"You could see if the library has a Mayan-English dictionary," Cynthia offered with a twinkle in her eye as she led Maria to the dining room, holding her hand.
At this point you may consult a dictionary to check spelling or usage.
Dictionary entries are found in the main section.
You are welcome to use our searchable science dictionary.
The dictionary definition of a blunder is "a gross mistake."
The dictionary files are specified in the book's appendix.
An American English dictionary uses the pronunciation of American accented speech.
He compiled the first English dictionary of arts and sciences.
ESL students are often confused by slang expressions that do not appear in an English dictionary.
Lever's grammar school, founded in 1641, had Robert Ainsworth, the Latin lexicographer, and John Lempriere, author of the classical dictionary, among its masters.
Apply those same principles when writing yourself, by using a monolingual dictionary or creating phrases in a similar way.
de Larajasse, Somali-English and English-Somali Dictionary (London, 1897).
The Language Tutor is stored on a compact special card to be easily inserted into your handheld dictionary.
Gruppe in Roscher's Lexikon der Mythologie and by P. Monceaux in Daremberg and Saglio's Dictionnaire des antiquites; " Orphia " in Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (3rd ed., 1891), by L.
Cheetham, Dictionary of Christian Antiquities (Boston, 1875), i.
Students with dyslexia are permitted to use an electronic dictionary.
This is a multilingual dictionary covering English, Italian, French, German, Spanish, Russian, and Turkish.
She projected the Russian dictionary of the Academy, arranged its plan, and executed a part of the work herself.
The site is used to quickly compare dictionary definitions.
I read it as much as possible without the help of notes or dictionary, and I always like to translate the episodes that please me especially.
He was assistant librarian of Harvard University from 1856 to 1872, and planned and perfected an alphabetical card catalogue, combining many of the advantages of the ordinary dictionary catalogues with the grouping of the minor topics under more general heads, which is characteristic of a systematic catalogue.
The definition of a slang word can be looked up in a slang dictionary.
Baldwin, Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology (1901-1905).
A wide variety of word combinations are found in a bilingual dictionary.
van der Tuuk, Maleisch-Nederlandisch Woordenboek (Batavia, 1877-1880); Malay Dictionary (Singapore, 1903), Wilkinson.
It features the largest and most complete English-Polish dictionary, thesaurus, and expanded grammar reference section.
This was true enough, but there is truth also in the remark of Prof. Sanday ("Eucharist" in Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible) that Providence even in its revolutions is conservative.
Comey, Dictionary of Chemical Solubilities).
The New English Dictionary takes it to be of northern French origin.
It would, I think, be hard to make her feel just how to pronounce DICTIONARY without her erring either toward DICTIONAYRY or DICTION'RY, and, of course the word is neither one nor the other.
Newton's Dictionary of Birds, London, 1896.
He was the author of several contributions to the literature of horticulture, including a Practical Treatise on the Culture of the Dahlia (1838), and a Pocket Botanical Dictionary (1st ed., 1840).
Taiping (Perak, 1894-1898); John Crawfurd, History of the Indian Archipelago (3 vols., Edinburgh, 1820); Grammar and Dictionary of the Malay Language (2 vols., London, 1852); A Descriptive Dictionary of the Indian Islands and Adjacent Countries (London, 1856); Journal of the Indian Archipelago (12 vols., Singapore, 1847-1862); Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 33 Nos.
He will be writing articles for the biographical dictionary.
There is a dictionary of quotations which includes quotes from Laurie Anderson to Victor Hugo.
Wilkins in Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (3rd ed., 1890).
The resulting " classification is based on the examination, mostly autoptic, of a far greater number of characters than any that had preceded it; moreover, they were chosen in a different way, discernment being exercised in sifting and weighing them, so as to determine, so far as possible, the relative value of each, according as that value may vary in different groups, and not to produce a mere mechanical ` key ' after the fashion become of late years so common " (Newton's Dictionary of Birds, Introduction, p. 103).
Check whether or not parents are able to provide a bilingual dictionary for the student.
Coming now to works on British birds only, the first of the present century that requires remark is Montagu's Ornithological Dictionary (2 vols.
The site has word look up, a rhyming dictionary, verse creator, experiments, games, puzzles and much more.
Parker, The Archaeology of Rome: the Catacombs; Smith and Cheetham, Dictionary of Christian Antiquities, s.v.
But even here the hopefulness as regards a future life, in which the inequalities of the present would be rectified, compensated for the gloomy fatalism with which the present was 1 The earliest example given in the New English Dictionary is in S.
According to the New English Dictionary, although the origin of the word "cat" is unknown, yet the name is found in various languages as far back as they can be traced.
- In addition to the literature already mentioned, see the articles of Sanday on "Colossians" and Robertson on "Ephesians" in Smith's Bible Dictionary (2nd ed., 1893), and the article of A.
Hackett) of the enlarged American edition of Dr (afterwards Sir) William Smith's Dictionary of the Bible (1867-1870), to which he contributed more than 400 articles besides greatly improving the bibliographical completeness of the work; was an efficient member of the American revision committee employed in connexion with the Revised Version (1881-1885) of the King James Bible; and aided in the preparation of Caspar Rene Gregory's Prolegomena to the revised Greek New Testament of Tischendorf.
Rigg, in Dictionary of National Biography.
Bunbury in Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography; R.
Bernard in Hastings's Bible Dictionary, iii.
Africa were in close relation with those of Spain, and as early as the beginning of the 9th century Judah ben Quraish of Tahort had composed his Risalah (letter) to the Jews of Fez on grammatical subjects from a comparative point of view, and a dictionary now lost.
von Jhering, Die Gastfreundschaft im Altertum (1887); see also Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (3rd ed., 1890).
Smith's Classical Dictionary has notices of some thirty of the name.
C. Klinkert, Nieuw Maleisch-Nederlandisch Woorden boek (Leiden, 1893); John Leyden, Malay Annals (London, 1821); William Marsden, The History of Sumatra (London, 181 I); Malay Dictionary (London, 1824); Sir William Maxwell, A Manual of the Malay Language (London, 1888); T.
From 1701 to 17 21 Collier was employed on his Great Historical, Geographical, Genealogical and Poetical Dictionary, founded on, and partly translated from, Louis Moreri's Dictionnaire historique, and in the compilation and issue of the two volumes folio of his own Ecclesiastical History of Great Britian from the first planting of Christianity to the end of the reign of Charles II.
Hunt in the article in the Dictionary of National Biography.
For Avicenna's life, see Ibn Khallikan's Biographical Dictionary, translated by McG.
C. Childers, Dictionary of the Pali Language (London, 1872-1875); Ernst Kuhn, Beitrage zur Pali Grammatik (Berlin; 18 75); E.
Newton's Dictionary of Birds (London, 1893); Cat.
The use of the word "clergy" as a plural, though the New English Dictionary quotes the high authority of Cardinal Newman for it, is less rare than wrong; in the case cited "Some hundred Clergy" should have been "Some hundred of the Clergy."
Especial attention has to be drawn to the article " Geographical Distribution," in Newton's Dictionary of Birds.
A bibliography of works dealing with the subject is included in the article by the Rev. Alexander Gordon in the Dictionary of National Biography.
American Law: Bouvier, Law Dictionary (ed.
- Hugh Clifford, In Court and Kampong (London, 1897); Studies in Brown Humanity (London, 1898); In a Corner of Asia (London, 1899); Bush-whacking (London 1901); Clifford and Swettenham, Dictionary of the Malay Language, parts i.
In 1785 White and Mrs Buchan published a Divine Dictionary, but the sect broke up on the death of its founder in spite of White's attempts 1 In August 1908, during some excavations at Dunkeld, remains were found which are supposed to be those of Alexander Stewart, the "wolf of Badenoch."
Noldeke's Sketches from Eastern History (1892), p. 210, and the Dictionary of Christian Biography.
Bosworth (Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, new ed.
Not to dwell upon earlier continental " Deists " (mentioned by Viret as quoted first in Bayle's Dictionary and again in the introduction to Leland's View of the Deistical Writers), Lord Herbert of Cherbury (De Veritate, 1624; De Religione Gentilium,.
Smith's Dictionary of Christian Biography and Dictionary of the Bible, and he also joined the committee for revising the translation of the New Testament.
Vaugelas in 1687, and in 1694 a dictionary of technical terms, intended to supplement that of the Academy.
John Crawfurd, in the Dissertation to his Dictionary of the Malay Language, published in 1840, noted the prevalence of Malayan terms in the Polynesian languages, and attributed the fact to the casting away of ships manned by Malays upon the islands of the Polynesian Archipelago.
"Ephesians, Epistle to," in Hastings's Dictionary of the Bible, the various works of Holtzmann above referred to, and T.
The highest English authority on Wagner is his friend Dannreuther, whose article in Grove's Dictionary is classical.
His list of such forms is much more complete than that given by Childers in the introduction to his Dictionary of the Pali Language.
It is partly due to this early meaning that the derivation from the root of " brood " has been usually accepted; this the New English Dictionary regards as " inadmissible."
LOG(a word of uncertain etymological origin,possibly onomatopoeic; the New English Dictionary rejects the derivation from Norwegian lag, a fallen tree), a large piece of, generally unhewn, wood.
- Celli, Malaria; Christy, Mosquitoes and Malaria; Manson, Tropical Diseases; Allbutt's System of Medicine; Ross, "Malaria," Quain's Dictionary of Medicine, 3rd ed.; The Practitioner, March, 1901 (Malaria Number); Lancet (Sept.
My books and pages were rattled off quickly while Martha had pointed to twenty different words listed in a large dictionary.
His work was used in the 10th century by Menahem ben Saruq, of Cordova, in his Mahbereth (dictionary).
Besides being a contributor to the magazines and encyclopedias on educational and philosophical subjects, he wrote An Introduction to the Study of Philosophy (1889); The Spiritual Sense of Dante's Divina Commedia (1889); Hegel's Logic (1890); and Psychologic Foundations of Education (1898); and edited Appleton's International Education Series and 'Webster's International Dictionary.
If a brief definition of instinct, from the purely biological point of view be required, that given in the Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology may be accepted: "An inherited reaction of the sensori-motor type, relatively complex 3'p 3' p and markedly adaptive in character, and common to a group of individuals."
Between 1805 and 1811 he issued his Biblical Dictionary in four volumes, which still remains the standard work of its kind in Welsh.
The first printing-press in Turkey was established by an Hungarian who had assumed the name of Ibrahim, and in 1728 (1141) appeared the first book printed in that country; it was Vanlpuli's Turkish translation of Jevheri's Arabic dictionary.
He was not depressed by this misfortune, especially as he was at the time closely engaged in the preparation of the Historical and Critical Dictionary (Dictionnaire historique et critique) .
The remaining years of Bayle's life were devoted to miscellaneous writings, arising in many instances out of criticisms made upon his Dictionary.
The Dictionary, however, is Bayle's masterpiece.
- Historical and Critical Dictionary (1695-1697; 1702, enlarged; best that of P. des Maizeaux, 4 vols., 1740); Les Ouvres de Bayle (3 vols., The Hague); see des Maizeaux, Vie de Bayle; L.
See Grammatik der samoyedischen Sprachen (1854); Dictionary (1855) Ethnologische Vorlesungen fiber die altaischen Volker (1857); Versuch einer koibalischen and karagassischen Sprachlehre (1857).
Father Fitzherbert, who is described as "a person of excellent parts, a notable politician, and of graceful behaviour and generous spirit," wrote many controversial works, a list of which is given in the article on him by Mr Thompson Cooper in the Dictionary of National Biography, together with authorities for his life.
Wordsworth in Smith's Dictionary of Christian Biography.
Watt, Dictionary of the Economic Products of India (1892); and The Date Palm, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry, Bulletin No.
Dictionary of the Russian Empire (in Russian, 5 vols., St Petersburg, 1863-1884) - a most valuable source of information, with full bibliographical details under each article; Picturesque Russia (in Russian), ed.
A full bibliography will be found in the Russian Encyclopaedic Dictionary, as also in Mezhov, Siberian Bibliography (3 vols., St Petersburg, 1891-1892), and in A.
Wace, Dictionary of Christian Biography, i.; C. Krumbacher, Geschichte der byzantinischen Litteratur (1897); G.
His philological studies, to which the last fourteen years of his life were devoted, resulted in the compilation of "A Glossary of Provincial and Archaic Words," intended as a supplement to Dr Johnson's Dictionary, but never published except in part, which finally in 1831 passed into the hands of the English compilers of Webster's Dictionary, by whom it was utilized.
In general the coefficient, of any product A n A m A 7, 3 ..., will have, as coefficient, a seminvariant which, when expressed by partitions, will have as leading partition (preceding in dictionary order all others) the partition (Tr1lr2lr3ï¿½..).
We will choose from the forms in such manner that the product of letters A is either a power of A i, or does not contain A i; this rule leaves us with A2B 1 B 2 and A 2 B,Bs; of these forms we will choose that one which in letters B is earliest in ascending dictionary order; this is A2B 1 B 21 and our earliest perpetuant is (22)a(21)b - (221)a(2)b, and thence the general form enumerated by the generating function Z7 is (1-z)(1 - z2)2 (2 A2+2) a (2ï¿½2 +1 1ï¿½1 +1) b - (2 A2+2 1)a (2 M2+1 1, ai)b ...
Wilkins in Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (3rd ed., 1891); E.
708-709, and Dobschiitz in Hastings' Bible Dictionary, iii.
See article in Smith's Dictionary of Christian Biography, iv.
(2) A Biographical Dictionary ('OvogaroX6yos or Illva) of Learned Men, arranged according to classes (poets, philosophers), the chief sources of which were the Mou6u07 ivTopia of Aelius Dionysius and the works of Herennius Philo.
Inglis Palgrave's Dictionary of Pol.
The next best native dictionary is that of Maurice Ballagi, A Magyar nyelv teljes szotdra, (Pest, 1868-1873).
Parispapai compiled an Hungarian-Latin Dictionary, Dictionarium magyar es dedk nyelven (Locse, 1708), and Apaczai-Csere, a Magyar Encyclopaedia (Utrecht, 1653).
Among the earlier publications of the academy were the Tudomdnytdr (Treasury of Sciences, 1834-1844), with its supplement Literatura; the KUlfoldi jdtPkszin (Foreign Theatres); the Magyar nyelv rendszere (System of the Hungarian language, 1846; 2nd ed., 1847); various dictionaries of scientific, mathematical, philosophical and legal terms; a Hungarian - German dictionary (1835-1838), and a Glossary of Provincialisms (1838).
The Nagy-Szotdr (Great Dictionary), begun by Czuczor and Fogarasi in 1845, was not issued till 1862-1874.
irok elete es munkdi (an extensive biographical dictionary of Hungarian authors); Irodalom torteneti Kozlemenyek (a periodical edited by Aron Szilady, for the history of literature); Emil Reich, Hungarian Literature (London, 1898).
See also John Wallis, Opera Mathematica (1693-1699), and Charles Hutton, Mathematical and Philosophical Dictionary (1815), article " Algebra."
In 1755 occurred the famous dispute with Johnson over the dedication to the English Dictionary.
In 1747 Johnson sent Chesterfield, who was then secretary of state, a prospectus of his Dictionary, which was acknowledged by a subscription of X10.
He desired to be known as a protector of letters and literary men; and his want of heart or head over the Dictionary dedication, though explained and excused by Croker, none the less inspired the famous change in a famous line - " Toil, envy, want, the patron, and the jail.
The dictionary of mythology entitled 'Iwvca ("Collection of Violets"), which formerly used to be ascribed to her, was not composed till 1543 (Constantine Palaeokappa).
The New English Dictionary points out that whereas the old Teutonic type of the word is neuter, corresponding to the Latin numen, in the Christian applications it becomes masculine, and that even where the earlier neuter form is still kept, as in Gothic and Old Norwegian, the construction is masculine.
1342), a sort of medical glossary and dictionary.
Bryant, A Zulu-English Dictionary with.
From 1847 to 1851 he was engaged at Brunswick in editing the Dictionary of Chemistry started by Liebig, but in the latter year he went to Marburg as successor to Bunsen in the chair of chemistry.
Bernard in Hastings's Dictionary of the Bible, iv.
Chambers's Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen; memoir by Principal Lee in early editions of the Encyclopaedia Britannica; J.
McCosh, The Scottish Philosophy (1875); articles in Dictionary of National Biography and Edinburgh Review (January 1867); Lord Henry Cockburn, Memorials of his Time (1856).
6 See Ancient Hebrew Tradition, p. 125, and Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible, i.
There are also many academies and learned societies of different kinds, of which one of the most important is the Accademia della Crusca for the study of the Italian language, which undertook the publication of a monumental dictionary.
See the articles in the Encyclopaedia Biblica; Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopddie; The Jewish Encyclopaedia; Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible; and cf.
Forbiger, Handbuch der alters Geographie von Europa (Hamburg, 1877); article in Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, ii.
See the article in Dictionary of Christian Antiquities; Wetzer and Welte, Kirchenlexicon (2nd ed.); and Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopeidie (3rd ed.); also the general histories of the time.
Biblica and Hastings's Dictionary of the Bible.
12 33) wrote, in addition to the Chronicle already mentioned, a Biographical Dictionary of Contemporaries of the Prophet.
1278) wrote a Biographical Dictionary of the Worthies of the First Ages of Islam.
1448) is best known by his Biographical Dictionary of Contemporaries of the Prophet, published in the Bibliotheca Indica.
Khalil ibn Ahmad (718-791), an Arab from Oman, of the school of Basra, was the first to enunciate the laws of Arabic metre and the first to write a dictionary.
Jauhari wrote his great dictionary the Sahah.
The article in Hastings's Dictionary of the Bible (vol.
The leading Peruvian authors on constitutional and legal subjects are Dr Jose Santistevan, who has published volumes on civil and criminal law; Luis Felipe Villaran (subsequently rector of the university at Lima), author of a work on constitutional right; Dr Francisco Garcia Calderon (once president of Peru), author of a dictionary of Peruvian legislation, in two volumes; Dr Francisco Xavier Mariategui, one of the fathers of Peruvian independence; and Dr Francisco de Paula Vigil (1792-1875), orator and statesman as well as author, whose work, Defensa de los gobiernos, is a noble and enlightened statement of the case for civil governments against the pretensions of the court of Rome.
Dictionary; Fetis, Biog.
After spending six years in Constantinople, where he published a Turkish-German Dictionary and various linguistic works, and where he acquired some twenty Oriental languages and dialects, he visited Teheran; and then, disguised as a dervish, joined a band of pilgrims from Mecca, and spent several months with them in rough and squalid travel through the deserts of Asia.
Baker's Handbook of Amaryllideae (1888); see also Nicholson, Dictionary of Gardening (1886); and J.
In 1802 he published a Bibliographical Dictionary in six volumes, to which he afterwards added a supplement.
Brinkley, An Unabridged Japanese-Enghsi Dictionary (Tokyo, 1896); Y.
Shimada, English-Japanese Dictionary (Tokyo, 1897); Websters Dictionary, trans.
Gubbins, Dictionary of Chinese-Japanese Words (3 vols., London, 1889); J.
C. Hepburn, Japanese-English and EnglishJapanese Dictionary (London, 1903); E.
Masakata, English-Japanese Dictionary (London, I 904).
Schmid, Marius Victorinus Rhetor and seine Beziehungen zu Augustin (Kiel, 1895); Gore in Dictionary of Christian Biography, iv.; M.
St Petersburg, 1776-1802); Novae species quadrupedum, 1778 - 1779; Pallas's contributions to the dictionary of languages of the Russian empire, 1786-1789; Icones insectorum, praesertim Rossiae Siberiaeque peculiarium, 1781-1806; Zoographia rossoasiatica (3 vols., 1831); besides many special papers in the Transactions of the academies of St Petersburg and Berlin.
Ramsay in Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography; J.
His Mathematical and Philosophical Dictionary, a valuable contribution to scientific biography, was published in 1795 (2nd ed., 1815), and the four volumes of Recreations in Mathematics and Natural Philosophy, mostly a translation from the French, in 1803.
The development of meaning in French from a label to ceremonial rules is not difficult in itself, but, as the New English Dictionary points out, the history has not been clearly established.
Skeat, Etymological English Dictionary; W.
Fcrster in 1830, and again in an enlarged form in 1847; three letters, written respectively to Stringer, Lord Oxford and Lord Godolphin, which appeared, for the first time, in the General Dictionary; and lastly a letter to Le Clerc, in his recollections of Locke, first published in Notes and Queries, Feb.
though it is by no means always closely followed, of the Life contributed by Dr Birch to the General Dictionary.
Ward in the Dictionary of National Biography.
The New English Dictionary connects it with a Teutonic stem meaning "holy"; from which is derived the Lithuanian szwentas, and Lettish swats.
Hunt in the Dictionary of National Biography.
2, 1815); A Dictionary of Chemistry and Mineralogy (with his brother C. R.
of Ibn Khallikan's Biographical Dictionary (Paris and London, 1842), vol.
In the same year Porter's able article on "Revelation" appeared in Hastings' Bible Dictionary (iv.
Hommel in Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible) suggests E-Saggila, the great temple of Merodach (Marduk).
Dictionary), who seems to have been struck by the peculiarities of the species, and, to investigate them, visited the fens of Lincolnshire, possibly excited thereto by the example of T.
Gannett, ” Geographic Dictionary of Massachusetts."
At the time of the Dissolution there were nearly 300 Black Benedictine houses, great and small, men and women, including most of the chief religious houses of the land (for lists see tables and maps in Gasquet's English Monastic Life, and Catholic Dictionary, art.
min.) The fullest critical treatment in English is by Dr Vernon Bartlet in the extra volume of Hastings's Dictionary of the Bible; the most complete commentary on the text is by P. Drews in Hennecke's Handbuch zu den N.T.
When Addis and Arnold's Catholic Dictionary denounces the conception of central dogmas, what they desire to exclude as uncatholic is the belief that dogmas lying upon the circumference may be questioned or perhaps denied.'
See Dictionary of National Biography, xviii.
But " congregational " (due to the rendering of ecclesia by " congregation " in early English Bibles) appears about 1642, to judge from the New English Dictionary.
In 1846 a grammar and dictionary of it were made with difficulty from the mouths of old people.
" Angel " in Hastings' Bible Dictionary, and the Encyclopaedia Biblica.
Besides being the author of several controversial works, Martini drew up a Dictionary of Ancient Musical Terms, which appeared in the second volume of G.
There is a good bibliographical note at the end of Mr Sidney Lee's article in the National Dictionary of Biography.
The New English Dictionary does not attempt any explanation of the term, and takes "hogshead" as the original form, from which the forms in other languages have been corrupted.
In 1870 he was minister of justice and worship under President Balta, but shortly afterwards retired from public life to devote himself to his great geographical dictionary of Peru, which was published in 1877.
In all these works the imperfection of his musical education is painfully apparent, and his compositions betray an equal lack of knowledge, though his refined taste is as clearly displayed there as is his literary power in the Letters and Dictionary.
Luckes, Hospital Sisters and their Duties; Morten, How to become a Nurse; Florence Nightingale, Notes on Nursing; Nightingale Boyd, "Nursing," in Quain's Dictionary of Medicine.
Day of Atonement: articles in Hastings' Bible Dictionary, and in the Encyclopaedia Biblica.
In 1716 he published a supplement to Moreri's dictionary, in two volumes folio.
See also Smith and Wace's invaluable Dictionary of Christian Biography (1877 ff.).
The New English Dictionary suggests that the sense-development may be from "whole," i.e.
He published Cathay and the Way Thither (1866), the Book of Ser Marco Polo a871-75), for which he received the gold medal of the Royal 'Geographical Society, and brought out with Dr Arthur C. Burnell Hobson-Jobson (1886), a dictionary of Anglo-Indian colloquial phrases.
A valuable worker in the field of Slavonic philology was Linde, the author of an excellent Polish dictionary in six volumes.
400-412, and the Dante Dictionary by the same author.
368): " and at last Indulgences were so freely given that there is now scarcely a devotion or good work of any kind for which they cannot be obtained " (Arnold & Addis, Catholic Dictionary, s.v.).
In the New English Dictionary the earliest example of the word " classical " is the phrase " classical and canonical," found in the Europae Speculum of Sir Edwin Sandys (1599), and, as applied to a writer, it is explained as meaning " of the first rank or authority."
It was there that he began his Latin Grammar, his Glossary (the earliest Latin-English dictionary in existence), and his Colloquium, in which Latin is taught in a conversational manner.
Dictionary of Christian Antiquities (1875-1880).
Besides some archaeological articles in the Nineteenth Century and contributions to the Dictionary of National Biography, he published a History of the Diocese of Norwich (1879); The Coming of the Friars (1885); The Autobiography of Roger North (1887) and Trials of a Country Parson (1890).
Other important works in which English and American scholars have co-operated are the Encyclopaedia Biblica (1899-1903) and Hastings' Bible Dictionary (1898-1904) - the latter less radical, but yet on the whole based on acceptance of the fundamental positions of Vatke, Graf, Wellhausen.
Between either of these and Smith's Dictionary of the Bible (1863) yawns a great gulf.
Nor does it appear to us that the objections to this theory brought by Dr Chase in his excellent article on the epistle in Hastings' Dictionary are really so fatal as he supposes.
For introductory matter the student will do well to consult the Dictionary of the Bible (ed.
(1885); the article on the " Old Latin Version," in Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible.
pp. 91-144; and especially an article on " Egyptian Versions " in Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible, vol.
pp. 148-154; Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible, article on " The Armenian Versions of the New Testament," by F.
It cannot be correct, since no full moon occurs near it in any of the possible years; yet it must be very early, too early to be explained with Dr Salmon (Dictionary of Christian Biography, iii.
- The views stated in this article are in general (though with some modifications) the same as those which the present writer worked out with more fulness of detail in Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible, i.
Besides dictionary articles on this subject (S.
El Guipuzcoano instruido (San Sebastian, 1780), in the form of a dictionary, gives full details of the life, the rights, duties and obligations of a Basque citizen of that date.
de Slane's translation of Ibn Khallikan's Biographical Dictionary (Paris and London, 1842), vol.
System; Unites et Etalons, Guillaume (Paris, 1890); Lupton's Numerical Tables, 1892; Metric Equivalent Cards, 1901; Dictionary of Metric Measures, L.
Madoz was distinguished from most of the politicians of his generation by the fact that in middle life he compiled what is still a book of value - a geographical, statistical and historical dictionary of Spain and its possessions oversea, Diccionario geogra Pico, estadistico y historico de Espana, y sus posesiones de Ultramar (Madrid, 1848-1850).
He first appeared as an author by contributing two articles to the Edinburgh Review (an earlier journal than the present, which was commenced in 1755, but of which only two numbers were published),-one on Johnson's Dictionary and the other a letter to the editors on the state of literature in the different countries of Europe.
He remained in Holland until 1840, working there on his Dictionary of the Anglo-Saxon Language (1838), his best-known work.
Thomas in Hastings' Dictionary of Religions; Frazer, Golden Bough; Campbell's Spirit Basis of Belief and Custom; Maclennan's Studies (series 2); V.
Dictionary (1815); Penny Cyclopaedia (De Morgan); Nature, viii.
` The cup is the covenant ' " (Prof. Sanday in Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible, 3, 149).
" Lord's Supper " in Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible; Th.
" Reservation " in Dictionary of Christian Antiquities, vol.
He had already gained some reputation as an industrious theologian, and had published among other works an annotated edition of the Prayer Book (1867), a History of the English Reformation (1868), and a Book of Church Law (1872), as well as a useful Dictionary of Doctrinal and Historical Theology (1870).
The continuation of these labours was seen in a Dictionary of Sects and Heresies (1874), an Annotated Bible (3 vols., 1878-1879), and a Cyclopaedia of Religion (1884), and received recognition in the shape of the D.D.
"Courci, John de," in Dictionary of National Biography, vol.
Holden, in Smith's Dictionary of Antiquities (3rd ed., 1891).
Kiepert, Lehrbuch der alten Geographie (1878), §§ 298, 299; article in Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1873).
Brugsch's services to Egyptology are most important, particularly in the decipherment of demotic and the making of a vast hieroglyphicdemotic dictionary (1867-1882).
The Sanskrit dictionary was unfortunately destroyed by a fire which broke out in the printing establishment.
Westcott's work for Smith's Dictionary of the Bible, notably his articles on "Canon," "Maccabees," "Vulgate," entailed most careful and thorough preparation, and led to the composition of his subsequent valuable popular books, The Bible in the Church (1864) and a History of the English Bible (1869).
Watt, Dictionary of the Economic Products of India (1890).
Watt's Dictionary of the Economic Products of India (1893).
A very full account of the cultivation of rice in India will be found in Sir George Watt's Dictionary of the Economic Products of India.
Rigaud, Memoirs of Bradley (1832), and in Charles Hutton, Mathematical and Philosophical Dictionary (1795); a particularly clear and lucid account is given in H.
See also Gough's Index to Parker Soc. Publ.; Strype's Works (General Index); Acts of the Privy Council; Calendars of Domestic and Spanish State Papers; Dixon's and Frere's Church Histories; and Dictionary of National Biography (art.
In 1755 the precursor of the later Edinburgh Review was started, now chiefly remembered because in its pages Adam Smith criticized the dictionary of Dr Johnson, and because the contents of its two numbers were edited by Wedderburn.
No sea-going ships were built in China before 139 B.C. The earliest allusion to the power of the lodestone in Chinese literature occurs in a Chinese dictionary, finished in A.D.
It produced a great effect upon many Jews; the Acta Pilati says that Pilate trembled when he heard of it, and, according to Bayle's Dictionary, Spinoza declared that if he were persuaded of its truth he would become a Christian.
A reputation acquired through certain contributions to the Dictionary of Christian Antiquities was confirmed by his treatises On the Organization of the Early Christian Churches (1881, his Bampton lectures), and on The Influence of Greek Ideas and Usages on the Christian Church (the Hibbert lectures for 1888).
i., 1903); and, for America, Bouvier's Law Dictionary, and Kent's Commentaries on American Law.
He was a founder of the American Oriental Society and published an excellent Comprehensive Dictionary of the Greek Language (1826).
His Tibetan-English Dictionary, and pioneer Tibetan Grammar, both published in 1834, opened to Europeans the way to acquire a knowledge of the Tibetan language as found in the ancient classics.
2 The first Tibetan dictionary for Europeans was a Dictionary of the Bhotanta or Bhutan Language, published at Serampur near Calcutta in 1828.
Schroeter and published without supervision by any Tibetan scholar; and Csoma was unaware of its existence when compiling his dictionary.
investigations to the language as a whole, and provided Europeans for the first time with the means of making a practical study of modern Tibetan and the speech of the people His Tibetan-English Dictionary and Tibetan Grammar are models of scientific precision and important sources of our knowledge of the structure and development of the language, and the former is not superseded by Chandra Das's Dictionary.3 The language was first reduced to writing with the assistance of Indian Buddhist monks in the middle of the 7th century A.
In 1868 at Kyelang he published by lithography A Short Practical Grammar of the Tibetan Language, with special reference to the spoken dialects, and the following year a Romanized Tibetan and English Dictionary.
He also published in1871-1876at Gnadau in Prussia by the same process a Tibetan and German dictionary.
Afterwards he prepared for the English Government a Tibetan-English Dictionary, with special reference to the prevailing dialects, in 1881.
Pere Desgodins in 1899 issued from Hong-Kong a large Tibeto-LatinFrench dictionary, Dictionnaire thibetain-latin francais.
Ramsay published at Lahore his useful Practical Dictionary of Western Tibet.
In 1902 was brought out at Calcutta Sarat Chandra Das's Tibetan English Dictionary with Sanskrit synonyms, a massive volume compiled with the aid of Tibetan lamas and edited by Graham Sandberg and the Moravian missionary A.
Since then the problem has been disentangled; and now minor points only remain to be cleared up. Jaeschke devoted special attention to the dialectical sounds, and showed in several papers and by the comparative table prefixed to his dictionary that in the western and eastern dialects these sounds correspond more or less closely to the written forms.
Comey, Dictionary of Solubilities (Inorganic) (1896); A.
Seidell, Dictionary of the Solubilities of Inorganic and Organic Substances (1907).
In 1856 he was elected member of the Accademia della Crusca, in which capacity he took part in the compilation of its famous but still unfinished dictionary, and two years later was appointed assistant keeper of the Tuscan archives, in Florence; then he took charge of the famous Medici archives, whence he collected a vast body of material on the history of Italian art, not all of which is yet published.
(9th ed.) on Egypt, Hieroglyphics and Numismatics, and considerable portions have been retained in the present edition, even though later research has been active in his sphere of work; he also wrote for Smith's Dictionary of the Bible, and published several volumes dealing with his special subjects.
Among his publications were the well-known quarterly magazine Y Traethodydd (" The Essayist"), Gwyddoniadur Cymreig (" Encyclopaedia Cambrensis"), and Dr Silvan Evans's English-Welsh Dictionary (1868), but his greatest achievement in this field was the newspaper Baner Cymru (" The Banner of Wales"), founded in 1857 and amalgamated with Yr Amserau (" The Times") two years later.
See Humphrey Hody, De Graecis Illustribus, 1742, and Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography, s.v.
Trail, Life and Writings of Robert Simson (1812); C. Hutton, Mathematical and Philosophical Dictionary (1815).
For later Hebrew: Levy, Neuhebraisches Worterbuch (Leipzig, 1876-1889); Jastrow, Dictionary of the Targumi, &c. (NewYork, 1886, &c.); Dalman, Aramaisches neuhebrdisches Worterbuch (Frankfort a.
Newton, A Dictionary of Birds, p. 572-575 (London, 1893-1896); E.
The Tandhib ul-Asma'i has been edited as the Biographical Dictionary of Illustrious Men chiefly at the Beginning of Islam by F.
Davidson, in Hastings's Bible Dictionary, i.
Charles in Hastings's Bible Dictionary, i.
Salmond in Hastings's Bible Dictionary, p. 752).
See Life in Ibn Khallikan's Biographical Dictionary, trans.
Zimmerli, Die deutsch franzosische Sprachgrenze in der Schweiz (3 vols., 1891-1899); besides the great Swiss Dialect Dictionary (Schweiz.
Nicholson, Dictionary of Gardening (5 vols.); W.
Dewar, The Gardeners' Dictionary; J.
C. Purser in Smith's Dictionary of Antiquities (3rd ed., 1891); L.
Wordsworth in Smith and Wace's Dictionary of Christian Biography; H.
For a few months Lee lived quietly in Powhatan county, year he became assistant-editor of the Dictionary of National making his formal submission to the Federal authorities and Biography.
in this notice the reader is referred to the articles American His article on Shakespeare in the fifty-first volume (1897) of the Civil War, &c. By his achievements he won a high place Dictionary of National Biography formed the basis of his Life amongst the great generals of history.
In his dictionary, again, he recast the lexicological materials independently, and enriched lexicography itself, especially by his numerous etymological explanations.
He published Japan (1901); Japan and China (1903), as well as a Japanese-English dictionary, and was the author of the article Japan in the earlier volumes of this encyclopaedia.
1792; digested in dictionary form by Migne, 1860).
The Catholic Dictionary contains useful articles on most of the subjects here touched on; and an extensive Catholic Encyclopaedia is in course of preparation at the Catholic University of Washington.
Eberhard Nestle's article in Hastings's Dictionary of the Bible is important for its bibliographical information as well as in other respects.
Hastings' Dictionary of Christ and the Gospels.
Such was Johnson's reputation that, in 1747, several eminent booksellers combined to employ him in the arduous work of preparing a Dictionary of the English Language, in two folio volumes.
The prospectus of the Dictionary he addressed to the earl of Chesterfield.
Johnson had flattered himself that he should have completed his Dictionary by the end of 1750; but it was not till 1755 that he at length gave his huge volumes to the world.
The chief support which had sustained him through the most arduous labour of his life was the hope that she would enjoy the fame and the profit which he anticipated from his Dictionary.
After three more laborious years, the Dictionary was at length complete.
In two successive numbers of the World, the Dictionary was, to use the modern phrase, puffed with wonderful skill.
The Dictionary came forth without a dedication.
Johnson's Dictionary was hailed with an enthusiasm such as no similar work has ever excited.
It was indeed the first dictionary which could be read with pleasure.
The Dictionary, though it raised Johnson's fame, added nothing to his pecuniary means.
He abridged his Dictionary.
Even in his massy and elaborate Dictionary he had, with a strange want of taste and judgment, inserted bitter and contumelious reflexions on the Whig party.
In the two folio volumes of the English Dictionary there is not a single ' This famous dictum of Macaulay, though endorsed by Lord Rosebery, has been energetically rebutted by Professor W.
Macaulay, it must be noted, exaggerated persistently the poverty of Johnson's pedigree, the squalor of his early married life, the grotesqueness of his entourage in Fleet Street, the decline and fall from complete virtue of Mrs Thrale, the novelty and success of the Dictionary, the complete failure of the Shakespeare and the political tracts.
For further information and discussion see especially Harnack's Chronologie, and Bishop Chase's article in Hastings's Dictionary of the Bible.
His best-known work is the dictionary of geographical names which occur in the poets, with an introduction on the seats of the Arabian tribes.
Brugsch (q.v.) was the author of a hieroglyphic and demotic dictionary which still holds the field, and from time to time carried forward the study of demotic by a giants stride.
The dictionary of physicians, compiled in ttie 7th century, enumerates nearly sixty men of science who resided in Egypt; the best-known among them are Said b.
and xxvii.; for the Ayyubite period, Ibn Khallikans Biographical Dictionary, translated by MG.
Elmo), consecrated in 1106, has a fine campanile begun in 1 The New English Dictionary has nothing to say.
Christian Molbech (1783-1857) was a laborious lexicographer, author of the first good Danish dictionary, published in 1833.
In its logical aspect pragmatism originates in a criticism of fundamental conceptions like "truth," "error," "fact" 2 The New English Dictionary quotes for nine distinct senses of the word, of which the philosophic is the eighth.
It is, as Dr Johnson justly described this work at the time of its appearance, a " Dictionary " of carefully sifted facts, which tells all that is wanted and all that is known, but without any laboured splendour of language or affected subtlety of conjecture.
"Dioecesis"; New English Dictionary (Oxford, 1897), s.
See C. Hutton, Mathematical and Philosophical Dictionary (1815).
References will be found in Smith's Dictionary of Christian Antiquities - art.
At Lafayette he introduced the first carefully scientific study of English in any American college, and in 1870 published A Comparative Grammar of the AngloSaxon Language, in which its Forms are Illustrated by Those of the Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, Gothic, Old Saxon, Old Friesic, Old Norse and Old High German, and An Anglo-Saxon Reader; he was editor of the "Douglass Series of Christian Greek and Latin Classics," to which he contributed Latin Hymns (1874); he was chairman of the Commission of the State of Pennsylvania on Amended Orthography; and was consulting editor of the Standard Dictionary, and in 1879-1882 was director of the American readers for the Philological Society's (New Oxford) Dictionary.
1863), adjunctprofessor of modern languages in 1884-1891 and subsequently professor of English literature at Lafayette, he edited A Thesaurus Dictionary of the English Language (1903).
745-817; Dictionary of National Biography, s.v.
C. Bradley's popular biography; and Professor Tout's article in the Dictionary of National Biography.
A monument of the labours of the missionaries is a manuscript dictionary (c. 1720) of the language of the Illinois, with catechism and prayers, probably the work of Father Le Boulanger.
See also the dictionary of Moreri, Niceron's Memoires (vol.
Clearly the word Mass had ceased to be a colourless term generally applicable to the eucharistic service; it was, in fact, not only proscribed officially, but in the common language of English people it passed entirely out of use except in the sense in which it is defined in Johnson's Dictionary, i.e.
(July 1861); and numerous recent Italian works, for which Baldwin's Dictionary of Philosophy or Pagliani's Catalogo Generale (Milan, 1905) should be consulted.
The same author wrote the articles on the manufacture of sodium and potassium compounds and on chlorine in Thorpe's Dictionary of Applied Chemistry (3 vols., 1890-1893).
Bailey's Cyclopaedia of American Horticulture (1900-1902); and for cultivation in India, Watt's Dictionary of the Economic Products of India, vi.
Baden-Powell, The Indian Village Community (1896); Abdullah Yusuf Ali, Life and Labour of the People of India (1907); Theodore Morison, Industrial Organization of an Indian Province (1906); Professor Wyndham Dunstan, Coal Resources of India (Society of Arts, 1902); Sir George Watt, Dictionary of Economic Products of India (1908); Sir George Birdwood, Industrial Arts of India (1880); R.
Hunter, Statistical Account of Bengal (1875); Hughes' Dictionary of Islam (London, 1895); Sir Denzil Ibbetson, Outlines of Punjab Ethnography; E.
For statistics, general description and material on administration, see Census of the Philippine Islands in 1903 (4 vols., Washington, 1905);; Pronouncing Gazetteer and Geographical Dictionary of the Philippine Islands (Washington, 1902); Ethnological Survey Publications of the.
The New English Dictionary quotes Piers Plowman as containing the earliest personification of the name.
Poole, Medieval Thought (1884), and article in Dictionary of National Biography; T.
Freshficld, Travels in the Central Caucasus and Bashan (1869); Parrot, Reise zum Ararat (1834); Wagner, Reise nach dem Ararat (1848); Abich, Die Besteigung des Ararat (1849); articles "Ararat," in Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible, and the Encyclopaedia Biblica.
The derivation of the word "ragman" has never been satisfactorily explained, but various guesses as to its meaning and a list of examples of its use for legal instruments both in England and Scotland will be found in the preface to the Bannatyne Club's volume, and in Jamieson's Scottisk Dictionary, s.v.
He also edited the Clarke Papers (1891-1901), and Mrs Hutchinson's Memoirs of Colonel Hutchinson (1885), and wrote an introduction to the Stuart Tracts (1903), besides contributions to the Dictionary of National Biography.
Gannet, " Dictionary of Elevations " (1898), and " River Profiles," publications of United States Geological Survey; G.
For life of Asma`i, see Ibn Khallik5n, Biographical Dictionary, translated from the Arabic by McG.
4 For derivations of the word see Latham's Johnson's Dictionary.
In the New English Dictionary no fewer than thirteen different nuances of vowel sound are distinguished under the symbol A alone.
Bevan) in the Encyclopaedia Biblica, and " Alphabet "(by Isaac Taylor) in Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible.
Among his many writings are An Ecclesiastical Biography, containing the Lives of Ancient Fathers and Modern Divines (8 vols., 1845-1852), A Church Dictionary, The Means of Rendering more Effectual the Education of the People, The Cross of Christ (1873), The Church and its Ordinances (sermons, 4 vols., 1876), and Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury (12 vols., 1860-1876).
Meadley (1809) and his son Edmund Paley, prefixed to the 1825 edition of his works; Leslie Stephen in Dictionary of National Biography; Quarterly Review, ii.
The New English Dictionary points out that the transferred use is due less to Homer's Odyssey than to Fenelon's Telemaque, in which Mentor is a somewhat prominent character.
(For a discussion of the etymology, see the New English Dictionary, especially the concluding note with reference to authorities.) In Shipping.
See articles "Ahasuerus" in the Encyclopaedia Biblica, Hastings' Dictionary, the Jewish Encyclopaedia; S.
In language we have Lonnrot's great Finnish-Swedish dictionary, published by the Finnish Literary Society.
Dr Otto Donner's Comparative Dictionary of the FinnoUgric Languages (Helsingfors and Leipzig) is in German.
Birch wrote most of the English lives in the General Dictionary, Historical and Critical, io vols.
P. P. Semenov's Geographical and Statistical Dictionary (5 vols., St Petersburg, 1863-85) contains a full bibliography of the Volga and tributaries.
His Manual of Chemistry, first published in 1819, enjoyed wide popularity, and among other works he brought out a Dictionary of Science, Literature and Art in 1842, on a new edition of which he was engaged when he died at Tunbridge Wells on the 11th of February 1866.
Pughe, Grammar and Dictionary 2 (1832), vitiated by absurd etymological theories; J.
Spurrek, Welsh-English and English-Welsh Dictionary (Carmarthen b, 1904); D.
Silvan Evans, Welsh Dictionary, A-E (1888-1906).
It is based on the immense Arabic dictionary of Hadji Khalfa, of which indeed it is largely an abridged translation, but it also contains the substance of a vast number of other Arabic and Turkish compilations and manuscripts.
Herbelot's other works, none of which have been published, comprise an Oriental Anthology, and an Arabic, Persian, Turkish and Latin Dictionary.
He was a member of the French Academy; and one very characteristic rule, recorded to have been proposed by him with the intention of expediting the great Dictionary, in which he was much interested, was that no one should be accounted present at any meeting unless he arrived before the hour of commencement and remained till the hour for leaving.
Tregear's Maori-Polynesian Comparative Dictionary shows how the word and its derivatives are used to express thought, memory, emotion, desire, will - in short, psychic energy of all kinds.
Watt, in his Dictionary of the Economic Products of India, mentions the following eleven varieties of jute fibre: Serajganji, Narainganji, Desi, Deora, Uttariya, Deswal, Bakrabadi, Bhatial, Karimginji, Mirganji and Jungipuri.
For detailed information regarding jute, the cloths made from it and the machinery used, see the following works: Watts's Dictionary of the Economic Products of India; Royle's Fibrous Plants of India; Sharp's Flax, Tow and Jute Spinning; Leggatt's Jute Spinning; Woodhouse and Milne's Jute and Linen Weaving; and Woodhouse and Milne's Textile Design: Pure and Applied.
Ihre's masterpiece is the Glossarium sueogothicum (1769), a historical dictionary with many valuable examples from the ancient monuments of the language.
The first official use appears, according to the New English Dictionary, in the appointment of "Commissioners of Police" for Scotland in 1714.
As a schoolboy, by his own account, he was for a time a Voltairean, on the strength of a perusal of the Philosophical Dictionary.
C. Madan, An Outline Dictionary intended as an Aid to the Study of the Languages of the Bantu and other Uncivilized Races (1905); C. Meinhof, Die Sprache der Herero, a grammar and vocabulary (Berlin, 1909); G.
O'Hanlon, Life of Saint Malachy (Dublin, 1859); articles in Dictionary of National Biography and Herzog-Hauck's Realencyklopadie fiir protestantische Theologie.
Nunes de Ledo also produced a treatise on orthography in 1576 and a work on the origins of the language in 1605, and Jeronymo Cardoso gave his countrymen a Latin and Portuguese dictionary.
Philological studies were pursued with ardour and many valuable publications have to be recorded, among them Bluteau's Vocabulario Portuguez, the Reflexoes sobre a lingoa portugueza and an Arte poetica by Francisco Jose Freire, the Exercicios and Espirito da lingoa e eloquencia of Pereira de Figueiredo, translator of the Vulgate, and Viterbo's Elucidario, a dictionary of old terms and phrases which has not been superseded.
Lindsay, The Church and the Ministry, and articles in Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible and the Ency.
His most important works are his Dejepes literatury ceska (history of Bohemian literature), and his monumental German and Bohemian dictionary, which largely contributed to the development of the Bohemian language.
His will, a curious and characteristic document, is printed in Chalmers's Biographical Dictionary.
Skeat (Etymological Dictionary), is as follows: " A coined word; made from French sus, Latin susum or sursum, above, in the same way as sovereign is made from Latin super; it corresponds to a Low Latin type suseranus."
His works include: Charles Lamb (1882) and Crabbe (1903) in the "English Men of Letters" series; editions of Lamb's Essays of Elia (1883) and of his Letters (1888; 2nd ed., 1904), of the Poems (1897) of Thomas Hood, with a biographical introduction; The Life and Works of Charles Lamb (12 vols., 1899-1900); articles on Tennyson and Du Maurier in the Dictionary of National Biography; The Gospel and Human Life (1904), sermons; Lectures and Essays (2 vols., 1905), edited by the Rev. H.
Watt, Dictionary of the Economic Products of India (1892); H.
See Bentley and Trimen, Medicinal Plants (1880); Watt, Dictionary of Economic Products of India, under "Manna" (1891).
Among the many modern accounts in church histories, histories of Christian literature, encyclopaedias, &c., may be mentioned a monograph by Stein, Eusebius Bischof von Caesarea (Wiirzburg, 1859), meagre but useful as far as it goes; the magnificent article by Lightfoot in the Dictionary of Christian Biography; the account by McGiffert in his translation of the Church History; Erwin Preuschen's article in Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklop. (3rd ed., 1898); the treatment of the Chronology of Eusebius writings in Harnack's Alt - christliche Litteraturgeschichte, ii.
iconographique des attributs des figures et des legendes des saints (Paris., 1850); Smith and Wace, Dictionary of Christian Biography (London, 1877, &c., 4 vols.); A.
The New English Dictionary points out that "change" appears earlier than "exchange" in this sense.
The literature of the subject is very extensive, and bibliographical indexes may be found in the Geographical Dictionary of P. Semenov, appended to the articles devoted respectively to the names given above, as also in the yearly Indexes by M.
The bibliography of the contemporary controversy is given in the article on Henry Garnet in the Dictionary of National Biography and in The Gunpowder Plot by David Jardine (1857), the latter work still remaining the principal authority on the subject; add to these Gardiner's Hist.
The New English Dictionary suggests a connexion with "lathe," a term which survives as a division of the county of Kent, containing several "hundreds."
Gannett); " Geographic Dictionary of Alaksa " (Bulletin 299, Washington, 1906), by M.
He was the author of a Traite des conjugaisons written in Arabic, and left his Dictionary in MS.
In 1836 he became editor of the Encyclopaedia Metropolitana, and he projected the New General Biographical Dictionary, a scheme carried through by his brother Henry John Rose (1800-1873).
But a very great amount of most valuable imformation about the Caucasus is preserved in articles in encyclopaedias and scientific periodicals, especially the Izvestia and Zapiski of the Russian and Caucasian geographical societies, in P. P. Semenov's Geographical Dictionary (in Russian, 5 vols., St Petersburg, 1863-1884), and in the Russkiy encyklopedicheskiy slovar (1894), and in the Kavkazskiy kalendar (annually at Tiflis).
Baldwin's Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology (3 vols., 1902-1905).
(1881), and article in Dictionary of National Biography; J.
" Prozession, Bittgange Litanei" and Smith's Dictionary of Christian Antiquities s.v.
See also the articles on "Imperator" and- "Princeps" in Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (1890).
In Walachia .a certain Ion Budai Deleanu, a man of great learning, author of a hitherto unpublished Rumanian dictionary of great value, wrote a satirical epos in which gipsies play the chief part.
Seven years of constant and severe toil (1866-73) were given to the Oxford Icelandic-English Dictionary, incomparably the best guide to classic Icelandic, and a monumental example of single-handed work.
Other sources of information are: New and General Biographical, Dictionary, xii.
In addition to commentaries and dictionary articles, see E.
huckeback, pick-a-back, that it seems reasonable to suppose that it at first meant ' peddler's ware.'" The New English Dictionary does not consider that the connexion can at present be assumed.
10 See The Seven Seas, a dictionary and grammar of the Persian language, by Ghazi ud-din Haidar, king of Oudh, in seven parts (Lucknow, 3822) (only the title of the book is in English).
According to Skeat's Dictionary (i.
"Isaiah" in the Temple Bible was finished, but not revised, when he died; and he also had in hand the volume on Isaiah for the International Critical Commentary; to which must be added a mass of articles contributed to The Imperial Bible Dictionary, The Encyclopaedia Britannica, and the chief religious reviews.
Various articles in Dr Hastings' Bible Dictionary were by Davidson, especially the article "God."
Robertson, Sermons, third series - Absolution (London, 1857); Mead, "Exomologesis" and "Penitence" in Dictionary of Christian Antiquities (London, 18 75); E.
Its standards have also been upheld with varying success in great co-operative undertakings, such as the Dictionary of National Biography, the Cambridge Modern History, and Messrs Longmans Political History of England.
C(okayne)'s Complete Peerage; Jeayes's Descriptive Catalogue of the Charters and Muniments at Berkeley Castle (1892); Dictionary of National Biography; Transactions of Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society, 3 vols., viii., xlv., et passim; The Red Book of the Exchequer, Chronicles of Roger of Wendover, Matthew Paris, Adam of Murimuth, Robert of Gloucester, Henry of Huntingdon, &c. (Rolls Series); British Museum Charters, &c. (0.
C. Purser (and others) in Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (3rd ed., 1890).
He also wrote biographies of Sir Isaac Newton and Edmund Halley for Knight's British Worthies, various notices of scientific men for the [[Gallery]] of Portraits, and for the uncompleted Biographical Dictionary of the Useful Knowledge Society, and at least seven articles in Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography.
To me an ethnologist who speaks of Aryan race, Aryan blood, Aryan eyes and hair, is as great a sinner as a linguist who speaks of a dolichocephalic dictionary or a brachycephalic grammar."
Even in this word probably two originally separate words have to be distinguished, for the further meanings which Grassmann in his dictionary to the Rig Veda attaches to it, viz.
See also the articles in the Encyclopaedia Biblica,Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible, and Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopadie.
All the Protestant re - formers are of theological importance - Luther, Melanchthon and 1 " Mystical Theology " is described in Addis and Arnold's Catholic Dictionary as a " branch " of Moral Theology.
mc4nte), must, as the New English Dictionary points out, be a "back-formation," and this will explain the diminutive form of the Spanish mantilla.
Dictionary) as to the alliance between the words shear and scrape it may be that Browne's hesitation as to the derivation of "shearwater" had more ground than at first appears.
See also General Dictionary, vol.
In 1833 he completed his translation of the Bible; in succeeding years he compiled a Burmese grammar, a Burmese dictionary, and a Pali dictionary.
She returned with him in 1846 to Burma, where the rest of his life was devoted largely to the rewriting of his Burmese dictionary.
Among more recent works may be mentioned a dictionary (1885), by J.
Qvigstad; a dictionary (1890) and two grammars (1891 and 1897) of the Lulea dialect, and a chrestomathy of Norwegian Lappish (1894), by K.
Wiklund; a dictionary of Russian Lappish, or the Kola dialect (1891), by A.
Lenormant in Daremberg and Saglio's Dictionary of Antiquities.
The great dictionary compiled and published by the South Slavonic Academy of Agram is called The Lexicon of the Servian or Croatian Language.
Dictionary of Eng.
(1883), and Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible, s.v.
He was a contributor to the Speaker's Commentary, the Pulpit Commentary, Smith's Dictionary of the Bible, and various similar publications; and he was the author of the article "Herodotus" in the 9th edition of the Ency.
Philology: Houtman, Spraak ende woord boek in de Maleische ende Madagaskarsche talen (Amsterdam, 1603) Voyage de C. van Heemskerk; vocabulaire de la langue parlee dans l'Ile Saint-Laurent (Amsterdam, 1603) Megiser, Beschreibung der Mechtigen and Weitberhitmbten Insul Madagascar, with dictionary and dialogues (Altenburg, 1609); Arthus, Colloquia latino-maleyica et madagascarica (Frankfort, 1613); Challand, Vocabulaire francais-malgache et malgache-francais (Ile de France, 1773); Froberville, Dictionnaire frangais-madecasse (3 vols., Ile de France, 1809); Freeman and Johns, Dictionary of the Malagasy Language (Eng.-Mal.
Besides these there are several valuable papers by Dahle in the yearly numbers of The Antananarivo Annual (ante) (1876-1877); Richardson, A New Malagasy-English Dictionary (Antananarivo, 1885); Cousins and Parrett, Malagasy Proverbs (Antananarivo, 1885); Causseque, Grammaire malgache (Antananarivo, 1886); Abinal et 1Vlalzac, Dictionnaire malgache frangais (Antananarivo, 1889); Brandstetter, " Die Beziehungen des Malagasy zum Malaiischen," Malaio-polynesische Forschungen, pt.
Foote, History of Hennepin County and the City of Minneapolis (Minneapolis, 1881); Hudson's Dictionary of Minneapolis and Vicinity (Minneapolis, annually); A.
Baldwin, Dictionary of Psychology and Philosophy (1901-1905).
Man, Dictionary of the Central Nicobarese Language (London, 1889); F.
De Roepstorff, Dictionary of the Nancowry Dialect (Calcutta, 1884); Vocabulary of Dialects in the Nicobar and Andaman Islands (2nd ed., Calcutta, 1875); Prevost and Heing, Report on Preliminary Tour through the Nicobar Islands (Government, Rangoon, 1897); J.
Stenning in Hastings's Dictionary and B.
To the second hypothesis Skeat (Dictionary, p. 433) objects that it "will not account for the suffix -in, and is therefore wrong; besides which the ` Dutchmen ' [who were asserted to be the authors of the name] turn out to be Sir Francis Drake" and his men.
The material has been arranged in dictionary form in Migne's Encyclopedie theologique, under the title "Dictionnaire des orders religieux" (4 vols., 1858).
Marshall (Hastings' Bible Dictionary, i.
See also the articles in the Encyc. Biblica, Hastings' Bible Dictionary; Schiirer, History of Jewish People.
See Watt, Dictionary of the Economic Products of India.
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Written like a dictionary, each word is arranged alphabetically with all the appropriate parts of speech included under a single headword.
headwords in the dictionary are spoken by professional native speakers.
homophone dictionary into one simple Check Button.
Standard texts are easy to input and I have found the text input intuitive with a good dictionary.
To find these using a dictionary would be extremely laborious.
It's written by lexicographer Andrew Delahunty who also produced The Oxford Dictionary of Nicknames.
An ideal system for corpus lexicography is one in which the corpus database and the dictionary are interactive.
The dictionary is constantly being updated so as to include new lexis, this has always happened and will continue to do so.
lingual dictionary can be really useful in helping to build up your learners independence.
misspelled in the dictionary, how would we ever know?
Culture Use your dictionary for words you don't understand Le Louver est le musÃ©e le plus grand au monde.
multilingual rowing dictionary has moved homes to a new URL.
Membership also includes access to research tools, Merriam-Webster's dictionary and thesaurus, and rich multimedia - all in an advertising-free environment.
Dictionary class implemented as a B-tree, for the storage and retrieval of key-value pairs.
polyglot dictionary of musical terms in English, German, French, Italian, Spanish, Russian and Hungarian.
preset dictionary is used when the history buffer can be predetermined.
pronunciation dictionary with a single sheet of paper!
In fact, " blog " was picked as the word of the year by Merriam-Webster, a U.S. dictionary publisher.
Spelling should conform to The Macquarie Dictionary (3rd ed. rev.
slang dictionary May actually be of some use to exchange students.
Note to self - must compile dictionary of prison slang.
spell checker with customizable dictionary No more worries about a misspelled word or two.
spelling checker will then print out those words in the file text which are not in the online dictionary.
From the cr... Manufacturer: Price: 29.99 In-Stock: yes Store rating: Pocket Scrabble Dictionary 2005 settle all Scrabble squabbles.
talking electronic dictionary offering a video-based English learning course with color multimedia ever!
tiresome task to come up with a similar list from a dictionary.
trilingual dictionary contains more than 450,000 entries including medical, technical, legal and business terms, and slang.
two-faced characters from the dictionary Last month this column discussed some of the failings of dictionaries.
unabridged dictionary, not entirely superseded by the Oxford Latin Dictionary.
Webster's revised unabridged Dictionary asserts that the word is a combination of Jack + kangaroo.
websters revised Unabridged Dictionary 1913 ed. from the ARTFL Project at the University of Chicago 06.
Smith's Dictionary of Christian Biography and the Encyclopaedia Britannica.
The English form "eremite," which was used, according to the New English Dictionary, quite indiscriminately with "hermit" till the middle of the 17th century, is now chiefly used in poetry or rhetorically, except with reference to the early hermits of the Libyan desert, or sometimes to such particular orders as the eremites of St Augustine (see Augustinian Hermits).
178, quoted in the New English Dictionary) that Ulfilas may have adopted the word from the Armenian hetanos, i.e.
(1894), and Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography, s.v.
Further quotations of the use of the word by the Parliamentary party are given in the New English Dictionary.
Palaeotropical Ethiopian Region 4 Oriental In the following account the characterization of the various regions and subregions has to a very great extent been adopted from Newton's article in his Dictionary of Birds, and from the chapter on distribution in the article on " Birds " in the Encyclopaedia Britannica, 9th edition.
Since the revival of learning books on the fathers have been numerous; among the more recent and most accessible of these we may mention Smith and Wace's Dictionary of Christian Biography, Hauck-Herzog's Realencyklopcidie, Bardenhewer's Patrologie and Geschichte der altkirchlichen Litteratur, Harnack's Geschichte der altchristlichen Litteratur bei Eusebius and Ehrard's Die altchristliche Litteratur and ihre Erforschung.
Dictionary of the Russian Empire (in Russian, 5 vols., St Petersburg, 1863-84), the most trustworthy source for the geography of Russia; the official Svod Materialov, with regard to Russian rivers (1876); Statistical Sbornik of the Ministry of Communications, vol.
de Slane's translation of Ibn Khallikan's Biographical Dictionary, vol.
But, confining ourselves to what is here our special business, it is to be remarked that perhaps the heaviest blow dealt at these strange doctrines was that delivered by Rennie, who, in an edition of Montagu's Ornithological Dictionary (pp. xxxiii.-1v.), published in 1831 and again issued in 1833, attacked the Quinary System, and especially its application to ornithology by Vigors and Swainson, in a way that might perhaps have demolished it, had not the author mingled with his undoubtedly sound reason much that is foreign to any question with which a naturalist, as such, ought to deal - though that herein he was only following the example of one of his opponents, who had constantly treated the subject in like manner, is to be allowed.
Where this home lay it is not easy to say, but the facts recorded by many writers as to the resemblance between the Polynesian and the Malayan races, and the strong Malayan element found in the languages of the former (see Tregear's Maori and Comparative Polynesian Dictionary, London, 1891), have led some students to think that the two races may have had a common origin.
Mr Lee's memoir in the Dictionary of National Biography is extremely erudite, and two valuable articles, contributed by Sir Edward Brabrook to the Antiquary for June and July 1906, might be consulted.
Of the earlier encyclopaedias we may notice the famous HandwOrterbuch der reinen and angewandten Chemie, edited by Liebig; Fremy's Encyclopedie de chimie, Wurtz's Dictionnaire de chimie pure et applique'e, Watts' Dictionary of Chemistry, and Ladenburg's HandwOrterbuch der Chemie.
See Lane's Modern Egyptians, chap. xxv.; Michell, Egyptian Calendar; Hughes, Dictionary of Islam, pp. 192 ff.; Sir R.
Noah Webster lived in the village from 1812 to 1822, when working on his Dictionary; and Emily Dickinson and Helen M.
It is doubtful whether courts of this name were held in other towns, but John Cowell (1554-1611) in his Interpreter (r601) s.v., "Hustings," says that according to Fleta there were such courts at Winchester, York, Lincoln, Sheppey and elsewhere, but the passage from Fleta, as the New English Dictionary points out, does not necessarily imply this (11.
The principal of these trades are the weaving of carpets - about Tyumen; the making of wire sieves; the painting of ikons or sacred images; the making of wooden vessels and of the necessaries for the carrying trade about Tomsk (sledges, wheels, &c).; 2 Russian Encyclopaedic Dictionary, vol.
In general the coefficient, of any product A n A m A 7, 3 ..., will have, as coefficient, a seminvariant which, when expressed by partitions, will have as leading partition (preceding in dictionary order all others) the partition (Tr1lr2lr3Ã¯¿½..).
We will choose from the forms in such manner that the product of letters A is either a power of A i, or does not contain A i; this rule leaves us with A2B 1 B 2 and A 2 B,Bs; of these forms we will choose that one which in letters B is earliest in ascending dictionary order; this is A2B 1 B 21 and our earliest perpetuant is (22)a(21)b - (221)a(2)b, and thence the general form enumerated by the generating function Z7 is (1-z)(1 - z2)2 (2 A2+2) a (2Ã¯¿½2 +1 1Ã¯¿½1 +1) b - (2 A2+2 1)a (2 M2+1 1, ai)b ...
(1898); Driver, article "Habakkuk" in Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible, vol.
aus chinesischen Wurzeln, of Podhorszky (Paris, 1877); Lexicon linguae Hungaricae aevi antiquioris, by Szarvas Gabor and Simonyi Zsigmond (1889); and " Magyar-Ugor Ssszehasonlito szotar " Hungarian Ugrian Comparative Dictionary, by Bydenz (Budapest, 1872-1879).
by his nephew Charles Butler (London, 1799); and Joseph Gillow's Bibliographical Dictionary of English Catholics, vol.
20; moreover we should be compelled to assent 'to the view expressed in the Oxford Dictionary that those psalms which have the heading r3??
According to the New English Dictionary, the original may be found in two Aryan roots, both of the form gheu, one of which means "to invoke," the other "to pour" (cf.
trumpet, pipe (see the note on the word in the New English Dictionary).
(See Marshall in Hastings' Bible Dictionary, i.
The Biographical Dictionary of the Spaniard Ibn Pascual (d.
See Felix Liebermann, Die Gesetze der Angelsachsen (Halle, 1888-89); William Stubbs, Constitutional History of England; Richard Cleasby, Icelandic Dictionary; New English Dictionary; and William Dugdale, Monasticon Anglicanum, vol.
's Gravesande's Essai de perspective (1711), Robert Smith's Compleat System of Optics (1738), Joseph Harris's Treatise on Optics (1775), Charles Hutton's Philosophical and Mathematical Dictionary, and other books on optics and physics of that period.
Petrovskiy, Old Arabian Journals of Travel (Tashkent, 1894); Russian Encyclopaedic Dictionary, vol.
gubia or gulbia, in Ducange gulbium, an implement ad hortum excolendum, and also instrumentum ferreum in usu fabrorum; according to the New English Dictionary the word is probably of Celtic origin, gylf, a beak, appearing in Welsh, and gilb, a boring tool, in Cornish), a tool of the chisel type with a curved blade, used for scooping a groove or channel in wood, stone, &c. (see TooL).
The fact of such visionary experience can hardly be questioned: the only difficulty lies in determining to what extent it underlies the revelations of apocalyptic. For a short discussion of this question we might refer to Bousset's Offenbarung Johannis 2, pp. 8 sqq., and Porter's article on Revelation "in Hastings' Bible Dictionary, iv.
And the slowness of the development of scientific ideas may be estimated from the fact that Bayle does not see any force in this statement of Aristotle, but continues to admire the paradox of Zeno (Bayle's Dictionary, art.
It is supposed that this use arose in 1693 in Jena after a " town and gown " row in which a student had been killed and a sermon preached on the text " the Philistines be upon you, Samson " (see Quarterly Review, April 18 99, 43 8, note, quoted in the New English Dictionary).
1882: this, the standard biography, was left unfinished at Dr Pohl's death and needs a third volume to complete it); article on Haydn in Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians; Fr.
(See Skeat's e tymological Dictionary as to various forms of the word, and Meyer, Lehrbuch des deutschen Staatsrechts, 15, as to its derivation.) Sovereignty may be viewed in three ways: there is the historical explanation of its origin and growth, its rude beginning in the savage horde, its completion in the modern state; there is the analytical or juridical explanation; there is also what (for want of a better phrase) may be called the organic explanation of sovereignty.
"Clean and Unclean" in Hastings' Bible Dictionary and in Jewish Encyclopedia, vol.
Its bibliography will be found in the Russian Geographical Dictionary of P. Semenov, and in the Russian Encyclopaedic Dictionary, published by Brockhaus and Efron (vol.
According to the Century Dictionary, the secretary of a New York temperance society introduced a total abstinence pledge among its members, who were thus divided into those who had taken the old pledge, the O.P.'s, to abstain from spirituous liquors, and the T.'s, who had taken the new or total pledge.
aex; a word common, in different forms, in the Teutonic languages, and akin to the Greek d Lvrt; the New English Dictionary prefers the spelling "ax"), a tool or weapon, taking various shapes, but, when not compounded with some distinguishing word (e.g.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.