Diet Sentence Examples
Diet looked like the best choice.
I am trying to abstain from sweets for my new diet.
Diet was one method, but it had been long enough that she had forgotten specifics.
As for diet, the suggestion was to avoid refined carbohydrates and increase intake of antioxidant foods.
They removed the feeding tube and fed him a semi-liquid diet of soft food for a few days.Advertisement
From 1816 to 1818 he was Luxemburg envoy at the German diet, but was recalled, at the instance of Metternich, owing to his too independent advocacy of state constitutions.
In 1786 he was appointed referendarius of Lithuania, and during the Four Years' Diet (1788-1792) displayed an amazing and many-sided activity as one of the reformers of the constitution.
For outdoor enthusiasts, keeping healthy on a plant-based diet is a good idea, instead of a meaty diet that can make you feel sluggish.
Vegetarian, diet dishes and daily specials are available at this casual establishment.
She had barely sat when a servant bearing a tray of coffee and diet root beer -- her favorite --set down the drinks in front of her.Advertisement
Leaving the diet, he travelled to Wels in Upper Austria, where he died on the 12th of January 1519.
All are animals of small or moderate size and arboreal habits, feeding on a vegetable or mixed diet, and inhabiting Australia, Papua and the Moluccan Islands.
The diet, elected for six years, consists of 24 members, of whom 4 are elected by the largest landowners, 4 by those who pay tax on incomes of £150 or more, and 16 by the other electors.
In 1871 the dispute which had been carried on since 1831 between the duke and the diet about the rights of each to the state domains was settled by a compromise, each party receiving a share of the revenues.
But Matthias, who began by deposing Garai and dismissing Szilagyi, and then proceeded to levy a tax, without the consent of the Diet, in order to hire mercenaries, easily prevailed.Advertisement
Famine forced the burghers to partial obedience, and Frederick held a victorious diet at Roncaglia.
Animal diet implies the greatest variety with regard to locality and the modes of procuring the food.
It is Nature's own bird which lives on buds and diet drink.
While the majority of the Thysanoptera are thus vegetarian in their diet, and are frequently injurious in farm and garden, some species, at least occasionally, adopt a predaceous habit, killing aphids and small mites (so-called "red-spiders") and sucking their juices.
See the lives, by Sidney Lee in the Diet.Advertisement
But his old rivalry with Nordin was resumed at the same time, and when the latter defeated a motion of the bishop's in the Estate of Clergy, at the diet of Norrkoping, Wallqvist from sheer vexation had a stroke of apoplexy and died the same day (30th of April 1800).
His two last missions were at Rome (1557) and at the Diet of Augsburg (1559).
It serves gourmet cuisine that's vegan for people who are moving toward a plant-based diet.
When the German confederation was re-established in 1850 in place of the parliament of Frankfort, Gorchakov was appointed Russian minister to the diet.
In 1861 he became a member of the Lower Austrian diet and in 1869 was nominated to the Upper House of the Austrian Reichsrath.Advertisement
The numerous fasts of the national church prescribe a fish diet on many days in the Fishing.
Finnish diet ought to refer to the imperial legislature not only all military matters - as the tsar demanded (Rescript of October 14) - but the question of the use of the Russian language in the grand-duchy, the principles of the Finnish administration, police, justice, education, formation of business companies and of associations, public meetings, the press, the customs tariff, the monetary system, means of communication, and the pilot and lighthouse system.
In the following year he went to Germany to be present as papal nuncio at the coronation of Charles V., and was also present at the diet of Worms, where he headed the opposition to Luther, advocating the most extreme measures to repress the doctrines of the reformer.
The edict against the reformer, which was finally adopted by the emperor and the diet, was drawn up and proposed by Aleandro.
After the close of the diet the papal nuncio went to the Netherlands, where he kindled the flames of persecution, two monks of Antwerp, the first martyrs of the Reformation, being burnt in Brussels at his instigation.
The local diet is composed of 78 members, of which the archbishop of Vienna, the bishop of St Polten and the rector of the Vienna University are members ex officio.
In 1830 he was elected a member of the Polish diet on the Conservative side.
In Prussia, with its traditional loyalty and its old-world caste divisions, he believed that such a conception could be realized, and he took up an attitude half-way between those who would have rejected the proposal for a central diet altogether as a dangerous "thin end of the wedge," and those who would have approximated it more to the modern conception of a parliament.
The united diet which was opened on the 3rd of February 1847 was no more than a congregation of the diets instituted by Frederick William III.
Since it is not earlier than the 3rd or 4th century, it will be sufficient here to refer to Smith's Diet.
Rabbits, hares, domesticated poultry, game-birds, and, when these run short, rats, mice and even insects, form the chief diet of the fox.
The discoveries of silver brought great wealth to the margraves, but they resorted at times to bedes, which were contributions from the nobles and ecclesiastics who met in a kind of diet.
Counts of princely rank (gefiirstete Grafen) voted among the princes in the imperial diet; the others (Reichsgrafen) were grouped in the Grafenbanke - originally two, to which two more were added in the 17th century - each of which had one vote.
The heads of these countly families of the "high nobility" are entitled (by a decree of the federal diet, 1829) to the style of Erlaucht (illustrious, most honourable); (2) Counts of the Empire 2 (Reichsgrafen), descendants of those counts who, before the end of the Holy Roman Empire (1806), were Reichsstiindisch, i.e.
He gained a temporary victory when the diet of Augsburg in 1500 established a council of regency (Reichsregiment), and in 1502 persuaded the electors to form a union to uphold the reforms of 1495 and 1500.
The skull is conical, stout and heavy, and the teeth, although sharper and less rounded than those of badgers, are less suited to a carnivorous diet than those of stoats, weasels and martens.
Bocskay, to save the independence of Transylvania, assisted the Turks; and in 1605, as a reward for his part in driving Basta out of Transylvania, the Hungarian diet, assembled at Modgyes, elected him prince (1605), on which occasion the Ottoman sultan sent a special embassy to congratulate him and a splendid jewelled crown made in Persia.
He refused to take part in the preliminary parliament consisting of Soo former deputies to the diet, which met at Frankfort, on the ground that as a Czech he had no interest in German affairs.
This feeling of confidence found due expression at the diet of 1446, which deliberately passing over the palatine Laszlo Garai elected Hunyadi governor of Hungary, and passed a whole series of popular measures intended to be remedial, e.g.
From them, the official guardians of Hungary's safety, he received no help, either during his governorship (1446-1453), or when, in 1454, on the eve of his departure for his last and most glorious campaign, the diet commanded a levee en masse of the whole population in his support.
No Hungarian king had so little trouble with the turbulent diet as Matthias.
But attendance at the diet was regarded by the bulk of the poorer deputies as an intolerable burden, and they frequently agreed to grant the taxes for two or three years in advance, so as to be saved the expense 1 Some of these were of gigantic size, e.g.
Yet Matthias never dispensed with the diet.
The virtual suppression of Wladislaus was completed at the diet of 1492, when " King All Right " consented to live on the receipts of the treasury, which were barely sufficient to maintain his court, and engaged never to impose any new taxes on his Magyar subjects.
The same diet which destroyed the national armaments and depleted the exchequer confirmed the disgraceful peace of Pressburg, concluded between Wladislaus and the emperor Maximilian on the 7th of November 1491, whereby Hungary retroceded all the Austrian conquests of Matthias, together with a long strip of Magyar territory, and paid a war indemnity equivalent to £200,000.
Compared even with the contemporary Polish diet the Hungarian national assembly was a tumultuous mob.
The Hungarian diet frantically opposed every Austrian alliance as endangering the national independence, but to any unprejudiced observer a union with the house of Habsburg, even with the contingent probability of a Habsburg king, was infinitely preferable to the condition into which Hungary, under native aristocratic misrule, was swiftly drifting.
The diet itself had become as much a nullity as the king, and its decrees were systematically disregarded.
The diet, indeed, voted him aids and subsidies, but the great nobles either forbade their collection within their estates, or confiscated the amount collected.
The " Savage Diet " which assembled on the 18th of October the same year, to punish the rebels and restore order, well deserved its name.
The war of each against all continued; no taxes could be collected; the holders of the royal domains refused to surrender them at the command of the diet; and the boy king had very often neither clothes to wear nor food to eat.
The diet, which met at Buda in hot haste, proclaimed the young king 2 dictator, 1 The Opus tripartitum juris consuetudinarii regni Hungariae was drawn up by Verbbczy at the instance of the diet in 1507.
It was approved by a committee of the diet and received the royal imprimatur in 1514, but was never published.
In November the same year he was elected and crowned by a properly constituted diet at Szekesfehervar (Stuhlweissenburg).
The diet, which had the power of the purse, could not be absolutely dispensed with; but it .was summoned as seldom as possible, the king often preferring to forego his subsidies rather than listen to the unanswerable remonstrances of the estates against the illegalities of his government.
In 1552 the new doctrines obtained complete recognition there, the diet of Torda (1557) going so far as to permit every one to worship in his own way so long as he did not molest his neighbour.
In 1663 he invaded royal Hungary, with the intention of uniting all the Magyars against the emperor, but, the Magyars steadily refusing to attend any diet summoned under Turkish influence, his plan fell through, and his only notable military success was the capture of the fortress of Ersekujvar (Neuhausel).
Even as late as 1622 the Protestants at the diet of Pressburg were strong enough to elect their candidate, Szaniszl6 Thurz6, palatine.
But Thurzo was the last Protestant palatine, and, on his death, the Catholics, at the diet of Sopron (1625), where they dominated the Upper Chamber, and had a large minority in the Lower, were able to elect Count Miklos Esterhazy in Thurz6's stead.
For this purpose a diet was assembled at Pressburg in the autumn of 1687.
These conditions the diet had no choice but to accept, and, in October 1687, the elective monarchy of Hungary, which had been in existence for nearly seven hundred years, ceased to exist.
Transylvania since 1690 had been administered from Vienna, and though the farce of assembling a diet there was still kept up, even the promise of religious liberty, conceded to it on its surrender in 1687, was not kept.
Thus, in 1715, King Charles III.2 persuaded the diet to consent to the establishment of a standing army, which - though the diet reserved the right to fix the number of recruits and vote the necessary subsidies from time to time - was placed under the control of the Austrian council of war.
The same centralizing tendency was shown in the administrative and judicial reforms taken in hand by the diet of 1722.
Both the chancery and the stadholdership were independent of the diet and responsible to the king alone, being, in fact, his executive instruments.
By the laws of 1723, which gave effect to the resolution of the diet in favour of accepting the principle of female succession, the Habsburg king entered into a fresh contract with his Hungarian subjects, a contract which remained the basis of the relations of the crown and nation until 1848.
Moreover, in the event of the failure of a Habsburg heir, the diet reserved the right to revive the " ancient, approved and accepted custom and prerogative of the estates and orders in the matter of the election and coronation of their king."
Only in the first stormy years of her reign did she summon the diet; after 1764 she dispensed with it altogether.
At the diet of1790-1791laws were passed not only confirming the royal prerogatives Leopold and the national liberties, but leaving the way open for 1792790- future developments.
Hungary was declared to be a free, independent and unsubjected kingdom governed by its own laws and customs. The legislative functions were to be exercised by the king and the diet conjointly and by them alone.
The diet of 1839 refused to proceed to business till the political prisoners had been released, and, while in the Lower Chamber the reforming majority was larger than ever, a Liberal party was now also formed in the Upper House under the brilliant leadership of Count Louis Batthyany and Baron Joseph EdtvOs.
Two progressive measures of the highest importance were passed by this diet, one making Magyar the official language of Hungary, the other freeing the peasants' holdings from all feudal obligations.
The results of the diet of 1839 did not satisfy the advanced Liberals, while the opposition of the government and of the.
The polemic on both sides was violent; but, as usual, the extreme views prevailed, and on the assembling of the diet of 1843 Kossuth was more popular than ever, while the influence of Szechenyi had sensibly declined.
The tone of this diet was passionate, and the government was fiercely attacked for interfering with the elections.
The interval between the diet of 1843 and that of 1847 saw a complete disintegration and transformation of the various political parties.
The Ten Points, or the March Laws as they were now called, were ' Up to 1848 the Hungarian diet was usually held at Pressburg.
He not only refused to obey, but on the 5th of June convoked to Agram the Croatian national diet, of which the first act was to declare the independence of the Tri-une Kingdom.
In the Hungarian diet, which met on the 2nd of July, the influence of the conservative cabinet was wholly overshadowed by that of Kossuth, whose inflammatory orations - directed against the disruptive designs of the Sla y s and the treachery of the Austrian government - precipitated the crisis.
At his instance the diet not only refused to vote supplies for the troops of the ban of Croatia, but only consented to pass a motion for sending reinforcements to the army in Italy on condition that the anti-Magyar races in Hungary should be first disarmed.
Unhappily, however, when Lamberg arrived in Pest, Batthyany had not yet returned; the diet, on Kossuth's motion, called on the army not to obey the new commander-in-chief, on the ground that his commission had not been countersigned by a minister at Pest.
The Austrian diet was transferred on the i 5th of November to Kremsier, remote from revolutionary influences; and, though the government still thought it prudent to proclaim its constitutional principles, it also proclaimed its intention to preserve the unity of the monarchy.
Meanwhile, the earlier events of the war had so altered the political situation that any idea which the diet at Debreczen had cherished of a compromise with Austria was destroyed.
On the 7th of March the diet of Kremsier was dissolved, and immediately afterwards a proclama- tion tion was issued in the name of the emperor Francis Joseph establishing a united constitution for the whole empire, of which Hungary, cut up into half a dozen administrative districts, was henceforth to be little more than the largest of several subject provinces.
The news of this manifesto, arriving as it did simultaneously with that of Gdrgei's successes, destroyed the last vestiges of a desire of the Hungarian revolutionists to compromise, and on the 14th of April, on the motion of Kossuth, the diet proclaimed the independence of Hungary, declared the house of Habsburg as false and perjured, for ever excluded from the throne, and elected Kossuth president of the Hungarian Republic. This was an execrable blunder in the circumstances, and the results were fatal to the national cause.
The executive retorted by dissolving the diet on the 21st of August and levying the taxes by military execution.
The Deak party preserved its majority at the elections of 1869, but the Left Centre and Extreme Left returned to the diet considerably reinforced.
On the reassembling of the diet, Count Albert Apponyi was elected speaker, and the minority seemed disposed to let the government try to govern.
Generally less varied and romantic, though easier in style, are the heroic poems Augsburgi iitkozet (Battle of Augsburg) and Aradi gyules (Diet of Arad) of Gregory Czuczor, who was, moreover, very felicitous as an epigrammatist.
The dismissal of Wallenstein, which is often attributed to the work of Father Joseph, Richelieu's envoy to the diet of Regensburg in July and August of 1630, was due rather to the fears of the electors themselves, but it was of double value to Richelieu when his Swedish ally marched south.
Within certain limits Croatia's autonomy was respected, but so far from Zagreb being consulted, the terms of the new settlement were in effect dictated from Budapest and only submitted pro forma to a carefully " packed " Croatian Diet, after the bargain between Budapest and Vienna had already made of them an accomplished fact.
The Serbo-Croat coalition, formed on the basis of the Fiume Resolution, at once acquired the mastery in Croatia, and even when its short-lived alliance with the Hungarian coalition - in power in Hungary since April 1906 - was replaced by acute conflict in the summer of 1907, no amount of repression from Budapest could destroy its solid majority in the Croatian diet.
The diet of Zagreb was allowed to meet, and the Serbo-Croat coalition pursued a policy of pure opportunism, avoiding any pronouncement on matters of high policy, but buying a certain relaxation of regime in Croatia by supporting the Budapest Government and its nominee Skerlecz.
On the 28th (the same day on which the Czechoslovak Republic was born in Prague) the military command in Zagreb handed over its authority to the National Council, and next day the diet proclaimed the independence of Croatia from Hungary, and assumed control of Fiume.
As a state of the empire, Hamburg is represented in the federal council (Bundesrat) by one plenipotentiary, and in the imperial diet (Reichstag) by three deputies.
For details on the liturgical use of the Psalter in Christendom the reader may refer to Smith's Diet.
Crocin, according to Watts, Diet.
The chief elements of the native diet are rice, fish and poultry; vegetables and pork are also eaten.
Widal, Lemierre and other French observers have noted a diminution in the excretion of chlorides in nephritis associated with oedema; Widal and Javal found that a chloride-free diet caused diminution in the oedema and a chloride containing diet an increase of oedema.
Some other observers, however, have not got such good results with a chloride-free diet, and Marishler, Scheel, Limbecx, Dreser and others, dispute Widal's hypothesis of a retention of chlorides as being the cause of oedema, in the case of renal dropsy at all events; they assert that the chlorides are held back in order to keep the osmotic pressure of the fluid, which they assume to have been effused, equal to that of the blood and tissues.
In the treatment of disease, the Hippocratic school attached great importance to diet, the variations necessary in different diseases being minutely defined.
In the treatment of disease Asclepiades attached most importance to diet, exercise, passive movements or frictions, and the external use of cold water - in short, to a modified athletic training.
The conditions of diet and digestion in children are now far better understood, and many of their maladies, formerly regarded as organic or incomprehensible, are cured or prevented by dietetic rules.
Rickets, scurvy and "marasmus" may be instanced as diet diseases in children.
The task of providing for this expenditure fell entirely on Matsukata, who had to face strong opposition on the part of the diet.
In this year the bill authorizing it was under his auspices submitted to the diet and passed; and with this financial achievement Matsukata saw the fulfilment of his ideas of financial reform, which were conceived during his first visit to Europe.
As a member of the German empire, the state of Bremen has one voice in the Bundesrat and returns one member to the Imperial diet (Reichstag).
He wrote a book entitled The Method of Preparing Medicines and Diet, which was translated into Hebrew in the year 1280, and thence into Latin by Paravicius, whose version, first printed at Venice, 1490, has passed through several editions.
This was first done on a large scale in 1803, when by a recess of the imperial diet many of the smaller fiefs were mediatized, in order to compensate those German princes who had been forced to cede their territories on the left bank of the Rhine to France.
In the treatment of a case where the parasite is already present, for two days previous to the employment of a vermifuge a light diet should be given and the bowels moved by a purgative.
In 1565, like many other English exiles, he made his headquarters at Louvain, and after a visit to the Imperial Diet at Augsburg in 1566, in attendance upon Commendone, who had been largely instrumental in the reconciliation of England with Rome in Mary's reign, he threw himself into the literary controversy between Bishop Jewel (q.v.) and Harding.
Vienna is the residence of the emperor of Austria, the seat of the Austrian ministers, of the Reichsrat and of the Diet of Lower Austria.
It contains also the highest judicial, financial, military and administrative official authorities of Austria, and is the see of a Roman Catholic archbishop. Vienna enjoys autonomy for communal affairs, but is under the control of the governor and the Diet of Lower Austria, while the election of the chief burgomaster requires the sanction of the sovereign, advised by the prime minister.
Some species are normally phytophagous, and the vast majority, at any rate, appear to be capable of continuing to exist and reproducing their kind upon a purely vegetarian diet.
Under the constitution of 1868 there is a legislative diet of 15 members, 10 elected by the towns and rural districts and 1 each by the nobility, clergy and educated classes, the remaining 2 nominated by the prince.
The municipal council of Trieste constitutes at the same time the local Diet of the crown land, and is composed of S4 members.
From 1816 to 1866 it was the seat of the German federal diet.
The diet at Worms in 1495 chose Frankfort as the seat of the newly instituted imperial chamber, or " Reichskammergericht," and it was not till 1527 that the chamber was removed to Spires.
In April 1833 occurred what is known as the Frankfort Insurrection (Frankfurter Attentat), in which a number of insurgents led by Georg Bunsen attempted to break up the diet.
Thele is no lobster on the coasts of Japan, but there are various species of cray-fish (Palinurus and Scyliarus) the principal of which, under the names of ise-ebi (Palinurus japonicus) and kuruma-ebi (Penaeus canaliculatus) are greatly prized as an article of diet.
With the opening of the diet in 1890, politics again obtruded themselves into newspaper columns, but as practical living issues now occupied attention, readers were no longer wearied by the abstract homilies of former days.
The defects of divided ownership had long suggested the expediency of nationalization, but not until 1906 could the diet be induced to give its consent.
Now the government was pledged by the diet in 1907 to an expenditure of 111/8 millions (spread over 8 years) for extending the old state system of roads, and an expenditure of 63/4 millions (spread over 12 years) for improving them.
For its own immediate affairs each duchy has a separate diet, but in more important and general matters a common diet, formed of the members of the separate diets and meeting at Coburg and Gotha alternately, exercises authority.
On the same day (13th of May) a mutiny at Karlsruhe forced the grand-duke to take to flight, and the next day he wis followed by the ministers, while a committee of the diet under Lorenz Brentano (1813-1891), who represented the more moderate Radicals as against the republicans, established itself in the capital to attempt to direct affairs pending the establishment of a provisional government.
This was accomplished on the 1st of June, and on the 10th the " constituent diet," consisting entirely of the most " advanced " politicians, assembled.
The grand-duke returned on the 19th of August, and at once dissolved the diet.
In 1891 the National Liberals had but a majority of one in the diet; from 1893 they could maintain themselves only with the aid of the Conservatives; and in 1897 a coalition of Ultramontanes, Socialists, Social-democrats and Radicals (Freisinnige), won a majority for the opposition in the chamber.
His manner of life was simple in the extreme; his diet consisted chiefly of bread and milk and large quantities of coffee.
The local Diet, of which the two Roman Catholic bishops and the rector of the university of Graz are members ex officio, is composed of 63 members, while Styria sends 27 deputies to the Reichsrat at Vienna.
The temporary buildings of the Imperial Diet, which first met in 1890, are also in this part of the capital.
It is also probably to a non-Babylonian source that we owe the prescription of vegetarian or herb diet in Gen.
As the conquest of the Aargau was the first made by the Confederates, their delegates (or the federal diet) naturally met at Baden, from 1426 to about 1712, to settle matters relating to these subject lands, so that during that period Baden was really the capital of Switzerland.
The diet sat in the old town-hall or Rathaus, where was also signed in 1714 the treaty of Baden which put an end to the war between France and the Empire, and thus completed the treaty of Utrecht (1713).
About 100 species of these rather archaic snakes are known; in adaptation to their burrowing life and worm and insect diet, they have undergone degradation.
Herpeton of Cambodia has a pair of long tentacles on the snout and is said to have a partly vegetable diet!
The principal diet of these peculiar snakes seems to consist of eggs.
It consisted of two thousand delegates who demanded autonomy for the four governments of Vilna, Kovno, Grodno and Suvalki under a Diet at Vilna to be elected by universal, direct, equal and secret franchise.
He was present at the Marburg conference in 1529, at the Augsburg diet in 1530 and at the signing of the Schmalkald articles in 1537, and took part in other public transactions of importance in the history of the Reformation; that he had an exceptionally large number of personal enemies was due to his vehemence, coarseness and arrogance in controversy.
True, the impression conveyed by the attitude of the Catholic party at the second Diet of Spires had served to awaken the feeling for solidarity among the Evangelicals there assembled; and on the 22nd of April they had even secured the basis for a provisional alliance in the shape of a formula drawn up by Bucer and dealing with the Lord's Supper.
Locally it is ruled by an Imperial governor (the Statthalter) who resides at Innsbruck, where, too, meets annually the local legislature or Diet (the Landtag), composed (according to the constitution of 1861) of 68 members; the archbishop of Salzburg, the bishops of Trent and Brixen, and the rector of the university of Innsbruck sit in person, while the great ecclesiastical corporations send four deputies, the chambers of commerce of Innsbruck, Trent and Rovereto each one, the nobles ten, the towns 13, and the peasants 34.
All the existing members of the group are eminently adapted for a terrestrial life, and in the main for a vegetable diet.
It was before him that the Reformer appeared at the diet of Augsburg; and it was he who, in 1519, helped in drawing up the bull of excommunication against Luther.
The interesting "street of the envoys" (Gesandtenstrasse) is so called because it contained the residences of most of the envoys to the German diet, whose coats-of-arms may still be seen on many of the houses.
The town hall, dating in part from the 14th century, contains the rooms occupied by the imperial diet from 1663 to 1806.
Franklin's advocacy of vegetarianism, of sparing and simple diet, and of temperance in the use of liquors, and of proper ventilation has already been referred to.
Throughout his life he remained one of Luther's most determined supporters; was with him at the Leipzig conference (1519), and the diet of Worms (1521); and was in the secret of his Wartburg seclusion.
For a complete list of Neale's works see article in Diet.
The conflicts between Catholics and Protestants speedily merged into the chronic political rivalries, domestic and foreign, which distracted the European states; and religious considerations played a very important part in diplomacy and war for at least a century and a half, from the diet of Augsburg in 1530 to the English revolution and the league of Augsburg, 1688-89.
The German diet of Regensburg (1439) ratified in the main the decrees of the council of Basel, which clearly gratified the electors, princes and prelates; and Germany for the first time joined the ranks of the countries which subjected the decrees of the highest ecclesiastical instance to the placet or approval of the civil authorities.
In the " recesses " or formal statements issued at the conclusion of the sessions of the diet one can follow the trend of opinion among the German princes, secular and ecclesiastical.
The diet held at Frankfort in 1456 recalled the fact that the council of Constance had forbidden the pope to impose tenths without the consent of the clergy in the region affected, and that it was clear that he proposed to " pull the German sheep's fleece over its ears."
Heimburg's denunciations of the pope were widely circulated, and in spite of the major excommunication he was taken into the service of the archbishop of Mainz and was his representative at the diet of Nuremberg in 1462.
His successor, Maximilian, who was elected emperor in 1493, was mainly preoccupied with his wars and attempts to reform the constitution of the empire; but the diet gave some attention to ecclesiastical reform.
In July 1518 a diet assembled in Augsburg to consider the new danger from the Turks, who were making rapid conquests under Sultan Selim I.
The report of the committee of the diet was completed on the 27th of August 1518.
The common man, to whom the diet of Augsburg alludes, had, long been raising his voice against the " parsons " (Pfaffen); the men of letters, Brand, Erasmus, Reuchlin, and above all Ulrich von Hutten, contributed, each in their way, to discredit the Roman Curia; and lastly, a new type of theology, represented chiefly by Martin Luther, threatened to sweep away the very foundations of the papal monarchy.
When a solemn embassy of rebuke was sent to Zurich from a diet held at Lucerne, on the 26th of January 1524, the city replied that in matters relating to the Word of God and the salvation of souls she would brook no interference.
Such were the Orebro concilium of 1537, the diet of 1540 in which the crown was declared hereditary, and that of 1810 when Bernadotte was elected crown prince.
The sovereignty over the territory was by a law (Reichsgesetz) of the 9th of June 1871 vested in the German emperor, who, until the introduction of the imperial constitution on the 1st of January 1874, had, with the assent of the federal council (Bundesrat) and, in a few cases, that of the imperial diet (Reichstag), the sole right of initiating legislation.
He resolved, accordingly, to retire to a life of study and contemplation, though he indulged in no asceticism except careful diet.
Swine furnish a very large proportion of the flesh diet of the people.
Saxony is a constitutional monarchy and a member of the German empire, with four votes in the Bundesrath (federal council) and twenty-three in the Reichstag (imperial diet).
With the exception of the hereditary and some of the ex-officio members of the first chamber, the members of the diet are entitled to an allowance for their daily expenses, as well as their travelling expenses.
By the peace of Prague, which transferred Upper Lusatia to Saxony in 1635, stipulations were made in favour of the Roman Catholics of that region, who are ecclesiastically in the jurisdiction of the cathedral chapter of St Peter at Bautzen, the dean of which has ex-officio a seat in the first chamber' of the diet.
Religious equality was extended to the Reformed Church in 1818, and the separate diet of Upper Lusatia was abolished.
The old feudal arrangement of the diet, with its inconvenient divisions, was retained, and the privy council continued to be the depository of power.
An active opposition began to make itself evident in the diet and in the press, and in 1830, under the influence of the July revolution in Paris, riots broke out in Leipzig and Dresden.
After consultation with the diet the king promulgated, on the 4th of September 1831, a new constitution which is the basis of the present government.
The first demand of the overwhelmingly democratic diet returned under this reform bill was that the king should accept the German constitution elaborated by the Frankfort parliament.
Frederick, alleging the danger of acting without the concurrence of Prussia, refused, and dissolved the diet.
He was not sincere, however, in desiring to exclude Austria, and in 1850 accepted the invitation of that power to send deputies to the restored federal diet at Frankfort.
The king retorted by dissolving the diet and summoning the old estates abolished in 1848.
A new electoral law of the same year reformed the Saxon diet by abolishing the old distinction between the various " estates " and lowering the qualification for the franchise; the result was a Liberal majority in the Lower House and a period of civil and ecclesiastical reform.
The number of Social Democratic delegates in a diet of 80 members rose from 5 in 1885 to 14 in 1895.
This resulted in 1901 in the complete elimination of the Socialists from the diet.
This law had in effect secured the misrepresentation of the mass of the people in the diet, the representation of the country population at the expense of that of the towns, of the interests of agriculture as opposed to those of industry.
This led to proposals for a slight modification in the franchise for the Saxon diet (1904), which were not accepted.
This was, however, far from satisfying the parties of the extreme Left, and the strength of Social Democracy in Saxony was even more strikingly displayed in 1909 when, in spite of plural voting, under a complicated franchise, 25 Socialist members were returned to the Saxon diet.
The election of a woman as a deputy to the Diet, which took place prematurely through their influence in Bohemia in 1912, was annulled by the governor as illegal.
There was only a cautious and gradual extension of the right to vote in Diet and municipal elections in the several territories; and it was not till Jan.
Since the last election in the spring of 1908 the Bohemian Diet had been unworkable, eventually owing to obstruction on the part of the Germans, who saw themselves handed over hopelessly to the Czech majority, until a rearrangement of the voting groups (curiae) should afford them protection against Czech oppression.
The Germans thereupon paralyzed the Prague Diet by means of obstruction, upon which the Czech members of the Beck Cabinet left it, and the prime minister, seeing himself abandoned by both Germans and Czechs, resigned on Nov.
The Czechs, however, had realized that at need they could get along without a Diet, and they began once more their encroachments in Vienna.
The young professor soon began to take an interest in politics, and in 1846 entered the provincial diet as representative of his university.
As early as 1867 he had been twice elected a member of the Hungarian diet, but on both occasions refused to accept the mandate.
See Sturm, The Almanack of the Hungarian Diet (1905-1910), art.
The literature on the subject is considerable, but the two classics are perhaps The Ethics of Diet, by Howard Williams, and The Perfect Way in Diet, by Dr Anna Kingsford.
That it can sustain life on a purely vegetable diet is proved by instances on record of its being fed for years on bread only, in confinement.
It is a solitary animal, frequenting the wooded parts of the regions it inhabits, and living on a mixed diet of fruits, vegetable, honey, fish and the smaller animals.
As president of the provisional government he summoned (Dec. 18th, 1830) the Diet of 1831, and after the termination of Chlopicki's dictatorship was elected chief of the supreme council by 121 out of 138 votes (January 30th).
The name is derived from the formal Protestatio handed in by the evangelical states of the empire, including some of the more important princes and 14 imperial cities, against the recess of the diet of Spires (1529), which decreed that the religious status quo was to be preserved, that no innovations were to be introduced in those states which had not hitherto made them, and that the mass was everywhere to be tolerated.
See article " Magic " in Hastings's Diet.
Charles stubbornly insisted that this question must be referred to the Diet, and Maurice was obliged to give way.
In 1414, however, intimidated by the growing discontent, which frequently took the form of armed rebellion, the Knights consented to the establishment of a diet, which was re-formed on a more aristocratic basis in 1430.
At the diet of 151o the chancellor and primate, Adam Laski, proposed an income-tax of 50% at once, and 5% for subsequent years, payable by both the lay and clerical estates.
Nevertheless, the diet refused to consider the scheme.
But these measures proved inadequate, and in 1533 the lord marcher, Ostafi Daszkiewicz, the hero of Kaniev, which he had successfully defended against a countless host of Turks and Tatars, was consulted by the diet as to the best way of defending the Ukraine permanently against such inroads.
The diet unanimously approved of this simple and inexpensive plan; a special commission examined and approved of its details, and it was submitted to the next diet, which rejected it.
This at once led to an explosion, and at the diet of Piotrkow, 1J52, the szlachta accepted a proposition of the king, by way of compromise, that the jurisdiction of the clerical courts should be suspended for twelve months, on condition that the gentry continued to pay tithes as heretofore.
In the diet itself the Protestants were absolutely supreme, and invariably elected a Calvinist to be their marshal.
At the diet of 1555 they boldly demanded a national synod, absolute toleration, and the equalization of all the sects except the Antitrinitarians.
At the diet of Piotrkow, 1558-1559, the onslaught of the szlachta on the clergy was fiercer than ever, and they even demanded the exclusion of the bishops from the senate.
The diet of1558-1559indicates the high-water mark of Polish Protestantism.
At the diet of 1565 Sigismund went still farther.
These had already been installed at Poltusk, and were permitted, after the diet rose, to found establishments in the dioceses of Posen, Ermeland and Vilna, which henceforth became centres of a vigorous and victorious propaganda.
But the diet, with almost incredible short-sightedness, refused to waste a penny on an undertaking which, they argued, concerned only Lithuania, and it was not as king of Poland, but as grand-duke of Lithuania, and with purely Lithuanian troops, that Sigismund, in 1561, occupied Livonia.
But, at the last moment, the dread of another Muscovite invasion made them more pliable and, at a Polish diet held at Warsaw from November 1563 to June 1564, which the Lithuanians attended, the question of an absolute union was hotly debated.
The death, in 1565, of Black Radziwill, the chief opponent of the union, still further weakened the Lithuanians, and the negotiations were reopened with more prospect of success at the diet which met at Lublin on the 10th of January 1569.
But even now the Lithuanians were indisposed towards a complete union, and finally they quitted the diet, leaving two commissioners behind to watch their interests.
Accordingly they returned to the diet, and the Complete union was unanimously adopted on the 1st of July of 1569.
The first sejm to legislate for the whole of Poland was the diet of Piotrkow (1493), summoned by John Albert to grant him subsidies; but the mandates of its deputies were limited to twelve months, and its decrees were to have force for only three years.
John Albert's second diet (1496), after granting subsidies the burden of which fell entirely on the towns and peasantry, passed a series of statutes benefiting the nobility at the expense of the other classes.
In a word, this diet disturbed the equilibrium of the state by enfeebling and degrading the middle classes.
Again and again the nobility attempted to exclude the deputies of Cracow from the diet, in spite of a severe edict issued by Sigismund I.
Finally, early in April 1573, the election diet assembled at Warsaw, and on the 11th of May, in the midst of intrigue, corruption, violence and confusion, Henry of Valois was elected king of Poland.
The adhesion of the same monarch to the League of the Catholic Reaction certainly added to the difficulties of Polish diplomacy, and still further divided the already distracted diet, besides alienating from the court the powerful and popular chancellor Zamoyski.
When we turn to the szlachta who absolutely controlled the diet, we find not the slightest trace, I will not say of political foresight - that they never possessed - but of common patriotism, or ordinary public spirit.
On the 7th of March 1606 Sigismund summoned a diet for the express purpose of introducing the principle of decision by majority in the diet, whereupon Zebrzydowski summoned a counter-confederation to Stenczyn in Little Poland, whose first act was to open negotiations with the prince of Transylvania, Stephen Bocskay, with the view of hiring mercenaries from him for further operations.
Despite their promises, Zebrzydowski and his colleagues a few months later were again in arms. In the beginning of 1607 they summoned another rokosz to Jendrzejow, at the very time when the diet was assembling at Warsaw.
The diet authorized the king to issue a proclamation dissolving the rokosz, and the rokosz retorted with a manifesto in which an insurrection was declared to be as much superior to a parliament as a general council was to a pope.
Oddly enough, the diet before dissolving had, apparently in order to meet the rokosz half-way, issued the famous edict De non praestanda obedientia, whereby, in case of future malpractices by the king and his subsequent neglect of at least two solemn warnings there-anent by the primate and the senate, he was to be formally deposed by the next succeeding diet.
Yet all these obstacles to a good understanding might, perhaps, have been surmounted if only the Polish diet had treated the Cossacks with common fairness and common sense.
This further act of repression led to two terrible Cossack risings, in 1635 and 1636, put down only with the utmost difficulty, whereupon the diet of 1638 deprived the Cossacks of all their ancient privileges, abolished the elective hetmanship, and substituted for it a commission of Polish noblemen with absolute power, so that the Cossacks might well declare that those who hated them were lords over them.
This he calculated would bring about a retaliatory invasion of Poland by the Turks, which would justify him in taking the field against them also with all the forces of the Republic. In case of success he would be able to impose the will of a victorious king upon a discredited diet, and reform the constitution on an English or Swedish model.
Thus, at the election diet of 1669, one of the deputies, Pieniaszek, moved that a new and hitherto unheard-of clause should be inserted in the agenda of the general confederation, to the effect that every senator .and deputy should solemnly swear not to take bribes, while another szlacic proposed that the ambassadors of foreign Powers should be excluded permanently from the Polish elective assemblies.
The liberum veto was based on the assumption of the absolute political equality of every Polish gentleman, with the inevitable corollary that every measure introduced into the Polish diet must be adopted unanimously.
A deputy, by interposing his individual veto, could at any time dissolve the diet, when all measures previously passed had to be re-submitted to the consideration of the following diet.
The origin of the liberum veto is obscure, but it was first employed by the deputy Wiadislaus Sicinski, who dissolved the diet of 1652 by means of it, and before the end of the 17th century it was used so frequently and recklessly that all business was frequently brought to a standstill.
The diet was the humble servant of the conqueror of the moment, and the leading magnates chose their own sides without the slightest regard for the interests of their country, the Lithuanians for the most part supporting Charles XII., while the Poles divided their allegiance between Augustus and Stanislaus Leszczynski, whom Charles Leszczyn- placed upon the throne in 1704 and kept there till 1709.
These were the men who, a little later, at the bidding of their "benefactors," dissolved one inconvenient diet after another; for it is a significant fact that during the reigns of the two Augustuses every diet was dissolved in this way by the hirelings of some great lord or, still worse, of some foreign potentate.
They at once proceeded to pass through the convocation diet a whole series of salutary measures.
All financial and economical questions before the diet were henceforth to be decided by a majority of votes.
With this carte blanche in his pocket, Repnin proceeded to treat the diet as if it were already the slave of the Russian empress.
The king was indeed the president of the permanent council, but he could not summon the diet without its consent, and in all cases of preferment was bound to select one out of three of the council's nominees.
For the shock of the first partition was so far salutary that it awoke the public conscience to a sense of the national inferiority; stimulated the younger generation to extraordinary patriotic efforts; and thus went far to produce the native reformers who were to do such wonders during the great quadrennial diet.
But the difficulties of the patriots were commensurate with their energies, and though the new constitution was drafted so early as December 1789, it was not till May 1791 that it could safely be presented to the diet.
The diet met the crisis with dignity and firmness.
The machinery of government was framed of a council of state, at which the Imperial government was represented by a commissioner plenipotentiary, and a diet divided into a senate composed of the princes of the blood, the palatines and councillors named for life, and a house of nuntii elected for seven years, 77 chosen by the "dietines" of the nobles, and 51 by the commons.
The diet was to meet every other year for a session of thirty days, and was to be renewed by thirds every two years.
The diet met three times during the reign of Alexander, in 1818, in 1820 and in 1825, and was on all three occasions opened by the tsar, who was compelled to address his subjects in French, since he did not speak, and would not learn, their language.
In fact the tsar and the diet soon quarrelled.
The nobles who dominated the diet did nothing to remove the most crying evil of the country - the miserable state of the peasants, who had been freed from personal serfdom by Napoleon in 1807, but were being steadily driven from their holdings by the landlords.
A plot to murder Nicholas at his coronation on the 24th of May 1829 was not carried out, and when he held the fourth diet on the 30th of May 1830, the Poles made an ostentatious show of their nationality which Nicholas was provoked to describe as possibly patriotic but certainly not civil.
Among his numerous writings may be mentioned Lives of the Saints, Discourses on the Seven Sacraments, and especially his sermons preached before the diet, in which he lashed the Poles for their want of patriotism and prophesied the downfall of the country.
In 1235 he was made duke of Swabia and in 1237 was chosen king of the Romans, or German king, at Vienna, in place of his half-brother Henry, an election which was subsequently confirmed by the diet at Spires.
On a hill dominating the town stands the old fortress, which contains a beautiful church in Gothic style built about 1446, where in 1571 the diet was held which proclaimed the equality of the Unitarian Church with the Roman Catholic, the Lutheran, and Calvinistic Churches.
The use of Latin in diplomacy died out towards the end of the 17th century; but, long after that date negotiations with the German empire were conducted in Latin, and Latin was the language of the debates in the Hungarian diet down to 1825.
Moreover, the diet neglected to pay for the maintenance even of this paltry 2000, with the result that they mutinied and compelled their leader to retreat through the heart of Muscovy to Smolensk.
Its early importance is shown by the grant of privileges made to it by the German King Henry I., and by the diet held here in 1135.
See further, in addition to the monographs already cited, the articles in Hastings's Diet.
Their life is still in many respects very primitive; their houses are generally built of logs, their clothes are often of homespun, Indian corn and ham form a large part of their diet, and their means of transportation are the saddle-horse and sleds and wheeled carts drawn by oxen or mules.
Most lizards live on animal food, varying from tiny insects and worms to lizards, snakes, birds and mammals, while others prefer a mixed or an entirely vegetable diet.
The local diet, of which the archbishop is a member ex-officio, is composed of 28 members, and the duchy sends 7 members to the reichsrat at Vienna.
It is entirely an enclave in Prussian territory, and though it is represented in the Oldenburg diet, it is governed by a separate Regierungskollegium, consisting of a president and two members, who are responsible to the Oldenburg ministry.
Alfonso Salmeron and Pasquier-Brouet, as papal delegates, were sent on a secret mission to Ireland to encourage the native clergy and people to resist the religious changes introduced by Henry VIII.; Nicholas Bobadilla went to Naples; Faber, first to the diet of Worms and then to Spain; Laynez and Claude le Jay to Germany, while Ignatius busied himself at Rome in good works and in drawing up the constitutions and completing the Spiritual Exercises.
Lelewel was removed from his professorship in 1824, and returned to Warsaw, where he was elected a deputy to the diet in 1829.
In 1578 he was at the diet of Worms, where he made an eloquent but fruitless appeal for aid to the German princes.
The party of the nobles, who had been ready to make terms, were attacked in the Diet at Prague, by the Orphans and Taborites.
In 1613 he appeared with the emperor Matthias before the diet of Ratisbon as the advocate of the introduction into Germany of the Gregorian calendar; but the attempt was for the time frustrated by anti-papal prejudice.
An expedition to Ratisbon, undertaken for the purpose of representing his case to the diet, terminated his life.
Maize, beans and bananas, varied occasionally with dried meat and fresh pork, form their staple diet; drunkenness is common on pay-days and festivals, when large quantities of a fiery brandy called chicha are consumed.
Of the secular buildings the most important is the Landhaus, where the local diet holds its sittings, erected in the 16th century in the Renaissance style.
The diet consists of five representatives elected by the highest taxpayers, five by general election, and five nominated for life by the prince.
The signaculum oris forbids all eating of unclean food (which included all bodies of animals, wine, &c. - vegetable diet being allowed because plants contained more light, though the killing of plants, or even plucking their fruit and breaking their twigs, was not permitted), as well as all impure speech.
Transferred to the central point of the administration, he had ample opportunity of regarding with other eyes the situation of the kingdom, and in consequence of his remonstrances he fell rapidly in the favour of Charles Both in 1710 and 1713 Horn was in favour of summoning the estates, but when in 1714 the diet adopted an anti-monarchical attitude, he gravely warned and ultimately dissolved it.
He protested against the queen's autocratic behaviour, and resigned both the premiership and his senatorship. He was elected landtmarskalk at the diet of 1720, and contributed, on the resignation of Ulrica Leonora, to the election of Frederick of Hesse as king of Sweden, whose first act was to restore to him the office of prime minister.
This was to increase the influence of the diet and its secret committees in the solution of purely diplomatic questions, which should have been left entirely to the executive, thus weakening the central government and at the same time facilitating the interference of foreign Powers in Sweden's domestic affairs.
Not till 1731 was there any appearance of opposition in the diet to Horn's "system"; but Horn, piqued by the growing coolness of the king, the same year offered his resignation, which was not accepted.
On his return he was appointed commander of all the forces of the Republic, and at the head of an army of 25,000 men routed 60,000 Tatars at Martynow, following up this success with fresh victories, for which he received the thanks of the diet and the palatinate of Sandomeria from the king.
It consists of three districts, Bregenz, Bludenz and Feldkirch, which are under the administrative authority of the Statthalter (or prefect) at Innsbruck, but possess a governor and a diet of their own (twenty-one members), and send four members to the imperial parliament.
From 1832 to 1835 he sat in the Hungarian Diet, where his extreme liberal views and his singular eloquence soon rendered him famous as a parliamentary leader.
His collected works, in 6 vols., were published at Pest, 1840-1848, and his journal of the diet of1832-1836appeared in 1848.
Vegetables are grown everywhere, and form a large part of the diet of the people.
Milk is plentiful, and enters largely into the diet of the people.
During the use of the drug teadrinking is forbidden for at least a month, but no other change is made in the diet.
In The Protestant States Of Germany The Julian Calendar Was Adhered To Till The Year 1700, When It Was Decreed By The Diet Of Regensburg That The New Style And The Gregorian Correction Of The Intercalation Should Be Adopted.
The valleys and slopes are carefully cultivated in fields divided by stone walls, and produce beans, peas, sweet potatoes, "Russian turnip radish," barley, a little rice and millet, the last being the staple article of diet.
He came back on the invitation of the diet on the 12th of August, but soon had to escape once more from the mob of students and workmen who were in possession of the city.
The local diet, of which the archbishop of Gorz is a member ex-officio, is composed of 22 members, and the crownland sends 5 deputies to the Reichsrat at Vienna.
Laws relating to this district, after passing through the Saxon parliament must be submitted to the Lusatian diet at Bautzen.
In 1849, accordingly, he re-entered the service of Denmark, was appointed a royal chamberlain and in 1850 sent to represent the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein at the restored federal diet of Frankfort.
But the Austrian court and Sigismund's own mother, Queen Bona, seem to have been behind the movement, and so violent was the agitation at Sigismund's first diet (31st of October 1548) that the deputies threatened to renounce their allegiance unless the king instantly repudiated Barbara.
By 1550, when he summoned his second diet, a reaction in his favour began, and the lingering petulance of the gentry was sternly rebuked by Kmita, the marshal of the diet, who openly accused them of attempting to diminish unduly the legislative prerogative of the crown.
He sought to remedy the evil by liaisons with two of the most beautiful of his countrywomen, Barbara Gizanka and Anna Zajanczkowska, the diet undertaking to legitimatize and acknowledge as his successor any heir male who might be born to him; but their complacency was in vain, for the king died childless.
To save the constitution an appeal was made to the German Confederation, which Hanover had joined in 1815; but the federal diet declined to interfere, and in 1840 Ernest altered the constitution to suit his own illiberal views.
This project, however, was resisted by the second chamber of the Landtag, or parliament; and after several changes of government a new ministry advised the king in 1855 to appeal to the diet of the German Confederation.
This was done, and the diet declared the constitution of 1848 to be invalid.
After a period of vacillation Hanover threw in her lot with Austria, the decisive step being taken when the question of the mobilization of the federal army was voted upon in the diet on the 14th of June 1866.
At a diet held at Verona, largely attended by German and Italian princes, a fresh campaign was arranged against the Saracens.
The Briihl palace, built in 1737 by Count Briihl, the minister of Augustus II., has been in some measure demolished to make room for the new Standehaus (diet house), with its main facade facing the Hofkirche; before the main entrance there is an equestrian statue (1906) of King Albert.
For a bibliography of More's numerous works see the article in the Diet.
This corpulence was due not alone to over-feeding but to an almost purely vegetable diet; stoutness was a part of the ideal of feminine beauty.
After attending the diet of Regensburg, he shared the captivity of Clement VII.
On the 23rd of June the Confession, originally intended as the statement of Electoral Saxony alone, was discussed and signed by a number of other Protestant princes and cities, and read before the diet on the 25th of June.
Later, the Variata of 1540 became the creed of the lVlelanchthonians and even of the Crypto-calvinists; so the framers of the Formula of Concord, promulgated in 1580, returned to the text handed in at the Diet.
The Adiaphorist controversy among Lutherans was an issue of the provisional scheme of compromise between religious parties, pending a general council, drawn up by Charles V., sanctioned at the diet of Augsburg, 15th of May 1548, and known as the Augsburg Interim.
All males of 24 years of age are primary electors, while the diet consists of 12 members, holding their seats for 4 years and elected indirectly, together with 3 members nominated by the prince.
As the result of the ascetic training of the Essenes, and of their temperate diet, it is said that they lived to a great age, and were superior to pain and fear.
Rigg suggested might be enlarged and combined into a kind of diet composed of ministers and laymen who should consider reports from the various departments.
Hildebrand set up Gerard, bishop of Florence, as a rival candidate, won over a part of the Romans to his cause, and secured the support of the empress regent Agnes at the Diet of Augsburg in June.
When he had taken Lombardy (1158) and had had the principles of the imperial supremacy proclaimed by his jurists at the diet of Roncaglia, the court of Rome realized that war was inevitable, and two energetic popes, Adrian IV.
The capital and seat of the provincial diet is Breslau (q.v.), which is also by far the largest and most important town.
By instituting a permanent diet of Silesian princes and estates to co-operate with his vicegerent, he took an important step towards the abolition of particularism and the establishment of an effective central government.
He abolished all privileges which were not secured by charter and imposed a more rigidly centralized scheme of government in which the activities of the provincial diet were restricted to some judicial and financial functions, and their freedom in matters of foreign policy was withdrawn altogether.
In 1809, when the estates of Finland were summoned to a special diet to decide the future of the country, Borga was the place of meeting, and it was in the cathedral that the emperor Alexander I.
Both species agree in their predaceous habits, omnivorous diet and great fecundity.
A new revolt of Sidon against the Persians took place under King Tennes owing to the insults offered to the Sidonians at the federal diet in Tripolis.
The local Diet, which meets at Parenzo, and of which the three bishops are members ex-officio, is composed of 33 members, and Istria sends 5 deputies to the Reichsrat at Vienna.
Taken as a whole, the finches, concerning which no reasonable doubt can exist, are not only little birds with a hard bill, adapted in most cases for shelling and eating the various seeds that form the chief portion of their diet when adult, but they appear to be mainly forms which predominate in and are highly characteristic of the Palaearctic Region; moreover, though some are found elsewhere on the globe, the existence of but very few in the Notogaean hemisphere can as yet be regarded as certain.
Constitutional restrictions were intolerable to him; and the consequent friction with the diet was aggravated when, in 1832, Hassenpflug (q.v.) was placed at the head of the administration.
The whole efforts of the elector and his minister were directed to nullifying the constitutional control vested in the diet; and the Opposition was fought by manipulating the elections, packing the judicial bench, and a vexatious and petty persecution of political "suspects," and this policy continued after the retirement of Hassenpflug in 1837.
On the 2nd of September the diet was dissolved; the taxes were continued by electoral ordinance; and the country was placed under martial law.
Hassenpflug persuaded the elector to leave Cassel secretly with him, and on the 15th of October appealed for aid to the reconstituted federal diet, which willingly passed a decree of "intervention."
Hesse was surrendered to the federal diet; the taxes were collected by the federal forces, and all officials who refused to recognize the new order were dismissed.
In March 1852 the federal diet abolished the constitution of 1831, together with the reforms of 1848, and in April issued a new provisional constitution.
The new diet had, under this, very narrow powers; and the elector was free to carry out his policy of amassing money, forbidding the construction of railways and manufactories, and imposing strict orthodoxy on churches and schools.
In 1855, however, Hassenpflug - who had returned with the elector - was dismissed; and five years later, after a period of growing agitation, a new constitution was granted with the consent of the federal diet (May 30, 1860).
The new chambers, however, demanded the constitution of 1831; and, after several dissolutions which always resulted in the return of the same members, the federal diet decided to restore the constitution of 1831 (May 24, 1862).
Paderborn owes its early development to Charlemagne, who held a diet here in 777 and made it the seat of a bishop a few years later.
On his election, Sigismund promised to maintain a fleet in the Baltic, to fortify the eastern frontier against the Tatars, and not to visit Sweden without the consent of the Polish diet.
At the diet of 1590 Zamoyski successfully thwarted all the efforts of the Austrian party; whereupon the king, taking advantage of sudden vacancies among the chief offices of state, brought into power the Radziwills and other great Lithuanian dignitaries, thereby for a time considerably curtailing the authority of the chancellor.
At the diet of 1605 Sigismund and his partisans endeavoured so far to reform the Polish constitution as to substitute a decision by a plurality of votes for unanimity in the diet.
But the necessary supplies were never forthcoming and the diet remained absolutely indifferent to the triumphs of Zolkiewski and the other great generals who performed Brobdingnagian feats with Lilliputian armies.
Thus, at his last diet, held at Piotrkow, in 1547, Lupa Podlodowski, the champion of the szlachta, o p enly threatened him with rebellion.