Dionysius sentence example
According to Suidas, Dinarchus wrote 160 speeches; and Dionysius held that, out of 85 extant speeches bearing his name, 58 were genuine,-28 relating to public, 30 to private causes.
There is a valuable treatise on the life and speeches of Dinarchus by Dionysius of Halicarnassus.
The tsar Theodore in 1587 exercised the power of the Byzantine emperors by deposing the metropolitan, Dionysius Grammaticus (Mouravieff, p. 125).
Next come the great Alexandrians, Clement, Origen, Dionysius; the Carthaginians, Tertullian and Cyprian; the Romans, Minucius Felix and Novatian; the last four laid the foundations of a Latin Christian literature.
He composed a play on the beheading of St John the Baptist, and another, a morality satirizing church abuses, in the setting of episodes from the story of Dionysius the Tyrant, both of which were performed in 1540 in the play - field of Dundee.Advertisement
As Dionysius of Halicarnassus (Judicium de Thucydide, c. 23) distinctly states that the work current in his time under the name of Cadmus was a forgery, it is most probable that the two first are identical with the Phoenician Cadmus, who, as the reputed inventor of letters, was subsequently transformed into the Milesian and the author of an historical work.
Dionysius was regarded by the ancients as a type of the worst kind of despot - cruel, suspicious and vindictive.
His son Dionysius, known as "the Younger," succeeded in 367 B.C. He was driven from the kingdom by Dion (356) and fled to Locri; but during the commotions which followed Dion's assassination, he managed to make himself master of Syracuse.
Erigena translated Dionysius into Latin along with the commentaries of Maximus, and his system is, essentially based upon theirs.
Dionysius of Alexandria; compare his judicious verdict on the Apocalypse.Advertisement
The treaty with the Latins is mentioned by Dionysius of Halicarnassus alone, who had not seen it himself; indeed, it is doubtful whether it was then in existence, and in any case, considering the changes which the language had undergone, it would have been unintelligible.
During this controversy Dionysius became convinced that the victory of mystical theology over "Jewish" chiliasm would never be secure so long as the book of Revelation passed for an apostolic writing and kept its place among the homologoumena of the canon.
Dionysius of Alexandria had already referred a Messianic prediction of the Old Testament to the emperor Gallienus.
It passed into Carthaginian hands by the treaty of 405 B.C., was won back by Dionysius in his first Punic war, but recovered by Carthage in 383.
Thus, Dionysius of Halicarnassus mentions 5000 equites as taking part in a review at which he himself was present.Advertisement
When Constantine deposed the orthodox bishops who resisted, Auxentius was installed into the seat of Dionysius, bishop of Milan, and came to be regarded as the great opponent of the Nicene doctrine in the West.
It suffered after this from the attacks of Dionysius I., who became its master for twelve years, of the Bruttii, and of Agathocles, and even more from the invasion of Pyrrhus, after which in 277 the Romans obtained possession of it.
In the preface to this work, which is dedicated to one Dionysius, Diophantus explains his notation, naming the square, cube and fourth powers, dynamis, cubus, dynamodinimus, and so on, according to the sum in the indices.
The latter was founded about 400 B.C. by Dionysius I.; very fine remains of its walls are preserved.
Among the works which he translated into Syriac and of which his versions survive are treatises of Aristotle, Porphyry and Galen, 3 the Ars grammatica of Dionysius Thrax, the works of Dionysius the Areopagite, and possibly two or three treatises of Plutarch.4 His own original works are less important, but include a " treatise on logic, addressed to Theodore (of Merv), which is unfortunately imperfect, a tract on negation and affirmation; a treatise, likewise addressed to Theodore, On the Causes of the Universe, according to the Views of Aristotle, showing how it is a Circle; a tract On Genus, Species and Individuality; and a third tract addressed to Theodore, On the Action and Influence of the Moon, explanatory and illustrative of Galen's IIEpi rcptaiµwv r t µepwv, bk.Advertisement
Apart from a few leading writers - such as Jacob of Edessa, the anonymous historian whose work has passed under the name of Dionysius of TellMahre, Thomas of Marga, Dionysius Bar *alibi, and Barhebraeus 3 - there are not enough names of interest to make it worth while to continue our chronological catalogue.
Dionysius kept his power till his death thirtyeight years later (367).
In 397 Syracuse had to stand a siege from the Carthaginians under Himilco, who took up his quarters at the Olympieum, but his troops in the marshes below suffered from pestilence, and a masterly combined attack by land and sea by Dionysius ended in his utter defeat.
Dionysius, however, allowed him to depart without further pressing his advantage.
This revolution and the peace with the Carthaginians confirmed Dionysius in the possession of Syracuse, but of no great territory beyond, as Leontini was again a separate city.Advertisement
Dionysius was able, like Gelo, though with less success and less honour, to take up the role of the champion of Hellas.
During the long tyranny of Dionysius the city grew greatly in size, population and grandeur.
The mass of the population of Gela and Camarina in the disastrous year 405 had, at the prompting of Dionysius, taken refuge at Syracuse.
It received large accessions from some of the Greek cities of southern Italy, from Hipponium on its west and Caulonia on its east coast, both of which Dionysius captured in 389 B.C. There had also been an influx of free citizens from Rhegium.
Dionysius largely extended the fortifications.
Dionysius, to make himself perfectly safe, drove out a number of the old inhabitants and turned the place into a barracks, he himself living in the citadel.
The fleet of Dionysius was the most powerful in the Mediterranean.
It was doubtless fear and hatred of Carthage, from which city the Greeks of Sicily had suffered so much, that urged the Syracusans to acquiesce in the enormous expenditure which they must have incurred under the rule of Dionysius.
A remarkable man now comes to the front - Dion, the friend and disciple of Plato - and for a time the trusted political adviser of his nephew Dionysius.
Dion's idea seems to have been to make Dionysius something like a constitutional sovereign, and with this view he brought him into contact with Plato.
All went well for a time; but Dionysius had Philistus and others about him, who were opposed to any kind of liberal reform, and the result was the banishment of Dion from Syracuse as a dangerous innovator.
To him Syracuse owed her deliverance from the younger Dionysius and from Hicetas, who held the rest of Syracuse, and to him both Syracuse and the Sicilian Greeks owed a decisive triumph over Carthage and the safe possession of Sicily west of the river Halycus, the largest portion of the island.
The younger Dionysius had been allowed to retire to Corinth; his island fortress was destroyed and replaced by a court of justice.
It now bears the ruins of a mighty fortress, finer than that which defends the entrance to the acropolis of Selinus - the most imposing, indeed, that has come down to us from the Greek period - which there is no doubt is the work of Dionysius.
Earlier writers make this the site of Labdalum, and put Euryelus farther west; but Labdalum must be sought somewhat farther east, near the northern edge of the plateau, in a point not visible from the Athenian central fort (KUKXos) with a view over Megara - not therefore in the commanding position of Dionysius's fort, with an uninterrupted view on all sides.
It is, indeed, recorded by Diodorus that Dionysius built the north wall from Euryelus to the Hexapylon in twenty days for a length of 2 3 - 4 m., employing 60,000 peasants and 6000 yoke of oxen for the transport of the blocks.
The most important buildings of which we have any remains are to be found in the lower part of Achradina and in Neapolis, a quarter of which we hear first in the time of Dionysius, and which at first was confined to the lower ground below Temenites, but in Roman times included it and the theatre also (Lupus 168), though it did not extend beyond the theatre to the uppermost part of the plateau.
Varro and Dionysius Afer proposed to identify the Iberians of Spain with the Iberians of the Caucasus, the one regarding the eastern, and other the western, settlements as the earlier.
The last book (xvii.) treats of theology or (as we should now say) mythology, and winds up with an account of the Holy Scriptures and of the Fathers, from Ignatius and Dionysius the Areopagite to Jerome and Gregory the Great, and even of later writers from 'Isidore and Bede, through Alcuin, Lanfranc and Anselm, down to Bernard of Clairvaux and the brethren of St Victor.
The authorship of Dionysius was doubted by many of the early middleage commentators and grammarians, and in modern times its origin has been attributed to the oecumenical college founded by Constantine the Great, which continued in existence till 730.
He was a contemporary of Dionysius I., and with him successfully resisted the Carthaginians when they invaded the territory of Agyrium in 392 B.C. Agira was not colonized by the Greeks until Timoleon drove out the last tyrant in 339 B.C. and erected various splendid buildings of which no traces remain.
Messina fell into the hands of the Carthaginians during their wars with Dionysius the elder of Syracuse (397 B.C.).
The Carthaginians destroyed the city, but Dionysius recaptured and rebuilt it.
Dionysius of Syracuse attacked them from the south; and after he defeated the Crotoniate league and destroyed Caulonia (389 B.C.), Tarentum remained the only powerful city.
Antalcidas compelled the Athenians to give their assent to it only by making himself master of the Hellespont by stratagem with the aid of Dionysius the Elder of Syracuse.
This suspicion, which was due primarily, no doubt, to the agreement with Sparta, would find confirmation in the subsequent exchange of compliments with Dionysius I.
Dionysius of Halicarnassus follows Cato.
This epoch was introduced in Italy in the 6th century, by Dionysius the Little, a Roman abbot, and began to be used in Gaul in the 8th, though it was not generally followed in that country till a century later.
Dionysius, the author of the era, adopted the day of the Annunciation, or the 25th of March, which preceded the birth of Christ by nine months, as the commencement of the first year of the era.
The validity of such an hypothesis was attacked as early as the 4th century by Dionysius of Alexandria in the fragment of his treatise irEpi 7ray yeAuA;v, in Eusebius, H.E.
All subsequent criticism has more or less confirmed the conclusions of Dionysius.
On the expulsion of the younger Dionysius, he returned to Athens, and, finding it impossible to profess philosophy publicly owing to the contempt of Plato and Aristotle, was compelled to teach privately.
Dionysius Thrax, the author of the first scientific Greek grammar, may also be mentioned.
Dionysius of Halicarnassus quotes a tradition that the name arose from the alleged fact that the people were the!
Cicero calls his style "copious and polished," Quintilian, "sweet, pure and flowing"; Longinus says he was "the most Homeric of historians"; Dionysius, his countryman, prefers him to Thucydides, and regards him as combining in an extraordinary degree the excellences of sublimity, beauty and the true historical method of composition.
Religious thought about the angels during the middle ages was much influenced by the theory of the angelic hierarchy set forth in the De Hierarchia Celesti, written in the 5th century in the name of Dionysius the Areopagite and passing for his.
He settled at Thurii, but afterwards removed to Adria, where he remained until the death of Dionysius (366).
He was then recalled by the younger Dionysius, whom he persuaded to dismiss Plato and Dion.
His style was high-flown and artificial, as was natural considering his early training, and he frequently sacrificed truth to rhetoric effect; but, according to Dionysius of Halicarnassus, he and Theopompus were the only historical writers whose language was accurate and finished.
In 355 Liberius was one of the few who, along with Eusebius of Vercelli, Dionysius of Milan and Lucifer of Cagliari, refused to sign the condemnation of Athanasius, which had anew been imposed at Milan by imperial command upon all the Western bishops; the consequence was his relegation to Beroea in Thrace, Felix II.
Amongst his authorities were the writers of Atthides (histories of Attica), the grammarian Didymus, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, and the lexicographer Dionysius, son of Tryphon.
It is possible that there may be some ground for the local tradition that Christianity was introduced into this region by Dionysius and Paracodus, who successively occupied the see of Vienne, but another tradition that the first bishop was named St Nazarius rests on a confusion, as that saint belongs to Genoa and not to Geneva.
A beginning had been made, in the 5th century, by the neoplatonic Christian who addressed his contemporaries under the mask of Dionysius the Areopagite.
Two critical editions of the Iliad and Odyssey were produced by his successor, Aristarchus, who was librarian until 1 4 6 B.C. and was the founder of scientific scholarship. His distinguished pupil, Dionysius Thrax (born c. 166 B.C.), drew up a Greek grammar which continued in use for more than thirteen centuries.
In the time of Photius the poets usually studied at school were Homer, Hesiod, Pindar; certain select plays of Aeschylus (Prometheus, Septem and Persae), Sophocles (Ajax, Electra and Oedipus Tyrannus), and Euripides (Hecuba, Orestes, Phoenissae, and, next to these, Alcestis, Andromache, Hippolytus, Medea, Rhesus, Troades,) also Aristophanes (beginning with the Plutus), Theocritus, Lycophron, and Dionysius Periegetes.
He was familiar with the Greek Fathers, and was chosen to execute a Latin rendering of the writings of "Dionysius the Areopagite," the patron saint of France.
Later in the centu r y Dionysius of Alexandria applies some acute criticism to justify the Alexandrian dislike of the Apocalypse.
Moreover, some of the " authorities " used by the Schoolmen had been discovered by the New Learning of the Renaissance to be no authorities at all, such as the writings falsely attributed to Dionysius the Areopagite.
The date of the Nativity as fixed according to our common computation of Anni Domini (first put forward by Dionysius Exiguus at Rome early in the 6th century) has long been recognized to be too late.
And as these writings were attributed to Dionysius, the disciple of the apostles, the scholastic mysticism which they unfold was regarded as an apostolic, not to say a divine, science.
Several more or less contradictory traditions may be found in Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Strabo and other writers.
Dionysius must have spoken too strongly, when he says that Aristotle was tutor of Alexander for eight years; for in 340, when Philip went to war with Byzantium, Alexander became regent at home, at the age of sixteen.
Here we can read the young Aristotle, writing in the form of the dialogue like Plato, avoiding hiatus like Isocrates, and justifying the praises accorded to his style by Cicero, Quintilian and Dionysius.
This is called the Dionysian or Great Paschal Period, from its having been employed by Dionysius Exiguus, familiarly styled " Denys the Little," in determining Easter Sunday.
It was destroyed by the Carthaginians in 405, restored by Timoleon in 339 after its abandonment by Dionysius's order, but in 258 fell into the hands of the Romans.
Most of them have been indifferently restored by local artists, who follow mechanically a kind of hieratic tradition, the principles of which are embodied in a work of iconography by the monk Dionysius, said to have been a pupil of Panselinos.
The chief difficulty is the reference to a certain sophist, Dionysius, but this is probably an interpolation.
The Order of Christ was founded on the abolition of the Templars by Dionysius or Diniz of Portugal and in 1318 in conjunction with Pope John XXII., both having the right to nominate to the order.
Several other cities - Tellenae, Scaptia and Querquetulum - mentioned in the list of Dionysius were probably situated in the Campagna, but the site cannot be determined.
Many of the smaller places mentioned in the list of Dionysius, or the early wars of the Romans, had altogether ceased to exist, but the statement of Pliny that fifty-three communities (populi) had thus perished within the boundaries of Old Latium is perhaps exaggerated.
The church of St Dionysius dated from the 13th century, and possesses a fine screen and a ciborium of 1486.
The letter just mentioned is the only indisputably contemporary document concerning him and was addressed to Dionysius and Maximus, respectively bishops of Rome and Alexandria, by seventy bishops, priests and deacons, who attended a synod at Antioch in 269 and deposed Paul.
Dionysius of Corinth (c. 170) states that Peter was in Corinth.
The council of bishops who met at Rakka in the summer of 818 to choose a successor to Cyriacus had great difficulty in finding a worthy occupant of the patriarchal chair, but finally agreed on the election of Dionysius, hitherto known only as an honest monk who devoted himself to historical studies.
In addition to the lost Annals, Dionysius was from the time of Assemani until 1896 credited with the authorship of another important historical work - a Chronicle, which in four parts narrates the history of the world from the creation to the year 774-77 5 and is preserved entire in Cod.
Neale's Commentary on the Psalms called it a "terse mystical paraphrase, which often comes very little short in beauty and depth of Dionysius the Carthusian himself."
He was also the author of rhetorical exercises on hackneyed sophistical themes; of a Quadrivium (Arithmetic, Music, Geometry, Astronomy), valuable for the history of music and astronomy in the middle ages; a general sketch of Aristotelian philosophy; a paraphrase of the speeches and letters of Dionysius Areopagita; poems, including an autobiography; and a description of the Augusteum, the column erected by Justinian in the church of St Sophia to commemorate his victories over the Persians.
On the other hand, the existence in the time of Dionysius of Halicarnassus of a treaty concluded between Tarquinius and the inhabitants of Gabii, shows that the town came under his dominion by formal agreement, not, as the tradition states, by treachery and violence.
A more authentic tradition represents Lysias as having spoken his own Olympiacus at the Olympic festival of 388 B.C., to which Dionysius I.
Tents embroidered with gold were pitched within the sacred enclosure; and the wealth of Dionysius was vividly shown by the number of chariots which he had entered.
Lysias lifted up his voice to denounce Dionysius as, next to Artaxerxes, the worst enemy of Hellas, and to impress upon the assembled Greeks that one of their foremost duties was to deliver Sicily from a hateful oppression.
Dionysius the tyrant began his reign of thirty-eight years in the first months of 405.
Dionysius, coming to the help of Gela, was defeated, and was charged (no doubt with good ground) with treachery.
The minuter account of Dionysius belongs to Syracusan history; but his position, one unlike anything that had been before seen in Sicily or elsewhere in Hellas, forms an epoch in the history of Europe.
The reign of Dionysius (405-367) is divided into marked periods by four wars with Carthage, in 39 8 -397, 39 2, 383-378 and 368.
Now begin the dealings of Dionysius with Italy, where the Rhegines, kinsmen of Naxos and Catana, planned a fruitless attack on him in common with Messana.
Dionysius took the Phoenician stronghold of Motye; but Himilco recovered it, destroyed Messana, founded the hill-town of Tauromenium above Naxos for Sicels who had joined him, defeated the fleet of Dionysius off Catana and besieged Syracuse.
Between invasion and home discontent, the tyrant was all but lost; but the Spartan Pharacidas stood his friend; the Carthaginians again suffered from pestilence in the marshes of Lysimelia; and after a masterly combined attack by land and sea by Dionysius Himilco went away utterly defeated, taking with him his Carthaginian troops and forsaking his allies.
Gela, Camarina, Himera, Selinus, Acragas itself, became subject allies of Dionysius.
Dionysius then planted mercenaries at Leontini, conquered some Sicel towns, Henna among them, and made alliances with others.
Dionysius therefore moved his Messenians to a point on the north coast, where they founded Tyndaris.
Most of them joined the Carthaginian leader Mago; but he was successfully withstood at Agyrium by Agyris, the ally of Dionysius, who is described as a tyrant second in power to Dionysius himself.
The two tyrants drove Carthage to a peace by which she abandoned all her Sicel allies to Dionysius.
Dionysius, now free from Phoenician warfare, gave his mind to enterprises which raised his power to its greatest height.
This even Sparta would not endure; Dionysius had to content himself with sending a fleet along the west coast of Italy, to carry off the wealth of the great temple of Caere.
In old Greece men now said that the Greek folk was hemmed in between the barbarian Artaxerxes on the one side and Dionysius, master and planter of barbarians, on the other.
These feelings found expression when Dionysius sent his embassy to the Olympic games of 384, and when Lysias bade Greece rise against both its oppressors.
Dionysius vented his wrath on those who were nearest to him, banishing many, among them his brother Leptines and his earliest friend Philistus, and putting many to death.
In this war (383-378) Dionysius seems for once to have had his head turned by a first success.
Dionysius had also to pay moo talents, which caused him to be spoken of as becoming tributary to the barbarians.
The tyranny of Dionysius fell, as usual, in the second generation; but it was kept up for ten years after his death by the energy of Philistus, now minister of his son Dionysius the Younger.
The reign of Dionysius was less brilliant in the way of art and literature than that of Hiero.
Yet Dionysius himself sought fame as a poet, and his success at Athens shows that his compositions did not deserve the full scorn of his enemies.
It led, through Dion, to the several visits of Plato to Sicily under both the elder and the younger Dionysius.
But his power, like that of Dionysius and Agathocles, was felt in more distant regions.
Together with these somewhat gnostic ideas, Cerinthus, if we may trust the notices of Gaius the Roman presbyter (c. 290) and Dionysius of Alexandria (c. 340), held a violent and crude form of chiliasm.
Dionysius bar-Salibi makes him a bishop, but probably he was not even a presbyter.
Denis Godefroy (Dionysius Gothofredus) (1549-1622), jurist, son of Leon Godefroy, lord of Guignecourt, was born in Paris on the 17th of October 1549.
In 403 B.C. it was taken by Dionysius of Syracuse, who plundered the city, sold the inhabitants into slavery and replaced them with Campanian mercenaries.
The account given by Dionysius repeats a tradition which was most natural for a city bearing the name of Hercules.
In Asia he attended the courses of Xenocles, Dionysius and Menippus, and in Rhodes those of Posidonius, the famous Stoic. In Rhodes also he studied rhetoric once more under Molo, to whom he ascribes a decisive influence upon the development of his literary style.
That he had a competent acquaintance with Greek is manifest from his translations of Dionysius the Areopagite and of Maximus, from the manner in which he refers to Aristotle, and from his evident familiarity with Neoplatonist writers and the fathers of the early church.
This also has been preserved, and fragments of a commentary by Erigena on Dionysius have been discovered in MS. A translation of theAreopagite's pantheistical writings was not likely to alter the opinion already formed as to Erigena's orthodoxy.
Monteleone is identical with the ancient Hipponium, said to be a Locrian colony and first mentioned in 388 B.C., when its inhabitants were removed to Syracuse by Dionysius.
Dionysius Alexandrinus also, in his canonical epistle (260 A.D.), refers to the six fasting days (E Twv Pr YTECwv iijApac) in a manner which implies that the observance of them had already become an established usage in his time.
The remains of a temple, devastated in ancient times (possibly by Dionysius of Syracuse in 384 B.C.), were also discovered, with fragments of Attic vases of the 5th century B.C., which had served as ex votos in it.
In 395 Dionysius failed to take it by assault on a winter's night, but in 392 he occupied it and settled his mercenaries there.
This appears, on the one hand, in the use of expressions having a Modalistic ring about them - see especially the poems of Commodian, written about the time of Valerian - and, on the other hand, in the rejection of the doctrine that the Son is subordinate to the Father and is a creature (witness the controversy between Dionysius of Alexandria and Dionysius of Rome), as well as in the readiness of the West to accept the formula of Athanasius, that the Father and the Son are one and the same in substance (O,uoou6coc).
Although Polybius and Dionysius of Halicarnassus frequently find fault with him, the first uses him as his chief authority for the Second Punic War.
The church of St Dionysius is Decorated and Perpendicular, with a fine tower and spire.
Still less has Livy anything in common with the naïve anxiety of Dionysius of Halicarnassus to make it clear to his fellow Greeks that the irresistible people who had mastered them was in origin, in race and in language Hellenic like themselves.
The most superficial comparison of his account of the earliest days of Rome with that given by Dionysius shows from what depths of tediousness he was preservetl by these qualities.
With a very few exceptions the speeches are dignified in tone, full of life and have at least a dramatic propriety, while of such incongruous and laboured absurdities as the speech which Dionysius puts into the mouth of Romulus, after the rape of the Sabine women, there are no instances in Livy.
Dionysius, Alcaeus, Anacreon, Pindar, Bacchylides, Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, Aristophanes, Antiphanes, make frequent and familiar allusion to the Ke rraOos; but in the writers of the Roman and Alexandrian period such reference as occurs shows that the fashion had died out.
The style found no imitator; history passed from Greece to Rome in the guise of rhetoric. In Dionysius of Halicarnassus the rhetoric was combined with an extensive study of the sources; but the influence of the Greek rhetoricians upon Roman prose was deplorable from the standpoint of science.
Wrangell (formerly Fort St Dionysius, Fort Stikine and Fort Wrangell), founded in 1833, is a dilapidated and torpid little village, of some interest in Alaskan history, and of temporary importance from 1874 to 1877 as the gateway to the Cassiar mines.
Quasi jocando, he cited Bede to prove that Dionysius the Areopagite had been bishop of Corinth, while they relied upon the statement of the abbot Hilduin that he had been bishop of Athens.
When this historical heresy led to the inevitable persecution, Abelard wrote a letter to the abbot Adam in which he preferred to the authority of Bede that of Eusebius' Historia Ecclesiastica and St Jerome, according to whom Dionysius, bishop of Corinth, was distinct from Dionysius the Areopagite, bishop of Athens and founder of the abbey, though, in deference to Bede, he suggested that the Areopagite might also have been bishop of Corinth.
Dionysius succeeded him.
Diogenes Laertius says that Anniceris ransomed Plato from Dionysius, tyrant of Syracuse, for twenty minas.
In the course of the 6th century the collection was completed by the addition of documents already in existence, but which had hitherto remained isolated, notably the canonical letters of several great bishops, Dionysius of Alexandria, St Basil and others.
It was at this time that the Latin collection of Dionysius Exiguus became known; and just as he had given the Greek councils a place in his collection, so from him were borrowed the canons of councils which did not appear in the Greek collection - the twenty canons of Sardica (343), in the Greek text, which differs considerably from the Latin; and the council of Carthage of 419, which itself included, more or less completely, in 105 canons, the decisions of the African councils.
Dionysius knows only the council of 419, in connexion with the affair of Apiarius; but in this single text are reproduced, more or less fully, almost all the synods of the collection; this was the celebrated Concilium Africanum, so often quoted in the middle ages, which was also recognized by the Greeks.
A Latin version of the other Greek councils (the one referred to by Dionysius as prisca) was known, but no canonical use was made of it.
At the beginning of the 6th century the Roman Church adopted the double collection, though of private origin, which was drawn up at that time by the monk Dionysius, known by the name of Dionysius Exiguus, which he himself had Exlguus assumed as a sign of humility.
This part of the work of Dionysius was not added to later; it was otherwise with the second part.
If we consider that the Church of Africa, which had already suffered considerably from the Vandal invasion, was at this period almost entirely destroyed by the Arabs, while the fate of Spain was but little better, it is easy to see why the collection of Dionysius became the code of almost the whole of the Western Church, with the exception of the Anglo-Saxon countries; though here too it was known.
Finally, the second part of the Hispana contains the papal decretals, as in the collection of Dionysius.
He wrote a History of Sicily from the earliest times to 424, which was used by Thucydides, and the Colonizing of Italy, frequently referred to by Strabo and Dionysius of Halicarnassus.
Mention may also be made of a treatise on orthography, of which a fragment (on Quantity) has been preserved; a tract on prosody; commentaries on Hephaestion and Dionysius Thrax; and grammatical notes on the Psalms.
Dionysius, in reply, admits that Demosthenes does at times depart from simplicity, - that his style is sometimes elaborately ornate and remote from the ordinary usage.
Dionysius devoted two special treatises to Demosthenes, - one on his language and style (Xektckos To ros), the other on his treatment of subject-matter (7rpa^y,uaruKinTolros).
Accomplished men of letters, such as Julius Vestinus and Aelius Dionysius, selected from his writings choice passages for declamation or perusal, of which fragments are incorporated in the miscellany of Photius and the lexicons of Harpocration, Pollux and Suidas.
Dionysius, the closest and most penetrating of his ancient critics, exhausts the language of admiration in showing how ' Or.
Dionysius of Halicarnassus enumerates it among the towns first occupied by the Pelasgi and then by the Tuscans.
According to Dionysius, i.
But, in spite of these redeeming features, the prevailing baldness of Polybius's style excludes him from the first rank among classical writers; and it is impossible to quarrel with the verdict pronounced by Dionysius of Halicarnassus, who places him among those authors of later times who neglected the graces of style, and who paid for their neglect by leaving behind them works "which no one was patient enough to read through to the end."
The silence respecting him maintained by Quintilian and by Lucian may reasonably be taken to imply their agreement with Dionysius as to his merits as a master of style.
To calculate their number would be impossible, but we know from the writings of Cyprian, Dionysius of Alexandria and other contemporaries, that they were a numerous class, and that they were to be found in Italy, in Egypt and in Africa, and among both clergy and laity.
Its independence was guaranteed by the treaty of 405 between Dionysius and the Carthaginians, but it very soon lost it again.
The imagined felicity vanished, and he begged Dionysius to remove him from his seat of peril.
It was divided into twenty books, - of which the first nine remain entire, the tenth and eleventh are nearly complete, and the remaining books exist in fragments in the excerpts of Constantine Porphyrogenitus and an epitome discovered by Angelo Mai in a Milan MS. The first three books of Appian, and Plutarch's Life of Camillus also embody much of Dionysius.
Several congregations took his part; but ultimately Dionysius, bishop of Alexandria, succeeded in healing the schism and asserting the allegorical interpretation of the prophets as the only legitimate exegesis.
As a supplement to these labours in the field of Platonic and Alexandrian philosophy, Marsilio next devoted his energies to the translation of Dionysius the Areopagite, whose work on the celestial hierarchy, though recognized as spurious by the Neapolitan humanist, Lorenzo Valla, had supreme attraction for the mystic and uncritical intellect of Ficino.
To the same century we may assign the grammarian Theodosius of Alexandria, who, instead of confining himself (like Dionysius Thrax) to the tenses of Tb rTW in actual use, was the first to set forth all the imaginary aorists and futures of that verb, which have thence descended through the Byzantine age to the grammars of the Renaissance and of modern Europe.
Erigena's next work was a Latin translation of Dionysius the Areopagite (see Dionysius Areopagiticus) undertaken at the request of Charles the Bald.
Still less has Livy anything in common with the naÃ¯ve anxiety of Dionysius of Halicarnassus to make it clear to his fellow Greeks that the irresistible people who had mastered them was in origin, in race and in language Hellenic like themselves.
After the Athenian debacle, the Segestans turned to Carthage; but when Hannibal in 409 B.C. firmly established the Carthaginian power in western Sicily, Segesta sank to the position of a dependent ally, and was indeed besieged by Dionysius in 397, being at last relieved by Himilco.