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dilution

dilution

dilution Sentence Examples

  • It occasionally happens that a change in dilution affects the chemical action that occurs.

    41
    25
  • Hittorf and many other observers have made experiments to determine the unequal dilution of a solution round the two electrodes when a current passes.

    12
    12
  • There is less objection to this process than to the former, inasmuch as it does not result in a dilution of the wine.

    9
    8
  • If either ion carried with it some of the unaltered salt or some of the solvent, concentration or dilution of the liquid would be produced where the ion was liberated.

    8
    8
  • On solution in sulphuric acid, followed by dilution with water, it yields acetophenone.

    8
    8
  • It dissolves in ammonia with the liberation of nitrogen and the formation of silver oxide, Ag 2 O; and in sulphuric acid forming a fairly stable dark green liquid which, on dilution, gives off oxygen and forms silver sulphate.

    6
    6
  • The corresponding relation for a pure liquid can be regained by considering that at infinite dilution the liquid becomes pure solvent, and the change of volume becomes equal to the volume V.of solvent added.

    5
    5
  • This may consist of a steam injector by means of which air is made to bubble through the liquid, which produces both the required agitation and the heating, and at the same time oxidizes at least part of the sulphides; but this method of agitation causes a great waste of steam and at the same time a further dilution of the liquor.

    4
    4
  • The boric acid being scarcely ionized gives only a very small quantity of hydrogen ions, whilst the base (sodium hydroxide) produced by the hydrolysis occasioned by the dilution of the solution, being a "strong base," is highly ionized and gives a comparatively large amount of hydroxyl ions.

    4
    4
  • This may consist of a steam injector by means of which air is made to bubble through the liquid, which produces both the required agitation and the heating, and at the same time oxidizes at least part of the sulphides; but this method of agitation causes a great waste of steam and at the same time a further dilution of the liquor.

    4
    4
  • A volume of the diluted yeast was introduced into flasks containing sterilized wort, the degree of dilution being such that only a small proportion of the flasks became infected.

    3
    3
  • It is remarkable that even a small addition of zinc-white (oxide of zinc) to the reddish varieties especially causes a considerable diminution in the intensity of the colour, while dilution with artificial precipitated sulphate of lime ("annalin") or sulphate of baryta ("blanc fix") acts pretty much as one would expect.

    3
    3
  • At the limit of dilution, when the concentration of a solution approaches zero, we have seen that thermodynamical theory, verified by experiment, shows that the osmotic pressure has the same value as the gas pressure of the same number of molecules in the same space.

    3
    3
  • At the limit of dilution, when the concentration of a solution approaches zero, we have seen that thermodynamical theory, verified by experiment, shows that the osmotic pressure has the same value as the gas pressure of the same number of molecules in the same space.

    3
    3
  • On this principle Hahnemann ordered his original tinctures to be reduced in strength to onefiftieth; these first dilutions again to one-fiftieth; and so on, even till the thirtieth dilution, which he himself used by preference, and to which he ascribed the highest "potentiality."

    2
    2
  • The solution may be directly precipitated with copper, the copper passing into solution as copper sulphate, and the silver separating as a mud, termed " cement silvers" Or the silver sulphate may be separated from the solution by cooling and dilution, and then mixed with iron clippings, the interaction being accompanied with a considerable evolution of heat.

    2
    2
  • Where the evaporation is at a minimum, the inflow of rivers from a large continental area and the precipitation from the atmosphere at a maximum, there is necessarily the greatest dilution of the sea-water, the Baltic and the Arctic Sea being conspicuous examples.

    2
    2
  • The fact that benzene and its derivatives are remarkable for their powerful absorption of the most refrangible rays, and for some characteristic absorption bands appearing on dilution, led Hartley to a more extended examination of some of the more complicated organic substances.

    2
    2
  • Now measurements of osmotic properties of these solutions show that their osmotic pressures are abnormally great and that, at extreme dilution, the ratio of their osmotic pressures to that of equivalent solutions of non-electrolytes is equal to the number of ions indicated by the electrolytic properties.

    2
    2
  • The subject is dealt with in Electrolysis and Electric conduction: § dealt with the relations between the properties of an ideally dilute solution, we now turn to the consideration of the general case where the simplifying assumption of great dilution is not made.

    2
    2
  • If we measure the osmotic pressure Po when the solvent is under its own vapour pressure only, that is, when P = p = Po, the term involving V vanishes, and the limit of integration P' becomes Pod-p. If we assume that V', the volume change on dilution, varies regularly or not appreciably with pressure, we may write the first integral as V' (P o -{- p - p') where V' now denotes its mean value between the limits.

    2
    2
  • If l is the heat of dilution per unit change of volume in a calorimeter where all the energy goes to heat, the change in internal energy U is measured by ldv.

    2
    2
  • In the limit of dilution when n is very small compared with N this gives Raoult's experimental law that the relative lowering is n/N, which we deduced from the osmotic law, and conversely from which the osmotic law follows, while for more concentrated solutions agreement is obtained by assigning arbitrary values to a, which, as we have seen, is 5 in the case of cane-sugar.

    2
    2
  • 103, p. 185, 1858) to represent the vapour-pressure of a solution, and was verified by Regnault's experiments on solutions of H 2 SO 4 in water, in which case a constant, the heat of dilution, is added to the latent heat.

    2
    2
  • Where the evaporation is at a minimum, the inflow of rivers from a large continental area and the precipitation from the atmosphere at a maximum, there is necessarily the greatest dilution of the sea-water, the Baltic and the Arctic Sea being conspicuous examples.

    2
    2
  • In some solutions such as those of sugar the change in volume on dilution is nearly equal to the volume of solvent added; V' then becomes equal to V, the specific volume of the solvent.

    2
    3
  • Now the effective change produced by the action of the current is the concentration of the more dilute solution by the dissolution of metal in it, and the dilution of the originally stronger solution by the separation of metal from it.

    2
    4
  • The value of k, however, does not keep constant so satisfactorily in the case of highly dissociated substances, and empirical formulae have been constructed to represent the effect of dilution on them.

    1
    1
  • „ double crushing with 12% dilution.

    1
    1
  • This serves a double purpose, bringing up from the soil continually a supply of the soluble mineral matters necessary for their metabolic processes, \vhich only enter the plant in solutions of extreme dilution, and at the same time keeping the plant cool by the process of evaporation.

    1
    3
  • Differences of density between the waters of enclosed seas and of the ocean are brought about in some instances by concentration of the water of the sea on account of active evaporation, and in other instances by dilution on account of the great influx of land water.

    1
    3
  • p. 631) showed how to calculate the effective number of molecules n" = (1 +ek/ko)n,from the molecular conductivity k of the solution and its value ko at infinite dilution, for an electrolyte giving rise to e +I ions.

    1
    3
  • Pure cultures may be made and after dilution in water or other liquid can be mixed with soil to be ultimately spread over the land which is to be infected.

    1
    4
  • Given internally in small quantities and in sufficient dilution, alcohol causes dilatation of;he gastric blood-vessels, increased secretion of gastric juice, and greater activity in the movements of the muscular layers in the wall of the stomach.

    1
    4
  • a V(I - a) This constant k gives a numerical value for the chemical affinity, and the equation should represent the effect of dilution on the molecular conductivity of binary electrolytes.

    1
    6
  • a V(I - a) This constant k gives a numerical value for the chemical affinity, and the equation should represent the effect of dilution on the molecular conductivity of binary electrolytes.

    1
    6
  • If µ be the molecular conductivity, and its value at infinite dilution, the fractional number of molecules dissociated is k /µop, which we may write as a.

    1
    8
  • Many solutions in which the transport numbers vary at high concentration often become simple at greater dilution.

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  • In the case of substances like ammonia and acetic acid, where the dissociation is very small, I - a is nearly equal to unity, and only varies slowly with dilution.

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    0
  • The equation then becomes a 2 /V = k, or a = A / Vk, so that the molecular conductivity is proportional to the square root of the dilution.

    0
    0
  • From these numbers we can, by help of the equation, calculate the conductivity of the acids for any dilution.

    0
    0
  • Strong sulphuric acid dissolves it, forming an acid salt, Pb(HS04)2, which is hydrolysed by adding water, the normal sulphate being precipitated; hence the milkiness exhibited by samples of oil of vitriol on dilution.

    0
    0
  • Wood has studied the iridescent colours seen when a precipitate of potassium silicofluoride is produced by adding silicofluoric acid to a solution of potassium chloride, and found that they are due to the same cause, the refractive index of the minute crystals precipitated being about the same as that of the solution, which latter can be varied by dilution.

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  • If, on the other hand, the salt of the cryohydrate fails before the ice the water given by the continued fusion dilutes the solution, and we pass along the curve OB which shows the freezing points of a series of solutions of constantly increasing dilution.

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  • CONCLUSIONS: While dilution had very little effect on the measured pH values, the titratable acidity reduced as the drink became more dilute.

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  • When fixed amounts of this dilution series are mixed with an appropriate agar and incubated, then different numbers of colonies will be obtained.

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  • Our benzoin is a dilution of 60% benzoin resin in coconut oil.

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  • Dilution The reconstituted solution contains 5 mg agalsidase beta per ml.

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  • The flask used for the dilution will also need to be accurately calibrated.

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  • centesimal dilution -- ie one part in 100.

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  • dilution of the original substance.

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  • Using the PDWork template to calculate dilution factors Getting the right dilution of samples for analysis can be a great help for laboratory technicians.

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  • This would avoid dilution of effort in both groups.

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  • The approved dilution is published on a list of disinfectants under The Animal Health Act 1981.

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  • Each fund can also invest in a company at subsequent rounds to prevent dilution.

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  • For wet analysis samples require dilution to be measured.

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  • Comment: A specific effect of the homeopathic dilution of Arnica montana has not been proven by this.

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  • serial dilutions were then made from each extract, 100 ul of each dilution being applied to a membrane using a dot-blot apparatus.

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  • An alternative method is the application of the frontal method at infinite dilution.

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  • Some paste packets will recommend the correct dilution for ' size ' .

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  • dilution refrigerator.

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  • dilution levy or adjustment, further details of which are available in the Prospectus.

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  • dilution ratio with distilled water.

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  • dilution rates or have an email address for the suppliers of Murphy garden products.

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  • dilution factors may be needed for these samples.

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  • dilution genes and a table which lists the genes responsible for coat color.

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  • Target values were determined by isotope dilution GCMS at Professor Thienpont's laboratory in Gent.

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  • Studies that wish to estimate associations between disease risk and usual exposure levels need to take regression dilution effects into account.

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  • The United States House of Representatives has just approved a bill that will make the law on trademark dilution much stricter.

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  • chemical disinfectants may be supplied ready to use or may need accurate dilution to provide an appropriate solution.

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  • Testing was carried out on bleached European hair from a conditioner (1:5 water dilution) or shampoo (1:10 dilution ).

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  • But in the field, nothing much happened beyond wishful thinking, contaminant dilution and perhaps inadvertent nutrient addition.

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  • Use the same dilution in a bowl of steaming hot water for a steam inhalation.

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  • isotope dilution GCMS at Professor Thienpont's laboratory in Gent.

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  • Previously we contributed to the development of a novel compact dilution refrigerator.

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  • regression dilution bias.

    0
    0
  • solubility parameter of starch measured by water at infinite dilution.

    0
    0
  • squeegee all wall and floor surfaces with BIOSOLVE at a dilution of 1:100 for spraying or 1:50 for foaming.

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  • The dilution caused by the addition of the cell suspension should not be considered in determining the potency titre.

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  • trademark dilution much stricter.

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  • The greater the protein breakdown, the more urea is created and therefore more water is required for dilution.

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  • Rowland, in repeating Buchner's experiments, found that zymase possessed properties differing from all other enzymes, thus: dilution with twice its volume of water practically destroys the fermentative power of the yeast juice.

    0
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  • A volume of the diluted yeast was introduced into flasks containing sterilized wort, the degree of dilution being such that only a small proportion of the flasks became infected.

    0
    0
  • This serves a double purpose, bringing up from the soil continually a supply of the soluble mineral matters necessary for their metabolic processes, \vhich only enter the plant in solutions of extreme dilution, and at the same time keeping the plant cool by the process of evaporation.

    0
    0
  • The following conditions have to be considered as affecting in a greater or less degree the intrinsic energy of the initial and final systems: (1) Dilution of solutions.

    0
    0
  • In dealing, therefore, with dilute solutions, it is only necessary to state that the solutions are dilute, the exact degree of dilution being unimportant.

    0
    0
  • It occasionally happens that a change in dilution affects the chemical action that occurs.

    0
    0
  • It is remarkable that even a small addition of zinc-white (oxide of zinc) to the reddish varieties especially causes a considerable diminution in the intensity of the colour, while dilution with artificial precipitated sulphate of lime ("annalin") or sulphate of baryta ("blanc fix") acts pretty much as one would expect.

    0
    0
  • It should be noted, however, that another cause would be competent to explain the unequal dilution of the two solutions.

    0
    0
  • If either ion carried with it some of the unaltered salt or some of the solvent, concentration or dilution of the liquid would be produced where the ion was liberated.

    0
    0
  • Hittorf and many other observers have made experiments to determine the unequal dilution of a solution round the two electrodes when a current passes.

    0
    0
  • Many solutions in which the transport numbers vary at high concentration often become simple at greater dilution.

    0
    0
  • If a solution, let us say of sugar, be confined in a closed vessel through the walls of It is probable that in both these solutions complex ions exist at fairly high concentrations, but gradually gets less in number and finally disappear as the dilution is increased.

    0
    0
  • Thus the osmotic pressure, or the depression of the freezing point of a solution of potassium chloride should, at extreme dilution, be twice the normal value, but of a solution of sulphuric acid three times that value, since the potassium salt contains two ions and the acid three.

    0
    0
  • The salts tabulated are those of which the equivalent conductivity reaches a limiting value indicating that complete ionization is reached as dilution is increased.

    0
    0
  • The measurements of freezing points of solutions at the extreme dilution necessary to secure complete ionization is a matter of great difficulty, and has been overcome only in a research initiated by E.

    0
    0
  • The freezing point curve usually lies below the electrical one, but approaches it as dilution is increased.2 Returning once more to the consideration of the first relation, which deals with the comparison between the number of ions and the number of pressure-producing particles in dilute solution, one caution is necessary.

    0
    0
  • If µ be the molecular conductivity, and its value at infinite dilution, the fractional number of molecules dissociated is k /µop, which we may write as a.

    0
    0
  • In the case of substances like ammonia and acetic acid, where the dissociation is very small, I - a is nearly equal to unity, and only varies slowly with dilution.

    0
    0
  • The equation then becomes a 2 /V = k, or a = A / Vk, so that the molecular conductivity is proportional to the square root of the dilution.

    0
    0
  • From these numbers we can, by help of the equation, calculate the conductivity of the acids for any dilution.

    0
    0
  • The value of k, however, does not keep constant so satisfactorily in the case of highly dissociated substances, and empirical formulae have been constructed to represent the effect of dilution on them.

    0
    0
  • An explanation of the failure of the usual dilution law in these cases may be given if we remember that, while the electric forces between bodies like undissociated molecules, each associated with equal and opposite charges, will vary inversely as the fourth power of the distance, the forces between dissociated ions, each carrying one charge only, will be inversely proportional to the square of the distance.

    0
    0
  • The forces between the ions of a strongly dissociated solution will thus be considerable at a dilution which makes forces between undissociated molecules quite insensible, and at the concentrations necessary to test Ostwald's formula an electrolyte will be far from dilute in the thermodynamic sense of the term, which implies no appreciable intermolecular or interionic forces.

    0
    0
  • At extreme dilution, when the ionization is complete, a variation in temperature cannot change its amount.

    0
    0
  • Now the effective change produced by the action of the current is the concentration of the more dilute solution by the dissolution of metal in it, and the dilution of the originally stronger solution by the separation of metal from it.

    0
    0
  • Strong sulphuric acid dissolves it, forming an acid salt, Pb(HS04)2, which is hydrolysed by adding water, the normal sulphate being precipitated; hence the milkiness exhibited by samples of oil of vitriol on dilution.

    0
    0
  • In physical chemistry he carried out many researches on the nature and process of solution, investigating in particular the thermal effects produced by the dilution of saline solutions, the variation of the specific heat of saline solutions with temperature and concentration, and the phenomena of liquid diffusion.

    0
    0
  • In his second period he developed the theory of "potentiality" or dynamization - namely, that medicines gained in strength by being diluted, if the dilution was accompanied by shaking or pounding, which was supposed to "potentialize" or increase the potency of the medicine.

    0
    0
  • On this principle Hahnemann ordered his original tinctures to be reduced in strength to onefiftieth; these first dilutions again to one-fiftieth; and so on, even till the thirtieth dilution, which he himself used by preference, and to which he ascribed the highest "potentiality."

    0
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  • The terrible effects of fire-damp have led to the adoption of elaborate systems of ventilation, as the most effective safeguard against these explosions is the dilution and removal of the fire-damp as promptly and completely as possible.

    0
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  • „ double crushing with 12% dilution.

    0
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  • On solution in sulphuric acid, followed by dilution with water, it yields acetophenone.

    0
    0
  • Pure cultures may be made and after dilution in water or other liquid can be mixed with soil to be ultimately spread over the land which is to be infected.

    0
    0
  • Given internally in small quantities and in sufficient dilution, alcohol causes dilatation of;he gastric blood-vessels, increased secretion of gastric juice, and greater activity in the movements of the muscular layers in the wall of the stomach.

    0
    0
  • The largest amount of alcohol that can be burnt up within the healthy body in twenty-four hours is 12 oz., but it must be consumed in great dilution and divided into small doses taken every four hours.

    0
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  • It is insoluble in hydrochloric, nitric and sulphuric acids, but dissolves in aqua regia - a mixture of hydrochloric and nitric acids - and when very finely divided in a heated mixture of strong sulphuric acid and a little nitric acid; dilution with water, however, precipitates the metal as a violet or brown powder from this solution.

    0
    0
  • The solution may be directly precipitated with copper, the copper passing into solution as copper sulphate, and the silver separating as a mud, termed " cement silvers" Or the silver sulphate may be separated from the solution by cooling and dilution, and then mixed with iron clippings, the interaction being accompanied with a considerable evolution of heat.

    0
    0
  • Pettersson has made a careful study of ice melting as a motive power in oceanic circulation, and points out that it acts in two ways: on the surface it produces dilution of the water, forming a fresh layer and causing an outflow seaward of surface water with very low salinity; towards the deep water it produces a strong cooling effect, leading to increase of density and sinking of the chilled layers.

    0
    0
  • Differences of density between the waters of enclosed seas and of the ocean are brought about in some instances by concentration of the water of the sea on account of active evaporation, and in other instances by dilution on account of the great influx of land water.

    0
    0
  • Wood has studied the iridescent colours seen when a precipitate of potassium silicofluoride is produced by adding silicofluoric acid to a solution of potassium chloride, and found that they are due to the same cause, the refractive index of the minute crystals precipitated being about the same as that of the solution, which latter can be varied by dilution.

    0
    0
  • The fact that benzene and its derivatives are remarkable for their powerful absorption of the most refrangible rays, and for some characteristic absorption bands appearing on dilution, led Hartley to a more extended examination of some of the more complicated organic substances.

    0
    0
  • If, on the other hand, the salt of the cryohydrate fails before the ice the water given by the continued fusion dilutes the solution, and we pass along the curve OB which shows the freezing points of a series of solutions of constantly increasing dilution.

    0
    0
  • Now measurements of osmotic properties of these solutions show that their osmotic pressures are abnormally great and that, at extreme dilution, the ratio of their osmotic pressures to that of equivalent solutions of non-electrolytes is equal to the number of ions indicated by the electrolytic properties.

    0
    0
  • The subject is dealt with in Electrolysis and Electric conduction: § dealt with the relations between the properties of an ideally dilute solution, we now turn to the consideration of the general case where the simplifying assumption of great dilution is not made.

    0
    0
  • The corresponding relation for a pure liquid can be regained by considering that at infinite dilution the liquid becomes pure solvent, and the change of volume becomes equal to the volume V.of solvent added.

    0
    0
  • If we measure the osmotic pressure Po when the solvent is under its own vapour pressure only, that is, when P = p = Po, the term involving V vanishes, and the limit of integration P' becomes Pod-p. If we assume that V', the volume change on dilution, varies regularly or not appreciably with pressure, we may write the first integral as V' (P o -{- p - p') where V' now denotes its mean value between the limits.

    0
    0
  • In some solutions such as those of sugar the change in volume on dilution is nearly equal to the volume of solvent added; V' then becomes equal to V, the specific volume of the solvent.

    0
    0
  • If l is the heat of dilution per unit change of volume in a calorimeter where all the energy goes to heat, the change in internal energy U is measured by ldv.

    0
    0
  • In the limit of dilution when n is very small compared with N this gives Raoult's experimental law that the relative lowering is n/N, which we deduced from the osmotic law, and conversely from which the osmotic law follows, while for more concentrated solutions agreement is obtained by assigning arbitrary values to a, which, as we have seen, is 5 in the case of cane-sugar.

    0
    0
  • The " pig and ore " or " Siemens " variety of the process works chiefly by oxidation, the " pig and scrap " or " Siemens-Martin " variety chiefly by dilution, sometimes indeed by extreme dilution, as when Io parts of cast iron are diluted with 90 parts of scrap. Both varieties may be carried out in the basic and dephosphorizing way, i.e.

    0
    0
  • The green solution is readily converted into a pink one of permanganate by a large dilution with water, or by passing carbon dioxide through it: 3K2Mn04+2C02= 2K2C03+2KMn04+Mn02.

    0
    0
  • p. 631) showed how to calculate the effective number of molecules n" = (1 +ek/ko)n,from the molecular conductivity k of the solution and its value ko at infinite dilution, for an electrolyte giving rise to e +I ions.

    0
    0
  • 103, p. 185, 1858) to represent the vapour-pressure of a solution, and was verified by Regnault's experiments on solutions of H 2 SO 4 in water, in which case a constant, the heat of dilution, is added to the latent heat.

    0
    0
  • There is less objection to this process than to the former, inasmuch as it does not result in a dilution of the wine.

    0
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  • The boric acid being scarcely ionized gives only a very small quantity of hydrogen ions, whilst the base (sodium hydroxide) produced by the hydrolysis occasioned by the dilution of the solution, being a "strong base," is highly ionized and gives a comparatively large amount of hydroxyl ions.

    0
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  • It was also shown that exposure to light, dilution or exhaustion of the food-media, the presence of traces of poisons or metabolic products check growth or even bring it to a standstill; and the death or injury of any single cell in the filamentous series shows its effect on the curve by lengthening the doubling period, because its potential progeny have been put out of play.

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  • It dissolves in ammonia with the liberation of nitrogen and the formation of silver oxide, Ag 2 O; and in sulphuric acid forming a fairly stable dark green liquid which, on dilution, gives off oxygen and forms silver sulphate.

    0
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  • He found that dilution with water does not effect proportionate alteration in the transpiration velocities of different liquids, and a certain determinable degree of dilution retards the transpiration velocity.

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  • The tincture should not be prescribed unless precautions are taken to avoid the precipitation of the resin which follows its dilution with water.

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  • Analyzes involved proportional hazards modeling and adjustment for confounding by known cardiovascular risk factors and for regression dilution bias.

    0
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  • This paper describes the determination of the solubility parameter of starch measured by water at infinite dilution.

    0
    0
  • Scrub and squeegee all wall and floor surfaces with BIOSOLVE at a dilution of 1:100 for spraying or 1:50 for foaming.

    0
    0
  • The dilution caused by the addition of the cell suspension should not be considered in determining the potency titre.

    0
    0
  • The greater the protein breakdown, the more urea is created and therefore more water is required for dilution.

    0
    0
  • While some have been able to get away with it, others have been caught by savvy lab technicians who tested for the presence of detox products and dilution attempts.

    0
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  • You may weaken the vinegar through dilution with water and there are a variety of different formulas or recipes available, a few of which are outlined below.

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  • White wine dilution - Pour white wine on a red wine stain to dilute it.

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  • A titer is the serial dilution of antibodies (protein molecules or immunoglobulins produced by the immune system in response to specific disease agents) found in blood serum that determines their level of concentration.

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  • Titer-The highest dilution of a material (e.g., serum or other body fluid) that produces a reaction in an immunologic test system.

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  • It's important to keep the dance your own, however - while collaborative dance creation can work, it can also lead to intense frustration, wasted time, and the dilution of a certain person's vision of a dance through compromise.

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  • The forces between the ions of a strongly dissociated solution will thus be considerable at a dilution which makes forces between undissociated molecules quite insensible, and at the concentrations necessary to test Ostwald's formula an electrolyte will be far from dilute in the thermodynamic sense of the term, which implies no appreciable intermolecular or interionic forces.

    0
    1
  • In his second period he developed the theory of "potentiality" or dynamization - namely, that medicines gained in strength by being diluted, if the dilution was accompanied by shaking or pounding, which was supposed to "potentialize" or increase the potency of the medicine.

    0
    1
  • In dealing, therefore, with dilute solutions, it is only necessary to state that the solutions are dilute, the exact degree of dilution being unimportant.

    0
    2
  • It should be noted, however, that another cause would be competent to explain the unequal dilution of the two solutions.

    0
    2
  • If a solution, let us say of sugar, be confined in a closed vessel through the walls of It is probable that in both these solutions complex ions exist at fairly high concentrations, but gradually gets less in number and finally disappear as the dilution is increased.

    0
    2
  • Thus the osmotic pressure, or the depression of the freezing point of a solution of potassium chloride should, at extreme dilution, be twice the normal value, but of a solution of sulphuric acid three times that value, since the potassium salt contains two ions and the acid three.

    0
    2
  • The measurements of freezing points of solutions at the extreme dilution necessary to secure complete ionization is a matter of great difficulty, and has been overcome only in a research initiated by E.

    0
    2
  • The freezing point curve usually lies below the electrical one, but approaches it as dilution is increased.2 Returning once more to the consideration of the first relation, which deals with the comparison between the number of ions and the number of pressure-producing particles in dilute solution, one caution is necessary.

    0
    2
  • An explanation of the failure of the usual dilution law in these cases may be given if we remember that, while the electric forces between bodies like undissociated molecules, each associated with equal and opposite charges, will vary inversely as the fourth power of the distance, the forces between dissociated ions, each carrying one charge only, will be inversely proportional to the square of the distance.

    0
    2
  • In physical chemistry he carried out many researches on the nature and process of solution, investigating in particular the thermal effects produced by the dilution of saline solutions, the variation of the specific heat of saline solutions with temperature and concentration, and the phenomena of liquid diffusion.

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  • The terrible effects of fire-damp have led to the adoption of elaborate systems of ventilation, as the most effective safeguard against these explosions is the dilution and removal of the fire-damp as promptly and completely as possible.

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  • The British Guiana Planters' Association appointed a sub-committee to report to the West India Commission on the manufacture of sugar, who stated the following: With canes containing 12% fibre the following percentages of sugar are extracted from the canes in the form of juice: Single crushing 76% Double crushing 85% Double crushing with 12% dilution 88% Triple crushing with Io% dilution.

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  • The largest amount of alcohol that can be burnt up within the healthy body in twenty-four hours is 12 oz., but it must be consumed in great dilution and divided into small doses taken every four hours.

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  • It is insoluble in hydrochloric, nitric and sulphuric acids, but dissolves in aqua regia - a mixture of hydrochloric and nitric acids - and when very finely divided in a heated mixture of strong sulphuric acid and a little nitric acid; dilution with water, however, precipitates the metal as a violet or brown powder from this solution.

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  • Pettersson has made a careful study of ice melting as a motive power in oceanic circulation, and points out that it acts in two ways: on the surface it produces dilution of the water, forming a fresh layer and causing an outflow seaward of surface water with very low salinity; towards the deep water it produces a strong cooling effect, leading to increase of density and sinking of the chilled layers.

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  • It was also shown that exposure to light, dilution or exhaustion of the food-media, the presence of traces of poisons or metabolic products check growth or even bring it to a standstill; and the death or injury of any single cell in the filamentous series shows its effect on the curve by lengthening the doubling period, because its potential progeny have been put out of play.

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  • Their amount can be determined in a direct manner by exhausting the saponified mass, after dilution with water, with ether, evaporating the latter and weighing the amount of mineral oil left behind.

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  • The tincture should not be prescribed unless precautions are taken to avoid the precipitation of the resin which follows its dilution with water.

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  • The British Guiana Planters' Association appointed a sub-committee to report to the West India Commission on the manufacture of sugar, who stated the following: With canes containing 12% fibre the following percentages of sugar are extracted from the canes in the form of juice: Single crushing 76% Double crushing 85% Double crushing with 12% dilution 88% Triple crushing with Io% dilution.

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  • Their amount can be determined in a direct manner by exhausting the saponified mass, after dilution with water, with ether, evaporating the latter and weighing the amount of mineral oil left behind.

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  • The salts tabulated are those of which the equivalent conductivity reaches a limiting value indicating that complete ionization is reached as dilution is increased.

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  • At extreme dilution, when the ionization is complete, a variation in temperature cannot change its amount.

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  • The " pig and ore " or " Siemens " variety of the process works chiefly by oxidation, the " pig and scrap " or " Siemens-Martin " variety chiefly by dilution, sometimes indeed by extreme dilution, as when Io parts of cast iron are diluted with 90 parts of scrap. Both varieties may be carried out in the basic and dephosphorizing way, i.e.

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  • The green solution is readily converted into a pink one of permanganate by a large dilution with water, or by passing carbon dioxide through it: 3K2Mn04+2C02= 2K2C03+2KMn04+Mn02.

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