William was badly beaten at St Omer, but balanced his military defeat by France by a diplomatic victory over England.
During his diplomatic mission to France he had incurred blame for remaining at the opera while the Pretender was present,3 and according to the Mackintosh transcripts he had several secret interviews with him.
Then he disappears altogether, with the exception of some brief and chiefly diplomatic mentions.
He performed many minor diplomatic missions for the elector, and in 1567 accompanied him to the siege of Gotha.
The French ambassador, de la Haye, had delayed bringing him the customary gifts, with the idea that he would, like his predecessors, speedily give place to a new grand vizier; Kuprili was bitterly offended, and, on pretext of an abuse of the immunities of diplomatic correspondence, bastinadoed the ambassador's son and cast him and the ambassador himself into prison.
This diplomatic difficulty prevented the conclusion of a commercial treaty between China and Portugal for a long time, but an arrangement for a treaty was come to in 1887 on the following basis: (1) China confirmed perpetual occupation and government of Macao and its dependencies by Portugal; (2) Portugal engaged never to alienate Macao and its dependencies without the consent of China; (3) Portugal engaged to co-operate in opium revenue work at Macao in the same way as Great Britain at Hong-Kong.
He entered the diplomatic service in 1869 and began as an attache in Florence, eventually in Rome.
Victor Amedeus, although accused not without reason of bad faith in his diplomatic dealings and of cruelty, was undoubtedly a great soldier and a still greater administrator.
Thus we may say that a third power renders "good offices" when it brings the parties together so as to make diplomatic negotiations between them possible; whilst if it takes an active part in those negotiations it becomes for the time being a mediator.
For the details of this second struggle, with the concomitant diplomatic intervention of the western powers, see Denmark: History, and Sweden: History.
Jones, The Diplomatic Relations between Cromwell and Charles X.
Servien lived at Angers or on his estates at Sable until the death of Louis when Mazarin entrusted him with the conduct, conjointly with the comte d'Avaux, of French diplomatic affairs in Germany.
His talents commended him to the notice of Advocate Johan van Oldenbarneveldt, who sent him, at the age of 26 years, as a diplomatic agent of the states-general to the court of France.
He afterwards became the confidential counsellor of Maurice, prince of Orange, and afterwards of Frederick Henry, prince of Orange, in their conduct of the foreign affairs of the republic. He was sent on special embassies to Venice, Germany and England, and displayed so much diplomatic skill and finesse that Richelieu ranked him among the three greatest politicians of his time.
Sebastiani next appears in his first diplomatic post, in Turkey and Egypt (1802).
The next fourteen years of Machiavelli's life were fully occupied in the voluminous correspondence of his bureau, in diplomatic missions of varying importance, and in the organization of a Florentine militia.
These separate despotisms owned no common social tie, were founded on no common j us or right, but were connected in a network of conflicting interests and changeful diplomatic combinations.
It seemed that he was destined to be associated in the papal service with Clement's viceroy, and that a new period of diplomatic employment was opening for him.
It was not only that she lost many thousands of her best citizens, but this blow against Protestantism deprived her of those Protestant alliances in Europe which had been in the past her great diplomatic support.
Among the manuscript treasures at Austin may be mentioned the diplomatic correspondence of the Republic in the state department, the Nacogdoches archives and the W.
As reporter of the diplomatic committee, in which he supported the policy of Brissot, he proposed two of the most revolutionary measures passed by the Assembly: the decree of accusation against the king's brothers (January 1, 1792), and the declaration of war against the king of Bohemia and Hungary (April 20, 1792).
His policy of a French intervention in favour of the Italian revolutionists, by which he might have regained his popularity, was thwarted by the diplomatic policy of Louis Philippe.
Even greater than his diplomatic difficulties were Franklin's financial straits.
He was a man of fine appearance, with an eloquence and diplomatic gifts such as no others of his countrymen possessed, and his unselfish love of his country made itself felt in almost every branch of Icelandic life.
On the 9th of July 1815 he became foreign minister and president of the council under Louis XVIII., but diplomatic and other difficulties led him to resign his appointment on the 23rd of September 1815, Louis,, however, naming him high chamberlain and according him an annuity of 100,000 francs.
In April 1834 he crowned his diplomatic career by signing the treaty which brought together as allies France, Great Britain, Spain and Portugal; and in the autumn of that year he resigned his embassy.
Her leading politicians were out of sympathy with the conduct of national affairs (in the conduct of foreign relations, the distribution of political patronage, naval policy, the question of public debt) from 1804 - when Jefferson's party showed its complete supremacy - onward; and particularly after the passage of the Embargo Act of 1807, which caused great losses to Massachusetts commerce, and, so far from being accepted by her leaders as a proper diplomatic weapon, seemed to them designed in the interests of the Democratic party.
Commodore Matthew Calbraith Perry's expedition, which opened up diplomatic relations with Japan, and the exploration of the valley of the Amazon by Lieutenants William L.
His feat produced a diplomatic controversy with Portugal which was destined to have important political consequences.
The change thus established de facto owed its first diplomatic consecration to the developments of international politics in the Old World.
She had exhausted every art of diplomatic obstruction to the aggressive action of France; her counterstroke to the unexpectedly easy victory of the French arms was the formal recognition of the revolted colonies as independent states.
Dicuil's knowledge of the islands north and west of Britain is evidently intimate; his references to Irish exploration and colonization, and to (more recent) Scandinavian devastation of the same, as far as the Faeroes, are noteworthy, like his notice of the elephant sent by Harun al-Rashid (in 801) to Charles the Great, the most curious item in a political and diplomatic intercourse of high importance.
It soon became necessary to create the important post of chief dragoman at the Porte, and there was no choice save to appoint a Greek, as no other race in Turkey combined the requisite knowledge of languages with the tact and adroitness essential for conducting diplomatic negotiations.
The functions of the first dragoman are mainly political; he accompanies the ambassador or minister at his audiences of the sultan and usually of the ministers, and it is he who is charged with the bulk of diplomatic negotiations at the palace or the Porte.
The high estimation in which the dragomans are held by most foreign powers is shown by the fact that they are usually and in the regular course promoted to the most important diplomatic posts.
The diplomatic situation became for the moment very acute, but after a short period of bellicose talk the common-sense of both countries prevailed.
His fall left the finances of the state disorganized, the pensions fund depleted, diplomatic relations with France strained in consequence of the massacre of Italian workmen at AiguesMortes, and Sicily and the Lunigiana in a state of revolt, which he had proved impotent to suppress.
After spending some years in a hussar regiment, in 1854 he entered the diplomatic service without giving up his connexion with the army, in which he reached the rank of general in 1879.
Diplomatic interviews, exhausting journeys, impressive mass meetings, brilliant literary propaganda - all these methods were employed by him to the utmost limit of self-denial.
But for Mr Roosevelt's vigorous official action and his characteristic ability to inspire associates with enthusiasm the canal would still be a subject of diplomatic discussion instead of a physical actuality.
He owed his relatively excellent education to the care of his mother, a woman of profound political sagacity, who was his chief counsellor in diplomatic affairs during the greater part of his long reign.
Made a baron and raised to the rank of vice-chancellor, he displayed diplomatic talents of the highest order.
His services in the diplomatic sphere were more important.
This diplomatic triumph in its turn led to the consolidation of Napoleon's power as First Consul for life (August I, 1802) with the chief voice in the selection of his successor.
The circumstances that led to the insurrection and the general diplomatic situation by which its fortunes were from time to time affected are described elsewhere (see Greece: History; Turkey: History).
The fate of Greece was now in the hands of the Powers, who after years of diplomatic wrangling had at last realized that intervention was necessary if Greece was to be saved for European civilization.
Prince Damrong," The Foundation of Ayuthia,"Siam Society Journal (1905); Diplomatic and Consular Reports for Bangkok and Chien Mai (1888-1907); Directory for Bangkok and Siam (Bangkok Times Office Annual);- Francis Garnier, Voyage d'exploration en Indo-Chine (Paris, 1873); Geographical Journal, papers by J.
On reaching Italy Czartoryski found that the monarch to whom he was accredited was a king without a kingdom, so that the outcome of his first diplomatic mission was a pleasant tour through Italy to Naples, the acquisition of the Italian language, and a careful exploration of the antiquities of Rome.
An energy which never slackened, a doggedness which no adversity could crush, a fiery ambition coupled with the coolest calculation, and a diplomatic unscrupulousness which looked always to the end and never to the means, these were the salient qualities of the reconstructor of the dismembered Danish state.
was even obliged to renew the war against the Knights, and, in 1422, he compelled them to renounce all claims upon Samogitia; but the long struggle, still undecided at his death, was fought mainly with diplomatic weapons at Rome, where the popes, generally speaking, listened rather to the victorious monarch who had added an ecclesiastical province to the Church than to the discomfited and turbulent Knights.
More than once, indeed, Sigismund was seriously compromised by the diplomatic vagaries of Hieronymus Laski, who entered the service of Zapolya (since 1529 the protege of the sultan), and greatly alarmed both the emperor and the pope by his disturbing philo-Turk proclivities.
was by conviction a sincere though not a bigoted Catholic; and nobody suspected that beneath his diplomatic urbanity lay a patriotic firmness and statesmanlike qualities of the first order.
It synchronized with, and was partly determined by, the new political system which was spreading all over Europe, the system of dynastic diplomatic competition and the unscrupulous employment of unlimited secret service funds.
His rare diplomatic skill and supreme intellectual endowments were to enable him to play a deciding part in the coming congress.
He was busied in conferences and visitations during the next twenty years, and in diplomatic work with the princes.
Ferdinand was one of the first sovereigns to enter into diplomatic relations with the French republic (1793); and although, a few months later, he was compelled by England and Russia to join the coalition against France, he concluded peace with that power in 1795, and by observing a strict neutrality saved his dominions from invasion by the French, except for a temporary occupation of Livorno, till 1799, when he was compelled to vacate his throne, and a provisional Republican government was established at Florence.
We first hear of him in 1661 on a diplomatic mission from the Don Cossacks to the Kalmuck Tatars, and in the same year we meet him on a pilgrimage of a thousand miles to the great Solovetsky monastery on the White Sea "for the benefit of his soul."
She had then recently opened a diplomatic communication with the see of Rome.
After some negotiations, an interview took place between him and Mr (afterwards Sir) Lepel Griffin, the diplomatic representative at Kabul of the Indian government, who described Abdur Rahman as a man of middle height, with an exceedingly intelligent face and frank and courteous manners, shrewd and able in conversation on the business in hand.
The amir showed his usual ability in diplomatic argument, his tenacity where his own views or claims were in debate, with a sure underlying insight into the real situation.
in 1740 Fleury by a diplomatic quibble found an excuse for repudiating his engagements, when he found the party of war supreme in the king's counsels.
After ten years of administrative work in France as secretary of prefecture, and then as prefect successively of the departments of Aube (1872), Doubs (1876),(1876), Nord (1877-1882), he exchanged into the diplomatic service, being nominated French minister plenipotentiary at Tunis.
1582), abbot of Bassefontaine, bishop of Vannes and afterwards of Limoges, fulfilled important diplomatic missions in Germany, Hungary, England, the Low Countries and Switzerland under Francis I.
Schroeder, Costa Rica State Immigration (San Jose, 1894); Bulletins of the Bureau of American Republics (Washington); British Diplomatic and Consular Reports (London); U.S.A. Consular Reports (Washington); Reports of the Ministries (San Jose).
He also felt the necessity of a Baltic seaboard, and attempted to obtain Livonia by diplomatic means.
It has jurisdiction in cases arising from the enforcement of the federal laws, except cases involving private interests, in admiralty cases, in cases where the republic is a party, in those between two or more states, or between a state and the citizens of another state, in those originating in treaties with foreign states, and in those affecting diplomatic and consular officials.
Important works of reference are: Anuario estadistico de la Republica Mexicana (Mexico); Mexican Year-book (London, 1908); Biological and botanical publications of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (Washington); Statesman's Year-book (London); Handbook of Mexico (Washington), published by the Bureau of American Republics; Monthly Bulletin of the Bureau of American Republics (Washington); British Foreign Office Diplomatic and Consular Reports (London); and the U.S. Consular Reports (Washington).
Early in 1859 the outrages on British subjects had caused the British minister to break off diplomatic relations.
Protestant Admi - missions established themselves (with some opposi- tration tion) in the country, and diplomatic relations were Lerdo de renewed with France and Spain (1874).
Diplomatic relations were resumed with Spain, Germany, Italy and some South American states (1877), and France (1880).
He accordingly threw himself into the study of Russian history, staying in Russia in order to learn its language, institutions and customs. On his return, he published La Russie epique, a study of the heroic songs (1876), a short but excellent Histoire de la Russie depuis les origines jusqu'd l'annee 1877 (1878; 5th ed., 1900), Frangais et Russes, Moscou et Sevastopol 1812-1854 (1876; 2nd ed., 1881), and finally the two important volumes on Russian diplomatic history in the Recueil des Instructions donnees aux ambassadeurs (vols.
der Nederlandsche Diplomatic (Utrecht, 1858).
At the same time he had been commissioned to publish the diplomatic acts relating to the War of the Spanish Succession for the Collection des documents inedits; only four volumes of these Negotiations were published (1835-1842), and they do not go further than the peace of Nijmwegen; but the introduction is celebrated, and Mignet reprinted it in his Mélanges historiques.
115, Petermann's Mitteilungen (Gotha, 1894); Anuaria de estadistica de la republica de Guatemala (Guatemala); Memoria de la Secretaria de Instruction Publica (Guatemala, 1899); Handbook of Guatemala, revised (Bureau of the American Republics, Washington, 1897); United States Consular Reports (Washington); British Foreign Office Diplomatic and Consular Reports (London).
They are usually granted by the foreign office of a state, or by its diplomatic agents abroad.
The former has the conduct of foreign affairs and Administrainterests, and directs the diplomatic service, but is live Depart.
In 1704 he was entrusted with his first diplomatic mission, the deposition of Augustus II.
This was to increase the influence of the diet and its secret committees in the solution of purely diplomatic questions, which should have been left entirely to the executive, thus weakening the central government and at the same time facilitating the interference of foreign Powers in Sweden's domestic affairs.
In April 1896 he was appointed by President Cleveland consul-general at Havana, with duties of a diplomatic and military character added to the usual consular business.
Diplomatic representations followed, and an order for release was issued, but in 1887 further captures were made and were judicially supported upon the same grounds.
Thereupon followed a diplomatic controversy, in the course of which the United States developed the contentions which were afterwards laid before the tribunal of arbitration.
A statement made by the Canadian commissioners, who refused to sign the report, of an unexplained change of opinion on the part of Lord Alverstone, produced a widespread impression for a time that his decision in favour of American claims was diplomatic rather than judicial.
Lemieux, to Japan in 1907, to settle Canadian difficulties with that country, illustrated the change of diplomatic system in progress.
Entering the diplomatic service at an early age, he was assigned in 1886 to the Paris embassy and in 1889 transferred to London, where with short intervals he was ambassador from 1904 to Aug.
During this war he gave proofs of much diplomatic ability, and Pope Urban VIII.
The march was one unbroken success, thanks to Wellesley's forethought and sagacity in dealing with the physical conditions and his personal and diplomatic ascendancy among the chieftains of the district.
All the great questions of the congress had already been settled, and Wellington's diplomatic work here was not of importance.
No doubt he was waiting for an opportunity of recovering the portion of Bessarabia which had been ceded by the treaty of Paris, and he perceived in the disturbed state of Eastern Europe a possibility of obtaining the desired rectification of frontier, but he hoped to effect his purpose by diplomatic means in conjunction with Austria.
After holding various diplomatic posts, among them that of Prussian minister to Hamburg, he was sent to Bucharest in 1900 and remained there for 10 years, when he was recalled to occupy the post of Foreign Secretary under the somewhat inexperienced Chancellor, Herr von Bethmann Hollweg.
These diplomatic successes were probably due to Maio; on the other hand, the African dominions were lost to the Almohads (1156-1160), and it is possible that he advised their abandonment in face of the dangers threatening the kingdom down from the north.
The utility of the diplomatic service has been considerably diminished through the increasing efficiency of the public press as a medium of information.
A consul-general can be promoted to a diplomatic post, and take with him to his higher office the practical experience a consul gains of the material interests of the country to which he belongs.
There is thus still good work for diplomacy to do, and if, in the selection of diplomatic representatives, states followed on the one hand the above-mentioned French example, and on the other hand the American example of selecting for the heads of diplomatic missions men who are not necessarily de la carriere, diplomacy might obtain a new lease of activity, and become once more an extremely useful part of the administrative machinery by which states maintain good business relations as well as friendly political intercourse with one another.
" The maintenance of universal peace and a possible reduction of the excessive armaments which weigh upon all nations, represent, in the present condition of affairs all over the world, the ideal towards which the efforts of all governments should be directed," were the opening words of the Note which the Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs, Count Mouraviev, handed to the diplomatic representatives of the different powers suggesting the first Hague Conference.
His earliest teacher (omitting the legendary Scotchman Menzies) was the dyak, or clerk of the council, Nikita Zotov, subsequently the court fool, who taught his pupil to spell out the liturgical and devotional books on which the children of the tsar were generally brought up. After Zotov's departure on a diplomatic mission, in 1680, the lad had no regular tutor.
Aleksandrenko, Russian Diplomatic Agents in London in the 18th Century (Rus.) (Warsaw, 1897-1898; German ed., Guben, 1898); S.
In 1543 he went on diplomatic business to the Netherlands, and for the next year or two he had much intercourse with the emperor Charles V.
In 1797, however, the attention of Talleyrand, then minister of foreign affairs, was called to his exceptional abilities by General Huet, and he was attached to the diplomatic service.
His great reputation and his diplomatic experience gave a special weight to the attacks which he published on the policy of the continental allies, two of his works attracting special attention, Du Congres de Troppau ou Examen des pretentions des monarchies absolues a l'egard de la monarchie constitutionelle de Naples (Paris, 1821), and Les Cabinets et les peuples depuis 1815 jusqu'd la fin de 1822 (Paris, 1822).
Beyond this limited circle he had to act [by means of diplomatic channels, through the governments of the Lombards, Franks and Visigoths.
Alexander's diplomatic skill and moral authority, reinforced by the Capetian alliance and the revulsion of feeling caused by the murder of Becket, enabled him to force the despotic Henry to yield, and even to do penance at the tomb of the martyr.
As a statesman, he certainly committed grave faults - through excess of diplomatic subtlety, lack of forethought, and sometimes even through ingenuousness; but it must with justice be admitted that, in spite of his reputation for pugnacity and obstinacy, he never failed, either by temperament or on principle, to exhaust every peaceful expedient in settling questions.
In 1793 Hugon de Bassville, a diplomatic agent of France, was murdered at Rome, a deed not avenged until the Italian victories of Bonaparte.
These were the considerations that had caused 1 By - the Law of Guarantees the pope was recognized as an independent sovereign, with jurisdiction over his own palaces and their extensive precincts and tho right to receive diplomatic representatives accredited to him.
In his chief's most important work, the establishment of the Prussian Zollverein, Ancillon had no share, while the entirely subordinate role played by Prussia in Europe during this period, together with the personal part taken by the sovereign in the various congresses, gave him little scope for the display of any diplomatic talents he may have possessed.
1857), keeper of the archives at Oxford, lecturer in diplomatic, and author of various historical works, carried on the family tradition of scholarship.
In 1879 he entered the ministry of foreign affairs as a secretary, and rose step by step through the diplomatic service.
In 1886 he was elected deputy for Aisne, but, defeated in 1889, he returned to his diplomatic career, and on the 31st of May 1894 was chosen by Charles Dupuy to be minister of foreign affairs.
The choice of her daughter as wife of the future tsar was the result of not a little diplomatic management in which Frederick the Great took an active part, the object being to strengthen the friendship between Prussia and Russia, to weaken the influence of Austria and to ruin the chancellor Bestuzhev, on whom Elizabeth relied, and who was a known partisan of the Austrian alliance.
The diplomatic intrigue failed, largely through the flighty intervention of the princess of AnhaltZerbst, a clever but very injudicious woman.
Moltke in March 1848, and was employed on diplomatic missions to London and Berlin in connexion with the Schleswig-Holstein question.
But Prussia was in no condition to take up the challenge; and the diplomatic contest that followed issued in the Austrian triumph at Olrniitz (1851).
Although the outbreak of war had been preceded by years of angry diplomatic dispute, the United States were absolutely unready, while Great Britain was still hard pressed by the hostility of Napoleon, and was compelled to retain the greater part of her forces and her best crews in European waters, till the ruin of the Grande Armee in Russia and the rising of Germany left her free to send an overwhelming force of ships to American waters.
What was to be done with such a princess, whether she were to be nourished in one's bosom, above all whether it could be advisable or safe to try any diplomatic tricks upon such a lady, Knollys left for the minister to judge.
As the seaport nearest to Europe, Tangier is the town in the empire in which the effects of progress are most marked, and since the end of the 18th century it has been the diplomatic headquarters.
On the great day of the feast there was a procession of the priests, the sacrificial assistants of every kind, the representatives of every part of the empire with their victims, of the cavalry, in short of the population of Attica and 1 So named from a note (1902) directed by Dr Don Louis Maria Drago, the Argentine minister of foreign affairs, to the Argentine diplomatic representative at Washington at the time of the difficulties of Venezuela incident to the collection of debts owed to foreigners by that country.
Thus she retained a separate diplomatic service, military administration, and postal, telegraph and railway systems. The treaty was ratified by the Bavarian chambers on the 21st of January 1871, though not without considerable opposition on the part of the so-called "patriot" party.
This important frontier town lying on both sides of the river Meuse was taken by the prince of Orange in the teeth of two relieving armies, Spanish headed by the pensionary Pauw, but with the aid of the diplomatic skill of Aarssens all opposition was overcome.
This brilliant feat of arms was the prelude to peace negotiations, which led to a lengthy exchange of diplomatic notes.
The work of Aitzema contains a large number of important diplomatic and other documents; A.
Entering the diplomatic service of his country soon after reaching manhood, he became successively secretary of the Embassy in Vienna, minister in London, and foreign minister under Reshid Pasha.
Nicholas Vansittart, afterwards Lord Bexley, the British diplomatic agent entrusted with the message to the Danish government, was landed, and left for Copenhagen.
A still greater triumph of diplomatic skill was the conclusion of the Triple Alliance (January 17, 1668) between the Dutch Republic, England and Sweden, which checked the attempt of Louis XIV.
Then, through the Girondist minister Lebrun-Tondu, he entered the diplomatic service, went in May, 1792, as secretary of legation to Naples and was shortly afterwards sent, without official status, to Rome.
Here his conduct was anything but diplomatic. He at once announced himself as the protector of the extreme Jacobins in Rome, demanded the expulsion of the French emigres who had taken refuge there, including the "demoiselles Capet," and ordered the fleur-de-lys on the escutcheon of the French embassy to be replaced by a picture of Liberty painted by a French art student.
In 1732 he was sent on a diplomatic mission to the court of Dresden; and from 1738 he represented Holstein at the diet of Regensburg, from 1744 to 1750 he represented Denmark at Paris, whence he returned in 1754 to Denmark as minister of foreign affairs.
Moreover, it was a diplomatic axiom in Denmark, founded on experience, that an absolute monarchy in Sweden was incomparablymore dangerous to her neighbour than a limited monarchy, and after the collapse of Swedish absolutism with Charles XII., the upholding of the comparatively feeble, and ultimately anarchical, parliamentary government of Sweden became a question of principle with Danish statesmen throughout the 18th century.
It seemed almost as if his wits were sharpened into a keener edge by his very difficulties; but since he condemned on principle every war which was not strictly defensive, and it had fallen to his lot to guide a comparatively small power, he always preferred the way of negotiation, even sometimes where the diplomatic tangle would perhaps best have been severed boldly by the sword.
In 1201 he went on a diplomatic mission to Philip Augustus of France, and in 1202 he returned to England to keep the kingdom in peace while John was losing his continental possessions.
This offer President Lincoln (on the 6th of February) declined to consider, Seward replying for him that it would only be entering into diplomatic discussion with the rebels whether the authority of the government should be renounced, and the country delivered over to disunion and anarchy.
(i.) the political and diplomatic; (ii.) the political and commercial; (iii.) the legal.
In spite of the diplomatic efforts of Sweden the treaty of Prague was accepted almost at once by the elector of Brandenburg, the duke of Wurttemberg and other princes, and also by several of the most important of the free cities.
It was clear that in such a governing body neither Austria nor Prussia would be content with her constitutional position, and that the internal politics of Germany would resolve themselves into a diplomatic duel for ascendancy between the two powers, for which the diet would merely serve as a convenient arena.
Pending a settlement, Schleswig was to be occupied and adrniirnstered by Prussia, Holstein by Austria; while Lauenburg was made over absolutely to Prussia in return for a money payment This was so far a diplomatic victory for Prussia, as it ignored entirely the claims of the duke of Augustenburg.
The intervention which Napoleon had planned resolved itself into diplomatic ~ pour parlers of which the result was wholly insignificant; Prussian and even before the war was ended Bismarck was War of preparing for an understanding with Austria and with 1866.
The permission to maintain diplomatic missions has been equally harmless: most of the states have recalled all their diplomatic representatives; Saxony, Bavaria and Wurttemberg have maintained only those at Vienna, the Vatican and at St Peters1 The only formal change is that the duchy of Lauenburg, which since 1865 had been governed by the king of Prussia as a separate principality (but without a vote in the Bundesrat), was in 1876 incorporated in the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein.
Entering the diplomatic service in 1876, he became in 1878 consul in London.
He had distinguished himself in various military enterprises and diplomatic negotiations in the course of an active career, and although over seventy years old and of very weak sight (the story that he had been made blind by the emperor Manuel Comnenus while he was at Constantinople is a legend), he proved a most energetic and capable ruler.
King Charles Albert sent him in 1848 on diplomatic missions to secure the adhesion of Modena and Parma to Sardinia.
These are: (1) foreign affairs, including diplomatic and consular representation abroad; (2) the army, including the navy, but excluding the annual voting of recruits, and the special army of each state; (3) finance in so far as it concerns joint expenditure.
Meanwhile, in foreign affairs, it had become clear that for Austria the enemy to be dreaded was no longer France, but Prussia, and Kaunitz prepared the way for a diplomatic revolution, which took effect when, on the 1st of May 1 75 6, Austria and France concluded the first treaty and Seven of Versailles.
Though, however, Austria by her diplomatic attitude had secured, without striking a blow, the settlement in her sense of the Eastern Question, she emerged from the contest without allies and without friends.
The campaign of 1859, and the diplomatic events that led up to it, are dealt with elsewhere (see Italy, Italian Wars, Napoleon Iii., Cavour).
Deak and the majority agreed, however, that there should be certain institutions common to Hungary and the rest of the monarchy; these were - (1) foreign affairs, including the diplomatic and consular service; (2) the army and navy; (3) the control of the expenses required for these branches of the public service.
The new terminology, " Imperial and Royal " (Kaiserlich and Koniglich), has since then been applied to all those branches of the public service which belong to the common ministries; this was first the case with the diplomatic service; not till 1889 was it applied to the army, which for some time kept up the old style of Kaiserlich-Koniglich; in 1895 it was applied to the ministry of the imperial house, as office always held by the minister for foreign affairs.
NUNCIO, or NUNTIUS APOSTOLICUS, a representative of the pope sent on diplomatic mission.
According to the decision of the congress of Vienna the diplomatic rank of a papal nuncio corresponds to that of an ambassador.
on his death-bed as most worthy to succeed him was Desiderius, who was favoured by the cardinals because of his great learning, his connexion with the Normans and his diplomatic ability.
The brisk diplomatic intercourse between the Great King and the Greek states in the 4th century may have produced effects that were not merely political.
And we see a brisk diplomatic intercourse between the scattered Greek cities going on.
His diplomatic relations were more extensive than those of any previous sultan, and included Bulgarian, Indian, and Abyssmn.ian potentates, as well as the pope, the king of Aragon and the king of France.
For ten years from this date the relations of sultan and pasha remained in the forefront of the questions which agitated the diplomatic world.
The diplomatic and military history of this period will be found sketched in the article on Mehemet Ali.
The laborious task of putting these general indications into a practical shape fell to Sir Evelyn Baring ~Lord Cromer), who arrived as consul-general and diplomatic agent, in Sir Evelyn succession to Sir Edward Malet, in January 1884.
It was no secret that France prnblems. was ready to give him diplomatic support, and other powers might adopt a similar attitude.
The Fashoda incident was the subject of important diplomatic negotiations, which at one time approached an acute phase; but ultimately the French position was found to be untenable, and on the 11th of December Marchand and his men returned to France by the Sobat, Abyssinia and Jibuti.
- Apart from the scattered references in the published and unpublished diplomatic correspondence of the period, contemporary journals and books of travel contain much interesting material for the life of Ali.
He was employed in diplomatic business at the Hague in 1784; and in 1797 he accompanied Lord Malmesbury to Lille as secretary to the embassy.
The Russian court went into mourning for the last of the Condes, and diplomatic relations with Paris were broken off.
Suffolk had already been employed on diplomatic missions by John of Bedford, and from this time forward he had an important share in the work of administration.
Later in the year, and after Lethington's diplomatic yet no power of resistance.
Appointed a clerk in the royal chancery, he became a favourite servant of Edward I., taking part in the suit over the succession to the Scottish throne in 1292, and visiting France more than once on diplomatic business.
Entering the diplomatic service, the son was in 1872 appointed attache to the Austrian embassy at Berlin, where he became secretary of legation, and thence he was transferred to Paris.
King, wrote some interesting recollections of their diplomatic experiences - Letters of a Diplomatist's Wife, 1883-1900 (New York, 1903), and Italian Letters (London, 1905).
pp. 587-599), and before it was ratified the delicate task of keeping up friendly diplomatic relations with France fell to him.
He appoints the diplomatic and consular representatives of the republic and the governors of the provinces, exercises a limited control over the administration of be of artificial construction.
That year he accompanied Wolsey on his important diplomatic mission to France, the splendour and magnificence of which are so graphically described by Cavendish.
This killed the trade at Muscat; the French Government, who had claimed that the Sultan's proclamation was inconsistent with his treaty engagements with them, accepted the accomplished fact with good grace after lengthy diplomatic negotiations, and the trade was by 1913 almost dead, except at the N.
He became historiographer of France in 1613, and was employed from time to time on diplomatic missions.
On his arrival from Rome in 1847 he acted as informal diplomatic envoy from the pope, to ascertain from the government what support England was likely to give in carrying out the liberal policy with which Pius inaugurated his reign.
Temporary diplomatic complications arose between Bavaria and Baden in connexion with Louis's favourite project of winning back the part then belonging to Baden of the old Palatinate, the land of his birth, which was always very dear to him.
Not only did he erect the Propylcien at Munich in her honour, but he also helped her in the most generous way both with money and diplomatic resources.
He served on several important diplomatic missions both to France and Rome, and about 1485 became one of the council of ten.
Returning to Weimar in 1850, he was made a chamberlain by the grand-duke, and in 1852, his health being now somewhat restored, he entered the Prussian diplomatic service and went as attaché to Rome.
In 1866 he received the title of councillor of legation; but he never again occupied any diplomatic post.
His activity was confined to political and especially diplomatic channels; so long as Morton lived, Fox was his subordinate, but after the archbishop's death he was second to none in Henry's confidence, and he had an important share in all the diplomatic work of the reign.
His last diplomatic achievement in the reign of Henry VII.
Vigilius continued him in his diplomatic appointment, and he was sent by the emperor Justinian in 542 to Antioch on ecclesiastical business; he afterwards took part in the synod at Gaza which deposed Paul of Alexandria.
It was formally agreed in cabinet meeting that" when brought together in society, all are perfectly equal, whether foreign or domestic, titled or untitled, in or out of office."Thus diplomatic grades were ignored in social precedence and foreign relations were seriously compromised by dinner-table complications.
If it be possible,"he said," to be certainly conscious of anything, I am conscious of feeling no difference between writing to the highest and lowest being on earth."Jefferson's first administration was marked by a reduction of the army, navy, diplomatic establishment and, to the uttermost, of governmental expenses; some reduction of the civil service, accompanied by a large shifting of offices to Republicans; and, above all, by the Louisiana Purchase, following which Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, sent by Jefferson, con 1 See also Jefferson to E.
The extreme to which he carried his advocacy of diplomatic isolation, his opposition to the creation of an adequate navy, 4 his estimate of cities as "sores upon the body politic," his prejudice against manufactures, trust in farmers, and political distrust of the artisan class, all reflect them.
Nevertheless the political situation was still embarrassing, for as the whole country beyond the range of British effective military control was masterless, it was undesirable to withdraw the troops before a government could be reconstructed which could stand without foreign support, and with which diplomatic relations of some kind might be arranged.
An invitation from the viceroy to meet him in India, with the hope that these points might be settled in conference, was put aside by dilatory excuses, until at last the project was abandoned, and finally the amir agreed to receive at Kabul a diplomatic mission.
It was felt in British circles at the time that a very considerable concession to Habibullah's independence of attitude was displayed in the fact that he was styled in the treaty " His Majesty "; but, in the circumstances, it seems to have been thought diplomatic to accede to the amir's determination to insist on this matter of style.
count of Foix in 1472 opened up the long diplomatic struggle for Navarre, which was destined to pass to the loyal family of Albret shortly after the death of Louis.
If it cannot be said that any of these missions were fruitful in permanent results, at least they introduced the English to a new set of diplomatic relations, and widened the sphere of their influence.
The diplomatic negotiations are discussed in the article on the history of Europe (q.v.).
Jay landed at Cadiz on the 22nd of January 1780, but was told that he could not be received in a formally diplomatic character.
The emperor Paul raised him to the rank of field-marshal (1796), and, in 1798, sent him on a diplomatic mission to Berlin and Vienna in order to detach Prussia from France and unite both Austria and Prussia against the Jacobins.
His diplomatic career began at the congress of Paris, after the Crimean War, where he took an active part as military attache in the negotiations regarding the rectification of the Russian frontier on the Lower Danube.
And if there is either an express or a well-understood bargain between the ceding potentate and the government to which the cession is made that private property shall be respected, that is only a bargain which can be enforced by sovereign against sovereign in the ordinary course of diplomatic pressure."
The ten years' crisis (1831-1841) evoked by the revolt of Mehemet Ali, pasha of Egypt, thus resolved itself into a diplomatic struggle between Russia and the other powers to maintain or to recover influence at Constantinople.
In 448 again occurred various diplomatic negotiations, and especially the embassy of Maximinus, of which many curious details have been recorded by Priscus his companion.
His conduct in following them up into the Spanish territory of Florida, in seizing Pensacola, and in arresting and executing two British subjects, Alexander Arbuthnot and Robert Ambrister, gave rise to much hostile comment in the cabinet and in Congress; but the negotiations for the purchase of Florida put an end to the diplomatic difficulty.
Under a treaty signed at Seoul on the 17th of November 1905, Japan directed the external relations of Korea, and Japanese diplomatic and consular representatives took charge of Korean subjects and interests in foreign countries.
A resident-general represented Japan at Seoul, to direct diplomatic affairs, the first being the Marquis Ito.
In 1866, 1867, and 1871 French and American punitive expeditions attacked parts of Korea in which French missionaries and American adventurers had been put to death, and inflicted much loss of life, but retired without securing any diplomatic successes, and Korea continued to preserve her complete isolation.
Seoul was opened in 1884 to foreign residence, and the provinces to foreign travel, and the diplomatic agents of the contracting powers obtained a recognized status at the capital.
Between 1897 and 1899, under diplomatic pressure, a number of ports were opened to foreign trade and residence.
During the last years of the empire, Caulaincourt was charged with all the diplomatic negotiations.
The recent treaties made by Great Britain, previously dispersed through the numbers of the London Gazette or embedded in masses of diplomatic correspondence presented to parliament at irregular intervals, are now officially published as soon as ratified in a special 8vo.
The labours of the publicist would also be much lightened were it possible to consolidate the various general collections of diplomatic acts into a new Corps diplomatique universel, well furnished with cross references, and with brief annotations showing how far each treaty is supposed to be still in force.
Where the reptile is venerated or feared it is usually inviolable, and among the Brassmen of the Niger the dangerous and destructive cobra was especially protected by an article in the diplomatic treaty of 1856 for the Bight of Biafra (Maclennan, 524).
Poetry, philology, philosophy all flourished under his encouragement, and his name was handed down to posterity as the first of the many Spanish Jews who combined diplomatic skill with artistic culture.
Meanwhile it had needed all the diplomatic armoury of the powers to prevent Mahmud hastening to the assistance of his "oppressed subjects."
In March the Egyptians were severely defeated by the revolted Arabs of the Hauran; and the Porte, though diplomatic pressure kept it quiet, hurried on preparations for war.
The necessity for showing a united front justified the diplomatic inexactitude; but the powers were agreed on little except the need for agreement.
For nearly a year the diplomatic pourparlers continued without an agreement being reached; France insisted on Mehemet Ali's receiving the hereditary pashalik of Syria as well as that of Egypt, a proposition to which Palmerston, though sincerely anxious to preserve the Anglo-French entente, refused to agree.
Of the works mentioned C. de Freycinet's La Question d'Egypte (Paris, 1905) gives the most authoritative account of the diplomatic developments.
This was granted, and subsequently the British North Borneo Company, which was formed in May 1882, took over, in spite of some diplomatic protests on the part of the Dutch and Spanish governments, all the sovereign and territorial rights ceded by the original grants, and proceeded under its charter to organize the administration of the territory.
On the 1st of December the United States broke off diplomatic relations with Nicaragua, and in an official note Secretary Knox described the Zelayan administration as a "blot on the history" of the republic. Fighting at Bluefields was prevented by the U.S. cruiser "Des Moines" (r8th December), an example followed at Greytown by the British cruiser "Scylla"; but elsewhere along the Atlantic coast the insurgents gained many victories.
Antonio Perez, who was legitimated by an imperial diploma issued at Valladolid in 1542, was, however, believed by many to be in reality the son of Philip's minister, Ruy Gomez de Silva, prince of Eboli, to whom, on the completion of a liberal education at home and abroad, he appears at least to have owed his first introduction to a diplomatic career.'
of France, and both there and in England his talents and diplomatic experience, as well as his well-grounded enmity to Philip, secured him much popularity.
After the fall of Constantinople, he was employed in various diplomatic missions by Dorino and Domenico Gateluzzi, princes of Lesbos, where he had taken refuge.
After entering the Benedictine order and teaching at the university of Paris from 1435 to 1438, he became almoner to Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy, who entrusted him with diplomatic missions in France, Italy, Portugal and Castile.
At the French court his diplomatic duties brought him to the notice of the dauphin (afterwards Louis XI.).
Having spent his youth in the papal diplomatic service - he was nuncio at Brussels from 1843-46 - he had a certain knowledge of the workings of parliamentary institutions, while the years immediately before his accession had been spent as archbishop of Perugia, so that he was not closely identified with any of the Vatican parties.
in many diplomatic negotiations, more particularly in his intrigues to get himself elected emperor in 1519.
Guicciardini issued from this first trial of his skill with an assured reputation for diplomatic ability, as that was understood in Italy.
Pontano's connexion with the Aragonese dynasty as political adviser, military secretary and chancellor was henceforth a close one; and the most doubtful passage in his diplomatic career is when he welcomed Charles VIII.
legatio, a sending or mission), a diplomatic mission of the second rank.
The term is also applied to the building in which the minister resides and to the area round it covered by his diplomatic immunities.
After his death his published and unpublished writings were collected and published (with the exception of Les Cours royales des Iles Normandes and Lettres de Gerbert) in two volumes called Questions merovingiennes and Opuscules inedits (1896), containing, besides important papers on diplomatic and on Carolingian and Merovingian history, a large number of short monographs ranging over a great variety of subjects.
and was sent to France on diplomatic business by Henry III.
As the result of research in the diplomatic correspondence at the Record Office in London 4 Mr Lang finds a clue in the affairs of the French Huguenot, Roux de Marsilly, the secret agent for a Protestant league against France between Sweden, Holland, England and the Protestant cantons of Switzerland, who in February 1669 left London, where he had been negotiating with Arlington (apparently with Charles II.'s knowledge), for Switzerland, his confidential valet Martin remaining behind.
The peace of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748), which ended the war of the Austrian Succession, brought no gains to France in spite of her victories at Fontenoy and Raucoux; and the king was blamed for the diplomatic failure.
The interval between this war and the Seven Years' War (1756) saw that great reversal of alliances which is sometimes called the "Diplomatic Revolution"; whereby France repudiated the alliance of Frederick the Great and joined hands with her old enemy Austria.
C. Finch, Diplomatic Despatches from Russia, 1740-1742 (St Petersburg, 1893-1894) in the collections of the Russ.
When at last, after the catastrophe of Poltava (June 1709) and the flight into Turkey, he condescended to use diplomatic methods, it was solely to prolong, not to terminate, the war.
On the other hand, an attempt to regain the friendship of Russia, which had broken off diplomatic relations with Sweden, was frustrated by the refusal of the king to accept the bride, the grand duchess Alexandra, Catherine II.'s granddaughter, whom Reuterholm had provided for him.
this matter should be opened with the Norwegian government, and that a joint committee, consisting of representatives from both countries, should be appointed to consider the question of a separate consular service without in any way interfering with the existing administration of the diplomatic affairs'of the two countries.
All efforts to solve the consular question by itself had failed, but it was considered that an attempt might be made to establish separate consuls in combination with a joint administration of diplomatic affairs on a full unionistic basis.
Crown Prince Gustaf, who during the illness of King Oscar was appointed regent, took the initiative of renewing the negotiations between the two countries, and on the 5th of April in a combined Swedish and Norwegian council of state made a proposal for a reform both of the administration of diplomatic affairs and of the consular service on the basis of full equality between the two kingdoms, with the express reservation, however, of a joint foreign minister - Swedish or Norwegian - as a condition for the existence of the union.
of September the delegates came to an agreement, the principal points of which were: that such disputes between the two countries which could not be settled by direct diplomatic negotiations, and which did not affect the vital interests of either country, should be referred to the permanent court of arbitration at the Hague, that on either side of the southern frontier a neutral zone of about fifteen kilometres width should be established, and that within eight months the fortifications within the Norwegian part of the zone should be destroyed.
After entering the Russian diplomatic service, he wrote .Betrachtungen fiber die Lehre and den Geist der orthodoxen Kirche (Leipzig, 1817).
He brought with him Captains Lindsay and Christie to assist the Persians in the war, and presented the shah with some serviceable fieldpieces; but there was little occasion for the exercise of his diplomatic ability save in his non-official intercourse with the people, and here he availed himself of it to the great advantage of himself and his country.i He was welcomed by the shah in camp at Ujani, and took leave a month afterwards to return via Bagdad and Basra to India.
MNeill gave a certain time for ag and, decision, at the end of which, no satisfactory reply haying reached him, he broke off diplomatic relations, ordered the British officers lent to the shah to proceed towards Bagdad en -route to India, and retired to Erzerum with the members of his mission.
On the I I th of October 1841 a new mission arrived at Teheran from London, under John (afterwards Sir John) MNcill, to renew diplomatic relations.
There had been a long diplomatic correspondence in Europe on the proceedings.
At Bushire, on the 1st of December, the Persian governor of Fars, Ala ad-daula, committed a breach of diplomatic etiquette which induced Lord Curzon to sail away without landing.
From this time he was inseparably associated with Catharine in all important diplomatic affairs, though officially he was the subordinate of the vice-chancellor, Count Alexander Osterman.
He began his career in the army, but soon entered the diplomatic service under Vergennes.
His son, Prince PAL Antal [Paul Anthony] (1786-1866), entered the diplomatic service.
He took a leading part in all the diplomatic negotiations consequent upon the wars of 1813-1815, especially at the congress of Chatillon, and on the conclusion of peace was, at the express desire of the prince regent, sent as ambassador to London.
His long and honourable diplomatic career began in 1707, when he was sent to Rome to induce the pope not to recognize Charles XII.'s candidate, Stanislaus Leszczynski, as king of Poland.
In 1463 he was employed on a diplomatic mission in France; and in 1464, after taking part in negotiation with the Scots, Neville became archbishop of York.
From the conquest of Sind by the British troops under the command of General Sir Charles Napier in 1843 up to 1854 no diplomatic intercourse occurred worthy of note between the British and Baluch states.
After the above events Khodadad maintained his precarious position with great difficulty; but owing to his inability to govern his unruly subjects without material assistance from the British government, which they were not disposed to give, his country gradually fell into the greatest anarchy; and, consequently, some of the provisions of the treaty of 1854 having been broken, diplomatic relations were discontinued with the Kalat state after the end of 1874.
Read in conjunction with the British consular and diplomatic reports, they afford a comprehensive survey of the movement of population, the progress of trade, &c. The following state papers deserve special notice: Caminhos de ferro (1877, &c.), Commercio e navigarao (annual, issued by the Ministry of Marine), Le Portugal vinicole (1900), Le Portugal ....
Hormuz, in the Persian Gulf, was seized by Alphonso d'Albuquerque (1515), who also entered into diplomatic relations with Persia.
The expulsion of the Jesuits involved Portugal in a dispute with Pope Clement XIII.; in June 1760 the papal nuncio was ordered to leave Lisbon, and diplomatic relations with the Vatican were only resumed after the condemnation of the Jesuits by Clement XIV., in July 1773.
The Cancioneiro de Ajuda by Mme Vasconcellos, is the perfection of editing, and there are diplomatic editions of other cancioneiros, e.g.
pp. 409-430 (Paris, 1904); British Foreign Office Diplomatic and Consular Reports (London); United States Consular Reports; Stanford's Compendium of Geography and Travel, vol.
In 1896 Dr Severo Alonso became president, and during his tenure of office diplomatic relations were resumed with Great Britain, Senor Aramayo being sent to London as minister plenipotentiary in July 1897.
There was no desire, however, on the part of President Pando to involve himself in hostilities with Brazil, and in a spirit of concession the dispute was settled amicably by diplomatic means, and a treaty signed in November 1903.
with diplomatic missions; he was nuncio (1536) to Ferdinand, king of the Romans, and legate to the diet of Spires (1542) having successfully resisted the transfer of the diet to Hagenau on account of the plague (1J40).
(For the ancient magisterial office of consul see separate article above.) A consul, as such, is not invested with any diplomatic character, and he cannot enter on his official duties until a rescript, termed an exequatur (sometimes a mere countersign endorsed on the commission), has been delivered to him by the authorities of the state to which his nomination has been communicated by his own government.
The system of French foreign consulships, for instance, all but died out after the crushing of the independent life of the south and the incorporation of Provence and Languedoc under the French crown; while, with the establishment of Venetian supremacy in the Levant, the baylo developed into a diplomatic agent of the first class at the expense of the consuls of rival states.
town where it desires to be represented, and unsalaried, the consular body proper was, by the decrees of July 10, 1880, and April 27, 1883, practically constituted a branch of the diplomatic service.
Candidates for the diplomatic and consular services have to undergo the same training and pass the same examinations, i.e.
This assimilation of the consular to the diplomatic service remains peculiar to France.'
Consuls, or consuls-general, of other countries have sometimes a diplomatic or quasi-diplomatic status.
Consuls-general charges d'affaires, e.g., rank as diplomatic agents.
The diplomatic agent of Belgium at Buenos Aires, e.g., is minister-resident and consul-general, and the minister of Ecuador in London is consulgeneral charge d'affaires.
He studied at the university of Leiden, and entered the Dutch diplomatic service, being appointed to the legation at Madrid.
Not only was the Balkan league on the point of internal explosion, but the Concert of Europe was trying to create the new state of Albania in the midst of a three-cornered diplomatic contest between Austria-Hungary, Italy and Russia.
Its real history commences with Srong Tsan Gampo, who was born a little after 600 A.D., and who is said in the Chinese chronicles to have entered, in 634, into diplomatic relationship with Tai Tsung, one of the emperors of the Tang dynasty.
The American case revived the charges of "insincere neutrality" and "veiled hostility" which had figured in the diplomatic correspondence, and had been repudiated by Great Britain.
He became, however, an early sacrifice to Jackson's spoils system, being recalled within less than a year, but not until he had involved himself in some awkward diplomatic complications with Bolivar's autocratic government.
Upon the definite refusal of the Mexican government under Paredes to resume with the United States the diplomatic relations broken off by the annexation of Texas, Taylor was ordered to advance to the Rio Grande for the purpose of anticipating any hostile incursion from Mexico.
He was sent to Spain in r 5 r 5 on a very important diplomatic errand; Charles secured his succession to the see of Tortosa, and on the, 4th of November 1516 commissioned him inquisitor-general of Aragon.