Diocletian sentence example
How all this operated we shall understand when we examine the remarkable organization of the state introduced by Diocletian and his successors.
Possibly this is one of the books about gold and silver of which Diocletian decreed the destruction about A.D.
Diocletian asks her back of Tiridates, who meanwhile has fallen in love with her himself.
The scene of the legend now shifts to Rome, where Diocletian falls in love with a lovely nun named Ripsime; she, rather than gratify his passion, flees with her abbess Gaiana and several priests to Armenia.
In 1880 he unearthed a portion near the Cappella Greca, and found galleries that had not been touched since they were filled in during the Diocletian persecution.Advertisement
The name occurs for the last time during the reign of Diocletian, who dates a letter from Triballis.
Mainly on account of its strategic position, Diocletian on his reorganization of the empire made Trier the capital not only of Belgica Prima, but of the whole "diocese" of Gaul.
Diocletian forbade a free man to sell himself.
Under Diocletian (circa 297), Cilicia, with the Syrian and Egyptian provinces, formed the Diocesis Orientis.
Under the empire the power of the equites was at its highest in the time of Diocletian; in consequence of the transference of the capital to Constantinople, they sank to the position of a mere city guard, under the control of the prefect of the watch.Advertisement
During a halt at Chalcedon, Numerianus was murdered, and Diocletian, commander of the body-guards, was proclaimed emperor by the soldiers.
Another St Cecilia, who suffered in Africa in the persecution of Diocletian (303-304), is commemorated on the 11th of February.
Among such documents connected with the early history of Edessa we have, besides the Doctrine of Addai, certain martyrdoms, those of Sharbel and Barsamya assigned to the reign of Trajan, and those of Gurya and Shamona and of the Deacon Habbibh under Diocletian and Licinius.
A variety of causes, however, had produced strong dissatisfaction at Rome with many of the arrangements established by Diocletian, and on the 28th of October 306, the public discontent found expression in the massacre of those magistrates who remained loyal to Flavius Valerius Severus and in the election of Maxentius to the imperial dignity.
Under Diocletian a fourfold division of the country was made.Advertisement
It was owing to their incessant raids that Diocletian withdrew the Roman garrisons above the cataracts, and called in the warlike Nobatae to protect the Egyptian frontier from their attacks.
To check the inroads of the barbarians on the north of the Black Sea, Diocletian had resolved to transfer his capital to Nicomedia; but Constantine, struck with the advantages which the situation of Byzantium presented, resolved to build a new city there on the site of the old and transfer the seat of government to it.
The Historia Augusta, which includes the lives of the emperors from Hadrian to Numerianus (117-284), is the work of six writers, four of whom wrote under Diocletian and two under Constantine.
From the time of Diocletian there was a Phoenice ad Libanum, with Emesa as capital, as well as a Phoenice Maritima of which Tyre was the chief city.
Diocletian ascended the imperial throne in the year of Christ 284.Advertisement
By the Romans the era of Actium was considered as beginning on the 1st of January of the 16th of the Julian era, which is the 30th B.C. The Egyptians, who used this era till the time of Diocletian, dated its commencement from the beginning of their month Thoth, or the 29th of August; and the Eastern Greeks from the 2nd of September.
It has been already stated that the Alexandrians, at the accession of the emperor Diocletian, made an alteration in their mundane era, by striking off ten years from their reckoning.
The denomination of Era of Martyrs, subsequently given to it in commemoration of the persecution of the Christians, would seem to imply that its commencement ought to be referred to the year 303 of our era, for it was in that year that Diocletian issued his famous edict; but the practice of dating from the accession of Diocletian has prevailed.
The constitutional changes of Diocletian and Constantine extended still further the power of the praefect, in whom, after the disbanding of the guards and the removal from Rome of the highest officials, the whole military, administrative and judicial powers were centred.
The legend of St Agnes is that she was a Roman maid, by birth a Christian, who suffered martyrdom when but thirteen during the reign of the emperor Diocletian, on the 21st of January 304.Advertisement
The political history of the ancient world ends with the formation, under Diocletian and Constantine, of a universal state bearing the cast of Oriental as well as Graeco-Roman civilization.
The district called Dardania (in Upper Moesia), inhabited by the Illyrian Dardani, was formed into a special province by Diocletian with capital Naissus (Nissa or Nish), the birthplace of Constantine the Great.
An imperial palace was constructed here, in which the emperors after the time of Diocletian frequently resided; and the city often played a part in the struggles between the rulers of the 4th century.
Towards the end of the 3rd and during the 4th century, as a result of the orientalizing of the Imperial court by Diocletian, it became customary to celebrate as a matter of course the superhuman virtues and achievements of the reigning emperor.
His own explanation of the act, connecting it with the martyrdom of a thousand Christians in the time of Diocletian, is not convincing.Advertisement
Her real Possessions property, confiscated under Diocletian, was restored of the Holy by Constantine, and since then had 'been continually See.
When it was retrieved by a signal victory, Diocletian advanced to Nisibis and thence dictated terms of peace by which Mesopotamia to the Tigris was definitely ceded to Rome (298).
These provinces were governed until the time of Diocletian by imperial procurators, and were occasionally united for military purposes.
After its overthrow by Aurelian, Palmyra was partially revived as a military station by Diocletian (end of 3rd century A.D.), as we learn from a Latin inscription found on the site.
Among other matters reference is made to the introduction of Christianity in the reign of Tiberius; the persecution under Diocletian; the spread of the Arian heresy; the election of Maximus as emperor by the legions in Britain, and his subsequent death at Aquileia; the incursions of the Picts and Scots into the southern part of the island; the temporary assistance rendered to the harassed Britons by the Romans; the final abandonment of the island by the latter; the coming of the Saxons and their reception by Guortigern (Vortigern); and, finally, the conflicts between the Britons, led by a noble Roman, Ambrosius Aurelianus, and the new invaders.Advertisement
It is highly improbable that many of the 700,000 volumes collected by the Ptolemies remained at the time of the Arab conquest, when the various calamities of Alexandria from the time of Caesar to that of Diocletian are considered, together with the disgraceful pillage of the library in A.D.
No systematic effort was made by the imperial authorities to put an end to the movement until the reign of Decius (250-251), whose policy of suppression was followed by Diocletian (303 ff.) and continued for some years after his abdication.
On the outbreak of the persecution by Diocletian and Maximian, he was taken to Nola and brought before Timotheus, governor of Campania, on account of his profession of the Christian religion.
It is considered probable that the date of the original edition was the beginning of the 3rd century, while that which we possess is to be assigned to the time of Diocletian.
Carinus at once left Rome and set out for the East to meet Diocletian.Advertisement
In another account, the battle is represented as having resulted in a complete victory for Diocletian.
Pannonia inferior was divided into (1) Valeria (so called from Diocletian's daughter, the wife of Galerius), extending along the Danube from Altinum (Mohacs) to Brigetio (6-SzOny), and (2) Pannonia secunda, round about Sirmium (Mitrovitz) at the meeting of the valleys of the Save, Drave, and Danube.
From this disaster the inhabitants recovered so far as to be able to give an effectual check to an invasion of the Goths in the reign of Claudius II., and the fortifications were greatly strengthened during the civil wars which followed the abdication of Diocletian.
There are, consequently, two distinct eras of Alexandria, the one being used before and the other after the accession of Diocletian.
It is not known for what reason the alteration was made; but it is conjectured that it was for the purpose of causing a newfrevolution of the cycle of nineteen years (which was introduced into the ecclesiastical computation about this time by Anatolius, bishop of Hierapolis) to begin with the first year of the reign of Diocletian.Advertisement
It begins with the 29th of August (the first day of the Egyptian year) of the year 284 of our era, which was the first of the reign of Diocletian.
Under Diocletian's reorganization Galatia was divided, about 295, into two parts and the name retained for the northern (now nearly identical with the Galatia of Deiotarus); and about 390 this province, amplified by the addition of a few towns in the west, was divided.
He served with distinction as a soldier under Aurelian and Probus, and in 293 was designated Caesar along with Constantius Chlorus, receiving in marriage Diocletian's daughter Valeria, and at the same time being entrusted with the care of the Illyrian provinces.
In 305, on the abdication of Diocletian and Maximianus, he at once assumed the title of Augustus, with Constantius his former colleague, and having procured the promotion to the rank of Caesar of Flavius Valerius Severus, a faithful servant, and Daia (Maximinus), his nephew, he hoped on the death of Constantius to become sole master of the Roman world.
With Peter, archbishop of Alexandria, he was thrown into prison during the persecution under Diocletian.Advertisement
After Diocletian and under the Eastern Empire the Greek world is organized on the principles of a vast bureaucracy.
With this long process of political decline from Alexander to Diocletian correspond the inner changes in the temper of the Hellenic and Hellenistic peoples.
The beautiful little riverside temple, called the kiosk, was built by Augustus and inscribed by Trajan; and the latest building was the arch of Diocletian.
The era of Diocletian dates from the 29th of August 284, the year of his reforms; later, however, the Christians called it the era of the Martyrs (though the persecution was not until 302), and it survived the Arab conquest.
Towards the middle of the 5th century, the Blemmyes, quiet since the reign of Diocletian, recommenced their incursions, and were even joined in them by the Nobatae.
A companion sanctuary of Hecate was constructed underground by Diocletian.
When the Roman empire was reorganized by Diocletian at the end of the 3rd century Phrygia was divided into two provinces, distinguished at first as Prima and Secunda, or Great and Little, for which the names Pacatiana and Salutaris soon came into general use.
They include the Fastes de l'empire romain, and editions of Diocletian's edict and of Philippe Lebas's Voyage archeologique (1868-1877).
But Victorinus of Pettau, who wrote during the persecution under Diocletian, still knows the relation of the Apocalypse to the legend of Nero; and Commodian, whose Carmen Apologeticum was perhaps not written until the beginning of the 4th century, knows two Antichrist-figures, of which he still identifies the first with Nero redivivus.
Having embraced the profession of a soldier, he rapidly rose under Diocletian to high military rank.
When Diocletian had begun to manifest a pronounced hostility towards Christianity, George sought a personal interview with him, in which he made deliberate profession of his faith, and, earnestly remonstrating against the persecution which had begun, resigned his commission.
Modern criticism, while rejecting this identification, is not unwilling to accept the main fact that an officer named Georgios, of high rank in the army, suffered martyrdom probably under Diocletian.
The vicarius was an important official in the reorganized empire of Diocletian.
He also wrote A Political Life of Sir Robert Peel (London, 1856); A Financial, Statistical and Monetary History of England from 1688 (London, 1847); Matter for Materialists (London, 1870); The Eve of St Mark, a Romance of Venice; and three dramas, The Statue Wife, Diocletian and Caius Marius, in addition to some fishing songs, and many contributions to various newspapers and periodicals.
He achieved distinction during long service in the army, and having been made Caesar by Diocletian in 285, received the title of Augustus in the following year (April 1, 286).
After 293 Maximianus left the care of the Rhine frontier to Constantius Chlorus, who had been designated Caesar in that year, but in 297 his arms achieved a rapid and decisive victory over the barbarians of Mauretania, and in 302 he shared at Rome the triumph of Diocletian, the last pageant of the kind ever witnessed by that city.
On the 1st of May 305, the day of Diocletian's abdication, he also, but without his colleague's sincerity, divested himself of the imperial dignity at Mediolanum (Milan), which had been his capital, and retired to a villa in Lucania; in the following year, however, he was induced by his son Maxentius to reassume the purple.
Arrius Aper, praefect of the praetorian guards, his father-in-law, who was suspected of having murdered him, was slain by Diocletian, whom the soldiers had already proclaimed his successor.
After the reconstruction under Diocletian at the end of the 3rd century A.D., fifteen years (the indictio) - though probably used as early as the time of Hadrian - was recognized as the period for revaluation.
The old name was reintroduced by Diocletian, by whom Cyrenaica (detached from Crete) was divided into Marmarica (Libya inferior) in the east, and Cyrenaica (Libya superior) in the west.
In the course of the Diocletian persecution, which broke out in 303, Pamphilus was imprisoned for two years, and finally suffered martyrdom.
After the death of Pamphilus Eusebius withdrew to Tyre, and later, while the Diocletian persecution was still raging, went to Egypt, where he seems to have been imprisoned, but soon released.
Spalato has a striking sea-front, in which the leading feature is the ruined façade of the great palace of Diocletian, to which the city owes its origin.
Diocletian died in 313; and before long the city became an episcopal see, with St Doimo as its first bishop. The palace was transformed into an imperial cloth factory, and, as most of the workers were women, it became known as the gynaecium.
Diocletian, the organizing genius, became a bloodthirsty monster, and Constantine, the murderer, a saint.
Adoration is applied in the Roman Church to the ceremony of kissing the pope's foot, a custom which is said to have been introduced by the popes following the example of the emperor Diocletian.
From the days of Diocletian one finds occasionally two emperors, but not, at any rate in theory, two Empires; the two emperors are the dual sovereigns of a single realm.
According to the legend, where he is associated with Modestus and Crescentia, by whom he had been brought up, St Vitus suffered martyrdom at a very early age under the emperor Diocletian.
The work professes to have been written during the reigns of Diocletian and Constantine, and is to be regarded as the composition of six authors, - Aelius Spartianus, Julius Capitolinus, Aelius Lampridius, Vulcacius Gallicanus, Trebellius Pollio and Flavius Vopiscus - known as Scriptores Historiae Augustae, writers of Augustan history.
The caution of Vopiscus's references to Diocletian cannot be made a reproach to him.
Spartianus's reference to himself as "Diocletian's own" seems to indicate that he was a domestic in the imperial household.
Under Diocletian, Noricum was divided into Noricum ripense (along the Danube) and mediterraneum (the southern mountainous district).
It was the result of causes long in operation, and had been foreshadowed, forty years before, in the policy of Diocletian.
Hence the famous scheme of Diocletian to divide the burden of government between four colleagues, in order to secure a better administration of civil and of military affairs.
It also declared the high position of the East, by the selection of Nicomedia in Asia Minor as the residence of Diocletian himself.
At the age of fifty-nine, exhausted with labour, Diocletian abdicated his sovereignty on the 1st of May 305, and retired to Salona, where he died eight years afterwards (others give 316 as the year of his death).
Under Diocletian the senate became a political nonentity, the last traces of republican institutions disappeared, and were replaced by an absolute monarchy approaching to despotism.
On his return to Britain he settled at his native place and was put to death as a Christian during the persecution of Diocletian (c. 286-303).
He was the syncellus (cell-mate, the confidential campanion assigned to the patriarchs, sometimes little more than a spy; see Syncellus) or private secretary of Tara(u)sius, patriarch of Constantinople (784-806), after whose death he retired to a convent, and wrote his Chronicle of events from Adam to Diocletian (285).
Under Postumus Gaul had already attempted to restore an independent though short-lived empire (258267); and twenty-eight years later the tetrarchy of Diocletian proved that the blood now circulated with difficulty from the heart to the extremities of an empire on the eve of disintegration.
The persecutions under Aurelian and Diocletian almost succeeded in accomplishing the former; the Christian churches were saved by the instability of the existing authorities, by military anarchy and by the incursions of the barbarians.
The predisposing causes of the Donatist schism were the belief, early introduced into the African church, that the validity of all sacerdotal acts depended upon the personal character of the agent, and the question, arising out of that belief, as to the eligibility for sacerdotal office of the traditores, or those who had delivered up their copies of the Scriptures under the compulsion of the Diocletian persecution; the exciting cause was the election of a successor to Mensurius, bishop of Carthage, who died in 311.
The natural geographical and ethnical southern frontier of Egypt is the First Cataract; Egyptian scribes of the Old Empire recognized this truth no less clearly than Diocletian, and Juvenal anticipates the verdict of every modern observer when he describes the " porta Syenes " as the gate of Africa.
Further, all the fragments come from the provinces which were under the jurisdiction of Diocletian, from which it is argued that the edict was only published in the eastern portion of the empire; certainly the phrase universo orbi in the preamble is against this, but the words may merely be an exaggerated description of Diocletian's special provinces, and if it had been published in the western portion as well, it is curious that no traces have been found of it.
The unit of money was the denarius, not the silver, but a copper coin introduced by Diocletian, of which the value has been fixed approximately at kth of a penny.
Diocletian's persecution secured the martyr's crown for the Edessenes Shamona, Guria (297), and Ilabbib (309), and shortly thereafter Lucian " the martyr," who though born at Samosata received his training at Edessa; but the bishop Qona, who laid the foundations of " the great church " by the sacred pool, somehow escaped.
However, Diocletian faced more than just administrative problems.
Like Decius, Diocletian was a military strongman, a religious conservative who wished to use religion to unite the empire.
These provincial divisions were modified by Diocletian but without seriously affecting the life of Gaul.
Maximian and Diocletian were compelled to acknowledge the rule of Carausius in Britain; numerous coins are extant with the heads of Carausius, Diocletian and Maximian, bearing the legend "Carausius et fratres sui."
Strabo tells us that this stood in the west of the city; and recent discoveries go far to place it near "Pompey's Pillar" (see above), which, however, was an independent monument erected to commemorate Diocletian's siege of the city.
It was the metropolis of Bithynia under the Roman empire (see Nicaea), and Diocletian made it the chief city of the East.
They make him a citizen of Narbonne and captain of the first cohort under the emperors Diocletian and Maximian.
About 290 he went to Nicomedia in Bithynia while Diocletian was emperor, to teach rhetoric, but found little work to do in that Greek-speaking city.
He was bishop of Myra in the time of the emperor Diocletian, was persecuted, tortured for the faith, and kept in prison until the more tolerant reign of Constantine, and was present at the council of Nicaea.
Spalato has a striking sea-front, in which the leading feature is the ruined faÃ§ade of the great palace of Diocletian, to which the city owes its origin.
Ipek has been incorrectly identified by some writers with Doclea or Dioclea (Dukle in Montenegro), the birthplace of Diocletian, and the capital of a small principality which was overthrown by the Bulgarians in the 11th century.
S George, a military tribune in the army of the Roman Emperor Diocletian, was passing by and heared of the tragedy.
Under Diocletian and Maximian a road (the Via Herculia) was constructed from Aequum Tuticum to Pons Aufidi near Venusia, where it crossed the Via Appia and went on into Lucania, passing through Potentia and Grumentum, and joining the Via Popilia near Nerulum.
Diocletian placed Lucania and Brittii (as the name was then spelt) under a corrector, whose residence was at Rhegium.
Under Diocletian, Belgica Prima (capital, Augusta Trevirorum, Trier) and Secunda (capital, Reims) formed part of the "diocese" of Gaul.
Diocletian, having been informed of this conduct, sent for him and earnestly remonstrated with him, but, finding him inflexible, ordered him to be bound to a stake and shot to death.
No sooner had he wholly recovered than he hastened to, confront the emperor, reproaching him with his impiety; Diocletian ordered him to be instantly carried off and beaten to death with rods.
Aurelius Julianus, and encountered the army of Diocletian in Moesia.
Hence the era of Antioch differed from the original era of Alexandria by ten years; but after the alteration of the latter at the accession of Diocletian, the two eras coincided.
If we may take the edict of Diocletian against the Manichaeans as genuine, the system must have gained a firm footing in the West by the beginning of the 4th century, but we know that as late as about the year 325 Eusebius had not any accurate knowledge of the sect.
Diocletian added Helvetia, and part of Germania Superior to Sequania, which was now called Provincia maxima Sequanorum, Vesontio receiving the title of Metropolis civitas Vesontiensium.