Diameter sentence example

diameter
  • He gives no diameter or wind-pressure.
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  • The diameter of the orchestra is 762 ft.
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  • In the rubber ring joint an india-rubber ring is used; slightly less in diameter than the pipe.
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  • The front or cover of the case is a similar button of hard polished carbon D, also slightly smaller in diameter than the cylindrical wall of the box.
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  • Estimate the diameter of the star's image in terms of the 4" intervals of the movable webs.
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  • The manubrium is absent altogether in the fresh-water medusa Limnocnida, in which the diameter of the mouth exceeds half that of the umbrella; on the other hand, the manubrium may attain a great length, owing to the centre of the sub-umbrella with the stomach being drawn into it, as it were, to form a long proboscis, as in Geryonia.
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  • They have shown that columns of water of very small diameter can so resist tensile strain that they can be lifted bodily instead of flowing along the channel, They suggest that the forces causing the movement are complex, and draw particular attention to the pull upwards in consequence of disturbances in the leaves.
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  • The wheels range in diameter from 18 in.
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  • Their boilers are of relatively large proportions for the train weight and average speed, and the driving wheels of small diameter, a large proportion of their total weight being " adhesive."
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  • The outward set of teeth drill the hole large enough to permit the drilling apparatus to descend freely, and the teeth set inwardly pare down the core to such a diameter as will admit of the body of the cutter passing over it without seizing.
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  • The calyx is a long tube, or a series of connected tubes, situated above the core barrel, to which it is equal in diameter.
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  • A form of the rod system is used in the Russian oil-fields, but owing to the large diameter of the wells the appliances differ from those employed elsewhere.
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  • The gas is distributed to the consumer from the wells in wrought-iron pipes, ranging in diameter from 20 in.
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  • At that point the outer wall, if one may so call it, of the solid dome could be traced, and had a diameter of 68 ft.
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  • The size of a globe is usually given in terms of its diameter.
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  • It is the work of Richard of Haldingham, and has a diameter of 134 cm.
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  • A map essentially identical with that of Hereford, but larger - its diameter is 156 cm.
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  • The geographical ideas which prevailed at the time Columbus started in search of Cathay may be most readily gathered from two contemporary globes, the one known as the Laon globe because it was picked up in 1860 at a curiosity shop in that town, the other produced at Nuremberg in 1492 by Martin Behaim.1 The Laon globe is of copper gilt, and has a diameter of 170 mm.
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  • He published in 1507 a huge map of the world, in 12 sheets, together with a small globe of a diameter of I 10 mm., the segments for which were printed from wood-blocks.
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  • Its diameter is only 42 in.
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  • Its diameter is 160 mm., its date about 1530.
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  • It has a diameter of II ft.
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  • Its diameter is 3.25 metres.
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  • Their diameter is nearly 5 metres.
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  • That which Colonel Langlois erected in the"Champs Elysees(1824) had a diameter of 39 metres.
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  • Nine feet in diameter at the base, it tapers to eight feet at the top. The catacombs, a short distance S.W.
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  • The terminal circle, whose longest diameter is 300 ft., is somewhat difficult to make out, as it is broken by the houses and gardens of a little hamlet.
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  • It was a mile in diameter, built in concentric circles, with the mosque and palace of the caliph in the centre, and had four gates toward the four points of the compass.
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  • Of these one is circular, with a diameter of 60 ft.
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  • In each case the results of the observations may be systematically in error, not only from the uncertain diameter of the moon, but in a still greater degree from the varying effect of irradiation and the personal equation of the observers.
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  • Kohlrausch 2 the distance between the poles of a cylindrical magnet the length of which is from io to 30 times the diameter, is sensibly equal to five-sixths of the length of the bar.
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  • A little instrument, supplied by Hartmann and Braun, contains a short length of fine bismuth wire wound into a flat double spiral, half an inch or thereabouts in diameter, and attached to a long ebonite handle.
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  • In optics, it is that portion of the diameter of an object-glass or mirror through which light can pass free from obstruction.
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  • It is equal to the actual diameter of the cylinder of rays admitted by a telescope.
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  • Thus in the case of the circular disk, equidistant (r) from the source of light and from the screen upon which the shadow is observed, the width of the first exterior zone is given by = X(2r)/4(2x), 2x being the diameter of the disk.
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  • It has been found by Sir William Herschel and others that the definition of a telescope is often improved by stopping off a part of the central area of the object-glass; but the advantage to be obtained in this way is in no case great, and anything like a reduction of the aperture to a narrow annulus is attended by a development of the external luminous rings sufficient to outweigh any improvement due to the diminished diameter of the central area.'
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  • If 2R be the diameter of the objectglass and D the distance of the object, the angle subtended by AP is E/D, and the angular resolving power is given by X/2 D sin a = X/2 R (3) This method of derivation (substantially due to Helmholtz) makes it obvious that there is no essential difference of principle between the two cases, although the results are conveniently stated in different forms. In the case of the telescope we have to deal with a linear measure of aperture and an angular limit of resolution, whereas in the case of the microscope the limit of resolution is linear, and it is expressed in terms of angular aperture.
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  • In his experiments upon this subject Fraunhofer employed plates of glass dusted over with lycopodium, or studded with small metallic disks of uniform size; and he found that the diameters of the rings were proportional to the length of the waves and inversely as the diameter of the disks.
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  • If we suppose the diameter of the lens to be given (2R), and its focal length f gradually to increase, the original differences of phase at the image of an infinitely distant luminous point diminish without limit.
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  • The latter element must eventually be decreased until less than the diameter of the pupil of the eye.
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  • This overlapping may become so pronounced as to produce a rainbow in which colour is practically absent; this is particularly so when a thin cloud intervenes between the sun and the rain, which has the effect of increasing the apparent diameter of the sun to as much as 2° or 3°.
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  • In nature, however, this is not realized, for the sun has an appreciable diameter.
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  • A horizontal pencil of sunlight was admitted by a vertical slit, and then allowed to fall on a column of water supplied by a jet of about th of an inch in diameter.
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  • It was a peripteral hexastyle, and must have had at least nineteen columns at the sides; the portion excavated shows that its total width is 744 ft., the width of the cella 382 ft., the lower diameter of the columns 64 ft.
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  • The diameter of the cylinders is such that each alone is capable of starting the load.
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  • To prevent excessive bending stresses the diameter of drum and sheave must bear a proper ratio to that of the rope.
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  • It is seen that the action is intermittent, liquid only being discharged during a down stroke, but since the driving force is that which is supplied to the piston rod, the lift is only con ditioned by the power available and by the strength of the pump. A continuous supply can be obtained by leading the delivery pipe into the base of an air chamber H, which is fitted with a discharge pipe J of such a diameter that the liquid cannot escape from it as fast as it is pumped in during a down stroke.
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  • Fraunhofer; the latter ultimately attained considerable success and produced telescope disks up to 28 centimetres (II in.) diameter.
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  • If the blowing iron is held vertically with the bulb uppermost the bulb becomes flattened and shallow, if the bulb is allowed to hang downwards it becomes elongated and reduced in diameter, and if the end of the bulb is pierced and the iron is held horizontally and sharply trundled, as a mop is trundled, the bulb opens out into a flattened disk.
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  • The diameter of the cane or tube is regulated by the weight of glass carried, and by the distance covered by the two workmen.
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  • When this is the case the gathering is carried to a block or half-open mould in which it is rolled and blown until it acquires, roughly, the shape of a hemisphere, the flat side being towards the pipe and the convexity away from it; the diameter of this hemisphere is so regulated as to be approximately that of the cylinder which is next to be formed of the viscous mass.
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  • In the case of large and thick cylinders, however, another process of opening the ends is generally employed: an assistant attaches a small lump of hot glass to the domed end, and the heat of this added glass softens the cylinder sufficiently to enable the assistant to cut the end open with a pair of shears; subsequently the open end is spun out to the diameter of the whole as described above.
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  • A full account of the process of blowing crown-glass will be found in all older books and articles on the subject, so that it need only be mentioned here that the glass, instead of being blown into a cylinder, is blown into a flattened sphere, which is caused to burst at the point opposite the pipe and is then, by the rapid spinning of the glass in front of a very hot furnace-opening, caused to expand into a flat disk of large diameter.
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  • He was especially successful in making vases and circular dishes of vitro di trina; one of the latter in the Correr collection at Venice, believed to have been made in his glass-house, measures 55 centimetres (nearly 23 in.) in diameter.
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  • He had discovered a contraction in the vein of fluid (vena contracta) which issued from the orifice, and found that, at the distance of about a diameter of the aperture, the section of the vein was contracted in the subduplicate ratio of two to one.
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  • Afterwards, when the metal has risen above B, to the level KK', the additional thrust is the weight of the cylinder of diameter KK' and height BH.
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  • Taking two planes x = =b, and considering the increase of momentum in the liquid between them, due to the entry and exit of liquid momentum, the increase across dy in the direction Oy, due to elements at P and P' at opposite ends of the diameter PP', is pdy (U - Ua 2 r2 cos 20 +mr i sin 0) (Ua 2 r 2 sin 2 0+mr 1 cos 0) + pdy (- U+Ua 2 r 2 cos 2 0 +mr1 sin 0) (Ua 2 r 2 sin 2 0 -mr 1 cos 0) =2pdymUr '(cos 0 -a 2 r 2 cos 30), (8) and with b tan r =b sec this is 2pmUdo(i -a 2 b2 cos 30 cos 0), (9) and integrating between the limits 0 = 27r, the resultant, as before, is 27rpmU.
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  • The effective angular inertia of the body in the medium is now required; denote it by C 1 about the axis of the figure, and by C2 about a diameter of the mean section.
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  • He sought to determine the distance and magnitude of the sun, to calculate the diameter of the earth and the influence of the moon on the tides.
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  • Most of the material termed " sand " in such analyses consists of particles ranging in diameter from .5 to.
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  • Numerous lateral ramifying branches spread out from the main trunk in a horizontal direction, tier upon tier, covering a compass of ground the diameter of which is often greater than the height of the tree.
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  • The eighth storey, which contains the bells, is of much smaller diameter than the rest of the tower, and has only twelve columns.
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  • In 1920 he was able to demonstrate by means of light-interference that the diameter of Alpha Orionis was 260,000,000 miles.
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  • The old town, containing many narrow and irregular streets, forms a semicircle with its diameter towards the river, while round its periphery has sprung up the greater part of modern Munich, including the handsome Maximilian and Ludwig districts.
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  • The body-wall is extensively calcified in the Cyclostomata and in most Cheilostomata, which may form elegant network-like colonies, as in the unilaminar genus Retepora, or may consist of wavy anastomosing plates, as in the bilaminar Lepralia foliacea of the British coasts, specimens of which may have a diameter of many inches.
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  • The diameter ox the outer crater, within which rises the modern cone to a height of 500 ft.
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  • In short, the little chisel becomes in his fingers a painters brush, and when it is remembered that, the basis upon which he works being simply a thread of silk, his hand must be trained to such delicacy of muscular effort as to be capable of arresting the edge of the knile at varying depths within the diameter of the tiny filament, the difficulty of the achievement will be understood.
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  • The fruit-stalk is very short, bearing a subglobose fruit an inch or rather more in diameter, of an orange-yellow colour, and with a sweetish astringent pulp. It is surrounded at the base by the persistent calyxlobes, which increase in size as the fruit ripens.
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  • We can thus easily calculate the capacity of a long thin wire like a telegraph wire far removed from the earth, as follows: Let 2r be the diameter of the wire, 1 its length, and the uniform Capac ity surface electric density..
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  • Thus for instance the capacity in free space of a sphere 2 metres in diameter would be 100/900,000 = 1/9000 of a microfarad.
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  • The diameter is generally 26 ft., but may be greater; the best depth is considered to be a quarter of the diameter.
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  • The nest is an inch and more in diameter, with a small aperture for an entrance.
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  • The largest is an ellipse of about 60 by 66 ft., but most of the sesi have a diameter of 20-25 ft.
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  • The diameter of a quadric surface is a line at the extremities of which the tangent planes are parallel.
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  • Newton defined the diameter of a curve of any order as the locus of the centres of the mean distances of the points of intersection of a system of parallel chords with the curve; this locus may be shown to be a straight line.
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  • The width of each of the portions aghc and acfe cut away from the lens was made slightly greater than the focal length of lens X tangent of sun's greatest diameter.
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  • Here, in order to fulfil the purposes of the previous models, the distance of the centres of the lenses from each other should only slightly exceed the tangent of sun's diameter X focal length of lenses.
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  • The differences of the readings of the screw, when converted into arc, afford the means of measuring the variations of the sun's apparent diameter.
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  • Jupiter was measured on eleven nights in the months of June and July 1794; from these measures Schur derives the values 35"39 and 37".94 for the polar and equatorial diameter respectively, at mean distance, corresponding with a compression 1/14.44.
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  • Modern surveying ships no longer make use of hempen lines with enormously heavy sinkers, such as were employed on the " Challenger," but they sound instead with steel piano wire not more than 310 to 215 of an inch in diameter and a detachable lead seldom weighing more than 70 lb.
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  • The tubbing, which is considerably less in diameter than the borehole, is suspended by rods from the surface until a bed suitable for a foundation is reached, upon which a sliding length of tube, known as the moss box, bearing a shoulder, which is filled with dried moss, is placed.
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  • In this system the soft ground or fissured water-bearing rock is rendered temporarily solid by freezing the contained water within a surface a few feet larger in diameter than the size of the finished shaft, so that the ground may be broken either by hand tools or blasting in the same manner as hard rock.
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  • The chilled brine enters through a central tube of small diameter, passes to the bottom of the outer one and rises through the latter to the surface, each system of tubes being connected above by a ring main with the circulating pumps.
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  • The power is applied by steam acting directly on a crank at one end of the axle, and the diameter of the fan may be 40 ft.
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  • The extreme diameter is 25 ft.
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  • It may be regarded as an epicycloid in which the rolling and fixed circles are equal in diameter, as the inverse of a parabola for its focus, or as the caustic produced by the reflection at a spherical surface of rays emanating from a point on the circumference.
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  • The lake, which is roughly circular with a diameter of some 13 m., lies at an altitude of 6135 ft.
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  • It combines the planisphere and armillae of Hipparchus and others, and the theodolite of Theon, and was usually of brass, varying in diameter from a couple of inches to a foot or more.
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  • Suppose, for instance, that we require the area of a circular grass-plot of measured diameter.
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  • Thus the inaccuracy in taking the measured diameter as the datum is practically of the same order as the inaccuracy in taking the grass-plot to be circular.
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  • Suppose, for instance, that in the example given in § 20 the diameter as measured is is ft.
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  • They are divided into breaking-down and finishing rolls, the latter being of smaller diameter than the former.
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  • The distance between the block and the plate is adjusted so as to be slightly less than the diameter of the blank, and the result is that the edge of the blank is thickened and its diameter reduced before it escapes from the machine.
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  • The elements of this disparate pair, calculated by Dr Vogel on the somewhat precarious assumption that its dark and bright members are of equal mean density, are as follows: Diameter of Algol.
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  • He found that in all cases the velocity decreased with a diameter.
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  • Regnault also set up a shorter length of pipes of diameter o 108 m.
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  • This investigation is subject to the limitation that the diameter of the cross-section must be small compared with the wave-length.
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  • A " sounding tube," say an inch in diameter, and somewhat more than twice the length of the jet tube, is then lowered over the flame, as in the figure.
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  • The cylindrical form of jet is unstable if its length is more than 7 times its diameter, and usually the irregular disturbances it receives at the orifice go on growing, and ultimately break it up irregularly into drops which go out at different rates.
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  • But, if quite regular disturbances are impressed on the jet at intervals of time which depend on the diameter and speed of outflow (they must be somewhat more than ?r times its diameter apart), these disturbances go on growing and break the stream up into equal drops, which all move with the same velocity one after the other.
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  • Every point is equidistant from a fixed point within the surface; this point is the "centre," the constant distance the "radius," and any line through the centre and intersecting the sphere is a "diameter."
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  • The extremities of the diameter perpendicular to a small circle are called the "poles" of that circle, and the distance from the pole to the circle, measured by the arc of the great circle through the pole, is the "polar distance" of the small circle.
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  • Calling the radius r, and denoting by the ratio of the circumference to the diameter of a circle, the volume is 31rr 3, and the surface 41rr2.
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  • At their end is fixed a blade of cast iron from two to eight times the diameter of the shaft of the pile; the pitch of the screw varies from one-half to one-fourth of the external diameter of the blade.
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  • It was a cylinder of parchment of about the diameter of a coachwheel, and was literally rolled up on the floor of the house.
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  • In diameter the pillars vary from 15 to 20 in., and in height some are as much as 20 ft.
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  • The morainic belts and other obstructions in the drift plains hem in the waters in the intervening basins and create what are called " glacial lakes," var y ing in diameter from a few yards to several miles.
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  • We can obtain a pertinent illustration from the motion of a vortex ring in a fluid; if the circular core of the ring is thin compared with its diameter, and the vorticity is not very great, it is the vortical state of motion that travels across the fluid without transporting the latter bodily with it except to a slight extent very close to the core.
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  • In the hydropolyp the body is typically elongated, the height of the column being far greater than the diameter.
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  • The ectoderm loses entirely the ciliation which it had in the planula and actinula stages and commonly secretes on its external surface a protective or supporting investment, the perisarc. Contrasting with this, the anthopolyp is generally of s q uat form, the diameter often exceeding the height; the peristome is wide, a hypostome is lacking, and the ectoderm, or so much of it as is exposed, i.e.
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  • As a first result of experiment it was found that the resistance of similar shot was proportional, at the same velocity, to the surface or cross section, or square of the diameter.
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  • The resistance R can thus be divided into two factors, one of which is d 2, where d denotes the diameter of the shot in inches, and the other factor is denoted by p, where p is the resistance in pounds at the same velocity to a similar I-in.
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  • We first determine the time t in seconds required for the velocity of a shot, d inches in diameter and weighing w lb, to fall from any initial velocity V(f/s) to any final velocity v(f/s).
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  • After a certain discount for friction and the recoil of the gun, the net work realized by the powder-gas as the shot advances AM is represented by the area Acpm, and this is equated to the kinetic energy e of the shot, in foot-tons, (I) e d2 I + p, a in which the factor 4(k 2 /d 2)tan 2 S represents the fraction due to the rotation of the shot, of diameter d and axial radius of gyration k, and S represents the angle of the rifling; this factor may be ignored in the subsequent calculations as small, less than I %.
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  • Even the small island-rocks of the Mediterranean, sometimes only a few hundred yards in diameter, are occupied by peculiar races of lizards, which have attracted much attention from the fact that they have assumed under such isolated conditions a more or less dark,.
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  • The great extension of surface thus produced had the drawback of exaggerating any small defect in the union of the two metals, increasing it to a blister of an inch or more in diameter.
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  • In the United Kingdom the metric standard of capacity is the litre, represented (Order in Council, 19th May 1890) by the capacity of a hollow cylindrical brass measure whose internal diameter is equal to one-half its height, and which at 0° C., when filled to the brim, contains one kg.
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  • A secondary standard measure for dry goods is the bushel of 1824, containing 8 imperial gallons, represented by a hollow bronze cylinder having a plane base, its internal diameter bring double its depth.
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  • Some species build their nests in trees - great globular masses sometimes three feet in diameter, supported on the larger branches, and connected with the ground by covered passages on the outside of the tree.
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  • The polar equation is r=a+b cos 0, where 2a= length of the rod, and b= diameter of the circle.
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  • Notwithstanding the rude character of the apparatus at his disposal, Horrocks was enabled by his observation of it to introduce some important corrections into the elements of the planet's, orbit, and to reduce to its exact value the received estimate of its apparent diameter.
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  • In the succeeding three definitions the centre, diameter and the semicircle are defined, while the third postulate of the same book demands the possibility of describing a circle for every " centre " and " distance."
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  • The circle on the line joining the internal and external centres of similitude as diameter is named the " circle of similitude."
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  • A system coaxal with the two given circles is readily constructed by describing circles through the common points on the radical axis and any third point; the minimum circle of the system is obviously that which has the common chord of intersection for diameter, the maximum is the radical axis - considered as a circle of infinite radius.
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  • All exact relations pertaining to the mensuration of the circle involve the ratio of the circumference to the diameter.
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  • Accordingly, we find in Vieta a formula for the ratio of diameter to circumference, viz.
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  • Qui in vita sua multo labore circumferentiae circuli proximam rationem ad diametrum invenit sequentem quando diameter est I turn circuli circumferentia plus est quam 100000000000000000000000000000000000 et minus 314159265358979323846264338327950289 100000000000000000000000000000000000..
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  • A given straight line being viewed as equal in length to the circumference of a circle, he sought to find the diameter of the circle.
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  • The diameter sought is the straight line from A to the limiting position of the series of B's, say the straight line AB co.
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  • In a very curious manner, by viewing the circle y= (1 - x2): as a member of the series of curves y= (I -x 2 )', y = (I -x 2) 2, &c., he was led to the proposition that four times the reciprocal of the ratio of the circumference to the diameter, i.e.
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  • The generality of treatment is indeed remarkable; he gives as the fundamental property of all the conics the equivalent of the Cartesian equation referred to oblique axes (consisting of a diameter and the tangent at its extremity) obtained by cutting an oblique circular cone in any manner, and the axes appear only as a particular case after he has shown that the property of the conic can be expressed in the same form with reference to any new diameter and the tangent at its extremity.
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  • The quantity of mercury or shot inserted depends upon the density of the liquids for which the hydrometer is to be employed, it being essential that the whole of the bulb should be immersed in the heaviest liquid for which the instrument is used, while the length and diameter of the stem must be such that the hydrometer will float in the lightest liquid for which it is required.
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  • This error diminishes as the diameter of the stem is reduced, but is sensible in the case of the thinnest stem which can be employed, and is the chief source of error in the employment of Nicholson's hydrometer, which otherwise would be an instrument of extreme delicacy and precision.
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  • The trunk attains a height of from 80 to 140 ft., with a diameter of from 3 to 5 ft.
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  • According to race, &c., they vary considerably in size and weight, but on an average they measure from an inch to an inch and a half in length, and from half an inch to an inch in diameter.
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  • Sir Thomas Wardle of Leek, in his handbook on silk published in 1887, showed by a series of measurements that the diameter of a single cocoon thread or bave varied from o oth to -nth part of an inch in diameter in the various species of Bombycides, whilst those of the Saturnides or wild species varied from - 0 oth to 3-0 0 th part of an inch.
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  • A silk " throwster " receives his silk in skein form, the thread of which consists of a number of silk fibres wound together to make a certain diameter or size, the separate fibre having actually been spun by the worm, and this fibre may measure anything from Soo to woo yds.
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  • The general results may be summarized as follows: if the width of the slit is equal to fX/4D (where X is the wave-length concerned, D the diameter of the collimator lens, and f its focal length) practically full resolving power is obtained and a further narrowing of the slit would lead to loss of light without corresponding gain.
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  • Proposition 30 describes the construction of a curve of double curvature called by Pappus the helix on a sphere; it is described by a point moving uniformly along the arc of a great circle, which itself turns about its diameter uniformly, the point describing a quadrant and the great circle a complete revolution in the same time.
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  • The two branched tentacles (TB) are seen partially extruded from their sheaths (TS); when fully extended they exceed the diameter of the animal five or six times.
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  • The only relic of the ancient town now visible above ground is a small portion (four columns, lower diameter 7 ft.) of a Doric temple, the date of which (whether before or after 480 B.C.) is uncertain.
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  • For first-class work, however, and especially in steel concrete, it is customary to reject very large stones, and to insist that all shall pass through a ring a of an inch in diameter.
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  • The building consisted of a circular Ionic colonnade (of eighteen columns), about 15 metres in diameter, raised on three steps and enclosing a small circular cella, probably adorned with fourteen Corinthian half-columns.
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  • The former are situated at from 90° to 140° from the sun; the latter is a white patch of light situated at the anti-solar point and often exceeding in size the apparent diameter of the luminary.
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  • The impurity of the colours (due partly to the sun's diameter, but still more to oblique refraction) is more marked in halos than in rainbows; in fact, only the red is at all pure, and as a rule, only a mere trace of green or blue is seen, the external portion of each halo being nearly white.
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  • In creased length necessitated an increase in the diameter of the main tube to limit the amplitude of the vibrations caused by being pushed through the water.
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  • It appears, then, that, confronted with the "problem of ascertaining the relative diameter of the particles of which, he was convinced, all gases were made up, he had recourse to the results of chemical analysis.
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  • Assuming the materials to be of equal tensile strength per unit of area - hard-drawn copper is stronger, but has a lower conductivity - the adoption of aluminium thus leads to a reduction of 52% in the weight, a gain of 60% in the strength, and an increase of 26% in the diameter of the conductor.
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  • A saucepan is required to have a certain diameter and a certain depth in order that it may hold a certain bulk of liquid: its weight is merely an encumbrance.
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  • This slit is long enough (82 in.) to extend entirely across the solar image and across such prominences of ordinary height as may happen to lie at the extremities of a vertical diameter.
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  • Since the diameter of the solar image is 6.7 in.
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  • The seeds of the different cultivated varieties, of which there are a great number, differ much in size and in external markings; but average seeds are of an oval laterally compressed form, with their longest diameter about four lines.
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  • The action of the machine is as follows: Suppose one paper armature to be charged positively, it acts by induction on the right hand comb, causing negative electricity to issue from the comb points upon the glass revolving disk; at the same time the positive electricity passes through the closed discharge circuit to the left comb and issues from its teeth upon the part of the glass disk at the opposite end of the diameter.
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  • The operation of the machine is as follows: Let us suppose that one of the studs on the back plate is positively electrified and one at the opposite end of a diameter is negatively electrified, and that at that moment two corresponding studs on the front plate passing opposite to these back studs are momentarily connected together by the neutralizing wire belonging to the front plate.
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  • Our modern diminutive " horsetails " with scaly leaves were represented in the Carboniferous period by gigantic calamites, often with a diameter of I to 2 ft.
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  • The simpler mycelia consist of hyphae all alike and thin-walled, or merely differing in the diameter of the branches of various orders, or in their relations to the environment, some plunging into the substratum like roots, others remaining on its surface, and others (aerial hyphae) rising into the air.
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  • The indirect process once established, the gradual increase in the height and diameter of the high furnace, which has lasted till our own days, naturally went on and developed the gigantic blast furnaces of the present time, still called " high furnaces " in French and German.
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  • In limiting the diameter at the tuyeres to 122 ft., the height of the boshes to one which will keep their upper end below the region of pastiness, and their slope to one over which the burning coke will descend freely, we limit the width of the furnace at the top of the boshes and thus complete the outline of the lower part of the furnace.
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  • When we have thus fixed the height of the furnace, its diameter at its ends, and the slope of its upper and lower parts, we have completed its outline closely enough for our purpose here.
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  • The shape which the molten metal under treatment has in the Kjellin furnace, a thin ring of large diameter, is evidently bad, inconvenient for manipulation and with excessive heat-radiating surface.
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  • The number of great shafts for marine engines, reaching a diameter of 22k in.
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  • Moreover, a single pair of rolls suffices for armour plates of any width or thickness, whereas if shafts of different diameters were to be rolled, a special final groove would be needed for each different diameter, and, as there is room for only a few large grooves in a single set of rolls, this would imply not only providing but installing a separate .set of rolls for almost every diameter of shaft.
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  • The diameter is only a few feet less than that of St Peter's in Rome.
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  • If the thickness of the glass is small compared with the diameter of the tube, say one-tenth, equation (1) may be applied with sufficient approximation, the area A being taken as the mean between the internal and external surfaces.
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  • It had a diameter of 4 in., and a length of 4 ft.
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  • This consists of a mirror about half an inch in diameter, which, when it is suspended as shown in fig.
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  • Other species, especially the alligators, make a very large nest of leaves, twigs and humus, scraping together a mound about a yard high and two or more yards in diameter.
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  • But the volume of the cell is not appreciably altered, despite the change of its shape, for its one diameter increases in proportion as its other is diminished.
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  • Moreover they contain no cambium and the stem once formed increases in diameter only in exceptional cases.
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  • Any line parallel to the axis is a diameter, and the parameter of any diameter is measured by the focal chord drawn FIG.
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  • An equation of similar form is obtained when the axes of co-ordinates are any diameter and the tangent at the vertex.
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  • The diameter increases with the size of the globules making up the mist.
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  • Wampum was of two colours, dark purple and white, of cylindrical form, averaging a quarter of an inch in length, and about half that in diameter.
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  • James Bradley, on 27th December 1722, actually measured the diameter of Venus with a telescope whose objectglass had a focal length of 2124 ft.
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  • Also the diameter of the pencil or parallel rays emerging from the eye-lens to the diameter of the object-lens inversely as, the magnifying power of the telescope.
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  • Hence one of the best methods of determining the magnifying power of a telescope to measure the diameter of the emergent pencil of rays, after the FIG.
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  • The driving circle was greatly increased in diameter and placed at the upper end of the polar axis, and both the polar and declination axes were made much stronger in proportion to the mass of the instrument they were designed to carry.
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  • By making the mirrors of silvered glass, one-fourth of their diameter in thickness, the Henrys have not only `.
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  • In all these types the longer the telescope and the greater its diameter (or weight) the more massive must be the mounting and the greater the mechanical difficulties both in construction and management.
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  • Its chief crest forms an elongated ring and encloses a crater over half a mile in diameter and with walls 350 ft.
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  • Nearly 25 metres higher up still is the lantern, with a gallery 5 metres in diameter.
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  • The dimensions of the Algol system have been calculated, with the result that Algol appears to have'a diameter of 1,000,000 m.
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  • The Hercules cluster is of this form; another example is Centauri, in which over 6000 stars have been counted, comprised within a circle of about 40' diameter.
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  • Its motion of 8.7" per year would carry it over a portion of the sky equal to the diameter of the full moon in about two centuries.
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  • The breadth of the penumbra when the source and screen are nearly equidistant from the opaque body is equal to the diameter of the luminous source.
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  • The tree yucca often attains a height of 20 to 25 ft., and a diameter of 1.5 ft.
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  • These noble trees attain very often a height of more than 300 ft., frequently of 350 and even more, and a butt diameter of more than 15 to 20 ft., with clean, straight fluted trunks rising 200 ft.
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  • The average height is about 275 ft., and the diameter near the ground 20 ft.; various individuals stand over 300 ft., and a diameter of 25 ft.
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  • The scale values of the records given by the horizontal and vertical force magnetographs are determined by deflecting the respective needles, either by means of a magnet placed at a known distance or by passing an electric current through circular coils of large diameter surrounding the instruments.
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  • The crannog of Cloonfinlough in Connaught had a triple stockade of oak piles, connected by horizontal stretchers and enclosing an area 130 ft., in diameter, laid with trunks of oak trees.
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  • The line of the equinoxes is the imaginary diameter of the celestial sphere which joins them.
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  • It possesses thi property that the radius of gyration about any diameter is half thi distance between the two tangents which are parallel to that diameter, In the case of a uniform triangular plate it may be shown that thi momental ellipse at G is concentric, similar and similarly situatec to the ellipse which touches the sides of the triangle at their middle points.
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  • As an example of this latter type, suppose that a sphere is placed on the highest point of a fixed sphere and set spinning about the vertical diameter with the angular velocity n; it will appear that under a certain condition the motion of G consequent on a slight disturbance will be oscillatory.
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  • In the case of the towers, the depth of the joint is to be understood to mean the diameter of the tower.
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  • When one is of considerably greater diameter than the other, the larger is commonly called in practice a wheel, the name screw being applied to the smaller only; but they are nevertheless both screws in fact.
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  • Eccentric.An eccentric circular disk fixed on a shaft, and used to give a reciprocating motion to a rod, is in effect a crank-pin of sufficiently large diameter to surround the shaft, and so to avoid the weakening of the shaft which would arise from bending it so as to form an ordinary crank.
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  • Hence the instantaneous axis of the sheave FG is in the diameter FG, at the distance FG ACBC
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  • The following empirical formulae for the stiffness of hempen ropes have been deduced by Mono from the experiments of Coulomb: Let F be the stiffness in pounds avoirdupois; d the diameter of the rope In inches, fl = 48d2 for white ropes and 35d2 for tarred ropes; r the effectire radius of the pulley in inches; T the tension in pounds.
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  • Cavendish compared the capacity of different bodies with those of conducting spheres of known diameter and states these capacities in " globular inches," a globular inch being the capacity of a sphere 1 in.
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  • The diameter of a chemical atom is of the order of z07 centimetre.
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  • The first water-jacketed cupola which came into general use was a circular inverted cone, with a slight taper, of 36 inches diameter at the tuyeres, and composed of an outer and an inner metal shell, between which water circulated.
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  • Each layer of rove increases the diameter of the material on the bobbin shank; hence, at the beginning of each layer, the speed of the bobbin must be increased, and kept at this increased speed for the whole traverse from top to bottom or vice versa.
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  • Let R = the revolutions per second of the flyer; r = the revolutions per second of the bobbin; d = the diameter of bobbin shaft plus the material; L = the length of sliver delivered per second; then (R - r) d.
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  • By using a quartz fibre of about half the above diameter the sensitiveness was much increased.
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  • In the great fir forests of the north the limit set in respect of cutting down living trees for sawing and export is a diameter of the trunk, without bark, of 84 in.
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  • Growing to a height of from 40 to 80 ft., the deeplyfurrowed trunk occasionally reaches a diameter of 3 ft.
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  • Thus a continued fraction equivalent to 7r (the ratio of the circumference to the diameter of a circle) is I I I I II 3+ 7+15+7+292+i-1-i+ ..
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  • The rate of growth of the young oyster is, roughly speaking, an inch Of diameter in a year, but after it has attained a breadth of 3 in.
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  • An ordinary formula for obtaining it is 1 S for highpressure engines, and S for condensing engines, where D is the diameter of the piston in inches and S the length of the stroke in feet, though varying numbers are used for the divisor.
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  • Judged by the diameter of the drums, the columns of the Croesus temple were not two-thirds of the height of those of the Hellenistic temple.
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  • The new columns were of greater diameter than the old and over 60 ft.
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  • The bark is thick and furrowed, and of a pale fawn colour internally; the rootlets are few, and the root itself is of larger diameter than in the other kinds.
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  • It Appears That When The External Diameter Exceeds A Certain Value, The Weight Of A Drop Of Water Is Sensibly Different In The Two Extreme Cases Of A Very Small And Of A Very Large Bore.
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  • For All Fluids And For All Similar Tubes Similarly Wetted, The Weight Of A Drop Would Then Be Proportional Not Only To The Diameter Of The Tube, But Also To The Superficial Tension, And It Would Be Independent Of The Density.
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  • In all these cases the internal pressure exceeds the external by 2T/a where a is the semi-transverse axis of the conic. The resultant of the internal pressure and the surface-tension is equivalent to a tension along the axis, and the numerical value of this tension is equal to the force due to the action of this pressure on a circle whose diameter is equal to the conjugate axis of the ellipse.
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  • The resultant of the internal pressure and the surface-tension is equivalent to a pressure along the axis equal to that due to a pressure p acting on a circle whose diameter is the conjugate axis of the hyperbola.
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  • When a liquid flows out of a vessel through a circular opening in the bottom of the vessel, the form of the stream is at first nearly cylindrical though its diameter gradually diminishes from the orifice downwards on account of the increasing velocity of the liquid.
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  • Thus, if d= 1, q -1 -= -115; or for a diameter of one centimetre the disturbance is multiplied 2.7 times in about one-ninth of a second.
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  • For example, if the diameter be one millimetre, the disturbance is multiplied 1000 fold in about one-fortieth of a second.
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  • The smaller the causes by which the original equilibrium is upset, the more will the cylindrical mass tend to divide itself regularly into portions whose length is equal to 4.5 times the diameter.
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  • When the head is given, Savart found the length to be proportional to the diameter of the orifice.
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