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differentiation

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differentiation

differentiation Sentence Examples

  • The second type of differentiation is that between supporting axis and assimilating appendages.

  • The process is essentially a polar linear action, or differentiation from a common centre.

  • 1.Examples of the differentiation of the cells of plants.

  • Among the Green Algae the differentiation of cells is comparatively slight.

  • In the more highly developed series, the mosses, this last division of labor takes the form of the differentiation of special assimilative organs, the leaves, commonly with a midrib containing elongated cells for the ready removal of the products of assimilation; and in the typical forms with a localized absorptive region, a well-developed hydrom in the axis of the plant, as well as similar hydrom strands in the leaf-midribs, are constantly met with.

  • of the medusa differs only in greater elaboration and differentiation of the cell-elements, which are also more concentrated to form distinct tissues.

  • The study of simple organisms, many of which consist of nothing but a little mass of protoplasm, exhibiting a very rudimentary degree of differentiation, so far as our methods enable us to determine any at all, shows that the duties of existence can be discharged in the absence of any cell-wall.

  • Thus the histological differentiation of the sporogonium of the higher mosses is one of considerable complexity; but there is here even less reason to suppose that these tissues have any homology (phylogenetic community of origin) with the similar ones met with in the higher plants.

  • In the secondary tissues of Dicotyledons we may have, as already described, considerably more differentiation of the cells, all the varieties being referable, however, on the one hand to the tracheal or sieve-tube type, on the other to the parenchyma type.

  • It is an extension of the first differentiation.

  • In these brown types with bodies of considerable thickness (Laminariaceae and Fucaceae), there is, however, a further differentiation of the internal tissues.

  • In the highest family of mosses, Polytrichaceae, the differentiation of conducting tissue reaches a decidedly higher level.

  • Richard Strauss, in his edition of Berlioz's works on Instrumentation, paradoxically characterizes the classical orchestral style as that which was derived from chamber-music. Now it, is true that in Haydn's early days orchestras were small and generally private; and that the styles of orchestral and chamber music were not distinct; but surely nothing is clearer than that the whole history of the rise of classical chamber-music lies in its rapid differentiation from the coarse-grained orchestral style with which it began.

  • ia.Examples of the differentiation of the tissue of plants.

  • Such differentiation as exists in the higher Different Iatypes mainly takes two directions.

  • The gametophyte, which bears the sexual organs, is either a free-living thallus corresponding in degree of differentiation with the lower liverworts, or it is a mass of cells which always remains enclosed in a spore and is parasitic upon the sporophyte.

  • From the primitive uniform Systems. mass of undifferentiated assimilating cells, which we may conceive of as the starting-point of differentiation, though such an undifferentiated body is only actually realized in the thallus of the lower Algae, there is, (1) on the one hand, a specialization of a surface layer regulating the immediate relations of the plant with its surroundings.

  • In this case also the differentiation of leaf-bundles, which typically begins at the base of the leaf and extends upwards into the leaf and downwards into the stem, is the first phenomenon in the development of vascular tissue, and is seen at a higher level than the formation of a stele.

  • Differentiation of the xylem progresses outwards, of the phloem inwards, but the two tissues never meet in the centre.

  • The study of the differentiation of protoplasm was at that time seldom undertaken, and no particular attention was paid either to fixing it, to enable staining methods to be accurately applied to it, or to studying the action of chemical reagents upon it.

  • They are characterized by the absence of that differentiation of the body into root, stem and leaf which is so marked a feature in the higher plants, and by the simplicity of their internal structure.

  • In the liverworts we find fixation of the thallus by water-absorbing rhizoids; in certain forms with a localized region of water-absorption the development of a primitive hydrom or water-conducting system; and in others with rather a massive type of thallus the differentiation of a special assimilative and transpiring system.

  • On the other hand, we have (2) an internal differentiation of conducting tissue, the main features of which as seen in the gametophyte of Bryophytes have already been fully described.

  • What little differentiation can be found to exist in the protoplasm of the simple unicellular organism shows the importance of an adequate water-supply, and indeed, the dependence of life upon it.

  • In this matter, differentiation has proceeded very differently in animals and plants respectively, no nerves or sense organs being structurally recognizable.

  • The leaves of shade plants have little or no differentiation of palisade tissue.

  • Secondly, in the Algae, which build up their own food from inorganic materials, we have a differentiation.

  • of supporting axes from assimilating appendages, and as the body increases in size and becomes a solid mass of cells or interwoven threads, a corresponding differentiation of a superficial assimilative system from the deep-lying parts.

  • Even the root tip, which shows a certain differentiation into root cap and root apex, cannot be said to be a definite sense organ in the same way as the sense organs of an animal.

  • We have spoken of the absence of structural differentiation in the sense organs.

  • Again, the degree of differentiation is very slight anatomically, but delicate protoplasmic threads have been shown to extend through all cell-walls, connecting together all the protoplasts of a plant.

  • It is true that in the unicellular plants all the vital activities are performed by a single cell, but in the multicellular plants there is a more or less highly developed differentiation of physiological activity giving rise to different tissues or groups of cells, each with a special function.

  • General Structure and Differentiation of the Vegetable Cell.

  • It is often vacuolar, sometimes granular, and in other cases it is a homogeneous body with no visible structure or differentiation.

  • In this, as in all morphological inquiries, two lines of investigation have to be followed, the phylogenetic and the ontogenetic. Beginning with its phylogeny, it appears, so far as present knowledge goes, that the differentiation of the shoot of the sporophyte into stem and leaf first occurred in the Pteridophyta; and, in accordance with the views of Bower (Origin of a Land..

  • But this phylogenetic differentiation of the organs was not what Wolff and Goethe had in mind; what they contemplated was an ontogenetic change, and there is abundant evidence that such changes actually occur.

  • The word metamorphosis cannot, in fact, be used any longer in its original sense, for the change which it implied does not normally occur in ontogeny, and in phylogeny the idea is more accurately expressed by the term differentiation.

  • Differentiation means the development and the specialization as organs of various parts of the body.

  • there is morphological differentiation, which can be traced in the distinction of the members of the body, root, stem, leaf, &c.; there is physiological differentiation, which can be traced in the adaptation of these members to various functions.

  • Factors in Evo/ution.Evolution in the race involves progressive differentiation in the individual; hence the causes of evolution and of differentiation must be the same.

  • AdaptationThe morphological and physiological differentiation of the plant-body has, so far, been attributed to (I) the nature of the organism, that is to its inherent tendency towards higher organization, and (2) to the indefinite results of the external conditions acting as a stimulus which excites the organism to variation, but does not direct the course of variation.

  • Material Cause of DifferentiationIt may be inquired, in conclusion, if there are any facts which throw light upon the internal mechanism of differentiation, whether spontaneous or induced; if it is possible to refer it to any material cause.

  • The upper Eocene has yielded many birds, most of which are at least close forerunners of recent genera, the differentiation into the leading orders and families being already well marked, e.g.

  • But the extra charges levied for the use of parlour, sleeping and other special cars, of which some of the best trains are exclusively composed, in practice constitute a differentiation of class, besides making the real cost of travelling higher than the figures just given.

  • Thus there is a differentiation between the long-distance traveller who desires to be carried from one extreme of the city to the other and the short-distance traveller who is going between points at a much less distance.

  • Now local worship means the differentiation of the personality worshipped in the varied local shrines, in other words Ba`alim or Baals.

  • Whitman the entire nephridial system (in the leech Clepsine) is formed by the differentiation of a continuous epiblastic band on each side.

  • Among the Terebelloidea there is a remarkable differentiation of the ne p hridia into two series.

  • This differentiation is not, however, peculiar to the Polychaetes; for in several Oligochaetes the anterior nephridia are of large size, and opening as they do into the buccal cavity clearly play a different function to those which follow.

  • Slight differences in form have been noted between nephridia of different segments; but the Hirudinea do not show the marked differentiation that is to be seen in some other Chaetopods; nor do the nephridia ever acquire any relations to the alimentary canal.

  • In the middle ages this differentiation of the industrial, municipal and political life had not taken place, and in order to understand the working of at first sight purely economic regulations it is necessary to make a close study of the functions of local government.

  • We can show, for example: (1) that the Statute of Apprenticeship did not stand alone; it was one of a long series of similar measures, beginning more than two centuries before, which in their turn join on to the municipal and gild regulations of the middle ages; one of an important group of statutes, more or less closely interwoven throughout their history, administered by local authorities whose functions had grown largely in connexion with this legislation and the gradual differentiation of the trades and callings to which it related.

  • An exceedingly early differentiation of the primitive germ-cells occurs in certain Diptera.

  • As shown by the number and variety of species, the Orthoptera are the most dominant order of this group. Eminently terrestrial in habit, the differentiation of their fore-wings and hindwings can be traced from Carboniferous, isopteroid ancestors through intermediate Mesozoic forms. The Plecoptera resemble the Ephemeroptera and Odonata in the aquatic habits of their larvae, and by the occasional presence of tufted thoracic gills in the imago exhibit an aquatic character unknown in any other winged insects.

  • A further differentiation of the provinces of chemistry and physics is shown by the classifications of matter.

  • In correspondence with the tri-regional differentiation of the body in its external configuration, the coelom (body-cavity, perivisceral cavity) is divided into three portions completely separated from one another by septa: - (I) proboscis-coelom, or first body-cavity; (2) the collar-coelom, or second body-cavity; (3) truncal coelom, or third body-cavity.

  • Although an integral portion of the gut, it has ceased to assist in alimentation, its epithelium undergoes vacuolar differentiation and hypertrophy, and its lumen becomes more or less vestigial.

  • In an age when, with the evolution of the feudal organization cf society, even everyday costume was becoming a uniform, symbolizing in material and colour the exact status of the wearer, it was natural that in the parallel organization of the Church the official vestments should undergo a similar process of differentiation and definition.

  • Further, if m '=' p, we obtain by differentiation 7+x =m (u;1-2xl.

  • The origin of the differentiation process is to be sought in a " prime mover " (7rpc7yrov Ku'ofiv), i.e.

  • Between the two and at the highest point of the arc, so far as morphological differentiation is concerned, stands the scorpion; near to it in the trilobite's direction (that is, on the ascending side) are Limulus and the Eurypterines - with a long gap, due to obliteration of the record, separating them from the trilobite.

  • Instead of following the motion of each individual part of a material system, he showed that, if we determine its configuration by a sufficient number of variables, whose number is that of the degrees of freedom to move (there being as many equations as the system has degrees of freedom), the kinetic and potential energies of the system can be expressed in terms of these, and the differential equations of motion thence deduced by simple differentiation.

  • By differentiation with respect to g i it may be proved that from g, = - oo to g i = - 2h1, from g, = - 2h, to g1=0, from g, = 0 to g, =2h,, from g,=2h, to g,=oo.

  • Under these circumstances the double differentiation with respect to t of any quantity is equivalent to multiplication by the factor - n 2, and thus our equations take the form (b 2 v 2 + n2)E+(a2 - b2) ds (b2 2 + n2)n +(a2 - b2 y =0 (7).

  • (b2V2 + n2) (a2 - b 2) = - z It will now be convenient to introduce the quantities a l, a 2', 7731 which express the rotations of the elements of the medium round axes parallel to those of co-ordinates, in accordance with the equations Ty - 1 = dz ' 3= - dy 2 = dx - In terms of these we obtain from (7), by differentiation and subtraction, (b 2 v 2 + n 2) 7,3 = 0 (b 2 0 2 +n 2) .r i = dZ/dy (b 2 v 2 +n 2)', , 2 = - dZ/dx The first of equations (9) gives 3 = 0 (10) For al we have ?1= 47rb2, f dy e Y tkr dx dy dz

  • Whatever be the ancestral cell from which these cells spring, it is in the bone marrow that we find a differentiation into the various marrow cells from which are developed the mature corpuscles that pass from the marrow into the blood circulation.

  • Hansemann's "anaplasia " hypothesis seeks to find an explanation of the formation of new growths in the absence of the histological differentiation of the cell associated with a corresponding increase in its proliferative power and a suspension, or loss, of its functional activity.

  • We find a division of social ranks which reminds us of the threefold gradation of Lower Germany (edelings, frilings, lazzen - eorls, ceorls, laets), and not of the twofold Frankish one (ingenui Franci, Romani), nor of the minute differentiation of the Upper Germans and Lombards.

  • These complex organs have apparently arisen by the increase in depth and differentiation of an accessory sucker such as is borne on the phyllidia of the former group. Lastly, the scolex of the more familiar Taeniidae (Tetracotylea) carries a rostellum encircled with hooks and four cup-shaped suckers the margins of which do not project beyond the surface of the body.

  • The embryo undergoes differentiation into an outer layer of cells that produce a chitinoid coat, a middle layer of cells, and a central spherical hexacanth body closely enveloped by the middle coat.

  • Almost all the institutions of modern states go back to the curia regis, branching off from it at different dates as the growing complexity of business forced differentiation of function and personnel.

  • As in other Platyelmia the elements of this tissue undergo the most varied differentiation.

  • It originates from germ-balls by a differentiation similar in general to that already described, though profoundly different in detail.

  • The two theories are alike in so far as both recognize the existence of individuals as due to a necessary process of differentiation and a scale of existence.

  • This difference is marked in the phonetic differentiation of the dental and the alveolar t by writing them respectively t and t.

  • In accordance with this general distribution snakes show a great amount of differentiation with regard to their mode of life and general organization; and from the appearance alone of a snake a safe conclusion can be drawn as to its habits.

  • Boulenger's phylogenetic system stands as follows: Viperidae Uropeltidae C. Opisthoglypha C. Proteroglypha Amblycephalidae mandible to the aglyphous or innocuous Colubridae, whence further differentiation in three new lines has taken place, - (i) the harmless Amblycephalidae as a side-issue, (2) the very poisonous proteroglyphous Elapidae, (3) the moderately or incipiently poisonous Opisthoglypha, out of some of which seem to have arisen the venomous Viperidae.

  • (22) where dV/dn means differentiation along the normal, and v stands d 2 d 2 d2 for the operator a x2 - P dy2 -{- D.

  • The development of a true insect society among the Hymenoptera is dependent on a differentiation among the females between individuals with well-developed ovaries (" queens ") whose special function is reproduction; and individuals with reduced or aborted ovaries (" workers ") whose duty is to build the nest, to gather food and to tend and feed the larvae.

  • The ants which form this group are readily distinguished by the differentiation of the females into winged " queens" and wingless " workers."

  • In the articles on Apocalyptic Literature and Apocryphal Literature (qq.v.) we have shown the large lines of differentiation between apocalyptic and prophecy.

  • &TOµos, from a-, privative, and TEµvEw, to cut) until the middle of the 19th century, when a differentiation was established.

  • True, before differences can be united they must have been separated, but this merely proves that differentiation or analysis is only one factor in a single process.

  • The whole body of freemen composed the General Court until other towns than Plymouth had been organized, the first of which were Scituate in 1636 and Duxbury in 1637, and then the representative form of government was adopted and there was a gradual differentiation between Plymouth the town and Plymouth the 1882 the assessment of realty increased nearly twelve times as much as personalty.

  • The expression 27ra for the length of the circumference can be deduced by considering the limit of the area cut off from a circle of radius a by a concentric circle of radius a - a, when a becomes indefinitely small; this is an elementary case of differentiation.

  • In 1863 Fransen van de Putte, minister for the colonies, introduced the first of the annual colonial budgets for which the Regulations had provided, thus enabling the statesgeneral to control the revenue and expenditure of Netherlands India; in 1865 he reduced and in 1872 abolished the differentiation of customs dues in favour of goods imported from Holland, substituting a uniform import duty of 6% and establishing a number of free ports throughout the archipelago.

  • A differentiation of the peripheral cytoplasm in the form of an ectoplasmic layer has been described in one or two instances, and it seems probable that in most Trypanosomes there is such a layer, although only poorly developed, as a rule, around the body generally.

  • 4, D), with peculiar cytological differentiation, may be only sub-species; T.

  • This classification is based almost wholly on the fossils, for there seems to be little physical reason for the differentiation of the Oligocene anywhere on the continent.

  • When we now speak of the identification of spectra we like to include, wherever possible, the identification of the particular compound which is luminous and even - though we have only begun to make any progress in that direction - the differentiation between the molecular or electronic states which yield the different spectra of the same element.

  • At the present day realism is despised on the ground that its differentiation of body and soul, natural and supernatural, ignores the unity of being.

  • He supposes that evolution is primarily integration, from the incoherent to the coherent, exemplified in the solar nebula evolving into the solar system; secondly differentiation, from the more homogeneous to the more heterogeneous, exemplified by the solar system evolving into different bodies; thirdly determination, from the indefinite to the definite, exemplified by the solar system with different bodies evolving into an order.

  • Next, he supposes that mind obeys the same law of evolution, and exemplifies integration by generalization, differentiation by the development of the five senses, and determination by the development of the order of consciousness.

  • The world, as he thought, on its physical side, always was a living body; and on its psychical side God always was its conscious spirit; and, so far from life arising from the lifeless, and consciousness from unconsciousness, the life and consciousness of the whole world are the origin of the lifeless and the unconscious in parts of it, by a kind of secondary automatism, while we ourselves are developed from our own mother-earth by differentiation.

  • It is nevertheless the experience of yarn salesmen that Lancashire produces an increasingly large amount of specialities that indicate a continued differentiation in trade.

  • His dreams of autocracy at home and farreaching dominion abroad were anachronisms in a century of constitutional ideas and national differentiation.

  • In the Mesozoic rocks (Trias and Lias) there have been discovered remains of insects intermediate between those ancient forms and our modern cockroaches, the differentiation between forewings and hindwings having begun.

  • Delage has distinguished as multiplication those cases in which the new individual arises from a mass of cells which remain a part of the maternal tissues during differentiation, reserving the term reproduction for those cases in which the spore or cell which is the starting-point of the new individual begins by separating from the maternal tissues; but the distinction is inconvenient in practice and does not appear to carry with it any fundamental biological significance.

  • In other cases the strands undergo differentiation into an outer layer with blackened, hardened cell-walls and a core of ordinary hyphae, and are then termed rhizomorphs (Armillaria mellea), capable not only of extending the fungus in the soil, like roots, but also of lying dormant, protected by the outer casing.

  • The two kinds of 4, thalli Blakeslee considers to have a differentiation 5, of the nature of sex and he distinguishes them as (+) and (-) forms; the former being usually distinguished by a somewhat greater luxuriance of growth.

  • ascogonium and antheridium contain numerous nuclei; they are to be looked upon as gametangia in which there is no differentiation of gametes, and since they act as single gametes they are termed coenogametes.

  • The fruit-bodies are of very varic. as shapes, showing a differentiation into an outer peridium and an i:..ier spore-bearing mass, the gleba.

  • Experiment shows that in the manlike (anthropoid) apes the differentiation of the foci or "centres" of movement in the motor field of the cortex is even more minute.

  • When this differentiation of cortex, with its highest expression in man, is collated with the development of the cortex as studied in the successive phases of its growth and ripening in the human infant, a suggestive analogy is obvious.

  • It is based upon the fact that the histological differentiation of the epidermis of their root is that generally characteristic of Monocotyledons, whilst they have two cotyledons - the old view of the epiblast as a second cotyledon in Gramineae being adopted.

  • The absence of differentiation into root, stem and leaf which prevails among seaweeds, seems, for example, to have led Linnaeus to employ the term in the Genera Plantarum for a sub-class of Cryptogamia, the members of which presented this character in a greater or less degree.

  • Fungi Algae Bryophyta Pteridophyta Phanerogamia Gymnosperms Angiosperms Algae in this wide sense may be briefly described as the aggregate of those simpler forms of plant life usually devoid, like the rest of the Thallophyta, of differentiation into root, stem and leaf; but, unlike other Thallophyta, possessed of a colouring matter;.

  • Yet the siphonaceous algae may assume or be loosely aggregated together within a common mucilage, or be great variety of form and reach a high degree of differentiation.

  • Characeae are separated from other Chlorophyceae by Ulvaceae that there is any pretension to the formation of a true a long interval, and present the highest degree of differentiation of parenchyma within the limits of the Chlorophyceae.

  • From a comparison of those Euchlorophyceae which have been most closely investigated, it appears probable that sexual reproductive cells have in the course of evolution arisen as the result of specialization among asexual reproductive cells, and that in turn oogamous reproduction has arisen as the result of differentiation of the two conjugating cells into the smaller male gamete and the larger male gamete.

  • In Sirogonium there is cell-division in the parent-cell prior to conjugation; and as two segments are cut off in the case of the active gamete, and only one in the case of the passive gamete, there is a corresponding difference of size, marking another step in the sexual differentiation.

  • The most fundamental external differentiation is into holdfast and shoot.

  • In filamentous forms there is a differentiation into branches of limited and branches of unlimited growth (Sphacelaria).

  • It is among the Sargassaceae that the greatest amount of external differentiation, rivalling that of the higher leafy plants, is reached.

  • Besides the differentiation into holdfast and shoot, and into branches of limited and branches of unlimited growth, there appear superficial structures of the nature of hairs.

  • This in effect is to say that not magnitude but something else has to be sought for if we are to pick out amongst observed variations those which may be the material for the differentiation of species.

  • With our present knowledge it is impossible to discriminate between variation that may or that may not be the material for the differentiation of species by scrutinizing either magnitude or probable causation.

  • Such differentiation may be measured by determining the correlation between the position or the time of production and the character of the organs produced, the methods by which the correlation is measured being those described in the article Error, Law Of.

  • The change which often occurs in the mean character and varia bility of the flowers produced at different periods of the flowering season by the same plant is an example of differentiation associated with time of production; as this kind of differentiation is less familiar than differentiation according to the region of production, it may be well to give an example.

  • sometimes difficult to choose the whole series of structures osberved from a region of the body which is not affected by differentiation.

  • The evidence that the correlation between sexually produced brethren is the same as that existing between the asexually repeated organs on an individual body renders it impossible to accept Weismann's view that one of the results produced by the differentiation of animals and plants into two sexes is an increase in the variability of their offspring.

  • A similar kind of segregation may take place in the formation of the repeated parts of an organism, so that symmetrical repetition may be compared with normal heredity, and be due to the presence of similar factors in the divisions of the embryonic cells, whilst the differentiation of repeated parts may be due to the unequal distribution of such factors and be comparable with variation.

  • Moreover, many naturalists, especially those concerned with palaeontology, pointed to the existence of orthogenetic series, of long lines of ancestry, which displayed not a sporadic differentiation in every direction, but apparently a steady and progressive march in one direction.

  • When beetles, or medusae, or cats vary, the range of possible variation is limited and determined by the beetle, medusa or cat constitution, and any possible further differentiation or specialization must be in a sense at least orthogenetic - that is to say, a continuation of the line along which the ancestors of the individual in question have been forced.

  • The history of Assyria can now be traced back approximately to 2500 B.C., though it does not rise to political prominence until c. 2000 B.C. The name of the god is identical with that of the city, though an older form A-shir, signifying "leader," suggests that a differentiation between the god and the city was at one time attempted.

  • The first step is a preliminary affirmation and unification, the second a negation and differentiation, the third a final synthesis.

  • The differentiation of queen and workers is correlated with the habit of storing food supplies, and the consequent permanence of the community, which finds relief for its surplus population by sending off a swarm, consisting of a queen and a number of workers, so that the new community is already specialized both for reproduction and for labour.

  • Besides the chief deities and their consorts, various minor ones, representing likewise patron gods of less important localities and in most cases of a solar character were added at one time or the other to the court of Marduk, though there is also to be noted a tendency on the part of the chief solar deity, Shamash of Sippara, and for the chief moon-god to absorb the solar and lunar deities of ]ess important sites, leading in the case of the solar gods to the differentiation of the functions of Shamash during the various seasons of the year and the various times of the day among these minor deities.

  • And it sets forth a dialectic with a twofold movement, towards differentiation and integration severally, which amounts to a formulation of inference.

  • A formula such as the equality of the interior angles of a triangle to two right angles is only scientifically known when it is not of isosceles or scalene triangle that it is known, nor even of all the several types of triangle collectively, but as a predicate of triangle recognized as the widest class-concept of which it is true, the first stage in the progressive differentiation of figure at which it can be asserted.° Three points obviously need development, the nature of definition, its connexion with the syllogism in which the middle term is cause or ground, and the way in which we have assurance of our principles.

  • There is a differentiation in type between the two negations.

  • In a general survey of the life of this period, as it is revealed by the fossils, three outstanding facts are apparent: (I) the great divergence between the Cambrian fauna and that of the present day; (2) the Cambrian life assemblage differs in no marked manner from that of the succeeding Ordovician and Silurian periods; there is a certain family likeness which unites all of them; (3) the extraordinary complexity and diversity not only in the assemblage as a whole but within certain limited groups of organisms. Although in the Cambrian strata we have the oldest known fossiliferous rocks - if we leave out of account the very few and very obscure organic remains hitherto recorded from the pre-Cambrian - yet we appear to enter suddenly into the presence of a world richly peopled with a suite of organisms already far advanced in differentiation; the Cambrian fauna seems to be as far removed from what must have been the first forms of life, as the living forms of this remote period are distant from the creatures of to-day.

  • The differentiation of the local alphabets is found Der Ursprung des alt-semitischen Alphabets aus der neu-assyrischen Keilschrift (ZDMG.

  • that these symbols must have arisen by differentiation from others already existing in the alphabet.

  • The differentiation of the Roman alphabet from the Greek is brought about (a) by utilizing the digamma for the unvoiced labio dental spirant F; (b) by dropping out the aspirates 0, (I), in the Chalcidian alphabet, whence the Roman is derived) from the alphabet proper and employing them on l as numerals, 0 'y' ?

  • In the Eastern Church the week is marked by similar practices, but with less elaboration and differentiation of rite.

  • This bird, characterized by its stout deep bill and want of rufous tint on its lower plumage, has an extensive range, and would seem to exhibit a tendency to further differentiation, since Howard Saunders, in a monograph of the group (Proc. Zool.

  • The conditions that we describe by the comprehensive term " civilization " occasion a specification and corresponding differentiation of the life of societies; whence there result competing types of culture, each instinct with the spirit of propagandism and, one might almost say, of empire.

  • In so far as tribal eminence depends on superior skill or courage or wisdom, the germs of ethical differentiation may be discovered even here.

  • Hereupon follows the first differentiation of primitive substance - the separation of force from matter, the emanation of the world from God.

  • But this process of differentiation is not eternal; it continues only until the times of the restoration of all things.

  • "Pillar" Apostles.-But in fact differentiation between apostles existed among the Twelve also.

  • The old criterion by which they and other Metazoa were once distinguished from Protozoa, namely, the differentiation of large and small sexual cells from each other and from the remaining cells of the body, has been broken down by the discovery of numerous cases of such differentiation among Protozoa.

  • of the table of hypothetical descent), we may conceive of its descendant as tentaculate, capable of either floating (swimming) or fixation at will like Lucernaria to-day; and exhibiting incipient differentiation of myoepithelial cells (formerly termed neuro-muscular cells).

  • The limbs of the post-cephalic series show little differentiation among themselves in many Entomostraca.

  • In other Entomostraca considerable differentiation may take place, but the series is never divided into definite " tagmata " or groups of similarly modified appendages.

  • Further, the gradual appearance and differentiation of the successive somites and appendages may be accelerated, so that comparatively great advances take place at a single moult.

  • Marius and Martha and their companions; that of the latter has no better historical foundation: so that no argument can be drawn from either account to establish the differentiation of the two saints.

  • In Plato, however, this distinction is applied chiefly in an ethical and religious direction; and, while it defines philosophy, so far correctly, as the endeavour to express what things are in their ultimate constitution, it is not yet accompanied by a sufficient differentiation of the subsidiary inquiries by which this ultimate question may be approached.

  • (i) Amongst some of the lowest tribes, as (with a few exceptions) amongst animals, the only differentiation is between one and many, or between one, two and many, or between one, two, three and many.

  • This system henceforth became the normal one, and the English parliament assumed its regular form, though the differentiation of the two houses was not fully completed till the next century.

  • The spores of the homosporous Vascular Cryptogams are usually of small size; the prothalli produced from them usually bear both antheridia and archegonia, though under special conditions an imperfect sexual differentiation may result.

  • Putting a, b, c, d, for the constants, the general form of the solution will be x = fl (a,b,c,d,t) y = f2(a,b,c,d,t) From these may be derived by differentiation as to t the velocities dt =f '1(a,b,c,d,t) = x'  ?

  • In contrast with the "world," as the totality of being in its differentiation, this absolute unity, or God, in whom the real as manifold, and the spirit as one, find their unifying base, by its very nature is unphenomenal, indefinable and inconceivable.

  • We may therefore consider it settled that the different species of the group are now in that degree of physiological differentiation which enables them to produce offspring with each other, but does not permit of the progeny continuing the race, at all events unless reinforced by the aid of one of the pure forms.

  • In each a differentiation takes place in the layers beneath the epidermis, by which an outer layer of small-celled tissue surrounds an inner portion of large cells.

  • Storriei, from the Silurian (Wenlock) of South Wales, described by Barber, there is no sharp differentiation of the two kinds of tubes; they are rarely observed to branch, except in the gaps, which in this species are not radially directed.

  • The secondary cortex or periderm attained a great development, and in some cases shows considerable differentiation.

  • Leuckarti, the arrangement is more complicated, the steles showing a differentiation into a central and a peripheral system; the secondary growth was extensive and unequal, usually attaining its maximum on the outer side of the peripheral steles.

  • During the earlier part of the Carboniferous epoch the vegetation of the world appears to have been remarkably uniform; while the deposition of the Coal Measures, however, was in progress, a differentiation of floral regions began.

  • Lectures will include examples of signaling molecules that mediate growth and differentiation of cells and describe how these become aberrant in disease.

  • aeonch differentiation is stamped with characteristics brought over from previous eons of being.

  • The authors noticed also cellular differentiation violations in posterity of white rats irradiated by EMF with PFD of 500 microW/cm2.

  • converge around an average yearly rate of about 30 %, with strong differentiation among market segments and countries.

  • Briefly, target molecules will be used on bone marrow stem cells in tissue culture to induce specific appropriate differentiation.

  • Wnt signaling regulates myogenic differentiation in the developing avian limb.

  • Transit cells have the ability to divide rapidly a limited number of times, after which they undergo terminal differentiation.

  • A choice of five colors allows differentiation between diverse hazards.

  • Levels are low in the induced metanephric mesenchyme, increase as the cells undergo epithelial differentiation, and attenuate as they mature (Ref.

  • Vitamin D3 analogs, such as calcipotriol and tacalcitol, reduce proliferation of keratinocytes and promote epidermal differentiation.

  • How differential gene expression leads to organ formation and cellular differentiation.

  • Second level modules include partial differentiation, matrices and probability.

  • implicit differentiation; chain rule; differentiation of functions defined by integrals.

  • Finally, the fourth ax of educational quality and inclusive education development is related with pedagogical differentiation, the main content of this paper.

  • differentiation antigens, Boston, 1993 in leucocyte Typing V, Ed.

  • differentiation pathways and senescence.

  • The in vitro differentiation of a bi potential glial progenitor cell.

  • In contrast, Taxol resistance is not related to tumor differentiation.

  • Vitamin A is known to play a part in cell differentiation, a process by which cells " mature.

  • The main problems with the gender differentiation do not rely solely in Martial Arts.

  • AB - The process of terminal differentiation is associated with exit from the cell cycle and loss of the proliferative potential of cells.

  • tissue differentiation In the body there are many different cells with many different functions.

  • differentiation in vitro.

  • differentiation of the infected cell.

  • digestion in the stomach and the differentiation of the chyle in the liver are Jupiterian functions.

  • The use of materials subtly supports the disposition of the distinctive functions in the building, without the differentiation being too emphatic.

  • Squamous and/or endocrine differentiation is a good marker for a reduction of PA.

  • Differentiation signals for the specialized helper T cells in B cell follicles.

  • The notes cover the basic principles of igneous petrology including magma crystallization, igneous petrology including magma crystallization, igneous textures, magmatic differentiation and the naming of igneous rocks.

  • Likewise, the inherent ' cover ' for an illicit program in legitimate activity makes differentiation much more imprecise.

  • magma storage and differentiation prior to eruption.

  • megakaryocyte differentiation.

  • monocyte differentiation to macrophages.

  • myogenic differentiation in the developing avian limb.

  • notochord differentiation, leading to embryos of significantly diminished stature.

  • All sexually reproducing organisms develop from a single fertilized oocyte by cell multiplication and differentiation.

  • The notes cover the basic principles of igneous petrology including magma crystallization, igneous textures, magmatic differentiation and the naming of igneous rocks.

  • photoreceptor differentiation, function and degeneration.

  • predetermined by the conditions and timescales of magma storage and differentiation prior to eruption.

  • Our customers seek this product as it provides them with a point of differentiation to specialty roasters.

  • In most industries there is too much sameness; too much safe differentiation between the various competitors.

  • Differentiation - bacterial spores are one of the most resistant life forms on earth.

  • Another important advantage is that the differentiation of amoebae into flagellates is relatively synchronous.

  • thymic activity and T-cell differentiation are abnormal in RA.

  • trophoblast function (proliferation, differentiation and invasion ).

  • trophoblast differentiation remains to be clarified.

  • In this stage of belief, therefore, the liver is the'seat of all emotions and affections, as well as of intellectual functions, and it is only when with advancing anatomical knowledge the functions of the heart and then of the brain come to be recognized that a differentiation of functions takes place which had its outcome in the assignment of intellectual activity to the brain or head, of the higher emotions and affections (as love and courage) to the heart, while the liver was degraded to the rank of being regarded as the seat of the lower emotions and affections, such as jealousy, moroseness and the like.

  • On this differentiation of styles rests the whole aesthetics of chamber-music; but the subject is very subtle, and there is much, as for example in Schubert's quartets and his C major quintet, that is inspired by orchestral ideas without in the least vitiating the chamber-music style; though, judged by its appearance on paper, it seems as unorthodox as the notoriously orchestral beginnings of Mendelssohn's quartet in D and quintet in B.

  • One of Harvey's prime objects is to defend and establish, on the basis of direct observation, the opinion already held by Aristotle, that, in the higher animals at any rate, the formation of the new organism by the process of generation takes place, not suddenly, by simultaneous accretion of rudiments of all or the most important of the organs of the adult, nor by sudden metamorphosis of a formative substance into a miniature of the whole, which subsequently grows, but by epigenesis, or successive differentiation of a relatively homogeneous rudiment into the parts and structures which are characteristic of the adult.

  • Wallace's studies of island life, and the work of many different observers on local races of animals and plants, marine, fluviatile and terrestrial, have brought about a conception of segregation as apart from differences of environment as being one of the factors in the differentiation of living forms.

  • The segregation may be geographical, or may be the result of preferential mating, or of seasonal mating, and its effects plainly can be made no more of than proximate or empirical laws of differentiation, of great importance in codifying and simplifying the facts to be explained.

  • The Mosses and Liverworts (see BRYOPHYTA) include forms with a more or less leaf-like thallus, such as many of the liverworts, and forms in which the plant shows a differentiation into a stem bearing remarkably simple leaves, as in the true mosses.

  • In this we get a further differentiation between the central tubes (branches of the primitive cell), which run in a longitudinal direction through the body, possess little or no chlorophyll, and no doubt serve to conduct food substances from one region to another, and the peripheral ones, *hich are directed perpendicularly to the surface of the body, ending blindly there, contain abundant chlorophyll, and are the assimilating organs (fig.

  • Looking back over the progress of form and tissue-differentiation in the Thallophyta, we find that, starting from the simplest unicellular forms with no external differentiation of the body, we can trace an increase in complexity of organization everywhere determined by the principles of the division of physiological labor and of the adaptation of the organism to the needs of its environment.

  • Bryophyta.The Bryophyta (Hepaticae) and Mosses (Musci)], the first group of mainly terrestrial plants, exhibit considerably more advanced tissue differentiation, in response to the greater complexity in the conditions of life on.

  • Frequently, also, a considerable differentiation of vegetative tissue occurs in the wall of the spore-capsule itself, and in some of the higher forms a special assimilating and transpiring organ situated just below the capsule at the top of the seta, with a richly lacunar chlorophyllous parenchyma and stomata like those of the wall of the capsule in the Anthocerotean liverworts.

  • Similar differentiation, differing in some details, takes place independently in the other generation, the sporogonium.

  • Differentiation is very much more rapidi.e.

  • The camb-ium in the typical case, which is by far the most frequent, continues the primary differentiation of xylem and phloem in the desmogen strand (see above), or arises in the resting mesodesm or mesocycle and adds new (secondary) xylem and phloem to the primary tissues.

  • Physiological and Morphological Di,fferentiation.The first indication of this differentiation in the vegetative body of the plant can be seen not only in the terrestrial green plants which have been particularly referred to, but also in the bulkier seaweeds.

  • All but the lowest plants visibly tend towards or actually achieve in various degrees the differentiation of the body, whether sporophyte or gametophyte, into stem, leaf, root, &c., that is, the differentiation of parts not previously present.

  • The alternative, which is here accepted, is that differentiation is essentially the expression of a developmental tendency inherent in the protoplasm of plants.

  • Summary.The general theory of differentiation propounded in this article is an attempt at an analysis of the factors termed by Darwin the nature of the organism and the nature of the conditions.

  • Such doctrines regard the progress of humanity as on the whole tending to the greater perfection, and are markedly optimistic in contrast with earlier theories that progressive differentiation is synonymous with progressive decay.

  • - xiii.) commences with a geographical description of the three quarters of the world, and in more detail of Britain and Scanzia (Sweden), from which the Goths under their king Berig migrated to the southern coast of the Baltic. Their migration across what has since been called Lithuania to the shores of the Euxine, and their differentiation into Visigoths and Ostrogoths, are nest described.

  • Still the practice introduced by him of assigning to each species, a diagnosis by which it ought in theory to be distinguishable from any other known species, and of naming it by two words - the first being the generic and the second the specific term, was so manifest an improvement upon anything which had previously obtained that the Linnaean method of differentiation and nomenclature established itself before long in spite of all opposition, and in principle became almost universally adopted.

  • The development of particular things from this germinal matter consists in differentiation, the acquiring of particular forms of which the knowable universe consists (cf.

  • The only evidence we have in pathology of living structures in which apparently a differentiation into cell-body and nucleus does not exist, is in the case of bacteria, but then there comes the question whether they may not possess chromatin distributed through their substance, in the form of metachromatic points, as is the case in some infusoria (Trachelocerca, Gruber).

  • Even in normal circumstances their play and counterplay, attractive and repellent, must be manifold almost beyond conception; for the body may be regarded as a collective organization consisting of a huge colony of micro-organisms become capable of a common life by common and mutual arrangement and differentiation of function, and by toleration and utilization of each other's peculiar products; some organs, such as the liver, for example, being credited with a special power of neutralizing poisons, whether generated under normal conditions or under abnormal, .which gain entrance from the intestinal tract.

  • In the Eulerian notation u, v, w denote the components of the velocity q parallel to the coordinate axes at any point (x, y, z) at the time t; u, v, w are functions of x, y, z, t, the independent variables; and d is used here to denote partial differentiation with respect to any one of these four independent variables, all capable of varying one at a time.

  • To determine the component acceleration of a particle, suppose F to denote any function of x, y, z, t, and investigate the time rate of F for a moving particle; denoting the change by DF/dt, DF = 1t F(x+uSt, y+vIt, z+wSt, t+St) - F(x, y, z, t) dt at = d + u dx +v dy+ w dz and D/dt is called particle differentiation, because it follows the rate of change of a particle as it leaves the point x, y, z; but dF/dt, dF/dx, dF/dy, dF/dz (2) represent the rate of change of F at the time t, at the point, x, y, z, fixed in space.

  • The differentiation of the females leads to a complex social life, the nesting habits of ants and the various industries that they pursue being of surpassing interest (see ANT).

  • is said to undergo division by mitosis essentially of the same character, with the formation of a spindle and the differentiation of chromosomes.

  • Notwithstanding this differentiation, the mean character of a series of repeated organs is often constant through a considerable region of the body or a considerable period of time; and the standard deviation of an "array" of repeated parts, chosen from such an area, or within such limits of time, may be taken as a.

  • Among the most important structures produced in repeated series are the reproductive cells; and Pearson points out that if the variability of animals or of plants be supposed to depend upon that of the germ-cells from which they arise, then the correlation between brothers in the array produced by the same parents will give a measure of the correlation between the parental germ-cells, the determination requiring, of course, the same precautions to avoid the effects of differentiation as are necessary in the study of other repeated organs.

  • A formula such as the equality of the interior angles of a triangle to two right angles is only scientifically known when it is not of isosceles or scalene triangle that it is known, nor even of all the several types of triangle collectively, but as a predicate of triangle recognized as the widest class-concept of which it is true, the first stage in the progressive differentiation of figure at which it can be asserted.° Three points obviously need development, the nature of definition, its connexion with the syllogism in which the middle term is cause or ground, and the way in which we have assurance of our principles.

  • The process of practical differentiation from their fellow-apostles was furthered by the concentration of the Twelve, or at least of its most marked representatives, in Jerusalem, for a considerable period (Acts viii.

  • As a similar differentiation, though less marked, appears in the recent genus Angiopteris, the presumption is in favour of the Marattiaceous affinities of Sturiella, which also shows some relation to the genus Corynepteris (see below, Botryopterideae).

  • Systematic differentiation of redaction from tradition is thus precluded.

  • Differentiation The process by which cells become specialized to perform particular tasks.

  • Thymic activity and T-cell differentiation are abnormal in RA.

  • We have further utilized in-vitro models to investigate the role of glucocorticoids on trophoblast function (proliferation, differentiation and invasion).

  • However, the change in NEP expression upon trophoblast differentiation remains to be clarified.

  • There is also no explicit differentiation between beginner and advanced players, so it is not uncommon to head to a table filled with sharks, while you are still a relative guppy in the tank of Mahjong players.

  • While you still won't find any players with a rating of under ten, Madden NFL 10 does "stretch" the scale to make for more of a differentiation between players.

  • Realistically, the differentiation is a lot simpler than you think.

  • Griffin. "Disorders of Sexual Differentiation."

  • "Molecular mechanisms in male determination and germ cell differentiation."

  • "Sexuality and Sexual Differentiation Syndromes."

  • It is also necessary for the proper differentiation and growth of cells in fetal development.

  • Diagnosis and differentiation of hypoglycemia: Low blood glucose may be associated with symptoms such as confusion, memory loss, and seizure.

  • Differentiation refers to the ability of each family member to maintain his or her own sense of self, while remaining emotionally connected to the family.

  • This differentiation can help reduce competition and sibling rivalry.

  • Soon after implantation, the cells continue to rapidly divide and clusters of cells begin to take on different functions (called differentiation).

  • The process of differentiation takes place over a period of weeks with different structures forming simultaneously.

  • Gonads are the organs of sexual differentiation: in the female, they are ovaries; in the male, the testes.

  • Sexual differentiation occurs, and there are buds for the baby's future teeth.

  • This stage of development is called differentiation and is a critical component to the baby's development.

  • Differentiation occurs during the first trimester and it is a very important time of the embryo's development.

  • In addition to differentiation, human embryo development in the first trimester includes major developments in different parts of the body's systems.

  • It is needed for good vision, cell division and differentiation, bone growth and reproduction.

  • However, new research also shows that vitamin D is essential to normal cell growth and differentiation throughout the body, making it a key factor in maintaining hormonal balance and a healthy immune system.

  • The vitamin participates in the human body's synthesis of proteins for cellular growth, development, differentiation and ability to adhere to one another.

  • The differentiation within Judaism is whether the power is attributed to a source other than God.

  • Insurance raters take this gender differentiation into account to calculate insurance premiums, often offering women lower auto insurance rates than men.

  • The second generation Zune followed with some product differentiation.

  • The frondose (thalloid) Jungermanniales show no such differentiation of an assimilating tissue, though the upper cells of the thallus usually have more chlorophyll than the rest.

  • In higher forms the conducting strands of the leaves are continued downwards into the stem, and eventually come into connection with the central hydrom cylinder, forming a complete cylindrical investment apparently distinct from the latter, and exhibiting a differentiation into hydrom, leptom and amylom which almost completely parallels that found among the true vascular plants.

  • Sometimes development stops altogether, and a layer of undifferentiated parenchyma (the mesodesm) is left between them; or it may continue indefinitely, the central cells keeping pace by their tangential division with the differentiation of tissue on each side.

  • The differentiation of the stelar stereom, which usually takes the form of a sclerized pericycle, and may extend to the endocycle and parts of the rays, takes place in most cases later than the formation of the primary vascular strand.

  • The differentiation of metaxylem follows according to the type of root-stele, and, finally, any stereom there may be is developed.

  • Thi vascular system is connected in various ways with that of th(parent axis by the differentiation of bundle-connections across thi cortex of the latter.

  • Among Gymnosperms the secondary xylem is similarly simple, consisting of tracheids which act as stereom as well as hydrom, and a little amylom; while the phloem-parenchyma sometimes undergoes a differentiation, part being developed as amylom, part as proteid cells immediately associated with the sieve-tube, in other cases the proteid cells of the secondary phloem do not form part of the phloem-parenchyma, but occupy the top and bottom cellrows of the medullary rays, the middle rows consisting of ordinary starchy cells.

  • It was fully recognized by its followers that the dominating influence in the structure and working of the body was the protoplasm, and the division of labor which it exhibited, with the accompanying or resulting differentiation into various tissues, was the special subject of investigation.

  • With increase of number, however, and consequently enlargement of bulk in the colony, differentiation becomes compulsory.

  • The second prominent differentiation which presents itself takes the form of a provision to supply the living substance with water.

  • The naked cells which have been alluded to live in water, and call therefore for no differentiation in connection with this necessity; but those which are surrounded by a cell-wall always develop within themselves a vacuole or cavity which occupies the greater part of their interior, and the hydrostatic pressure of whose contents keeps tha protoplasm in contact with the membrane, setting up a condition of turgidity.

  • There is little wonder, then, that in a colony of protoplasts such as constitute a large plant a considerable degree of differentiation is evident, bearing upon the question of water supply.

  • Another kind of differentiation in such a cell-mass as we are dealing with is the setting apart of particular groups of cells for various metabolic purposes.

  • We have the formation of numerous mechanisms which have arisen in connection with the question of food supply, which may not only involve particular cells, but also lead to differentiation in the protoplasm of those cells, as in the development of the chloroplastids of the leaves and other green parts.

  • It may be, however, that there is no special mechanism, but that this power is a particular differentiation of a physiological kind, existing in all vegetable protoplasm, or in that of certain cells.

  • After making its way into the interior, the intruder sets up a considerable hyper trophy of the tissue, causing the formation of a tubercle, which soon shows a certain differentiation, branches of the vascular bundles of the root being supplied to it.

  • The differentiation of the plants substance so indicated is, however, physiological only; there is no histological difference between the cells of these regions that can be associated with the several properties they possess.

  • - p elagic floating Hydrozoa with great differentiation of parts, each performing a special function; generally regarded as colonies showing differentiation of individuals in correspondence with a physiological division of labour.

  • The Mosses and Liverworts include forms with a more or less leaf-like thallus, such as many of the liverworts, and forms in which the plant shows a differentiation into a stem bearing remarkably simple leaves, as in the true mosses.

  • In the group of the Siphoneae both these types of differentiation may exist in the single, long, branched, tube-like and multinucleate cell (coenocyte) which here forms the plant-body.

  • In whatever way the tissues are originally formed, however, the main features of their differentiation are the same.

  • tissues after differentiation from the primary men- Tissues.

  • This differentiation is parallel with that between stem and leaf of the higher plants.

  • In the first place there is a differentiation of fixing organs, which in forms living on.

  • In Caulerpa the imitation of a higher plant by the differentiation of fixing, supporting and assimilating organs (root, stem and leaf) from different branches of the single cell is strikingly complete.

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