This idea of the air as the original principle and source of life and intelligence is much more clearly expressed by a later writer, Diogenes of Apollonia.
Diogenes made this conception of a vital and intelligent air the ground of a teleological view of climatic and atmospheric phenomena.
Diogenes distinctly taught that the world is of finite duration, and will be renewed out of the primitive substance.
DIOGENES APOLLONIATES (c. 460 B.C.), Greek natural philosopher, was a native of Apollonia in Crete.
The views of Diogenes are transferred in the Clouds (264 ff.) of Aristophanes to Socrates.
Panzerbieter, Diogenes Apolloniates (1830), with philosophical dissertation; J.
Krause, Diogenes von Apollonia (1909).
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As regards the members of the school, the separate articles On Antisthenes, Crates, Diogenes and Demetrius contain all biographical information.
The leading earlier Cynics were Antisthenes, Diogenes of Sinope, Crates of Thebes, and Zeno; in the later Roman period, the chief names are Demetrius (the friend of Seneca), Oenomaus and Demonax.
Diogenes Laertius vi.
It is probable that these later Cynics adapted themselves somewhat to the times in which they lived and avoided the crude extravagance of Diogenes and others.
Diogenes Laertius says that his works filled ten volumes, but of these fragments only remain.
For his philosophy see Cynics, and for his pupils, Diogenes and Crates, see articles under these headings.
Of the very numerous works of Favorinus, we possess only a few fragments (unless the KopcvOcaKOs Xoryos attributed to his tutor Dio Chrysostom is by him), preserved by Aulus Gellius, Diogenes Laertius, Philostratus, and SuIdas, the second of whom borrows from his HavroSairrt iiropca (miscellaneous history) and his 'Airo,uvmuovEUµara (memoirs).
His writings (Diogenes Laertius, ix.
The emperor Romanus Diogenes, assuming the command in person, met the invaders in Cilicia.
Diogenes Laertius (ii.
Diogenes says that he left no writings, and the Eretrian school disappeared after a short and unobtrusive existence.
A list is preserved by Diogenes, who mentions works on Duty, Good, Virtues, Ends.
Above is the inscription, " Diogenes Fossor in Pace depositus."
Diogenes further states that he wrote several treatises, but none have survived.
A smaller compilation, chiefly from Diogenes Laertius and Suidas, with a similar title, is the work of an unknown author of the 11th or 12th century.
Diogenes Laortius and Cicero both speak of him with respect and describe him as an accurate and polished thinker.
Besides Truth, and the book Of the Gods which caused his condemnation at Athens, Diogenes Laertius attributes to him treatises on political, ethical, educational and rhetorical subjects.
Outside the gate, apparently, was the famous Craneion, shaded by cypress trees, and near it the tombs of Lais and Diogenes, a precinct of Bellerophon and of Athena Melaenis.
He went to the schools of philosophy, and heard lectures on Plato, Diogenes, Clitomachus and Carneades; the conjunction of names show how philosophy had become a dead tradition.
Diogenes Laertius preserves a tradition that it was he, not Crito, who offered to help Socrates to escape from prison.
According to Diogenes Laertius, who credits him with an undoubtedly spurious letter to Croesus (with whom his connexion was probably legendary), Pittacus was a writer of elegiac poems, from which he quotes five lines.
At an advanced age he became a pupil of Diogenes the Cynic, and gained such repute as a student of philosophy that he was selected by Alexander to hold a conference with the Indian Gymnosophists.
2; Indica, 32; Diogenes Laertius vi.
He learned dialectics under Diogenes the Stoic, and under Hegesinus, the third leader of the Academy in descent from Arcesilaus.
In 155, together with Diogenes the Stoic and Critolaus the Peripatetic, he was sent on an embassy to Rome to justify certain depredations committed by the Athenians in the territory of Oropus.
Diogenes Laertius quotes a letter in which Cleobulus invites Solon to take refuge with him against Peisistratus; and this would imply that he was alive in 560 B.C. He is said to have held advanced views as to female education, and he was the father of the wise Cleobuline, whose riddles were not less famous than his own (Diogenes Laertius i.
Diogenes Laertius says, "If the gods use dialectic, they can use none other than that of Chrysippus"; A yap v Xpuvciriros, oinc av i v Ewa, ("Without Chrysippus, there had been no Porch").
His life was written by Diogenes Laertius.
He is mentioned both by Diogenes Laertius and by Iamblichus, but nothing is known of his life.
Diogenes says that he left no writings, but other authorities make him the author of a yvo-rucos X6-yos directed against the Pythagoreans.
See Diogenes viii.
Aristotle'S Life This account is practically repeated by Diogenes Laertius in his Life of Aristotle, on the authority of the Chronicles of Apollodorus, who lived in the 2nd century B.C. Starting then from this tradition, near enough to the time, we can confidently divide Aristotle's career into four periods: his youth under his parents till his eighteenth year; his philosophical education under Plato at Athens till his thirty-eighth year; his travels in the Greek world till his fiftieth year; and his philosophical teaching in the Lyceum till his departure to Chalcis and his death in his sixtythird year.
His will, which was quoted by Hermippus, and, as afterwards quoted by Diogenes Laertius, has come down to us, though perhaps not complete, supplies some further details, as follows: - Antipater is to be executor with others.
It is not always certain which were dialogues, which didactic like Aristotle's later works; but by comparing those which were certainly dialogues with their companions in the list of Aristotle's books as given by Diogenes Laertius, we may conclude with Bernays that the books occurring first in that list were dialogues.
On the other hand, there are the curious and puzzling catalogues of Aristotelian books, one given by Diogenes Laertius, another by an anonymous commentator (perhaps Hesychius of Miletus) quoted in the notes of Gilles Menage on Diogenes Laertius, and known as " Anonymus Menagii," and a third copied by two Arabian writers from Ptolemy, perhaps King Ptolemy Philadelphus, son of the founder of the library at Alexandria.
The probability is that the Nicomachean Ethics is a collection of separate discourses worked up into a tolerably systematic treatise; and the interesting point is that these discourses correspond to separate titles in the list of Diogenes Laertius (7rep1 KaXou, irepi Sucalcwv, irepi q5tXias, 7repi )Sovfjs, and 7repi ijlovwv).
4); and the dialogue Protrepticus was known to the Cynic Crates, pupil of Diogenes and master of Zeno (Fragm.
Again, it is not unlikely that the Politics was arranged in the traditional order of books by Theophrastus, and that this is the meaning of the curious title occurring in the list of Aristotle's works as given by Diogenes Laertius, rroXcTCKns IcKpoavEC.os ws OeocApa6Tov a'13'y'8'E'srrt', which agrees with the Politics in having eight books.
But the Rhetoric to Alexander was considered spurious by Erasmus, for the inadequate reasons that it has a preface and is not mentioned in the list of Diogenes Laertius, and was assigned by Petrus Victorius, in his preface to the Rhetoric, to Anaximenes.
They took possession of Sivas, Tokat, Niksar, Ablastan, Malatia, probably after the death of Suleiman, though they may have established themselves in one or more of these cities much earlier, perhaps in 1071, after the defeat of Romanus Diogenes.
438) and Diogenes Laertius (iv.
Of one, entitled Xpeiat, Diogenes preserves a single line (vi.
45) it appears that he was sent with Carneades and Diogenes to Rome in 156-155 B.C. to protest against the fine of 500 talents imposed on Athens in punishment for the sack of Oropus.
PANAETIUS (c. 185-180 to 110 - 108 B.C.), Greek Stoic philosopher, belonged to a Rhodian family, but was probably educated partly in Pergamum under Crates of Mallus and afterwards in Athens, where he attended the lectures of Diogenes the Babylonian, Critolaus and Carneades.
Under one of these emperors, Romanus Diogenes (1067-1071), he served with distinction against the Seljuk Turks.
18; Diogenes Laertius iv.
14 Authors differ in their views as to its authenticity, but Diogenes Laertius (v.
EUCLID [EUCLEIDES], of Megara, founder of the Megarian (also called the eristic or dialectic) school of philosophy, was born c. 450 B.C., probably at Megara, though Gela in Sicily has also been named as his birthplace (Diogenes Lacrtius ii.
Now as to this there is quite a remarkable unanimity in the testimony of the ancients, and the evidence is of the strongest kind, ascending to Herodotus, and, according to the account of Diogenes Laertius, even to Xenophanes, who was an Ionian, and not much later than Thales.
Many anecdotes, amusing rather than instructive, are related of him, which have been handed down by Diogenes Laertius and other writers.
Further, we learn from Diogenes Laertius (i.
This is the received interpretation of the passage in Diogenes Laertius, i.
Diogenes Laertius in his account of the Stoics (vii.85, Tr] y OE - Opµrt y 4ao-c TO TO TripeEv EaITO) uses the phrase TnpEiv EavrO to describe the instinct for self-preservation, the inward harmony of Chrysippus, the recognition of which is auve1,50ves.
From a life by Diogenes Laertius, we learn that he studied at Athens under Plato, but, being dismissed, passed over into Egypt, where he remained for sixteen months with the priests of Heliopolis.
The stories of the Stoics, who sought to refute the views of Epicurus by an appeal to his alleged antecedents and habits, were no doubt in the main, as Diogenes Laertius says, the stories of maniacs.
The evidence of Diogenes proves that it still subsisted as a school a century later, but its spirit lasted longer than its formal organization as a school.
An epitome of his doctrine is contained in three letters preserved by Diogenes.
- The chief ancient accounts of Epicurus are in the tenth book of Diogenes Laertius, in Lucretius, and in several treatises of Cicero and Plutarch.
(Diogenes), emperor 1068-1071, was a member of a distinguished Cappadocian family, and had risen to distinction in the army, when he was convicted of treason against the sons of Constantine X.
There is the Mithradates who presented the Academy with a statue of Plato by Silanion, not improbably identical (though the supposition implies a correction in the text of Diogenes Laertius) with that Mithradates who, together with his father Ariobarzanes, received the citizenship of Athens (Dem.
Diogenes, the Stoic philosopher (head of the school in 156 B.C.), was a " Babylonian," i.e.
The visit of the three great philosophers, Diogenes the " Babylonian," Critolaus and Carneades in 155, was an epoch-making event in the history of Hellenism at Rome.
MELISSUS OF SAMOS, Greek philosopher of the Eleatic School, was born probably not later than 470 B.C. According to Diogenes Laertius, ix.
This sort of thought, which appears very early in Egypt (2000 B.C. or earlier), and relatively early among the Greeks (in the sayings of Thales and Solon as reported by Diogenes Laertius), was of late growth among the Hebrews.
While tending his father's sheep, he is said to have fallen into a deep sleep in the Dictaean cave near Cnossus where he lived, from which he did not awake for fifty-seven years (Diogenes Laertius i.
Eubulides wrote a treatise on Diogenes the Cynic and also a number of comedies.
The historical models to which Epictetus reverts are Diogenes and Socrates.
It will be sufficient here to deal with Anaxagoras, Diogenes of Apollonia, Archelaus and Hippo, leaving Empedocles, Leucippus and Democritus to special articles (q.v.).
In Diogenes of Apollonia we find a return to Anaximenes.
Diogenes (q.v.) began by insisting on the necessity of there being only one principle of things, herein contradicting the pluralism of Heraclitus.
But Diogenes went much farther than Anaximenes by attributing to air not only infinity and eternity but also intelligence.
In 1067 the Seljuk Turks ravaged Cappadocia and Cilicia; in 1071 they defeated and captured the emperor Romanus Diogenes, and in 1080 they took Nicaea.
ARCHELAUS OF MILETUS, Greek philosopher of the 5th century B.C., was born probably at Athens, though Diogenes Laertius (ii.
No fragments of Archelaus remain; his doctrines have to be extracted from Diogenes Laertius, Simplicius, Plutarch and Hippolytus.
69; Diogenes Laertius i.
This recurs in a different form in the statement of Diogenes Laertius (i.
Finally, Diogenes Laertius (i.
The passage is unfortunately corrupt, but it is at least clear that in the time of Solon, according to Diogenes, there were complete copies of the poems, such as could be used to control the recitations.
Hence the account of Diogenes is quite irreconcilable with the notices on which Wolf relied.
Soter in an expedition to Syria, and sailed up the Nile with him as far as Thebes (Diogenes Laertius ix.
Plato (Theaetetus, 15 2 E) puts him at the head of the masters of comedy, coupling his name with Homer and, according to a remark in Diogenes Laertius, Plato was indebted to Epicharmus for much of his philosophy.
Epicharmus is the subject of articles in Suidas and Diogenes Laertius (viii.
The history of the Stoic school may conveniently be divided in the usual threefold manner: the old Stoa, the middle or transition period (Diogenes of Seleucia, Boethus of Sidon, Panaetius, Posidonius), and the later Stoicism of Roman times.
amongst the Socratic schools, and canonized Antisthenes and Diogenes; while reverence for Socrates was the tie which united to them such an accomplished writer upon lighter ethical topics, as the versatile Persaeus, who, at the capital of Antigonus Gonatas, with hardly anything of the professional philosopher about him, reminds us of Xenophon, or even Prodicus.
Zeno commenced, then, as a Cynic; and in the developed system we can point to a kernel of Cynic doctrine to which various philosophemes of other thinkers (more especially Heraclitus and Aristotle, but also Diogenes of Apollonia, the Pythagoreans, and the medical school of Hippocrates in a lesser degree) were added.
The primitive substance, be it remembered, is not Heraclitus's fire (though Cleanthes also called it flame of fire, 4X6) any more than it is the air or " breath " of Anaximenes or Diogenes of Apollonia.
But long before this the peculiar character of air had been recognized as something intermediate to the corporeal and the incorporeal: when Diogenes of Apollonia revived the old Ionian hylozoism in opposition to the dualism of Anaxagoras, he made this, the typical example of matter in the gaseous state, his one element.
Chrysippus's im mediate successors were Zeno of Tarsus, Diogenes of Seleucia (often called the Babylonian) and Antipater of Tarsus, men of no originality, though not without ability; the two lastnamed, however, had all their energies taxed to sustain the conflict with Carneades (q.v.).
Diogenes of Seleucia is said to have wavered in his belief at last; Boethus, one of his pupils, flatly denied it.
27, 14, p. 1072 F); but, earlier still, Diogenes had put forward his gloss, viz.
Archedemus, a contemporary of Diogenes, put this in plainer terms still: " The end is to live in the performance of all fitting actions " (7ravra Ta Ka81]KovTa E7rtT€XoUVTas 1 v).
For a similar compromise there is express testimony: " good repute " (euSo fa) had been regarded as a thing wholly indifferent in the school down to and including Diogenes.
Doubtless, at the first founding of the school Zeno himself and Zeno's pupils were inspired with this hope; they emulated the Cynics Antisthenes and Diogenes, who never shrank out of modesty from the name and its responsibilities.
One or two such manifestations there may have been - Socrates and Diogenes?
If his successors allowed one or two more exceptions, to Diogenes of Seleucia at any rate the sage was an unrealized ideal, as we learn from Plutarch (De comm.
Posidonius left even Socrates, Diogenes and Antisthenes in the state of progress towards virtue.
Diogenes the Babylonian had written a treatise on language and one entitled The Laws.
We learn much more about the Stoic system from the scanty fragments of the first founders, 4 or even from the epitomes of Diogenes Laertius and Stobaeus, than from these writers.
His works, according to Diogenes Laertius, numbered seventytwo, and were characterized by a purity of style which compares favourably with that of Plato.
Hersche, Zwei Characterbilder, on Diogenes of Sinope and Paetus (Lucerne, 1865); monographs by A.
The tradition which assigns the first employment of the Greek word 4aAoa041a to Pythagoras has hardly any claim to be regarded as authentic; and the somewhat self-conscious modesty to which Diogenes Laertius attributes the choice of the designation is, in all probability, a piece of etymology crystallized into narrative.
The letters ascribed to him by Diogenes Laertius are undoubtedly spurious.
393; Diogenes Laertius, De vitis clarorum philosophorum, i.
Diogenes Laertius says that Anniceris ransomed Plato from Dionysius, tyrant of Syracuse, for twenty minas.
According to Diogenes Laertius he was " in his prime " 504-500 B.C., and would thus seem to have been born about 539 Plato indeed (Parmenides, 127 B) makes Socrates see and hear Parmenides when the latter was about sixty-five years of age, in which case he cannot have been born before 519; but in the absence of evidence that any such meeting took place this may be regarded as one of Plato's anachronisms. However this may be, Parmenides was a contemporary, probably a younger contemporary, of Heraclitus, with whom the first succession of physicists ended, while Empedocles and Anaxagoras, with whom the second succession of physicists began, were very much his juniors.
Three dialogues, the E0M s, the Ipiwt os and the ]Iiva or Tabula, are attributed to him by Suidas and Diogenes Laertius.
The principal fragments of Cleanthes's works are contained in Diogenes Laertius and Stobaeus; some may be found in Cicero and Seneca.
See Diogenes Laertius x.
The work was well received, and two years later appeared his commentary on the tenth book of Diogenes Laertius, De vita, moribus, et placitis Epicuri, seu Animadversiones in X.
The first two are occupied entirely with his Syntagma philosophicum; the third contains his critical writings on Epicurus, Aristotle, Descartes, Fludd and Lord Herbert, with some occasional pieces on certain problems of physics; the fourth, his Institutio astronomica, and his Commentarii de rebus celestibus; the fifth, his commentary on the tenth book of Diogenes Laertius, the biographies of Epicurus, N.
Diogenes Laertius (ix.
The trick was discovered, and Heraclides received only ridicule instead of divine honours (Diogenes Laertius v.
Diogenes LaÃ©rtius >>
Whichever of these explanations is correct, it is noticeable that the Cynics agreed in taking a dog as their common badge or symbol (see Diogenes).
We learn that Diogenes and Crates sought to force their principles upon their fellows in an obtrusive, tactless manner.
Many of them upheld the principle of community of wives (see Diogenes Laertius vi.
By his eighth year he had read Aesop's Fables, Xenophon's Anabasis, and the whole of Herodotus, and was acquainted with Lucian, Diogenes Laertius, Isocrates and six dialogues of Plato (see his Autobiography).
MENEDEMUS, Greek philosopher, and founder of the Eretrian school of thought, was born at Eretria about 350 and died between 278 and 275 B.C. Though of noble birth, he worked as builder and tentmaker until he was sent with a military expedition to Megara, where, according to Diogenes Laertius, he heard Plato and resolved to devote himself to philosophy.
According to Diogenes Laertius, he divided the virtues into two kinds, those founded on scientific intellectual principles (i.e.
Specimens of his apophthegms may be found in Diogenes Laertius and the florilegium of Stobaeus, while there are traces of his influence in Seneca.
He made successful expeditions against the Greeks, especially that of 1071, in which the Greek emperor Romanus Diogenes was taken prisoner and forced to ransom himself for a large sum (see Later Roman Empire).
Diogenes Laertius says that he died of excessive drinking, but the testimony of others (e.g.
He is said by Herodotus and others to have been of Phoenician extraction, but the more common account (see Diogenes Laertius) is that he was a native Milesian of noble birth.
He became a close friend of Isidore, succeeded him as head of the school in Athens, and wrote his biography, part of which is preserved in the Bibliotheca of Photius (see appendix to the Didot edition of Diogenes Laertius).
Again, the account of the Hipparchus is contradicted by Diogenes Laertius, who says that Solon provided for the due recitation of the Homeric poems. The only good authorities as to this point are the orators Lycurgus and Isocrates, who mention the law prescribing the recitation, but do not say when or by whom it was enacted.
This was not the first time that approaches had been made to such a doctrine, and Diogenes of Apollonia in particular was led to oppose Anaxagoras, who distinguished Nous or Thought from every other agent within the cosmos which is its work by postulating as his first principle something which should be at once physical substratum and thinking being.
He did not overlook the need of supplementing merely intellectual insight by " Socratic force of soul "; but it seemed to him that, by insight and self-mastery combined, an absolute spiritual independence might be attained which left nothing wanting for perfect well-being (see also Diogenes).
Diogenes search for physical beauty, our instinctive desire is not to imitate but to perfect.
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