Difficulties sentence example
I am sure these difficulties will take care of themselves.
Little by little, however, my difficulties began to disappear.
Difficulties, however, appeared immediately the parliament got to work.
It was used by him in his earliest observations of double stars (1779-1783); but, even in his hands, the measurements were comparatively crude, because of the difficulties he had to encounter from the want of a parallactic mounting.
The migrations must have always been dependent upon physical difficulties, such as waterless tracts or mountain barriers.Advertisement
The wild and inaccessible character of the country, the fierce and lawless disposition of the people, the difficulties presented by their language and their complex social institutions, and the inability of the Turkish authorities to afford a safe conduct in the remoter districts, combine to render Albania almost unknown to the foreign traveller, and many of its geographical problems still remain unsolved.
In spite of almost insuperable difficulties the colony took root, trade began, the fleet lay in wait for the Spanish treasure ships, the settlements of the Spaniards were raided, and their repeated attempts to retake the island were successfully resisted.
The way in which Miss Keller wrote her story shows, as nothing else can show, the difficulties she had to overcome.
To attach a clear and definite meaning to the Cartesian doctrine of God, to show how much of it comes from the Christian theology and how much from the logic of idealism, how far the conception of a personal being as creator and preserver mingles with the pantheistic conception of an infinite and perfect something which is all in all, would be to go beyond Descartes and to ask for a solution of difficulties of which he was 1 Ouvres, vi.
The difficulties with New Hampshire were adjusted in 1782, the west bank of the Connecticut being accepted as the final boundary, but New York refused to abandon her claims until 1790.Advertisement
We have already remarked that the difficulties of empiricism constitute the strength of intuitionalism.
I was beginning to overcome these difficulties when an event occurred which changed everything.
Only in the very highest circles were attempts made to keep in mind the difficulties of the actual position.
In 1889 the public debt of the republic amounted to about £24,000,000, but the financial difficulties which immediately followed that year, and the continuance of excessive expenditures, forced the debt up to approximately £128,000,000 during the next ten years.
On the other hand, serious difficulties arise if we assume that every animal sacrificed represents a deity; and even assuming that such a belief underlies the rite of animal sacrifice, a modification of the belief must have been introduced when such sacrifices became a common rite resorted to on every occasion when a deity was to be approached.Advertisement
To overcome these difficulties the " branching multiple " was introduced.
But the affairs of the firm were then in a desperate condition, and money difficulties hastened his father's death.
The following chapter catalogs the difficulties inherent in trying to end war, which in the past brought misery and destruction and in the future could bring annihilation.
It is necessary to notice, however, that although the general course of the stream of life is certain, there is not the same certainty as to the actual individual pedigrees of the existing forms. In the attempts to place existing creatures in approximately phylogenetic order, a striking change, due to a more logical consideration of the process of evolution, has become established and is already resolving many of the earlier difficulties and banishing from the more recent tables the numerous hypothetical intermediate forms so familiar in the older phylogenetic trees.
Difficulties arising from the various ownerships of the ground prevented the accomplishment of this scheme.Advertisement
It may at other times lead to great difficulties in the supply of the gaseous constituents which are used in the manufacture of food.
But Valerian, well aware of the dangers and difficulties attaching to the office at such a time, declined the responsibility.
To the east of Cape Chelyuskin the Russians encountered greater difficulties.
Subdivision of the continental portion is beset with great difficulties, and none of the numerous attempts have proved long-lived.
He became very expensive in his habits, fell at times into difficulties, and had to urge his valid claims upon the marquis's attention.Advertisement
Intolerant reliance upon force presents greater difficulties to them; soon it grows quite obsolete.
In middle Russia the winters are both longer and harder, and agriculture is consequently carried on under greater difficulties.
What added to the practical difficulties of this arrangement was that the post of grand-prince was not an hereditary dignity in the sense of descending from father to son, but was always to be held by the senior member of the dynasty; and in the subordinate principalities the same principle of succession was applied, so that reigning princes had to be frequently shifted about from one district to another, according as they could establish the strongest claim to vacant principalities.
For this decision there were good reasons, for those turbulent sons of the steppe paid no taxes and were much given to brigandage, and their raiding propensities occasionally created international difficulties with the khan of the Crimea and the sultan of Turkey.
As a result of these difficulties there has been, both in the United Kingdom and in the United States, a progressive increase of legislative interference with railways.
The engines were built on the Worsdell and Von Borries plan, and were fitted with an ingenious startingvalve of an automatic character to overcome the difficulties of starting.
According to the light railway commissioners, experience satisfied them (a) that light railways were much needed in many parts of the country and that many of the lines proposed, but not constructed, were in fact necessary to admit of the progress, and even the maintenance, of existing trade interests; and (b) that improved means of access were requisite to assist in retaining the population on the land, to counteract the remoteness of rural districts, and also, in the neighbourhood of industrial centres, to cope with the difficulties as to housing and the supply of labour.
They pointed out that while during the first five years the act was in force there were 315 applications for orders, during the second five years there were only 142 applications, and that proposals for new lines had become less numerous owing to the various difficulties in carrying them to a successful completion and to the difficulty of raising the necessary capital even when part of it was provided with the aid of the state and of the local authorities.
It is with a full knowledge of these difficulties in the way of investigation that they maintain that unmistakably genuine phenomena are of constant occurrence.
Terms of peace were arranged, but at the last moment difficulties arose and the treaty was abandoned; and in October 1119 both emperor and anti-pope were excommunicated at a synod held at Reims. The journey of Calixtus to Rome early in 1120 was a triumphal march.
Immediately after his coronation, he hastened to his newly won territories, accompanied by the principal civil and ecclesiastical dignitaries of Denmark, and was solemnly acknowledged lord of Northalbingia (the district lying between the Eider and the Elbe) at Lubeck, Otto IV., then in difficulties, voluntarily relinquishing all German territory north of the Elbe to Valdemar, who in return recognized Otto as German emperor.
The three powers thereupon sent a commission to Samoa to investigate and adjust the difficulties.
In the great majority of cases the chronology of their composition, as far as the year is concerned, presents no difficulties; more precise assignments are mainly conjectural.
Though he had been opposed to the acquisition of the Philippines, he did not believe that the inhabitants were capable of selfgovernment, and he foresaw some of the difficulties of the position.
In spite of the difficulties, however, there is no doubt that a great deal can be done to reduce, if not stamp out, malaria by the methods indicated, which should be applied according to circumstances.
In order to meet the universal discontent and the financial difficulties constitutional government was introduced; a parliament was established in which all races of the empire were represented, and in place of centralized despotism was established Liberal centralization under Schmerling and the German Liberals.
The critical examination of the nature and growth of this compilation has removed much that had formerly caused insuperable difficulties and had quite unnecessarily been made an integral or a relevant part of practical religion.
The account of Josephus (above) raises several difficulties, especially the identity of Bagoses.
And if the work of criticism has brought a fuller appreciation of the value of these facts, the debt which is owed to the Jews is enhanced when one proceeds to realize the immense difficulties against which those who transmitted the Old Testament had to contend in the period of Greek domination.
It soon became evident, however, that the Porte was endeavouring to obstruct the execution of the new reforms. Several months passed without any step being taken towards this realization; difficulties were raised with regard to the composition of the international commissions charged with the reorganization of the gendarmery and judicial system; intrigues were set on foot against the Christian governorgeneral; and the presence of a special imperial commissioner, who had no place under the constitution, proved so injurious to the restoration of tranquillity that the powers demanded his immediate recall.
An ardent anti-renter in his boyhood and youth, he wrote A History of Delaware County and the Border Wars of New York, containing a Sketch of the Early Settlements in the County, and A History of the Late Anti-Rent Difficulties in Delaware (Roxbury, 1856).
This history, as we now have it, is extracted from various sources of unequal value, which are fitted together in a way which offers considerable difficulties to the critic. In the history of David's early adventures, for example, the narrative is not seldom disordered, and sometimes seems to repeat itself with puzzling variations of detail, which have led critics to the unanimous conclusion that the First Book of Samuel is drawn from at least two sources.
There are gaps in the narratives, and the further back we proceed the more serious do their difficulties become.
He further showed himself helpful in arranging difficulties which at times arose in connexion with the lesser chiefs of his province.
The peshwa had fallen into grave difficulties with some of the principal members of the Mahratta confederation.
The cultivation of the soil is, however, attended in many parts with great difficulties owing to the scanty rainfall and the very primitive implements still in use, and in the valley of the Kura heavy losses are frequently incurred from depredations by locusts.
Labour difficulties, low prices of produce, bad seasons and similar causes provided inducements for leaving the land in grass for two years, or over three years or more, before breaking it up for wheat.
It was characteristic of the closeness with which he watched current events, and of his zeal in the cause of "lucidity," that when the Reader, an organ of science and unpartisan opinion, fell into difficulties in 1865 Mill joined with some distinguished men of science and letters in an effort to keep it afloat.
After all, it is only a question of probabilities, and the difficulties of fitting a wife and child into the story seem to be very great, whether we conceive them left behind by Demetrius in Italy, or sent out of the country before him.
It must be remembered also that economic work in modern times is carried on by consciously or unconsciously associated effort, and although it must always require high qualities of judgment, capacity and energy, many of the difficulties which at first sight appear so insuperable give way when they are attacked.
Every manor composing these great fiefs was likely to be affected by the policy or the character of the administration of the feudal lord, and he, again, by the policy or the difficulties, the strength or the weakness, of the central government.
But at this stage in historical investigation it is generally the want of evidence of a sufficiently complete and continuous character, rather than difficulties of method, which forces us to leave the problem unsolved.
But every genuine attempt to overcome its difficulties brings us into closer touch with the period we are examining; and though we may not be able to throw our conclusions into the form of large generalizations, we shall get to know something of the operation of the forces which determined the economic future of England; understand more clearly than our forefathers did, for we have more information than they could command, and a fuller appreciation of the issues, the broad features of English development, and be in a position to judge fairly well of the measures they adopted in their time.
If the necessary limitations of general economic theory are recognized, most of the difficulties we have noticed disappear.
The scientific study of practical problems and difficulties is (generally speaking, and with honourable exceptions) far more advanced in almost every civilized country than it is in England, where the limited scale upon which such work is carried on, the indifference of statesmen, officials and business men, and the incapacity of the public to understand the close relation between scientific study and practical success, contrast very unfavourably with the state of affairs in Germany or the United States.
It thus became the work of economic science ruthlessly to analyse the existing situation, explain the issues involved in the commercial policy of different countries, and point out the alternative methods of dealing with present difficulties, with their probable results.
The great increase in recent years in British military and naval expenditure, made necessary by the exceptional demands of a state of war and the great development of foreign powers, was partly responsible for the new difficulties; partly it was due to the great extension of the functions of the state during the latter part of the 19th century.
Amongst other princes whose liberal presents enabled him to combat his pecuniary difficulties, was one Rustam, son of Fakhr Addaula, the Dailamite, who sent him a thousand gold pieces in acknowledgment of a copy of the episode of Rustam and Isfendiar which Firdousi had sent him, and promised him a gracious reception if he should ever come to his court.
In October 1559 they made an unsuccessful attack on Leith and the seizure of an English convoy on the way to their army by James Hepburn, earl of Bothwell, increased their difficulties.
This distinction was already current in the catechetical school of Alexandria, but Origen gave it its boldest expression, and justified it on the ground of the incapacity of the Christian masses to grasp the deeper sense of Scripture, or unravel the difficulties of exegesis.
This was unjust to the many men who were working, not without success, to raise the Republic out of its many difficulties.
In the old provinces of France Napoleon's indomitable will overcame all difficulties of a material kind.
The fascinating difficulties presented to the student by the metamorphosis of the Hexapoda are to some extent explained, as he ponders over the evolution of the class.
The local drawbacks and difficulties once surmounted, Venice by her geographical position became the seaport nearest the heart of Europe.
Owing to the marshy site the foundations of buildings in Venice offered considerable difficulties.
But it is not till we come to the opening of the next century that Venice definitely acquired land possessions and found herself committed to all the difficulties and intricacies of Italian mainland politics.
Venice was soon made to feel the consequences of having become a mainland power, the difficulties entailed by holding possessions which others coveted, and the weakness of a land frontier.
In the case of small plantations the difficulties of adjusting a right-of-way for outlet ditches have interfered seriously with this plan.
The general difficulties in the way of the British Cotton Growing Association are many and will be sufficiently evident.
The miracles recorded of Elijah and Elisha lie somewhat apart from the main currents of the history, the narratives themselves are distinct from the historical works in which they have been incorporated, and the character of some of the actions raises serious doubts and difficulties.
Apt to minimize difficulties, to search for the common ground of unity in opponents, he turned aside, with a disdain which superficial critics often mistook for indifference, from the base, the violent and the common.
Nor were any great difficulties with the Church to hamper the growth of this kingdom.
Already at the final meeting at E.tampes, in 1147, difficulties arose.
Starting from Regensburg in May 1189, the German army marched quietly through Hungary; but difficulties arose, as they had arisen in 1147, as soon as the frontiers of the Eastern empire were reached.
The difficulties which had arisen between Isaac Angelus and Frederick Barbarossa contain the germs of the Fourth Crusade; the negotiations between Richard and Saladin contain the germs of the Sixth.
John of Beirut, like many of the Cypriot barons, was also a baron of the kingdom of Jerusalem; and resistance in the one kingdom could only produce difficulties in the other.
Difficulties quickly arose when Frederick, in 1231, sent Marshal Richard to Syria as his legate.
The land is poor in minerals, including coal; water-power also is deficient, so that the introduction of European industries is attended with difficulties even apart from the insecurity of affairs, which forbids such experiments as the improvement of agriculture by means of European capital.
Opposition from a master potter of the district, who threatened to put the Conventicle Act in force, was overcome, but more serious difficulties were presented by the antagonism of the Wesleyan Methodist circuit authorities.
His first difficulties were with Thomas of Bayeux, archbishopelect of York, who asserted that his see was independent of Canterbury and claimed jurisdiction over the greater part of midland England.
Amid many difficulties, and thwarted even by Jefferson himself in the matter of the navy, Gallatin pushed on; and after six years the public debt was decreased (in spite of the Louisiana purchase) by $14,260,000, a large surplus was on hand, a comprehensive and beneficent scheme of internal improvements was ready for execution, and the promised land seemed in sight.
Commercial warfare failed, the Embargo was repealed, and Jefferson, having entangled foreign relations and brought the country to the verge of civil war, retired to private life, leaving to his successor Madison, and to Gallatin, the task of extricating the nation from its difficulties.
These difficulties are met by the assumption that the semicircular masonry formed the base of a retaining-wall which rose to a considerable height, supporting a theatre-like structure capable of seating many thousand persons.
In any case the proposal was well received at Paris both by Napoleon and by his ministers; and though there were difficulties respecting the divorce, of Josephine, yet these were surmounted in a way satisfactory to the emperor and the prelates of Austria.
To the difficulties caused by disaster, depopulation and maladministration there was added the danger of foreign invasion when war broke out in Europe between Francis I.
The formation of this substance readily follows from Kekule's formula, while considerable difficulties are met with when one attempts an explanation based on Ladenburg's representation.
Wagner laid the first stone of this in 1872, and the edifice was completed, after almost insuperable difficulties, in 1876.
But it is much more likely that Wagner would then have found his artistic difficulties too formidable to let the ideas descend to us from Walhalla and the Hall of the Grail at all.
But the more serious difficulties which to many minds still stand in the way of the acceptance of the epistle have come from the developed phase of Pauline theology which it shows, and from the general background and atmosphere of the underlying system of thought, in which the absence of the well-known earlier controversies is remarkable, while some things suggest the thought of John and a later age.
The ferry-man of Ut-Napishtim brings him safely through these waters, despite the difficulties and dangers of the voyage, and at last the hero finds himself face to face with Ut-Napishtim.
By the union of great moral qualities with high, though not the highest, intellectual faculties, he carried the Indian empire safely through the stress of the storm, and, what was perhaps a harder task still, he dealt wisely with the enormous difficulties arising at the close of such a war, established a more liberal policy and a sounder financial system, and left the people more contented than they were before.
He accordingly raised the question of its apostolic origin; and by reviving old difficulties, with ingenious arguments of his own, he carried his point.
Nay more, the difficulties of all kinds against which Eugenius had to contend, the insurrection at Rome, which forced him to escape by the Tiber, lying in the bottom of a boat, left him at first little chance of resisting the enterprises of the council.
Overcoming in a remarkable manner the difficulties of operating in the dry season, Colonel Swayne harried the mullah incessantly, and followed him across the Haud into the more fertile region of Mudug in Italian territory, permission so to do being granted by Italy.
Wesley needed help, for he was beset by difficulties.
But two difficulties face the would-be excavator in Alexandria.
The narrative presents a number of difficulties, which early commentators sought to solve with more ingenuity than success.
There are difficulties, however, in framing a satisfactory definition.
Sir Alfred Milner reached the Cape in May 1897, and after the difficulties with President Kruger over the Aliens' Law had been patched up he was free by August to make himself personally acquainted with the country and peoples before deciding on the lines of policy to be adopted.
His difficulties were increased when at the general election in Cape Colony the Bond obtained a majority.
Experience in South Africa had shown him that underlying the difficulties of the situation there was the wider problem of imperial unity.
It encountered many difficulties, and until the definite proof of the stegomyia hypothesis of yellowfever inoculation made by the United States army surgeons in Cuba in 1900, the greatest problem seemed insoluble.
In 1891 the lynching of eleven Italians at New Orleans gave rise to grave difficulties involving Italy, the United States, and the state of Louisiana.
His worst difficulties were with the working men themselves, among whom he met the most discouraging apathy.
The line was designed, surveyed and constructed by Turkish engineers - employing Ottoman navvies and labourers - in a highly efficient and economical manner, the average cost per mile having been £3230, although considerable engineering difficulties had to be overcome, especially in the construction of the Haifa branch.
The Budget is now published in full detail and that for the year 1326 (1910-1911), with the explanatory memorandum which prefaces it, is an admirable work, mercilessly exposing the financial shortcomings and sins of the previous system, or rather want of system, while unshrinkingly facing the difficulties which the present government has inherited.
After pointing out the immense difficulties which he had had to encounter owing to the absence of any regular accounts, and above all of any of " those statistics which constitute the soul, indeed the very life of a public administration," and that it was therefore impossible for him to pretend that he had been able to free himself altogether from the effects of the past, the minister continues, " every time we have endeavoured to have recourse to the previous elements of appreciation, we found ourselves faced by the chaos which characterized former years.
Meanwhile the Young Turks were confronted with many difficulties within the empire.
In view of these difficulties, the opinion which tended to assure the success of one at least of the great tasks before the council, viz.
Exhaustive orders to organize the necessary trains were duly issued, but the emperor seems to have had no conception of the difficulties the tracks - there were no metalled roads - of Poland were about to present to him.
On the 23rd of December operations were commenced, but the difficulties of securing information and maintaining communication between the respective columns, so unlike what any of the French had previously encountered, led to a very partial success.
The new archbishop, without being one of the English divines who have made notable contributions to theological learning, already had a great reputation for ecclesiastical statesmanship; and in subsequent years his diplomatic abilities found ample scope in dealing not only with the difficulties caused in the church by doctrinal questions, but pre-eminently with the education crisis, and with the new problems arising in the enlarged Anglican Communion.
In the case of all these substances the quantities involved are so very small, and the difficulties of estimation are therefore so great, that the information we possess is by no means satisfactory.
Wellington had also difficulties of a similar kind with his own government, and also the Spanish soldiers, in revenge for many French outrages, had become guilty of grave excesses in France, so that Wellington took the extreme step of sending 25,000 of them back to Spain and resigning the command of their army, though his resignation was subsequently withdrawn.
His was evidently an intensely spiritual nature, and in addition to the qualities which go to form a strong man of action he must have possessed an enthusiasm which enabled him to surmount all difficulties.
It must be remembered that, the so utions not being of quite the same strength, these numbers are not strictly comparable, and that the experimental difficulties involved in the chemical measurements are considerable.
Difficulties in the supply of labour in the East may hinder the further development of the rubber-planting industry, especially at a period when a reduction in the cost of production may be the chief problem.
The general theory of the resultant of k homogeneous equations in k variables presents no further difficulties when viewed in this manner.
Each of these three theories 2 encounters difficulties of detail; none can be said to have secured a dominant position.
Stevenson (The Expositor, 1902) states clearly the difficulties for those who regard ch.
At Abuzabel, near Cairo, he founded a hospital and schools for all branches of medical instruction, as well as for the study of the French language; and, notwithstanding the most serious religious difficulties, instituted the study of anatomy by means of dissection.
There is a large staff of inspectors constantly visiting the various parts of the watershed, and in spite of many difficulties arising from vested interests, the work of purification is attaining completion, with a correspondingly great improvement in the quality of the river water.
Complaints of the obstructions in it are not uncommon, and John Taylor, the Water Poet (1580-1653), in a poem commemorating a voyage from Oxford to London, bewails the difficulties he found on the passage.
But the age was incurably suspicious of attempts to deal with such difficulties on any kind of technical system.
The difficulties in the way of solving it are very great, and up to the present time the best authorities are not agreed as to the result, the effect of half a century of research having been merely to reduce the uncertainty within continually narrower limits.
Owing to the difficulties inherent in determining the position of so faint an object among a great number of stars, the results have taken about ten years to work out.
The difficulties attending the experimental investigation of the forces acting between magnetic poles have already been referred to, and indeed a rigorously exact determination of the mutual action could only be made under conditions which are in practice unattainable.
After arranging at Hue with the king of Annam the condition of the French protectorate, he proceeded to Shanghai to settle with China the difficulties which had arisen over the evacuation of Tongking by the Chinese troops.
The officers in the council, moreover, showed jealousy of the civil members, and to settle these difficulties and to provide money a parliament was summoned on the 27th of January 1659, which declared Richard protector, and incurred the hostility of the army by criticizing severely the arbitrary military government of Oliver's last two years, and by impeaching one of the major-generals.
After the Restoration, Charles II., being in money difficulties, sold it to the French king Louis XIV., who fortified it.
An inland parcel post was in operation long before the overthrow of the monarchy, and a similar service with Portugal has been successfully maintained for a number of years, notwithstanding the difficulties interposed by customs regulations.
This is principally due to the cost and difficulties of transporting timbers to the coast.
But home difficulties and financial necessities prevented the West India Company from sending adequate reinforcements from Holland.
Two great difficulties stood in the way of steering the country to prosperity.
The difficulties in the reorganization of the finances of the state, which Dr Campos Salles had to face on his accession to Reforms power, were very great.
There had for a long period been difficulties with France with regard to the territory which lay between the mouth of the Amazon and Cayenne or French Guiana.
In Scott's early days a journey to London was beset with difficulties and even dangers; but railways have now brought it within a few hours' distance, and Scottish artists and literary men are tempted to seek a wider field.
The political difficulties caused by the marriage were more serious.
Meanwhile the government had also to contend with difficulties outside the walls.
The difficulties he encountered in producing it were very great, for the foundations had been ill-prepared b3 his predecessors, and he was obliged to be artisan and architect at the same time.
But in spite of this unprecedented blaze of dramatic genius the theatre fell into pecuniary difficulties, and had to be closed, Holberg composing for the last night's performance, in February 1727, a Funeral of Danish Comedy.
This was called the argument of the homo Socraticus; and it appears to have been with the view of obviating such time and space difficulties, emphasized in the criticism of Abelard, that William latterly modified his form of expression.
The inherent difficulties of Realism led to a J variety of attempts to reach a more satisfactory formula.
But the difficulties which embarrassed a former age in trying to conceive the mode in which the universal exists in the individual reappear in the systems of the present period as the problem of the principium individuationis.
From one abstraction they are led to another, to solve the difficulties which are created by the realization of the first.
Immediately after this proclamation Gdrgei disappeared with his army among the hills of Upper Hungary, and, despite the difficulties of a phenomenally severe winter and the constant pursuit of vastly superior forces, fought his way down to the valley of Hernad - and safety.
The question of Italian unity had no sooner been settled than the question of The German unity arose, and fresh international difficulties Austro- once more inclined the Austrian government towards moderation and concession.
Reference to a geometrical interpretation seems at first sight to throw light on the meaning of a differential coefficient; but closer analysis reveals new difficulties, due to the geometrical interpretation itself.
One of the most recent developments of algebra is the algebraic theory of number, which is devised with the view of removing these difficulties.
But, as applied to lower and more obscure forms of life, teleology presented alfnost insurmountable difficulties; and consequently, in place of exact experiment and demonstration, the most reckless though ingenious assumptions were made as to the utility of the parts and organs of lower animals.
It renders the task a more complicated one; at the same time it removes some serious difficulties and throws a flood of light on every group of the animal kingdom.
In the application to sound, where we know what we are dealing with, the matter is simple enough in principle, although mathematical difficulties would often stand in the way of the calculations we might wish to make.
This simplification was attended by a great saving of light, allowing measures to be taken such as would otherwise have presented great difficulties.
Problems not limited to two dimensions, such for example as the shadow of a circular disk, present great difficulties, and have not hitherto been treated by a rigorous method; but there is no reason to suppose that Fresnel's results would be departed from materially.
The infantry, meeting with great difficulties in its crossing of the Riet at Waterval owing to the country and its own unwieldy transport, followed 12 to 2 days later.
This work of reconstruction was carried out in face of many difficulties other than those inherent to the undertaking.
The Bolivian tin ore is treated by first extracting the silver by amalgamation, &c., and afterwards concentrating the residues; there are, however, considerable difficulties in the way of treating the poorer of these very complex ores, and several chemical processes for extracting their metallic contents have been worked out.
Natural as the feeling against disintegration may be, the difficulties in the way of admitting the unity of chaps.
That the Pharaoh's skirt, sometimes decorated with a pleated golden material, should become an honorific garment, the right of wearing which was proudly recorded among the bearer's titles, is quite intelligible, but many difficulties arise when one attempts to identify the individuals represented, or to trace the evolution of ideas.2 The well-known conservatism of religious practice manifests itself in ceremonial festivals (where there is a tendency for the original religious meaning to be obscured) and among cere= the priests, and it is interesting to observe that despite the great changes in Egyptian costume in the New Kingdom the priests still kept to the simple linen skirt of earlier days (Erman, 206).
The year 1907 was marked by the repudiation of the debt to Belgium, and fresh difficulties with the United States.
Livy's account of the siege, too, is full of topographical difficulties (Lupus, 214 sqq.).
After some difficulties he had his first book, the Meditations, poetiques et religieuses, published (1820).
Notwithstanding the inherent difficulties of construction caused by the great variations in the level of the stream, amounting sometimes to 20 ft.
In this he was successful, although the advent of the Boer War of1899-1902created new difficulties with the Liberal Imperialists.
But he had great difficulties with two of his chief works which were ready to appear, Charles XII.
The view originated by Gomme certainly explains many difficulties in the history of the transition from Roman to English London, which have hitherto been overlooked by historians.
Owing to difficulties of transport it was the beginning of June before Newdigate was ready to advance.
The special difficulties which attend deep mining, in addition to the problems of hoisting ore and raising water from great depths, are the increase of temperature of the rocks and the pressure of the overlying strata.
The troops detailed for " Y " beach had also got into serious difficulties, and as it turned out they had to be withdrawn next morning.
Moreover, the difficulties in the way of supposing that the author of Acts could at an earlier period of his life have been a companion of St Paul do not seem to be so serious as some critics think.
It is impossible to describe this machinery within the limits of this article, but it is notable that the principal difficulties to be overcome arise from the necessity of providing the glass with a perfectly continuous and unyielding support to which it can be firmly attached but from which it can be detached without undue difficulty.
The technical difficulties to which Dr Petrie has called attention seem to admit of a somewhat less heroic explanation.
Enactments about the pursuit of thieves, and the calling in of warrantors to justify sales of chattels, are other expressions of the difficulties attending peaceful intercourse.
For further details regarding the formation of Sumerian and Babylonian-Assyrian proper names, as well as for an indication of the problems involved and the difficulties still existing, especially in the case of Sumerian names,' see the three excellent works now at our disposal for the Sumerian, the old Babylonian, and the neoBabylonian period respectively, by Huber, Die Personennamen den Keilschrifturkunden aus der Zeit der Konige von Ur and Nisin (Leipzig, 1907); Ranke, Early Babylonian Proper Names (Philadelphia, 1905); and Tallqvist, Neu-Babylonisches Namenbuch (Helsingfors, 1905).
The identification of the northern and southern Hittites, however, presents certain difficulties not yet fully explained; and it seems that we must assume Heth to have been the name both of a country in the north and of a tribal population not confined to that country.
Object and Contents of Apocalyptic. - The object of this literature in general was to solve the difficulties connected with the righteousness of God and the suffering condition of His righteous servants on earth.
But this connexion was not found to obtain as a rule in life, and the difficulties arising from this conflict between promise and experience centred round the lot of the righteous as a community and the lot of the righteous man as an individual.
Hence to harmonize such difficulties with belief in God's righteousness, it had to take account of the role of such empires in the counsels of God, the rise; duration and downfall of each in turn, till finally the lordship of the world passed into the hands of Israel, or the final judgment arrived.
His father, remembering his own early difficulties, bestowed special care on his son's education, and sent him in his twelfth year to Mr Bruce's school in Percy Street, Newcastle, where he remained about four years.
On account of the difficulties of the situation he resigned it in 1827, and returned to England via New York in company with Richard Trevithick, whom he, had met in a penniless condition at Cartagena.
If the zinc is present as blende, this operation offers considerable difficulties, because in the roasting process the zinc sulphide passes in the first instance into sulphate, which demands a high temperature for its conversion into oxide.
The deposition of pure zinc is beset with many difficulties.
It was on Humboldt's advice that he determined to become a teacher of chemistry, but difficulties stood in his way.
It was the advent of the Carolingian princes and the difficulties which they had to overcome that carried these institutions a stage further forward.
It gave rise to the numerous precariae verbo regis, of the Church records, and to the condemnation of Charles Martel in the visions of the clergy to worse difficulties in the future life than he had overcome in this.
The difficulties in the way of travelling in Arabia with a view to scientific investigation are such that little or nothing is being done, and the systematic work which has given such good results in Egypt, Palestine and Babylonia-Assyria is unknown in Arabia.
Though he sometimes glided lightly over difficulties, his work is of service in fixing the text of Tabari.
Energetic and successful though the scattered trading settlements had been in establishing German trade connexions and in securing valuable trade privileges, the middle of the 14th century found them powerless to meet difficulties arising from internal dissension and still more from the political rivalries and trade jealousies of nascent nationalities.
Their violent anti-Magyar attitude has driven away a certain amount of Hungarian custom, and helped to increase the political difficulties of the cis-Leithan government.
He displayed great energy in facing the difficulties of a turbulent situation, but was unsuccessful.
It was not so much the value of Tacna and Arica that put difficulties in the way of a settlement as the fact that the national pride of the Peruvians ill brooked the idea of permanently losing all claim to this section of country.
An agreement was proposed between Peru and Ecuador in connexion with the limits of the respective republics, but difficulties were created to prevent this proposal from becoming an accomplished fact by the pretensions put forward by Colombia.
Grant was ill-fitted for coping with the difficulties of such a situation.
Further, pecuniary difficulties, from which he never long managed to keep himself free, by delaying his marriage, added to his depression.
On peace being concluded in 1391, the town had to pay 12,562 florins, and this brought it into great financial difficulties.
Though he took a part in the work of the reconquest, this king is chiefly remembered by the difficulties into which his successive marriages led him with the pope.
But his career there was in 1832 suddenly cut short by difficulties growing out of the " regium donum," which had on the death of the senior minister fallen to him.
The ascent of Fuji presents no difficulties.
The difficulties that confront an Occidental who attempts to learn Japanese are enormous.
Owari abounds in porcelain stone; but it does not occur in constant or particularly simple forms, and as the potters have not yet learned to treat their materials scientifically, their work is often marred by unforeseen difficulties.
The industry was threatened with extinction, and would certainly have dwindled to insignificant dimensions had not a few earnest artists, working in the face of many difficulties and discouragements, succeeded in striking out new lines and establishing new standar4s for excellence.
Great difficulties attended the movements of private persons.
Such engineering difficulties presented themselves, however, that the coast route was ultimately chosen, and though the line through the interior was subsequently constructed, strategical considerations were not allowed completely to govern its direction.
This is illustrated by the difficulties inherent in the conception of Cause, Space, Time, Matter, Motion, the Infinite, and the Absolute, and by the" relativity of knowledge,"which precludes knowledge of the Unknowable, since" all thinking is relationing."Yet the Unknowable may exist, and we may even have an" indefinite knowledge "of it, positive, though vague and extralogical.
Hence both science and religion must come to recognize as the" most certain of all facts that the Power which the Universe manifests to us is utterly inscrutable."Thus to be buried side by side in the Unknowable constitutes their final reconciliation, as it is the refutation of irreligion which consists of" a lurking doubt whether the Incomprehensible is really incomprehensible."Such are the foundations of Spencer's metaphysic of the Unknowable, to which he resorts in all the fundamental difficulties which he subsequently encounters.
While the result must be held to prove that he was right, he prepared future difficulties for himself by the fury of his language.
During the war with Denmark he had his first military experience, being attached to the staff of Marshal von Wrangel; he performed valuable service in arranging the difficulties caused by the disputes between the field marshal and the other officers, and was eventually given a control over him.
The bill failed to become law and in consequence of financial difficulties the project had not, up to 1910, advanced beyond the stage of consideration.
The treachery of a foreign guide also added to his difficulties.
But the attempt to interpret, in terms of this Asiatic diagram, the actual distribution of dialects and peoples in European Greece, led to difficulties.
The initial difficulties of setting up an administrative machine on national lines were the greater as the troops of the occupying Power, affected by the revolution which had broken out in Germany, engaged in pillage and highway robbery, which a national militia as yet barely armed had to suppress.
His associations with his principals were unhappy; the expedition was beset by many difficulties, and finally La Condamine separated from the rest and made his way from Quito down the Amazon, ultimately reaching Cayenne.
One of the greatest difficulties in the treatment of gold by amalgamation, and more particularly in the treatment of pyrites, arises from the so-called " sickening " or " flouring " of the mercury; that is, the particles, losing their bright metallic surfaces, are no longer capable of coalescing with or taking up other metals.
Leslie, however, who, was himself in difficulties on his post among the bare hills, and was perhaps subjected to pressure from civil authorities, descended from the heights on the 2nd of September and began to edge towards his right, in order first to confront, and afterwards to surround, his opponent.
Against these difficulties he struggled with characteristic obstinacy.
The superb historical monograph composed under such difficulties was published in 1851.
In spite of the difficulties of communication with the interior, and the malarial marshes which surround the town, it has become important for the export of grain (chiefly maize).
On the latter view, which finds its main support in the intrinsic difficulties of the narrative, it is scarcely possible to avoid the conclusion that the chapter is one of the latest additions to the Pentateuch (Wellhausen and many others)."
Apart from chronological difficulties, the identification of the king and his country is far from certain, and at the most can only be regarded as possible.
A naval officer was placed over the police to diminish difficulties with the naval authorities and sailors.
Strickland preferred legislation to the covering up of difficulties by governors' licences and appeals to incongruous precedents.
The "protocol king," as Christian was sometimes called, ascended the throne on Frederick's death in November 1863, and was at once faced by formidable difficulties.
Within the narrowed limits of his kingdom Christian's difficulties were more protracted and hardly less serious.
Even after the adoption in Europe of the Christian era, a great variety of methods of dating - national, provincial and ecclesiastical - grew up and prevailed for a long time in different countries, thus renewing in modern times the difficulties experienced in ancient times from diversities of reckoning.
Of course this work was not accomplished in a day or in a year, but, considering the difficulties to be overcome, it was carried forward with marvellous expedition.
It was hoped that the assembly of the attacking troops in the restricted zone opposite the crossing point, the rapid bridging of the dry canal, and the pushing forward of guns to cover the farther advance, and of reinforcements, ammunition and supplies to support it, could all be carried out with the necessary speed and security, although the difficulties to be faced were very great and the possible causes of contretemps numerous.
Initiated from childhood in all the arts of diplomacy at what was then the focus of civilization, and as much a warrior by nature as his imperial kinsman Manuel, Bela showed himself from the first fully equal to all the difficulties of his peculiar position.
To the south the road from Herat to India through Kandahar lies across an open plain, which presents no great engineering difficulties, but is of a somewhat waterless and barren character.
In this war Artaxerxes is said to have distinguished himself personally (380 B.C.), but got into such difficulties in the wild country that he was glad when Tiribazus succeeded in concluding a peace with the Cadusian chieftains.
Still more ominously, the elector of Brandenburg, perceiving Sweden to be in difficulties, joined the league against her and compelled Charles to accept the proffered mediation of Cromwell and Mazarin.
The never-ending Parthian problem confronted him, and with it were more or less connected a number of minor difficulties.
The early difficulties of Elizabeth's reign secured him a deceitful peace on that side for a time.
The chronological difficulties will be seen from xiii.
Fraunhofer, however, did not execute this wish, on the ground that the mechanical difficulties were too great.
These chapters, though presenting some minor difficulties, do not call for discussion here.
The figure of the first beast presents many difficulties, owing to the fact that it is not freely invented but largely derived from traditional elements and is by the writer identified with the seventh wounded head.
This chapter presents great difficulties, especially if with the older and some of the recent exegetes we regard it as written at the same time and by the same author.
No solution of the difficulties of the chapter is wholly satisfactory, but the best yet offered seems to be that of Bousset (Offenbarung 2, 410-18).
On the other hand, if we refuse to accept this identification, and hold that the beast from the abyss is yet to come, any attempt at a strict exegesis of the text plunges us in hopeless difficulties.
If the writer of the Fourth Gospel was the Apostle John, then the difficulties for the assumption of an apostolic authorship of the Apocalypse become well-nigh insuperable.
Nay more, the difficulties attending on the assumption of a common authorship of the Gospel and Apocalypse, independently of the question of the apostolic authorship of the Gospel, are practically insuperable.
Some decades ago these difficulties were not insurmountable, when critics assigned a Neronic date to the Apocalypse and a Domitianic or later date to the Gospel.
He was charged with heterodoxy, and Alfred 0111vant (1798-1882), bishop of Llandaff, required him to resign his chaplaincy, but he remained at the college in spite of these difficulties.
In spite of the increase of deep-sea soundings in the last few decades, they are still very irregularly distributed in the open ocean, and the attempt to draw isobaths (lines of equal depth) on a chart of the world is burdened with many difficulties which can only be evaded by the widest generalizations.
The sinking of colliery shafts, however, differs considerably from that of other mines, owing to their generally large size, and the difficulties nkingof g g y g ?
Against these advantages must be placed the difficulties attending the maintenance of roads through the goaves, and in some cases the large proportion of slack to round or large coal obtained.
The working of very thick seams presents certain special peculiarities, owing to the difficulties of supporting the roof in the excavated portions, and supplying fresh air to the workings.
Her difficulties were increased by the departure of Mercy for the Hague in September 1790, for Montmorin who now took his place in the negotiations had not her confidence to the same extent..
On the 31st of May 1188 he concluded a treaty with the Romans which removed difficulties of long standing, and in April 1189 he made peace with the emperor Frederick I.
At first it seemed as if this discovery would do away with all the troubles connected with the storage of acetylene under pressure, but it was soon found that there were serious difficulties still to be overcome.
This post he resigned in 1812, mainly on account of the difficulties he experienced in his endeavour to reform the student life of the university.
The former difficulties with the Des Moines Rapids of the Mississippi (which are passable for rafts and light boats at high water) have been overcome by a canal from Keokuk to Montrose constructed by the National Government.
Even greater than his diplomatic difficulties were Franklin's financial straits.
Meanwhile Williams, amid endless difficulties, with a mere handful of men, had managed to keep the two factions from civil war, though fighting had actually occurred in Buddu and in the Sese Islands.
This was due first to the difficulties of the navigation, next to the exclusiveness of the Dutch, who, holding the Spice Islands, prevented all access to places east of them, and lastly to the stream of enterprise being latterly diverted to the more temperate regions farther south.
France, he observed, needed the spur to practical energy which the Americans had at hand in the effort to subdue the difficulties placed in their way by nature.
On the 9th of July 1815 he became foreign minister and president of the council under Louis XVIII., but diplomatic and other difficulties led him to resign his appointment on the 23rd of September 1815, Louis,, however, naming him high chamberlain and according him an annuity of 100,000 francs.
In his Discourse on the "Residual Analysis," he proposes to avoid the metaphysical difficulties of the method of fluxions by a purely algebraical method.
Luther found no in- orAnti- tellectual difficulties in his acceptance and interpreta- Trinl- tion of the Scriptures as God's word, and in maintaining against the Anabaptists the legitimacy of every old custom that was not obviously contrary to the Swiptures.
As has been said it classifies universals as predicates of individuals and thus involves the difficulties which gave rise to the controversy between realism and nominalism.
One of the chief proofs that has been urged of the truth of its point of view is the persistency with which it has always asserted itself at a certain stage in philosophical reflection and as the solution of certain recurrent speculative difficulties.
Inside the city the old aristocratic and democratic factions still carried on their traditional struggle, complicated now by religious difficulties.
Czarniecki is rightly regarded as one of the most famous of heroic Poland's great captains, and to him belongs the chief merit of extricating her from the difficulties which threatened to overwhelm her during the disastrous reign of John Casimir.
The difficulties which surrounded him in the execution of his office at this time of the gravest unrest culminated in 1775, and the action of the 19th of April at Lexington initiated the American War of Independence.
Special sights were introduced to overcome the difficulties of dis appearing guns, large guns firing through small ports, &c. Such were \ the Moncrieff reflecting sights, and the " chase sights " for the 10-in.
It was Schultens too who conquered the difficulties opposed to his graduation at the last moment by the faculty of theology on the ground that some of his theses had a materialistic ring.
Closely following the author's thought he removes obstacles whenever he meets them, but he is so steeped in the language and thinks so truly like a Greek that the difficulties he feels often seem to us to lie in mere points of style.
Such an interference with the ecclesiastical authorities led to difficulties.
At times attempts were made to suppress the sect of the Vaudois, but the nature of the country which they inhabited, their obscurity and their isolation made the difficulties of their suppression greater than the advantages to be gained from it.
In view, however, of the unpreparedness of the Swedish army and the difficulties of the situation, Charles was forced to observe a strict neutrality.
The report on this census contained a very valuable exposition of the difficulties involved in such operations and the numerous sources of error latent in an apparently simple set of questions.
The necessity, for administrative or other purposes, of tabulating separately the returns for so many cross-divisions of the country constitutes one of the main difficulties of the English census operations, more particularly as the boundaries of these areas are frequently altered.
A simultaneous and uniform census of the British empire is an ideal which appeals to many, but its practical advantages are by no means commensurate with the difficulties to be surmounted..
Owing to the sparse population and difficulties of communication in a great part of the dominion, the inquiry, though referred to a single date, is not completed on that day, a month being allowed to the enumerator for the collection of his returns and their revision and transmission to the central office.
It seems not improbable that in the latter, where the difficulties incident to a count during the summer are almost insurmountable, serious omissions occurred.
The difficulties facing the manufacturing census were of a different character.
The main difficulties which this method reduced were two.
The difficulties to which reference has been made in § i r are largely due to the abstract nature of the process involved in the second of the above steps.
But external difficulties now arose.
But difficulties of finance, the impossibility of undertaking effective operations against Italy, and signs of impending trouble in the Balkans at length compelled the Ottoman Government to peace.
In his book Von Kid bis Kapp (1920) he gives an account of the difficulties which he encountered in getting together an efficient army for home defence.
Herzl was stirred by sympathy for the misery of Jews under persecution, but he was even more powerfully moved by the difficulties experienced under conditions of assimilation.
In 1823, however, a treaty was made establishing a fixed toll and a uniform system of management; this was further improved in 1856 and 1865; and when Prussia took possession of Hanover and Hesse-Nassau in 1866 the chief difficulties in the way of organizing the river-trade disappeared.
But, when the disestablished communion had to be reconstituted under the greatest difficulties, it was found of the highest importance that the occupant of his position should be a man of a liberal and genial spirit.
Two general elections and the defeat of four ministries within three years had done nothing to solve the difficulties of the situation.
The difficulties of organizing the new Dominion, the questions arising from diverse claims and the various conditions of the country, called for infinite tact and resource on the part of the premier.
It will then apply the tests thus gained to the narratives special to this Gospel; and point out the book's special difficulties and limits, and its abiding appeal and greatness.
The attribution of the book to an eye-witness nowhere resolves, it everywhere increases, the real difficulties; and by insisting upon having history in the same degree and way in John as in the Synoptists, we cease to get it sufficiently anywhere at all.
Scott's The Fourth Gospel (1906) gives a lucid, critical and religiously tempered account of the Gospel's ideas, aims, affinities, difficulties and abiding significance.
Naturally difficulties would arise between Abyssinia and the Sabaean power.
The difficulties of the state were at that time (1858) so great that the volksraad in December of that year passed a resolution in favour of confederation with the Cape Colony.
But before peace could be established an end had to be made of the difficulties with the Basutos.
The Basutoland difficulties were no sooner arranged than the Free Staters found themselves confronted with a serious difficulty on their western border.
At this time the siege of Port Arthur had only progressed so far that the besiegers were able to realize the difficulties before them.
This struggle was renewed by Charlemagne in 772, and a warfare of thirty-two years' duration was marked by the readiness of the Saxons to take advantage of the difficulties of Charles in other parts of Europe, and by the missionary character which the Frankish king imparted to the war.
The majority of bridges not of great span have girders with parallel booms. This involves the fewest difficulties of workmanship and perhaps permits FIG.
The hogbacked girder is a compromise between the two types, avoiding some difficulties of construction near the ends of the girder.
In addition to this there was another quite exceptional source of difficulties which had the most serious consequences for Austria, namely her relation with Hungary, due to the peculiar constitutional structure of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy.
The Hungarian Government could claim the right to take independent economic measures for her own territory in war-time; a joint arrangement was only possible for the territories of the Dual Monarchy - which were united for tariff purposes - by agreements between the Austrian and Hungarian Governments; and since neither Government was exclusively concerned to carry out an adjustment of economic conditions solely in accordance with what was necessary for waging war and holding out with the supplies at their disposal, but each had also to champion the interests of one half of the monarchy against the other, the negotiations between the two Governments were often attended with the greatest difficulties, and constantly ended unsatisfactorily.
To these purely economic difficulties was added the growing opposition of the population to the measures of compulsion.
In Germany Ultramontanism had to contend with great difficulties; for here ecclesiastical affairs were not in so desperate a case that the most drastic remedies possessed the most powerful attraction; while, in addition, the clergy were too highly educated to be willing to renounce all scientific work.
At this time there was much political unrest at home, and serious difficulties abroad.
A climax was reached when the difficulties with Russia arose which led to the Crimean War; the prince was accused by the peace party of wanting war, and by the war party of plotting surrender; and it came to be publicly rumoured that the queen's husband had been found conspiring against the state, and had been committed to the Tower.
In foreign imperial affairs, and in the adjustment of serious parliamentary difficulties, the queen's dynastic influence abroad and her position as above party at home, together with the respect due to her character, good sense and experience, still remained a powerful element in the British polity, as was shown Austro- on more than one occasion.
He had some difficulties with the bishops in Africa on the question of appeals to Rome, and with the bishops of Provence with regard to the doctrines of St Augustine.
In contrast to this complete industrial occupation, the French territory was held by a small and very scattered population, its extent and openness adding materially to the difficulties of a disputed tenure.
To those who, in order to promote the cause of international arbitration, are desirous of acquiring a knowledge of the dangers and difficulties which beset this mode of settling disputes, the account which Palmer has left of his part in this arbitration may be commended.
There his difficulties were far greater.
As a result, the surface has been carved into fantastic forms. The early French explorers called the region les terres mauvaises, on account of the difficulties that here met the traveller, and in its English equivalent, " the Bad Lands," this appellation still remains.
In northern and southern Siam, where the conditions are different, roads are being slowly made, but natural difficulties are great, and travelling in those distant parts is still a matter of much disccmfort.
The difficulties of the Siamese language are increased by the fact that in addition to the ordinary language of the people there is a completely different set of words ordained for the use of royalty.
Camerarius, professor of botany and medicine at Tubingen, published a letter on the sexes of plants, in which he refers to the stamens and pistils as the organs of reproduction, and states the difficulties he had encountered in determining the organs of Cryptogamic plants.
Wright in the Biographia Britannica literaria (London, 1842), who ascribes the life to a monk of St Neots; but the latest scholarship regards it as the work of Asser, although all the difficulties which surround the authorship have not been removed.
Valdemar had indeed pledged it solemnly and irrevocably to King Magnus of Sweden, who had held it for twenty years; but profiting by the difficulties of Magnus with his Norwegian subjects, after skilfully securing his own position by negotiations with Albert of Mecklenburg and the Hanseatic League, Valdemar suddenly and irresistibly invaded Scania, and by the end of 1361 all the old Danish lands, except North Holland, were recovered.
A starved and decimated population stood face to face with difficulties, not only on every frontier but indeed to some extent within the borders of the State itself.
Enormous were the difficulties of Casimir IV.
Moreover Casimir's difficulties were materially increased by the necessity of paying for Czech mercenaries, the pos polite ruszenie, or Polish militia, proving utterly useless at the very beginning of the war.
Two centuries of Jagiellonic rule made Poland great despite her grave external difficulties.
Had that dynasty been prolonged for another century, there is every reason to suppose that it would also have dealt satisfactorily with Poland's still more dangerous internal difficulties, and arrested the development of that anarchical constitution which was the ruling factor in the ruin of the Republic. Simultaneously with the transformation into a great power of the petty principalities which composed ancient Poland, another and equally momentous political transformation was proceeding within the country itself.
The adhesion of the same monarch to the League of the Catholic Reaction certainly added to the difficulties of Polish diplomacy, and still further divided the already distracted diet, besides alienating from the court the powerful and popular chancellor Zamoyski.
Prussia, emboldened by Russia's difficulties, now went so far as to invite Poland also to forsake the Russian alliance, and placed an army corps of 40,000 men at her disposal.
But the difficulties of the patriots were commensurate with their energies, and though the new constitution was drafted so early as December 1789, it was not till May 1791 that it could safely be presented to the diet.
But Catherine, still in difficulties, was obliged to watch in silence the collapse of her party in Poland, and submit to the double humiliation of recalling her ambassador and withdrawing her army from the country.
The greed of the three partitioning powers very nearly led to a rupture between Austria and Prussia; but the tact and statesmanship of the empress of Russia finally adjusted all difficulties.
Some of these are very beautiful, and render it probable that by intercrossing with the older species still further difficulties will be presented in the way of identification.
These difficulties are further enhanced by the fact that, quite apart from any cross-breeding, the plants, when subjected to cultivation, vary so greatly in the course of two or three years from the original species from which they are directly descended that their parentage is scarcely recognizable.