The part of the pancreas in digestion also is better understood.
Iron, therefore, may disorder the digestion even in healthy subjects.
But, as a body of exposition, it has the real unity which results from a mode of thinking homogeneous throughout and the general absence of such contradictions as would arise from an imperfect digestion of the subject.
Imperfect digestion is very often caused by defective teeth or by undue haste in eating, so that the food is bolted instead of being sufficiently masticated and insalivated.
The substance is very resistant to the action of chemical reagents, to digestion, and possibly belongs to the glyco-proteids.
They are stable towards aqueous alkalis, but on digestion with moist silver oxide yield the phosphonium hydroxides, which are stronger bases than the caustic alkalis.
None of the food is cooked over 115 degrees F, preserving the enzymes that give energy and aid digestion.
Columbium compounds are usually prepared by fusing columbite with an excess of acid potassium sulphate, boiling out the fused mass with much water, and removing tin and tungsten from the residue by digestion with ammonium sulphide, any iron present being simultaneously converted into ferrous sulphide.
In the physiological process of intestinal digestion, the precursors of such fats are split up into these two radicles.
The movements of bones and muscles were referred to the theory of levers; the process of digestion was regarded as essentially a process of trituration; nutrition and secretion were shown to be dependent upon the tension of the vessels, and so forth.
Thus the digestive function, in its largest sense, is now seen to consist, not only in preparation and supply, but in no small measure also of protective and antidotal conversions of the matters submitted to it; coincidently with agents of digestion proper are found in the circuit of normal digestion "anti-substances" which neutralize or convert peptones in their poisonous phases; an autochthonous ferment, such as rennet for instance, calling forth an anti-rennet, and so on.
Among the revisions may be adduced some addition to our knowledge of dyspepsia, attained by analytic investigations into the contents of the stomach at various stages of digestion, and by examining the passage of opaque substances through the primae vine by the Rntgen rays.
The conditions of diet and digestion in children are now far better understood, and many of their maladies, formerly regarded as organic or incomprehensible, are cured or prevented by dietetic rules.
The distillate is freed from vanadium by digestion with sodium amalgam.
Digestion is quick and much accelerated by the quantity of saliva which is secreted during the progress of deglutition, and in venomous snakes probably also by the chemical action of the poison.
In a 50% solution or stronger - as when neat whisky is taken - alcohol precipitates the pepsin which is an essential of gastric digestion, E.nd thereby arrests this process.
The smooth walls above the liquid afford no foothold, and they are drowned; their bodies are digested and the products of digestion are ultimately absorbed by the glands in the pitcher-wall.
Long digestion of the acid with excess of phosphorus pentachloride results in the formation of the acid chloride, C 6 (0001),, which crystallizes in needles, melting at 190° C. By heating the ammonium salt of the acid to 150-160° C. as long as ammonia is evolved, a mixture of CO paramide (mellimide), C6 (CO > NH) 3, and ammonium euchroate is obtained.
Commercial red lead is frequently contaminated with this oxide, which may, however, be removed by repeated digestion with lead acetate.
It follows that alcohol is a food in fever, and its value in this regard is greatly increased by the fact that it requires no primary digestion, but passes without changes, and without needing change, to the tissues which are to use it.
Syruporum universa ratio, &c. (Paris, 1537); four subsequent editions; latest, Venice, 1548 (six lectures on digestion; syrups treated in fifth lecture).
Its continued employment may, indeed, so injure the mucous membrane of the stomach as to interfere with digestion and so cause a morbid and dangerous reduction in weight.
If this exhalation is stopped or lessened the digestion in its turn is also stopped, the leaf remains longer than usual in the intestines, the microbes multiply, invading the whole body, and this brings about the sudden death which surprises the rearers.
It consisted of ethereal fire, and he was not subject to the ordinary phenomena of digestion, secretions and evacuations.
The melt is dissolved in water and the dyestuff is liberated from the sodium salt by hydrochloric or sulphuric acid, or is converted into the calcium salt by digestion with hot milk of lime, then filtered and the calcium salt decomposed by acid.
(After Darwin.) B, glands from surface of leaf (X300) by which the sticky liquid is secreted and by means of which the products of digestion are absorbed.
This single cavity and its lining serve apparently for all those functions (digestion, excretion, circulation and often reproduction) which in more complex organisms are distributed among various cavities of independent and often very diverse origin.
It often relieves hunger, by arresting the secretion of gastric j uice and the movements of the stomach and bowel,'* and it frequently upsets digestion from the same cause.
This means that the appetite is strengthened, and digestion rendered more rapid and complete.
The distillate was further purified by digestion with milk of lime, precipitation with water, and further digestion with calcium bromide and barium oxide, and was finally redistilled.
The digestion of fat or oil has not been adequately investigated, but its decomposition in germinating seeds has been found to be due to an enzyme, which has been called lipase.
In many cases the digestion of reserve food materials is effected by the direct action of the protoplasm, without the intervention of enzymes.
Albumoses and peptones are obtained by peptic digestion, the latter being termed pepticpeptones; tryptic digestion also produces peptones.
The food passes into these lobes, which may be found crowded with diatoms, and without doubt a large part of the digestion is carried on inside the liver.
The parasites, which cling to the intestinal mucous membrane, draw their nourishment from the blood-vessels of their host, and as they are found in hundreds in the body after death, the disorders of digestion, the increasing anaemia and the consequent dropsies and other cachectic symptoms are easily explained.
But he recognized, at least in acute diseases, a natural process which the humours went through - being first of all crude, then passing through coction or digestion, and finally being expelled by resolution or crisis through one of the natural channels of the body.
The health of the body depends upon the proper kind and supply of food, upon its proper digestion and absorption, on the proper metabolism or tissue-change in the body, and the proper excretion of waste.
The sap in these active tissues is alkaline, which has been interpreted as being in accordance with not appear to be concerned with digestion so directly as the others is pectase, which forms vegetable jelly from pectic substances occurring in the cell-wall.
There is some evidence that in this group the ectoderm of the oesophagus is chiefly concerned with digestion, whereas the endoderm of the intestine is limited to the absorption of the soluble products.
Thus the defects, whether of this secretion or of that, and again of motor activity, the state of the valvular junctions, the volume of the cavities, and their position in the abdomen, may be ascertained, and dealt with as far as may be; so that, although the fluctuations of chemical digestion are still very obscure, the application of remedies after a mere traditional routine is no longer excusable.
Haematemesis is vomiting of blood, the colour of which may be altered by digestion, as is also the case in melaena, or passage of blood with the faeces, in which the blood becomes dark and tarrylooking from the action of the intestinal fluids.
It possesses a strong ammoniacal smell, and on digestion with alcohol the carbamate is dissolved and a residue of ammonium bicarbonate is left; a similar decomposition taking place when the sesquicarbonate is exposed to air.
Thus Karl Christoph Vogt repeated the saying of the French physician Cabanis, " The brain is determined to thought as the stomach is to digestion, or the liver to the secretion of bile," in the form, " Thought stands in the same relation to the brain as the bile to the liver or the urine to the kidneys."
It has already been mentioned that water is absolutely necessary for the body: by taking it hot it does not lie like a weight on the stomach, and by taking it an hour before meals it washes out the remnants of the previous meal; and being absorbed into the blood, it probably renders the secretion of gastric juice freer and accelerates digestion, instead of diluting it and interfering with the digestive processes.
The reproductive individuals have undergone an extraordinary simplification of the organs concerned with the collection and digestion of food.
If the particle enveloped by the protoplasm be of an organic nature, such as a bacterium, it undergoes digestion, and ultimately becomes destroyed, and accordingly the term " phagocyte " is now in common use to indicate cells having the above properties.
Now as our own bodies thus manipulate substances poisonous and antidotal, if in every hour of health we are averting selfintoxication, so likewise are we concerned with the various intruding organisms, whose processes of digestion are as dangerous as our own; if these destructive agents, which no doubt are incessantly gaining admission to our bodies, do not meet within us each its appropriate compensatory defensive agent, dissolution will begin.
One of the great difficulties in the way of applying this treatment is that in all probability many of the ferments or enzymes are altered during the process of absorption in the same way as the normal ferments of digestion, and unless the tissue enzymes can be isolated and injected subcutaneously the desired results will not be obtained.
In some cases of chronic inflammation of the kidneys, where the disease is not extensive, the patient may continue in fair health for a number of years, provided attention be paid to the following rules: - (i) The body must be kept warm, and chills must be scrupulously avoided; (2) the digestion must be attended to carefully, so that no excess of poisonous bodies is formed in the intestine or absorbed from it; (3) eliminating channels such as the skin and bowel must be kept active.
It is reduced to metallic silver by certain metals - zinc, iron, &c. - in the presence of water, by fusion with alkaline carbonates or cyanides, by heating in a current of hydrogen, or by digestion with strong potash solution, or with potassium carbonate and grape sugar.
It has been well said of him in explanation of his success, that he lived eighty years and preserved his digestion unimpaired.
This amyloid substance is slowly and imperfectly digested by pepsin - digestion being more complete with trypsin and by autolytic enzymes.
In 1872, Hoppe-Seyler (1825-1895) gave a new beginning to our knowledge of the chemistry of secretion and of excretion; and later students have increased the range of physiological and pathological chemistry by investigations not only into the several stages of albuminoid material and the transitions which all foodstuffs undergo in digestion, but even into the structure of protoplasm itself.
E, F, result of digestion of cysticercus in the stomach of the dog.
In chronic disease and in health the use of alcohol as an aid to digestion is without the support of clinical or laboratory experience, the beneficial action being at least neutralized by undesirable effects produced elsewhere.
Here he first interpreted the process of digestion, which he proved to be no mere mechanical process of trituration, but one of actual solution, taking place primarily in the stomach, by the action of the gastric juice.
These are amoeboid cells and are extremely phagocytic, their power of digestion being greatly developed.
Thus, much of infection and immunity are proving to be but special cases of digestion, and teleological conceptions of protective processes are modified.
The stomach is globular, rather muscular, with a pair of tendinous centres like those of birds; its size is comparatively small, but the digestion is so rapid and powerful that every bone of the creature's prey is dissolved whilst still being stowed away in the wide and long gullet.
They are not merely digestive glands, but are sufficiently wide to act as receptacles of food, and in them the digestion of food proceeds just as in the axial portion of the canal.
The food thus reaches the stomach in large lumps which cannot be readily digested, and either remain there till they decompose and give rise to irritation in the stomach itself, or pass on to the intestine, where digestion is likewise incomplete, and the food is ejected without the proper amount of nourishment having been extracted from it; while at the same time the products of its decomposition may have been absorbed and acted as poisons, giving rise to lassitude, discomfort, headache, or perhaps even to irritability and sleeplessness.