Those differences are part of what makes us unique.
Their differences couldn't be merely heritage.
But analysis has failed to find such differences.
Another fact of considerable technical importance is, that the various races of yeast show considerable differences in the amount and proportion of fermentation products other than ethyl alcohol and carbonic acid which they produce.
Many important differences are also recorded between the skulls of the two animals, and it is especially noteworthy that the last lower molar is smaller in the wild than in the tame race.
Great differences also exist with regard to climate between northern and southern Italy, due in great part to other circumstances as well as to differences of latitude.
But this formal agreement includes material differences, and the spirit which breathes in Lotze's writings is more akin to the objects and aspirations of the idealistic school than to the cold formalism of Herbart.
Some of the main differences in the habits of the African as distinct from those of the Asiatic elephant have been mentioned under the heading of the latter species.
In fact, their differences had been so great that she hadn't taken his interest seriously at first.
Maybe you could write a book about the differences between men and women.
Unfortunately, the new president was unequal to the task of composing the differences in his party.
These are not differences of values but disagreements in terms of knowledge.
But these differences between Dalton's views and our present ones do not impair the accuracy of the arguments which follow.
This unification meant for the army the absorption of contingents from all parts of Italy and presenting serious differences in physical and moral aptitudes, political opinions and education.
The price of Italian consolidated 5% (gross, 4% net, allowing for the 20% income tax) stock, which is the security most largely negotiated abroad, and used in settling differences between large financial institutions, has steadily risen during recent years.
Though their rule was favorable to the Romans, they were Arians; and religious differences, combined with the pride and jealousies of a nation accustomed to imperial honors, rendered the inhabitants of Italy eager to throw off their yoke.
For her sake, he had to find a way to live with Katie, or their differences would turn into a family feud.
"Let me give you an example of our differences," Fitzgerald continued.
They exchanged news and details on the climate differences and finally, when they were talked out, they said their good byes.
In some instances these differences are so marked that they have led some botanists to regard as distinct species many forms usually esteemed by others as varieties only.
The rugged nature of the country made slavery unprofitable, and time only increased the social, political and economic differences between the two sections of the state.
The publication of this work was, however, impeded for some time by differences with the admiralty, during which Forster proceeded to the continent to obtain an appointment for his father as professor at Cassel, and found to his surprise that it was conferred upon himself.
According to Shafi`ite law, such a cadi must be a male, free, adult Moslem, intelligent, of unassailed character, able to see, hear and write, learned in the Koran, the traditions, the Agreement, the differences of the legal schools, acquainted with Arabic grammar and the exegesis of the Koran.
These small individuals present apparently no other differences, and Sergi maintains that the difference is racial, these being the descendants of a race of pygmies who had emigrated from central Africa.
Some doctrinal differences having arisen in the church at Poitiers, Antoine de Chandieu, First minister at Paris, went to compose them, and, as the General .
The revivals in Kentucky brought about differences which resulted in the high-handed exclusion of the revivalists.
Differences in doctrine as well as polity and discipline became more and more prominent.
The differences developed were chiefly between general atonement and atonement for the elect only and between mediate imputation and immediate imputation.
Suffice it to say that differences with Irala eventually led to his arrest, and to his being sent back to Spain to answer to the charges brought against him for maladministration.
In each of the governments general there is a financial controller with extensive powers who corresponds directly with the metropolitan authorities (decree of March 22, 1907)., Details and local differences hi form of government will be found under the headings of the various colonies and protectorates.
These ancient opossums have been separated generically from Didelphys (in its widest sense) on account of certain differences in the relative sizes of the lower premolars, but as nearly the whole of the species have been formed .on lower jaws, of which some hundreds have been found, it is impossible to judge how far these differences are correlated with other dental or osteological characters.
The well-known Treatise on Differential Equations appeared in 1859, and was followed, the next year, by a Treatise on the Calculus of Finite Differences, designed to serve as a sequel to the former work.
by negotiating simultaneously with army and parliament, by inflaming their jealousies and differences, and finally by these means securing his restoration with his full prerogatives unimpaired.
It might appear at first sight as though one connexion would serve, but the differences in pressure on which these instruments depend are so minute, that the pressure of the air in the room where the recording part is placed has to be considered.
The narrower term "orchestration" is applied to the instrumentation of orchestral music. Since the most obvious differences of timbre are in those of various instruments, the art which blends and contrasts timbre is most easily discussed as the treatment of instruments; but we must use this term with philosophic breadth and allow it to include voices.
At the receiving station the differences in these systems depend chiefly upon variations in the actual form of the oscillation detector used, whether it be a loose contact or a thermal, electrolytic or magnetic detector.
All these problems that technology will solve have made our underlying differences worse—but removing these problems will not eliminate those underlying differences.
These differences are not caused by difference of nationality only, but are to be noted in the history of the same people, even in that of the Romans.
Considering the wide differences between the two groups in the size and external characters, and in the mode of life, including the mode of feeding, it is indeed surprising that in every important organ the two groups should show a fundamental morphological identity.
Central Italy also presents striking differences of climate and temperature according to the greater or less proximity to the mountains.
But in Italy, although they were severally identified with the papal and imperial parties, they really served as symbols for jealousies which altered in complexion from time to time and place to place, expressing more than antagonistic political principles, and involving differences vital enough to split the social fabric to its foundation.
Our conception of the degree of freedom often varies according to differences in the point of view from which we regard the event, but every human action appears to us as a certain combination of freedom and inevitability.
In view of these differences from the domesticated breed, and the resemblance of the skull or lower jaw to that of the extinct European species, it becomes practically impossible to regard the wild camels as the offspring of animals that have escaped from captivity.
By Dr Paul Matschie several races of the African elephant have been described, mainly, as already mentioned, on certain differences in the shape of the ear.
The ancient differences between Old and New Side were revived, and once more it was urged that there should be (1) strict subscription, (2) exclusion of the Congregationalized churches, and strict Presbyterian polity and discipline, and (3) the condemnation and exclusion of the new divinity and the maintenance of scholastic orthodoxy.
There are two marked differences between the two.
But differences between the Pietists of Halle and himself soon became apparent.
Code breakers and linguists were consulted, chemists and biologists patched up their differences and worked together, and scientific groups were formed to share information and theories.
If your father is American and your mother Chinese, you will have a different understanding of differences between those countries, and, on balance, will be less amenable to war between those nations.
I give below a portion of Miss Canby's story, "The Rose Fairies," and also Helen's letter to Mr. Anagnos containing her "dream," so that the likenesses and differences may be studied by those interested in the subject:
"The Frost Fairies" and "The Frost Kings" are given in full, as the differences are as important as the resemblances:
The French doctor held no taper; he was leaning against one of the columns in a respectful attitude implying that he, a foreigner, in spite of all differences of faith, understood the full importance of the rite now being performed and even approved of it.
The couple before her had found a way to make it work despite their differences.
It should, however, be borne in mind that the apparent differences between different species may be partly Table Xiv.
The doctrinal differences came to a head in the trials of George Duffield (1832), Lyman Beecher (1835) and Albert Barnes (1836) which, however, resulted in the acquittal of the accused, but which increased friction and ill feeling.
It had further revealed to them that truth, which once grasped can never be forgotten, that, despite differences of climate, character and speech, they were in all essentials a nation.
Had the blow thus struck at Italian influence in the Mediterranean induced politicians to sink for a while their personal differences and to unite in presenting a firm front to foreign nations, the crisis in regard to Tunisia might not have been wholly unproductive of good.
Moreover, it differs in several particulars from the Articles, these differences being doubtless the outcome of deliberation and of compromise.
The hydroid colony shows many variations in form and architec- ture which depend simply upon differences in the methods in which polyps are budded.
They also show characteristic differences in the egg (Brauer ).
Other variations in the mode of growth or budding bring about further differences in the building up of the colony, which are not in all cases properly understood and cannot be described in detail here.
As yet, however, the medusa of Microhydra has only been seen in an immature condition, but it shows some well-marked differences from Limnocodium, especially in the structure of the tentacles, which furnish useful characters for distinguishing species amongst medusae.
A further divergence of opinion arises from differences in the interpretation of the persons composing the colony.
Helvetius, in his work on man, referred all differences between our species and the lower animals to certain peculiarities of organization, and so prepared the way for a conception of human development out of lower forms as a process of physical evolution.
Their natural resemblances and differences are only to be expressed by disposing them as if they were branches springing from a common hypothetical centre.
It is well known that Darwin was deeply impressed by differences in flora and fauna, which seemed to be functions of locality, and not the result of obvious dissimilarities of environment.
This surface layer in the typically subaerial shoot of the sporophyte in Pteridophytes and Phanerogams is known as the epidermis, though the name is restricted by some writers, on account of developmental differences, to the surface layer of the shoot of Angiosperms, and by others extended to the surface layer of the whole plant in both these groups.
The differences between the nutritive processes of the animal and the plant are not therefore fundamental, as they were formerly held to be.
Differences connected with the mode of supply of nutritive material do exist, but they are mainly correlated with the structure of the organisms, which makes the method of absorption different.
Again, the well-known action of earthworms may be said to be a biological work; but the resulting aeration of the soil causes edaphic differences; and earthworms are absent from certain soils, such as peat.
The, fferent facies are possibly related to slight differences in a merally uniform habitat: it is unscientific to regard them as se to chance; still, in the majority of cases, the causes of the iferent facies have not been demonstrated.
Thus, associ- 1~e] ions of Agropyrum (Triticum) junceum, of Carex arenaria, of ~ ~nmophila (Psamma) arenaria, and of other plants occur on sa rid dunes: the associations are related by the general identity ph the habitat conditions, namely, the physiological dryness f d the loose soil; but they are separated by differences in f~1
ristic composition, especially by different dominant species, for d by minor differences of the common habitat.
Hartog has endeavoured to show that it can only he formed by a dual force, analagous to that of magnetism, the spindle-fibi es being comparable to the lines of force in a magnetic field and possibly due to electrical differences in the cell.
Sachs was the first to formulate the theory that morphological differences are the expression of differences in material composition.
We arrive thus at the essential aim of geographical botany, which, as stated by Schimper, is an inquiry into the causes of differences existing among the various floras.
Within the same region we may expect to find considerable differences as we pass from one meridian to another.
Thus comparing the Nearctic and Palaearctic floras we find striking differences overlying the points of agreement already indicated.
He speculated on the differences in the character of races of mankind living in different climates, and correlated the political forms of communities with their situation on a seashore, or in the neighbourhood of natural strongholds.
Differences in land forms do not exert great influence on the distribution of living creatures directly, but indirectly such land forms as mountain ranges and internal drainage basins are very potent through their action on soil and climate.
The minor subdivisions into provinces, counties and parishes, or analogous areas, may also be related in many cases to natural features or racial differences perpetuated by historical causes.
He saw Jews, Saracens, heretics and apostates roaming through Spain unmolested; and in this lax toleration of religious differences he thought he saw the main obstacle to the political union of the Spains, which was the necessity of the hour.
The spermatozoa exhibit many differences in shape, size and proportions, in the various groups of birds.
We may here quote Newton (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 9th ed., " Birds," p. 738) on the remarkable differences between this region and the rest of the Old World: - " The prevalent zoological features of any Region are of two kinds - negative and positive.
A very long period of isolation must have been required to produce the differences so manifestly to be observed, but a few forms seem at rare intervals to have immigrated, and this immigration would appear to be kept up to our own day, as shown by the instance of Zosterops lateralis, which is said to have lately made its first appearance, and to have established itself in the country, as well as by the fact of two cuckoos, Charadriiformes 650 (incl.
The differences between the Neotropical avifauna and that of North America are fundamental and prove the independence or superior value of the Neotropical region as one of the principal realms.
Some of the similarities to the Ethiopian and the great differences from the Australian avifauna have already been pointed out.
But his preference for a sedentary and not for an active life and his increasing attachment to favourites of humble birth diminished his popularity, and he had some differences with his parliament.
The question of the use of the vernacular or of Hebrew is bound up with the differences between the orthodox and the liberal or reform parties, complicated by the many problems involved.
They are differences which seem to be inherent in the difference between a republic and a monarchy, but which it would be truer to say are inherent in the difference between a body of men packed close together within the walls of a city and a body of men - if we can call them a body - scattered over a wide territory..
This discovery was followed by that of the calculus of partial differences, the first trials of which were published in his Reflexion sur la cause generale des vents (1747).
Alembert was much interested in music both as a science and as an art, and wrote Elements de musique theorique et pratique (1779), which was based upon the system of P. Rameau with important modifications and differences.
Great differences in the general form of the body may be observed in the family.
There were, however, differences of a wider and deeper kind.
The depressions which gap the borders of the central plateau thus acquire a greater importance than the small differences in its vertical elevation.
The overwhelming numerical superiority of the Sla y s, and the very great differences in ethnical type, belief and mythology between the IndoEuropean and the Ural-Altaic races, may have contributed to the same end.
Russian - readily adapts himself to many other differences.
shows the differences between various countries.
because of differences in classification.
This body pursued the subject with more or less diligence, and in 1884 laid down the principle that the automatic coupler should be one acting in a vertical plane - that is, the engaging faces should be free to move up and down within a considerable range, in order to provide for the differences in the height of cars.
These differences have given rise to a supposed multiplicity of species, expressed by the names C. lycaon (Central Europe), C. laniger and C. niger (Tibet), the C. occidentalis, C. nubilus, C. mexicanus, &c., of North America, and the great blackish-brown Alaskan C. pambasileus, the largest of them all.
Lawsoniana, the Port Orford cedar, a native of south Oregon and north California, where it attains a height of Too ft., was introduced into Scotland in 1854; it is much grown for ornamental purposes in Britain, a large number of varieties of garden origin being distinguished by differences in habit and by colour of foliage.
There are further differences in the other stages of life.
But jealousy between the kinsmen was complicated by differences between Owen Roe and the Catholic council which met at Kilkenny in October 1642.
The differences between the form of the written history and the conditions which prevailed have impressed themselves variously upon modern writers, and efforts have been made to recover from the Old Testament earlier forms more in accordance with the external evidence.
But the day of medieval intolerance had passed, and in 1867 the new constitution " abolished all disabilities on the ground of religious differences," though anti-Semitic manipulation of the law by administrative authority has led to many instances of intolerance.
Along the margins of valleys there are hills rising from 30 to 120 ft., but farther back from the water courses the differences of elevation are much less.
When, in the 5th century A.D., owing to theological differences the Syriac-using Christians became divided into Nestorians or East Syrians and Jacobites (Monophysites) or West Syrians, certain differences of pronunciation, chiefly in the vowels, began to develop themselves.
It is thought that the differences are, in part at least, due to differences in the nature of the food supplied to larvae, which are apparently all alike.
boundaries, from following lines on which the continuity of the land is interrupted, often necessarily indicate important differences in the conditions of adjoining countries, and of their political and physical relations, yet variations of the elevation of the surface above the sea-level frequently produce effects not less marked.
The flora of the whole of northern Asia is in essentials the same as that of northern Europe, the differences being due rather to variations of species than of genera.
He strengthened his position by giving his daughter Sophia in marriage to Vasily, grand-duke of Muscovy; but he never felt secure beneath the wing of the Teutonic Order, and when Jagiello removed Skirgiello from the government of Lithuania and offered it to Witowt, the compact of Ostrow (5th of August 1392) settled all differences between them.
There are, however, anatomical and histological differences to be seen at any rate at the extremes between the undoubted nephridia of Goodrich, Meyer and Lankester, and the coelomoducts of the same authors.
There are so many differences of detail that no line can be drawn between the one-celled funnel of Aeolosoma and the extraordinarily large and folded funnel of the posterior nephridia in the Oligochaete Thamnodrilus.
Slight differences in form have been noted between nephridia of different segments; but the Hirudinea do not show the marked differentiation that is to be seen in some other Chaetopods; nor do the nephridia ever acquire any relations to the alimentary canal.
Differences arising out of the M ` Leod case were adjusted by extend - ing the principle of extradition.
From Pennsylvania the sect spread chiefly westward, and, after various vicissitudes, caused by defections and divisions due to doctrinal differences, in 1908 were most numerous in Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Nebraska, Kansas and North Dakota.
Differences of opinion there must be; but "heresy is not an error of the understanding but an error of the will."
Climate.-Owing in part to the great differences in altitude in different regions of Caucasia and in part to the directions in which the mountain ranges run, and consequently the quarters towards which their slopes face, the climate varies very greatly according to locality.
These show differences amounting to 2,106,470 acres for wheat, 1,059,504 acres for barley, and 529,699 acres for oats.
Nevertheless there are distinctions of result dependent on differences in the habits of the two plants, and in the conditions of their cultivation accordingly.
greatest differences as to the amount p of food-material by which the egg-shell is encumbered.
Differences of opinion with regard to the policies to be pursued by the new government gradually led to the formation of two well-defined political groups - the Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans - and Adams became recognized as one of the leaders, second only to Alexander Hamilton, of the former.
Great diversity exists in the texture and functions of fore and hind-wings in different in sects; these differences are discussed in the descriptions of the various orders.
The differences in appearance between the caterpillar and the butterfly, striking as they are to the eye, do not sufficiently represent the phenomena of metamorphosis to the intelligence.
These differences in larval form depend in part on the surroundings among which the larva finds itself after hatching; the active, armoured grub has to seek food for itself and to fight its own battles, while the soft, defenceless maggot is provided with abundant nourishment.
detail, illustrating his statements by the preparations he exhibited, the progress of ossification in the sternum of the fowl and of the duck, pointing out how it differed in each, and giving his interpretation of the differences.
Yet it was regarded " as being the one which facilitates the expression of the leading anatomical differences which obtain in the class of birds, and which therefore may be considered as the most natural."
claims a few words, though its scope is rather to show differences than affinities; but treatment of that kind is undoubtedly useful at times in indicating that alliances generally admitted are unnatural; and this is the case here, for, following Calvier's method, the author's researches prove the artificial character of some of its associations.
He of course knew the investigations of L'Herminier and De Blainville on sternal formation, and he also seems to have been aware of some pterylological differences exhibited by birds - whether those of Nitzsch or those of Jacquemin is not stated.
As it is, so much of them as we have are of considerable importance; for, in this unfortunately unfinished memoir, he describes in some detail the several differences which the sternum in a great many different groups of his Tropidosternii presents, and to some extent makes a methodical disposition of them accordingly.
Starting from the basis " that the phrase `birds are greatly modified reptiles' would hardly be an exaggerated expression of the closeness " of the resemblance between the two classes, which he had previously brigaded under the name of Sauropsida (as he had brigaded the Pisces and Amphibia as Ichthyopsida), he drew in bold outline both their likenesses and their differences, and then proceeded to inquire how the A y es could be most appropriately subdivided into orders, suborders and families.
At the settlement, every member of the exchange receives the " differences " owing to him and pays those which he has incurred.
Differences may be very large sums. The unit of a " future " being too bales, an alteration in the price of cotton of.
From all differences interest at 5% is deducted for the time between settlement day and the tenth day of the second month on which the " future " elapses, since settlement terms mean that money is paid in instalments before it is actually due.
It is sometimes assumed that this is measured perfectly by the standard deviation,' which is obtained by taking the squares of the differences between the average and the individual prices, summing them and extracting the square root.
These slight differences in level, however, are found to have a most powerful effect in the direction already mentioned.
National rivalries had been accentuated and national differences brought into prominence by the meeting of the nations in a common enterprise; while, on the other hand, Mahommedans and Christians had fraternized as they had never done before during the progress of a Crusade.
The fact is that not only have the larger subdivisions a different arrangement and even number of the muscular layers, but even within the same genus, nay, in the same species, well-marked differences occur.
As to the date of the book, though there are still differences of opinion among scholars, there is a gradual approach to a consensus.
Regarding all substances as being composed of one primitive matter - the prima materia, and as owing their specific differences to the presence of different qualities imposed upon it, the alchemist hoped, by taking away these qualities, to obtain the prima materia itself, and then to get from it the particular substance he desired by the addition of the appropriate qualities.
But there were more serious differences in the background.
(586-601) to orthodoxy effaced the religious differences among his subjects, and all subjects, qua Christians, had to submit to the canons of the councils, which were made obligatory by the kings.
But the differences are great.
The chief differences between A.
It is possible, however, that there may have been differences of custom in the carrying out of the feast.
The separation of the Ratitae from the other birds, and their seemingly fundamental differences, notably the absence of the keel and of the power of flight, induced certain authors to go so far as to derive the Ratitae from the Dinosaurian reptiles, whilst Archaeopteryx (q.v.) and the Carinatae were supposed to have sprung from some Pterosaurian or similar reptilian stock.
Before explaining these formulae it will be necessary, however, to consider the differences in combining power exhibited by the various elements.
Important differences, however, are immediately met with when we consider the methods by which derivatives are obtained.
Further differences become apparent when various typical compounds are compared.
The amines also exhibit striking differences: in the aliphatic series these compounds may be directly formed from the alkyl haloids and ammonia, but in the benzene series this reaction is quite impossible unless the haloid atom be weakened by the presence of other substituents, e.g.
It is found that isomers have nearly the same critical volume, and that equal differences in molecular content occasion equal differences in critical volume.
88 These differences do not disappear at the critical point, and hence the critical volumes are not strictly additive.
For instance, constant differences are found between the chlorides, bromides and iodides of sodium and potassium According to H.
While certain additive relations hold between some homologous series, yet differences occur which must be referred to the constitution of the molecule.
The average value for primary alcohols is 44.67 cal., but many large differences from this value obtain in certain cases.
This is shown by the following observations of Riihlmann on water, the light used being the D line of the spectrum: Eykmann's observations also support the approximate constancy of the Lorenz-Lorentz formula over wide temperature differences, but in some cases the deviation exceeds the errors of observation.
compounds having the same composition, have equal molecular refractions, and that equal differences in composition are associated with equal differences in refractive power.
This is shown in the following table (the values are for Ha) Additive relations undoubtedly exist, but many discrepancies occur which may be assigned, as in the case of molecular volumes, to differences in constitution.
Atomic refractions may be obtained either directly, by investigating the various elements, or indirectly, by considering differences in the molecular refractions of related compounds.
Similarly, by this method of differences, the atomic refraction of any element may be determined.
Notable differences attend the neutralization of the chromophoric and auxochromic groups.
By taking appropriate differences the following facts will be observed: (1) the replacement of potassium by rubidium occasions an increase in the equivalent volumes by about eight units, and of rubidium by caesium by about eleven units; (2) replacement in the same order is attended by a general increase in the three topic parameters, a greater increase being met with in the replacement of rubidium by caesium; (3) the parameters x and, p are about equally increased, while the increase in w is always the greatest.
The differences, however, are seldom pressed, and rarely become acute.
and AR, are represented, but for the most part the differences originated within the Armenian.
On account of these and other differences (for which the reader may refer to the original paper, published in vol.
11 -13) has transmitted to us of the manufacture of the writing material from the papyrus plant should be taken strictly to refer to the process followed in his own time; but, with some differences in details, the same general method of treatment had doubtlessly been practised from time immemorial.
His carelessness in keeping account of his receipts and expenditures, and the differences between himself and Arthur Lee regarding the contracts with Beaumarchais, eventually led, in November 1777, to his recall to face charges, of which Lee's complaints formed the basis.
Differences with various French officials led to his retirement to Holland, where he remained until after the treaty of peace had been signed, when he settled in England.
The two parts are distinguished by difference of style; the Hebrew principle of parallelism of clauses is employed far more in the first than in the second, which has a number of plain prose passages, and is also rich in uncommon compound terms. In view of these differences there is ground for holding that the second part is a separate production which has been united with the first by an editor, an historical haggadic sketch, a midrash, full of imaginative additions to the Biblical narrative, and enlivened by many striking ethical reflections.
Even between the assignats themselves there were differences.
Some daily variation in the temperature of adjoining localities is caused by a dark soil in the one and a light soil in the other, but the differences of mean annual temperature are almost wholly due to differences of latitude and elevation.
Political parties were forming without very evident basis for differences outside questions of political patronage and the good 'or ill use of power; and, in the absence of the laws just mentioned, the Moderates, being in power, used every instrument of government to strengthen their hold on office.
Under the general heading "Analysis" occur the subheadings "Foundations of Analysis," with the topics theory of functions of real variables, series and other infinite processes, principles and elements of the differential and of the integral calculus, definite integrals, and calculus of variations; "Theory of Functions of Complex Variables," with the topics functions of one variable and of several variables; "Algebraic Functions and their Integrals," with the topics algebraic functions of one and of several variables, elliptic functions and single theta functions, Abelian integrals; "Other Special Functions," with the topics Euler's, Legendre's, Bessel's and automorphic functions; "Differential Equations," with the topics existence theorems, methods of solution, general theory; "Differential Forms and Differential Invariants," with the topics differential forms, including Pfaffians, transformation of differential forms, including tangential (or contact) transformations, differential invariants; "Analytical Methods connected with Physical Subjects," with the topics harmonic analysis, Fourier's series, the differential equations of applied mathematics, Dirichlet's problem; "Difference Equations and Functional Equations," with the topics recurring series, solution of equations of finite differences and functional equations.
These show the magnitudes of the layers of different salinity and temperature beneath the surface, and when a number of sections are compared the differences from season to season and from year to year can be seen.
The heating of the latter causes great differences of pressure, which in turn set up changes of atmospheric circulation.
There have been great differences in the seas round Iceland and Greenland with regard to the presence of ice: from the 9th to the 12th centuries there is no evidence (in contemporary accounts) of the presence of much ice in the sea off Greenland, nor was much ice carried by the Labrador current, but from the 13th century onwards we do have evidence that there was very troublesome ice off Greenland.
It became clear that only very rough estimates of the numbers of planktonic organisms in a volume of sea-water as large as (say) 10 cubic metres could be made, but that these estimates could nevertheless be trusted to show very marked regional and seasonal differences.
The regional differences, as we have seen, can De explained by the regional difference of temperature.
Differences of temperature and atmospheric pressure must disturb this equilibrium, but the movements of both ocean and atmosphere lead to a high degree of uniformity in both envelopes as regards their gaseous constitutions.
The chief differences are, that (a) the tongue-bar is the essential vm, organ of the gill-slit in Balanoglossus, and exceeds FIG.
The sexes are separate, and when mature are sometimes distinguished by small differences of colour in the genital region.
In ordinary cases possible changes in the concentrations only affect the electromotive force by a few parts in a hundred, but, by means such as those indicated above, it is possible to produce such immense differences in the concentrations that the electromotive force of the cell is not only changed appreciably but even reversed in direction.
Differences between the two electrodes are thus set up, and, as we have seen above, an electromotive force will therefore exist between them.
The phenomena of polarization are thus seen to be due to the changes of surface produced, and are correlated with the differences of potential which exist at any surface of separation between a metal and an electrolyte.
The contact differences of potential at the interfaces of metals and electrolytes have been co-ordinated by Nernst with those at the surfaces of separation between different liquids.
Negotiations took place for a settlement of the religious differences.
In the subdivision of the order into tribes use is made of differences in the form of the fruit and the manner of folding of the embryo.
The vats for depositing may be of enamelled iron, slate, glazed earthenware, glass, lead-lined wood, &c. The current densities and potential differences frequently used for some of the commoner metals are given in the following table, taken from M ` Millan's Treatise on Electrometallurgy.
There are accordingly parts of Siberia, especially among the Raskolniks or Nonconformists, where the north Russian, the Great Russian and the Ukrainian (or southern) types have maintained themselves in their full purity, and only some differences in domestic architecture, in the disposition of their villages and in the language and character of the population remind the traveller that he is in Siberia.
The resultant being a product of mn root differences, is of degree mn in the roots, and hence is of weight mn in the coefficients of the forms; i.e.
and, dividing by y1y2...ym, the discriminant of f is seen to be equal to the product of the squares of all the differences of any two roots of the equation.
Any function of differences of S a, S b, S c, ...
He rendered an immense service to his country by maintaining that the cause of France, though desperate to all appearance, was not yet lost if the contending factions could lay aside their differences in the face of the common enemy.
(After Lankester, loc. cit.) eyes, it is to be noted that no Crustacean has structures corresponding to the peculiar diplostichous central eyes, though these occur again (with differences in detail) in Hexapoda.
To Lagrange, perhaps more than to any other, the theory of differential equations is indebted for its position as a science, rather than a collection of ingenious artifices for the solution of particular problems. To the calculus of finite differences he contributed the beautiful formula of interpolation which bears his name; although substantially the same result seems to have been previously obtained by Euler.
In 1552 he was raised to the dignity of Rigsraad (councillor of state); in 1554 he successfully accomplished his first diplomatic mission, by adjusting the differences between the elector of Saxony and the margrave of Brandenburg.
ARBITRATION International arbitration is a proceeding in which two nations refer their differences to one or more selected persons, who, after affording to each party an opportunity of being heard, pronounce judgment on the matters at issue.
The history of international arbitration is dealt with in the article Peace, where treaties of general arbitration are discussed, both those which embrace all future differences thereafter to arise between the contracting parties, and also those more limited conventions which aim at the settlement of all future differences in regard to particular subjects, e.g.
The present article is concerned exclusively with arbitration in regard to such existing differences as are capable of precise statement and of prompt adjustment.
These differences may be arranged in two main groups: (a) Those which have arisen between state and state in their sovereign capacities; (b) Those in which one state has made a demand upon another state, ostensibly in its sovereign capacity, but really on behalf of some individual, or set of individuals, whose interests it was bound to protect.
To group (a) belong territorial differences in regard to ownership of land and rights of fishing at sea; to group (b) belong pecuniary claims in respect of acts wrongfully done to one or more subjects of one state by, or with the authority of, another state.
The prospects of the expansion of international arbitration will be more clearly perceived if we classify afresh all state differences under two heads: - (r) those which have a legal character, (2) those which have a political character.
Under " legal differences" may be ranged such as are capable of being decided, when once the facts are ascertained, by settled, recognized rules, or by rules not settled nor recognized, but (as in the " Alabama " case) taken so to be for the purpose in hand.
" Political differences " on the other hand, are such as affect states in their external relations, or in relation to their subjects or dependants who may be in revolt against them.
Some of these differences may be slight, while others may be vital, or (which amounts to the same thing) may seem to the parties to be so.
All differences falling under the first of these two general heads appear to be suitable for international arbitration.
Differences falling under the second general head are, for the most part, unsuitable, and may only be adjusted (if at all) through the mediation of a friendly power.
In 1799' Alexandre Brongniart pointed out the Wide differences which separate the frogs and salamanders (which he terms Batrachia) from the other reptiles; and in 1804 P. A.
Latreille,2 rightly estimating the value of these differences, though he was not an original worker in the field of vertebrate zoology, proposed to separate Brongniart's Batrachia from the class of Reptilia proper, as a group of equal value, for which he retained the Linnaean name of Amphibia.
The rivers of the second division are included in a very great extension of coast and are influenced by wide differences in climate.
The dispute was of very old standing, and the settlement by arbitration in 1899 of the acute misunderstanding between Great Britain and Venezuela regarding the western boundary of British Guiana, and the reference to arbitration in that same year of the FrancoBrazilian dispute, led to an agreement being made in 1901 between Brazil and Great Britain for the submission of their differences to the arbitration of the king of Italy.
Nevertheless it retained a separate administration for more than two centuries, until the general reforms of the grand-duke Pietro Leopoldo, the French domination, and finally the restoration swept away all differences between the Sienese and Florentine systems of government.
To this extent monism is justified; but it becomes mischievous if it prompts us to ignore important differences in facts as they present themselves to our intelligence.
These somewhat frequent changes of ministry, characteristic of a country new to responsible government, reflected, chiefly, differences concerning the treatment of commercial questions and the policy to be adopted towards the natives.
consciousness of the differences involved and the issues at stake; and, thanks to the heretical conclusion disclosed by Roscellinus, Realism became established for several centuries as the orthodox philosophical creed.
For this reason and because the system of Thomas is simply that of Albert rounded to a greater completeness and elaborated in parts by the subtle intellect of the younger man, it will be convenient not to separate the views of master and scholar, except where their differences make it necessary.
The majority he obtained on this occasion enabled him, however, to carry through the Army Education Bill, which tended to magyarize the Hungarian portion of the joint army; and another period of comparative calm ensued, during which Banffy attempted to adjust various outstanding financial and economical differences with Austria.
Biot relates that, when he himself was beginning his career, Laplace introduced him at the Institute for the purpose of explaining his supposed discovery of equations of mixed differences, and afterwards showed him, under a strict pledge of secrecy, the papers, then yellow with age, in which he had long before obtained the same results.
The one is a problem of interpolation, the other a step towards the solution of an equation in finite differences.
He was also the first to consider the difficult problems involved in equations of mixed differences, and to prove that an equation in finite differences of the first degree and the second order might always be converted into a continued fraction.
It will be noticed that, although the differences between successive terms of the sequence will ultimately become indefinitely small, there will always be intermediate numbers that do not occur in the sequence.
Reference may also be made to the special articles mentioned at the commencement of the present article, as well as to the articles on Differences, Calculus Of; Infinitesimal Calculus; Interpolation; Vector Analysis.
For instance, there are the symbols A, D, E used in the calculus of finite differences; Aronhold's symbolical method in the calculus of invariants; and the like.
There are, and probably always will be, differences of opinion as to the exact way in which the various kinds of animals may be divided into groups and those groups arranged - in such an order as will best exhibit their probable genetic relationships.
The function of a lens in forming an image is to compensate by its variable thickness the differences of phase which would otherwise exist between secondary waves arriving at the focal point from various parts of the aperture.
If we suppose the diameter of the lens to be given (2R), and its focal length f gradually to increase, the original differences of phase at the image of an infinitely distant luminous point diminish without limit.
It may be due partly to the natural conformation of the rock and the differences of level, partly to the necessity of enclosing within a single building several objects of ancient sanctity, such as the mark of Poseidon's trident and the spring that arose from it, the sacred olive tree of Athena, and the tomb of Cecrops.
He assured them that they might look forward to complete self-government under the Crown, and at the same time urged them to sink political differences and join hands with the British against their common enemy, the Zulus.
The plan of campaign which found favour with the Boers, when they determined to put their differences with Great Britain to the test by the ordeal of the sword, was to attack all the principal British towns adjacent to their own borders; at the same time to despatch a field army of the necessary dimensions to invade and reduce Natal, where the largest British garrison existed.
But it must not be supposed that the differences between living and not-living matter are such as to justify the assumption that the forces at work in the one are different from those which are to be met with in the other.
These differences have depended upon climate, occupation, occasion (e.g.
The constitution of guncotton is a difficult matter to investigate, primarily on account of the very insoluble nature of cellulose itself, and also from the fact that comparatively slight variations in the concentration and temperature of the acids used produce considerable differences in the products.
Thus differences in osmotic pressure may be much more powerful in producing oedema than mere differences in blood pressure.
Now differences in the amount of crystalloids cause alteration in osmotic pressure while the proteid content affects it but little; and of the crystalloids the chlorides appear to be those most liable to variation.
The school of Cnidus, as distinguished from that of Cos, of which Hippocrates is the representative, appears to have differed in attaching more importance to the differences of special diseases, and to have made more use of drugs.
The theoretical differences between this and the" stimulus "theory need not be expounded.
Now, what is remarkable in these and many other reactions is not only that effects apparently very opposite may result from minute differences of molecular construction, but also that, whatever the construction, agents, not wholly indifferent to the body or part, tend to anchor themselves to organic molecules in some way akin to them.
In 1768 he entered into controversy with the bishop of the diocese; he had differences with the superior landlord of part of his estate, the president De Brosses; and he engaged in a long and tedious return match with the republic of Geneva.
Indeed it is easier to explain some of the differences between the Acts and St Paul's Epistles on this assumption than on that of authorship by a writer who would have felt more dependent upon the information which might be gathered from those Epistles, and who would have been more likely to have had a collection of them at hand, if his work was composed c. A.D.
5 to end of ii., it is strongly Hebraic. Such differences are largely due, no doubt, to the degree in which he was in various parts independent of, or dependent upon, sources.
Explanations being made and terms'of accommodation offered by General Erskine, the commanding officer, the Burmese commander retired from the British territories, when the fugitives were restored, and all differences for the time amicably arranged.
These differences arise primarily from the fact that glass for optical uses is required in comparatively large and thick pieces, while for most other purposes glass is used in the form of comparatively thin sheets; when, therefore, as a consequence 5 and crown glass.
In many respects the glassmelting tank resembles the open-hearth steel furnace, but there are certain interesting differences.
The general colour of the upper parts and sides of the adult is a tawny yellowish brown, sometimes having a grey or silvery shade, but in some cases dark or inclining to red; and upon these and other differences, which are probably constant locally, a number of sub-species have been named.
With a view to facilitating the crusade, a council was held at Bari in October 1098, at which religious differences were debated and the exiled Anselm of Canterbury combated the Eastern view of the Procession of the Holy Ghost.
- In the early days of the decipherment of the cuneiform inscriptions, the reading of the proper names borne by Babylonians and Assyrians occasioned great difficulties; and though most of these difficulties have been overcome and there is general agreement among scholars as to the principles underlying both the formation and the pronunciation of the thousands of names that we encounter in historical records, business documents, votive inscriptions and literary productions, differences, though mostly of a minor character, still remain.
differences in execution and details, all these sculptures show one general type of art, a type which recalls now Babylonian, now Assyrian, now Egyptian, now archaic Ionian, style, but is always individual and easily distinguishable from the actual products of those peoples.
At Boghaz Keui, Euyuk and Jerablus, the facial type is very markedly non-Semitic. But not much stress can be laid on these differences owing to (i) great variety of execution in different sculptures, which argues artists of very unequal capacity; (2) doubt whether individual portraits are intended in some cases and not in others.
We have already dwelt on certain notable differences between apocalyptic and prophecy; but there are certain others that call for attention.
The Florentines now turned their eyes towards Lucca; they might have acquired the city immediately after Castruccio's death for 80,000 florins, but failed to do so owing to differences of opinion in the signory; Martino della Scala, lord of Verona, promised it to them in 1335, but Lucca broke his word, and although their finances were not then very flourishing they allied themselves with Venice to make war on him.
In 1362 we find Florence at war with Pisa on account of commercial differences, and because the former had acquired the lordship of Volterra.
The settlers of Kent are described by Bede as Jutes, and there are traces in Kentish custom of differences from the other.
It is seen that aldoses and ketoses which differ stereochemically in only the two final carbon atoms must yield the same osazone; and since d-mannose, d-glucose, and d-fructose do form the same osazone (d-glucosazone) differences either structural or stereochemical must be placed in the two final carbon atoms.3 It may here be noticed that in the sugars there are asymmetric carbon atoms, and consequently optical isomers are to be expected.
The identity of the formulae and osazones of d-mannose and d-glucose showed that the stereochemical differences were situated at the carbon atom adjacent to the aldehyde group. Fischer applied a method indicated by Pasteur in converting dextro into laevo-tartaric acid; he found that both d-mannonic and d-gluconic acids (the latter is yielded by glucose on oxidation) were mutually convertible by heating with quinoline under pressure at 140°.
Very slight differences in climate appear to cause very great differences in the quality of the tobacco, and ordinary meteorological records are of little use in determining the suitability or not of a region for a particular kind of leaf; this essential point must be determined by experiment.
As the United States of America produce more tobacco than any other country it will be best to deal generally with conditions there and to refer to marked differences in dealing with production in other countries.
Careful examination of a large number of individuals of one variety growing under similar conditions reveals differences in such characters as number of leaves per plant, the size and shape of the leaves, tendency to form suckers, time of maturing and resistance to disease.
The controversy was embittered and the differences sharpened by his appointment to the professorship at Leiden.
But the members of the feudal court met, not to fulfil a duty owed to the community, but a private obligation which they had assumed in return for the fiefs they held, and in the history of institutions it is differences of this sort which are the determining principles.
In the male, moreover, the pincers are caliper-like and toothed at the base, whereas in the female they are untoothed and only lightly curved at the tip. These differences suggest that the pincers aid in the pairing of the sexes.
There are corresponding differences in style and speech, and it is particularly to be noted that, while the superscriptions in the first part name the author and give the date of each oracle with precision, those in the second part (ix.
Of these (3) and (4) are of marked eschatological character, and show little contact with definite historical events ' Driver, op. cit., p. 229, who also refers to the differences of Messianic outlook, and the substitution of an atmosphere of war for one of peace.
A new and elaborate treaty, the terms of which have come down to us, was now concluded between the Russians and Greeks, a treaty which evidently sought to bind the two nations closely together and obviate all possible differences which might arise between them in the future.
The latter state claimed sovereignty over the Napo and Maranon rivers on the grounds of the ecclesiastical jurisdiction exercised over this section of territory during the period of Spanish dominion, the government of Colombia asserting that these ecclesiastical rights to which Colombia became entitled after her separation from the Spanish crown carried also the right of absolute ownership. In a treaty signed by the three interested states in 1895 a compromise was effected by which Colombia withdrew a part of the claim advanced, and it was agreed that any further differences arising out of this frontier question should be submitted to the arbitration of the Spanish crown.
distillare, more correctly destillare, to drop or trickle down), an operation consisting in the conversion of a substance or mixture of substances into vapours which are afterwards condensed to the liquid form; it has for its object the separation or purification of substances by taking advantage of differences in volatility.
The display is apparently an annual one, though with considerable differences in intensity, and the cycle of its more abundant returns has not yet been determined.
Many critics ascribe it to an unknown Lucius Caecilius; there are certainly serious differences of grammar, style and temper between it and the writings already mentioned.
Taylor's Methodus Incrementorum Directa et Inversa (London, 1715) added a new branch to the higher mathematics, now designated the " calculus of finite differences."
The Arrabbiati and the Medicean faction merged political differences in their common hatred to Savonarola.
Owing principally to differences in the length of the inch in various countries this method had great inconveniences, and now the unit is the refractive power of a lens whose focal length is one metre.
In astigmatism, owing to differences in the refractive power of the various meridians of the eye, great defect of sight, frequently accompanied by severe headache, occurs.
The principal differences are the complication of the ciliated band, the absence of the excretory organ, the great lateral compression of the body, the possession of a pair of shells protecting the sides, the presence of an organ known as the "pyriform organ," and the occurrence of a sucker in a position corresponding with the depression seen between (m) and (a) in fig.
The anatomical differences by which the platypus, and its only allies the echidnas, are separated from all other mammals, so as to form a distinct sub-class, are described in the article Monotremata, where also will be found the main distinctive characters of the two existing representatives of the group. It is there stated that the early stages of the development of the young are not yet fully known.
After six years the differences between the old and the young philosopher grew too marked for friendship. Comte began to fret under Saint-Simon's pretensions to be his director.
It colours all his writings, and is intimately connected with some of the most characteristic attributes of his mind, a quick sympathetic imagination, a fine feeling for local differences, and a scientific instinct for seizing the sequences of cause and effect.
During the differences that arose in 1485 between the regent, Anne of Beaujeu, and the dukes of Orleans, Brittany and Alengon, Imbert de Batarn y kept the inhabitants of Orleans faithful to the king.
These differences are due to the action of the north-westerly wind that blows over Japan from Siberia.
These glazes were not monochromatic: they showed differences of tint, and sometimes marked varieties of color; as when chocolate-brown passed into amber, or black was relieved by streaks and clouds of grey and dead-leaf red.
Religious differences added to this rivalry.
After the emperor's death Professor Geffcken, a personal friend, published in the Deutsche Rundschau extracts from the diary of the crown prince containing passages which illustrated his differences with Bismarck during the war of 1870.
His advice was followed, and the differences between the medical men were made the occasion for a considerable display of national and political animosity.
Among Protestant churches again there are minor doctrinal differences, which are held with various degrees of exclusiveness or liberality according to the degree of departure from the Roman Catholic Church.
But this political difference was connected with theological differences.
- Terrestrial, with a cylindrical tail, comprising about 150 species which have been grouped into numerous genera, mostly upon very slight differences.
On these basal differences are founded most of the characters which make the higher forms of animal and plant life so different.
The distinctions between animals and plants are in fact obviously secondary and adaptive, and point clearly towards the conception of a common origin for the two forms of life, a conception which is made still more probable by the existence of many low forms in which the primary differences between animals and plants fade out.
Although caddis-flies are sometimes referred to several families, the differences between the groups are of no great importance.
Since then they are all charged with the same quantity of electricity, and the total over all potential difference V is the sum of each of the individual potential differences V1, V2, V3, &c., we have Q=C I V I =C 2 V 2 =C 3 V 3 =&c., and V=V1-FV2+V3+&c. The resultant capacity is C = Q/V, and C= I/(I/C1 +I /C2+1/C3+&c) = I/Z(I /C) (15).
For if C l and C2 are the capacities and Q i and Q2 are the charges after contact, then Qi/CI and Q2/C2 are the potential differences of the coatings and must be equal.
There are very considerable differences between the values assigned by different observers, sometimes no doubt due to differences in method, but in most cases unquestionably depending on variations in the quality of the specimens examined.
In Europe there is a similar movement; but it is difficult to make comparisons, because of the differences in the administrative areas.
The differences, however, which divide this from the later creed forms are scarcely less noticeable than their agreement, and the evidence of the Ignatian epistles generally (Eph.
The differences of opinion which arose on this problem naturally led to the inquiry as to whether any universally valid statement was possible.
Some of these are doubtless such as no botanist, with adequate material for forming an opinion, would accept; but, after making the necessary deductions for actual mistakes and misstatements, there still remains a large number upon which legitimate differences of opinion prevail.
At this congress the differences between Casimir and John of Bohemia were finally adjusted; peace was made between the king of Poland and the Teutonic Order on the basis of the cession of Pomerania, Kulm, and Michalow to the knights, who retroceded Kujavia and Dobrzyn; and the kings of Hungary and Poland further agreed to assist each other in the acquisition of the south-eastern border province of Halicz, or Red Russia (very nearly corresponding to the modern Galicia), in case the necessity for intervention should arise.
Hunter did not regard Lincoln's election as being of itself a sufficient cause for secession, and on the 11th of January 1861 he proposed an elaborate but impracticable scheme for the adjustment of differences between the North and the South, but when this and several other efforts to the same end had failed he quietly urged his own state to pass the ordinance of secession.
The principal modern genera are grouped by the differences in the flower - tube just explained.
medius, middle), in the international sense, the intervention of a third power, on the invitation or with the consent of two other powers, for the purpose of arranging differences between the latter without recourse to war.
Of successful mediation in the strict sense there have been many instances: that of Great Britain, in 1825, between Portugal and Brazil; of France, in 1849-1850, when differences arose between Great Britain and Greece; of the Great Powers, in 1868-1869, when the relations of Greece and Turkey were strained to breaking-point by reason of the insurrection in Crete; of Pope Leo XIII., in 1885, between Germany and Spain in the matter of the Caroline Islands.
Mediation has also been occasionally employed where differences have arisen as to the interpretation of treaties or as to the mode in which they ought to be carried out: as when Great Britain mediated between France and the United States with regard to the Treaty of Paris of the 4th of July 1830.
The clause in which this proposal was embodied provided in effect that, whenever there is danger of a rupture between two powers, each of them shall choose a third power to which these differences shall be referred, and that, pending such reference, for a period not exceeding thirty days (unless the time is extended by agreement) the powers at issue shall cease to negotiate with each other and leave the dispute entirely in the hands of the mediating powers.
Notwithstanding religious differences she lived in great harmony and affection with the king, latterly, however, residing mostly apart.
14 1915, partly on account of differences of opinion as to the advisability of proceeding with the dispatch of the expedition to Salonika in the changed conditions created by the resignation of M.
Previously, however, in August 1680, the duke of York had leased this territory for ro,000 years to William Penn, to whom he conveyed it by a deed of feoffment in August 1682; but differences in race and religion, economic rivalry between New Castle and the Pennsylvania towns, and petty political quarrels over representation and office holding, similar to those in the other American colonies, were so intense that Penn in 1691 appointed a special deputy governor for the " lower counties."
Papyri from a Jewish colony in Elephantine (407 B.C.) clearly show the form which royal permits could take, and what the Jews were prepared to give in return; the points of resemblance are extremely interesting, but compared with the biblical documents the papyri reveal some striking differences.
The differences of the readings of the screw, when converted into arc, afford the means of measuring the variations of the sun's apparent diameter.
The differences of level between different parts of the geoid have been greatly overestimated in the past; F.
Wind also gives rise to differences of level by driving the water before it, and the prevailing westerly wind of the southern Baltic is the chief cause of the sea-level at Kiel being 51 in.
In the monsoon regions the half-yearly change from on-shore to off-shore winds produces noticeable differences in XIX.
Luksch found the disk visible as a rule to from 22 to 27 fathoms, and off the Syrian coast even to 33 fathoms. In the open Atlantic there are `great differences in transparency; Kriimmel observed a 6 ft.
The figures quoted above are differences between the average surface temperatures of the warmest and of the coldest month.
The regional differences of temperature at like depths become less as the depth increases.
Thus at 300 fathoms greater differences than 9° F.
and 50 S., in Boo fathoms the differences are less than 5.5° and in 1500 fathoms less than 2°.
The differences of salinity support this method, and, especially in the northern European seas, often prove a sharper criterion of the boundaries than temperature itself; this is especially the case at the entrance to the Baltic. Evidence drawn from drift-wood, wrecks or special drift bottles is less distinct but still interesting and often useful; this method of investigation includes the use of icebergs as indicators of the trend of currents and also of plankton, the minute swimming or drifting organisms so abundant at the surface of the sea.
Vertical movements are also produced by difference of temperature in the water, but these can only be feeble, as below 'coo fathoms the temperature differences between tropical and polar waters are very small.
Strongly marked differences in density are produced by the melting of sea-ice, and this is of particular importance in the case of the great ice barrier round the Antarctic continent.
Differences of density between the waters of enclosed seas and of the ocean are brought about in some instances by concentration of the water of the sea on account of active evaporation, and in other instances by dilution on account of the great influx of land water.
On the continent of Europe it is customary to consider coal as divisible into two great classes, depending upon differences of colour, namely, brown coal, corresponding to the term "lignite" used in England and France, and black or stone coal, which is equivalent to coal as understood in England.
These variations in composition are attended with corresponding differences in qualities, which are distinguished by special names.
It has been variously attributed to metamorphism, consequent upon igneous intrusion, earth movements and other kinds of geothermic action, greater or less loss of volatile constituents during the period of coaly transformation, conditioned by differences of permeability in the enclosing rocks, which is greater for sandstones than for argillaceous strata, and other causes; but none of these appears to be applicable over more than limited areas.
p. 273), differences in composition are mainly original, the denser and more anthracitic varieties representing plant substance which has been more completely macerated and deprived of its putrescible constituents before submergence, or of which the deposition had taken place in shallow water, more readily accessible to atmospheric oxidizing influences than the deeper areas where conditions favourable to the elaboration of compounds richer in hydrogen prevailed.
24), gives as the reason for the journey the fact that differences existed between Asia and Rome "with regard to certain things" and especially about the time of the Easter festival.
This and the difficulty of obtaining accurate experimental results fully account for the differences inter se in the values of the quantities calculated.
As a preliminary to examining further into the nature of molecular motion and the differences of character of this motion, let us try to picture the state of things which would exist in a mass of solid matter in which all the molecules are imagined to be at rest relatively to one another.
Belmont, what is the use of the prayers offered up over the substances; and how account for the differences of effects which by the testimony of the faithful are respectively caused by water duly blessed and by water falsely blessed?
In 153(3 the emperor found himself in a position to visit Germany - once more, and summoned the diet to meet at Augsburg, with the hope of settling the religious differences and bringing about harmonious action against the Turk.
True, before differences can be united they must have been separated, but this merely proves that differentiation or analysis is only one factor in a single process.
The point of conflict again lies in the nature and ground of the assigned differences.
But if it is an error to treat the unity of the world as its only real aspect, it is equally an error to treat its differences as something ultimately irreducible.
Differences, of course, there are; and, if we like to say so, every difference is unique, but this does not mean that they are given in absolute independence of everything else, " fired at us out of 1 See Mind, New Series, xii.
So far from establishing the truth for which dualism is itself concerned - the reality of all differences - such a theory can end only in a scepticism as to the reality of any difference.
It is difficult to see what real difference there can be between things which are differences of nothing.
annihilation of all differences but the apprehension of them in organic relation to one another and to the whole to which they belong.
1 In this document, whose democracy is characteristic of differences between the Plymouth Colony and that of Massachusetts Bay, the signatories " solemnly and mutually ...
In addition to the few persons banished to Rhode Island, theological and political differences led many to emigrate thither.
On the conclusion of the Peace of Oliva, which adjusted the long outstanding differences between Poland and Sweden, Czarniecki was transferred to the eastern frontier where the war with Muscovy was still raging.
The student will find differences among anthropologists in the interpretation of these marks - some averring that comparative anatomy is worthless as a means of subdividing the American subspecies, others that biological variations point to different Old World origins, a third class believing these structural variations to be of the soil.
Among the languages of America great differences exist in the sounds used.
Except for some minor differences the tangent sights were the same for all natures of guns, and for all services, but the development of the modern sight has followed different lines according to the nature and use of the gun, and must be treated under separate heads.
Bunsen may be regarded as the originator of the second method, and it was he who devised the small cone of platinum foil, sometimes replaced by a cone of parchment perforated with pinholes, arranged at the apex of the funnel to serve as a support for the paper, which is apt to burst under the pressure differences.
In the acts relating to the census from 1801 to 1851, provision for the enumeration of Scotland was made with that for England and Wales, allowance being made for the differences in procedure, which mainly concerned the agency to be employed.
These cases are important as enabling simpler formulae, involving central differences, to be used (§ 76).
The general method of constructing formulae of this kind involves the use of the integral calculus and of the calculus of finite differences.
Writing m = 2p, and grouping the coefficients of the successive differences, we shall find area = 2ph up+ 2 652up + 3 p4365p2 84up 3p,6 - 21p4 28p2 15120 If u is of degree 2f or 2f + i in x, we require to go up to b 2f u p, so that m must be not less than 2f.
Simpson's (first) formula, for instance, holds for f = I, and is obtained by taking p = i and ignoring differences after 52up.
'Simpson's second formula is obtained by taking m = 3 and ignoring differences after /,u52u1m.
The justification of the above methods lies in certain properties of the series of successive differences of u.
The fundamental assumption is that each group of strips of the trapezette may be replaced by a figure for which differences of u, above those of a certain order, vanish (§ 54).
The legitimacy of this assumption, and of the further assumption which enables the area of the new figure to be expressed by an approximate formula instead of by an exact formula, must be verified in every case by reference to the actual differences.
(iv) In order to find what formula may be applied, it is necessary to take the successive differences of u; and it is then just as easy, in most cases, to use a formula which directly involves these differences and therefore shows the degree of accuracy of the approximation.
The alternative method, therefore, consists in taking a simple formula, such as the trapezoidal rule, and correcting it to suit the mutual relations of the differences.
= x0 To apply these, the differential coefficients have to be expressed in terms of differences.
If we do not know values of u outside the figure, we must use advancing or receding differences.
denote differences read backwards, so that 0'um = um-1 -um, A' 2 um = um-2 -!2um_1+ um,
The calculation of the expressions in brackets may be simplified by taking the pairs in terms from the outside; by finding the successive differences of uo + um, ill + um_l, ..., or of uI u i +umi, ..
The following are the results (for the formulae involving chordal areas), given in terms of differential coefficients and of central differences.
When the sequence of differences is not such as to enable any of the foregoing methods to be applied, it is sometimes possible to amplify the data by measurement of intermediate ordinates, and then apply a suitable method to the amplified series.
The process practically consists in using the table as it stands for improving the first or second differences of v and then building up the table afresh.
The use of quadrature-formulae is important in actuarial work, where the fundamental tables are based on experience, and the formulae applying these tables involve the use of the tabulated values and their differences.
For the methods involving finite differences, see references under DIFFERENCES, CALCULUS OF; and INTERPOLATION.
Considering, then, his other differences from Anabaptist theories, and the absence of any hint to the contrary in his own autobiographical references, " it is safe to affirm that he had no conscious indebtedness to the Anabaptists " (Williston Walker, Creeds and Platforms of Congreg., New York, 1893, p. 16).
Yet the two gradually drifted apart again owing to doctrinal differences, emerging first on the Calvinistic doctrine of grace, such as broke up the joint " Merchants' Lecture " started in 1672 in Pinners' Hall, and next on Christology.
These specific differences revealed different religious tendencies,' the one type being more warmly Evangelical, the other more " rational " and congenial in temper with 18th-century Deism.
The theological division was accentuated by the Salters' Hall Controversy (1717-1719), which, nominally touching religious liberty versus subscription, really involved differences as to Trinitarian doctrine.
In 1895 a case of clerical interference in the internal affairs of Hungary by the nuncio Agliardi aroused a strong protest in the Hungarian parliament, and consequent differences between Banffy, the Hungarian minister, and the minister for foreign affairs led to Kaln6ky's resignation.
Political differences soon interfered with his work; as an adherent of Prussia and a Protestant, especially as a militant champion against the Ultramontanes, he was from the first an object of suspicion to the Clerical party.
It was the year before the rebellion of 1837; the condition of the whole country was very unsettled; and it seemed well-nigh impossible to reconcile differences arising from racial and political antagonisms. During the rebellion young Macdonald volunteered for active service, but his military career never went farther than drilling and marching.
DORT An assembly of the Reformed Dutch Church, with deputies from Switzerland, the Palatinate, Nassau, Hesse, East Friesland, Bremen, Scotland and England, called to decide the theological differences existing between the Arminians (or Remonstrants) and the Calvinists (or Counter-Remonstrants), was held at Dort or Dordrecht in the years 1618 and 1619.
"He is perfectly aware of the internal differences between Christians, and he is familiar with the various stages of development in the history of their religion.
The following are the most obvious differences between the original book and the Synoptists.
The passion-narratives reveal the following main differences.
The Johannine discourses reveal differences from the Synoptists so profound as to be admitted by all.
The religions also of the two powers present many points of agreement, with some notable differences.
Taking the successive key-notes D, A, E, B, it is found that besides small and negligible differences, each introduces a new sharp, and so we get the five sharps, C, D, F, G, A, represented nearly by the black keys.
35-44) closely in all respects except that of the numbers given, about which differences might easily arise in tradition, and it looks therefore as if it might be a "doublet," i.e.
With the existing differences in the laws of xxv.
A submission is defined as a written agreement (it need not be signed by both parties) to submit present or future differences to arbitration, whether a particular arbitrator is named in it or not.
Under the common law of Scotland, a submission of future disputes or differences to an arbiter, or arbiters, unnamed, was ineffectual except where the agreement to refer did not contemplate the decision of proper disputes between the parties but the adjustment of some condition, or the liquidation of some obligation, contained in the contract of which the agreement to submit formed a part.
In fact, small differences of composition or variations in thermal treatment during manufacture involve relatively large differences of quality.
But Louis always preferred arbitration to war, and the peace congresses of Nagyszombat (1360) and of Pressburg (1360) summoned by him adjusted all the outstanding differences between the central European powers.
In 1823 he entered parliament as secretary to the treasury, and in 1827 became chancellor of the exchequer under Lord Goderich; but in consequence of internal differences, arising partly out of a slight put upon Herries, the ministry was broken up, and in 1828 he was appointed master of the mint.
He accepted office as minister of the interior, but was soon deprived of it owing to political and personal differences with the First Consul.
July, 1906) that in spite of notable differences of terminology and form the chronologies of Antioch and Alexandria were in essence the same.
Altogether this western extremity of the Kuen-lun system is a very rugged mountainous region, a consequence partly of the intricacy of the flanking ranges and spurs, partly of the powerful lateral compression to which they have been subjected, and partly of the great and abrupt differences in vertical elevation between the crests of the ranges and the bottoms of the deep, narrow, rugged glens between them.
But though the great morphological features of this latitudinal valley forcibly recall the latitudinal valleys of Tibet, the climatic differences give rise to differences between the basins corresponding to the differences between the mountain-ranges themselves.
And when literary jealousy was complicated with theological differences, as in the case of the free-thinkers, or with French vanity, as in that of Budaeus, the cause of the enemy was espoused by a party and a nation.
Newton himself, however, endeavoured to account for gravitation by differences of pressure in an aether; but he did not publish his theory, ` because he was not able from experiment and observation to give a satisfactory account of this medium, and the manner of its operation in producing the chief phenomena of nature.'
Finally he picked a quarrel with Denmark for not accepting as an ultimatum the terms to be submitted by Russia to a peace conference to meet at Berlin for the purpose of adjusting the differences between the two powers.
Agreeing as they did in this fundamental theory, all differences were of minor concern.
The Great War must have taught us all that a calm and sensible discussion of all our differences is possible."
The affinities of the moas are undoubtedly with the Australian Ratitae, and, in spite of the differences mentioned above, with the kiwis.
In external form and appearance the Hydrozoa exhibit such striking differences that there would seem at first sight to be little in common between the more divergent members of the group. Nevertheless there is no other class in the animal kingdom with better marked characteristics, or with more uniform morphological peculiarities underlying the utmost diversity of superficial characters.
The internal structural differences are even more characteristic. In the hydropolyp the blastopore of the embryo forms the adult mouth situated at the extremity of the hypostome, and the ectoderm and FIG.
Great apparent differences may also be brought about by variations in the period at which the embryo is set free as a larva, and since two free-swimming stages, planula and actinula, are unnecessary, one or other of them is always suppressed.
It arose from differences about the precise meaning of the word "law" in Luther's distinction between law and gospel.
Conferences only increased the differences.
These differences in the German Protestant churches of the second half of the 16th century are reflected in the great American Lutheran church.
The divided state of German Protestantism, resulting from these theological differences, contributed in no small degree to the disasters of the Thirty Years' War, and various attempts were made to unite the two confessions.
In his celebrated Codex Liturgicus Ecclesiae Lutherande in epitomen redactus (Leipzig, 1848), Daniel has used 98 different liturgies and given specimens to show the differences which they exhibit.
The differences asserted by later writers are not borne out on investigation.
But the relations between a community of freebooters, mostly composed of fugitive serfs and refugees, and a government of small squires who regarded the Cossacks as a mere rabble were bound to be difficult at the best of times, and political and religious differences presently supervened.
13, 1660), Poland gladly seized the opportunity of adjusting all her outstanding differences with Sweden.
The climate of the archipelago, though generally mild, healthy and favourable to plant life, is by no means uniform, owing to the differences of altitude and shelter from wind in different islands.
The differences OD and DI are thus calculated, while the values of D(v) and I (v) are obtained by summation with the arithmometer, and entered in their respective columns.
Chemically, it is thus indentical with the cubic mineral diamond, but between the two there are very wide differences in physical characters.
In accord with these differences the sections may be named Gymnophylla, Notophylla, Conchophylla.
The literary differences are, moreover, often accompanied by differences of treatment, or representation of the history, which, where they exist, confirm independently the conclusions of the literary analysis.
Somewhat later than " J," another writer, commonly referred to as " E," from his preference for the name Elohim (" God ") rather than " Jehovah," living apparently in the northern kingdom, wrote down the traditions of the past as they were current in northern Israel, in a style resembling generally that of " J," but not quite as bright and vivid, and marked by small differences of expression and representation.
makes it in several cases as much as loo years higher, the general result of these differences being that the total in the Sam.
On the other hand, the greatest differences would be: (i.) As to the personal identity of this John - is he himself " the beloved disciple " ?
In other respects the anatomy of the cockle presents no important differences from that of a typical Lamellibranch.
Some differences of opinion arose in connexion with the report, and at a meeting of the commissioners on the 12th of April 1899, when part 5 of the draft report was to be considered, a proposal was made to substitute an alternative draft for Lord Peel's, and also a series of alternative drafts for the four sections already discussed.
Other early writers, however, do not observe these distinctions, and neither in language nor in custom do we find evidence of any appreciable differences between the two former groups, though in custom Kent presents most remarkable contrasts with the other kingdoms. Still more curious is the fact that West Saxon writers regularly speak of their own nation as a part of the Angelcyn and of their language as Englisc, while the West Saxon royal family claimed to be of the same stock as that of Bernicia.
-- Though large differences may exist, the rate of general variation is but slow -- excluding, of course, all monetary standards.
long, gives by Stuart 12.137, by Penrose 12.165, by Paccard 12.148, differences due to scale and not to slips in measuring.
Calculus of differences >>
But it is evident, and Smith himself felt, that their agreements were much more fundamental than their differences; and, if we regard them as historical forces, they must be considered as working towards identical ends.
The table gives the logarithms of sines for every minute of seven figures; it is arranged semi-quadrantally, so that the differentiae, which are the differences of the two logarithms in the same line, are the logarithms of the tangents.
By beginning the table at 20,000 instead of at io,000 the differences are halved in magnitude, while the number of them in a page is quartered.
In this table multiples of the differences, instead of proportional parts, are given.'
Briggs also gave methods of forming the mean proportionals or square roots by differences; and the general method of constructing logarithmic tables by means of differences is due to him.
The preceding methods are only appropriate for the calculation of isolated logarithms. If a complete table had to be reconstructed, or calculated to more places, it would undoubtedly be most convenient to employ the method of differences.
In 1882 his appointment as director of infantry at the war office enabled him to make himself conspicuous as a military reformer; and in 1884 he was appointed to command the army occupying Tunis, but was recalled owing to his differences of opinion with M.
Successive observers in Italy, notably Fracastoro (1483-1553), Fabio Colonna (1567-1640 or 1650) and Nicolaus Steno (1638 - c. 1687), a Danish anatomist, professor in Padua, advanced the still embryonic science and set forth the principle of comparison of fossil with living forms. Near the end of the 17th century Martin Lister (1638-1712), examining the Mesozoic shell types of England, recognized the great similarity as well as the differences between these and modern species, and insisted on the need of close comparison of fossil and living shells, yet he clung to the old view that fossils were sports of nature.
- It is obvious that the Linnaean binomial terminology and its subsequent trinomial refinement for species, sub-species, and varieties was adapted to express the differences between animals as they exist to-day, distributed contemporaneously over the surface of the earth, and that it is wholly inadapted to express either the minute gradations of successive generic series or the branchings of a genetically connected chain of life.
In following the discovery of the law of recapitulation among palaeontologists we have clearly stated the chief contribution of palaeontology to the science of ontogeny - namely, the correspondences and differences between FIG.
Williams observes (Geological Biology, p. 268) that the evolution of those fundamental characters which mark differences between separate classes, orders, sub-orders, and even families of organisms, took place in relatively short periods of time.
On the whole it is not too much to say that, in spite of differences in style, the best means of judging what the temples and palaces of Mexico were like is to be gained from the actual ruins in Central America.
Dr Scrivener imputes some of those differences " to oversight and negligence.
But Schelling did not merely borrow, he had genuine philosophic spirit and no small measure of philosophic insight, and under all the differences of exposition which seem to constitute so many differing systems, there is one and the same philosophic effort and spirit.
It was impossible for Schelling, the animating principle of whose thought was ever the reconciliation of differences, not to take and to take speedily the step towards the conception of the uniting basis of which nature and spirit are manifestations, forms, or consequences.