They are broken up into almost countless tribes and clans, many of which number only a few hundred individuals, and their language consequently presents a variety of dialects, of which no classification has yet been effected: in the district of Posia alone a member of the Presbyterian mission distinguished eight different mutually unintelligible dialects.
Between several of these dialects it is probable that closer affinities exist.
The whole country was occupied by a variety of tribes, speaking agglutinative dialects for the most part, though the western districts were occupied by Semites.
Similar changes had taken place in some of the local dialects of Italy before the Christian era.
The dialects differ very much in different parts of the island, so that those who speak one often cannot understand those who speak another, and use Italian as the medium of communication.
In the absence of literary culture the Albanian dialects, as might be expected, are widely divergent; the limits of the two principal dialects correspond with the racial boundaries of the Ghegs and Tosks, who understand each other with difficulty; the Albanians in Greece and Italy have also separate dialects.
Kretschmer goes further and divides the Illyrian language into two sharply defined dialects, the northern dialect being represented by the Heneti.
beginning with y, not as in Syriac and the eastern dialects with n or 1; the plur.
Conway, The Italic Dialects, p. 253 seq.
The names of their cities can be explained only by reference to Turkish or Ugrian dialects (Klaproth, Mem.
This phenomenon of what might have been taken for a piece of Umbrian text appearing in a district remote from Umbria and hemmed in by Latins on the north and Oscan-speaking Samnites on the south is a most curious feature in the geographical distribution of the Italic dialects, and is clearly the result of some complex historical movements.
Hunter states that the Dravidian tribes were driven southwards in Hindustan, and that the grammatical relations of their dialects are " expressed by suffixes," which is true as to the Australian languages.
Proceeding to Alexandria as assistant to the British consul-general there, he devoted himself to Arabic and its various dialects, and made himself master of Eastern manners and usages.
Rajasthani is the chief language of the country, one or other of its dialects being spoken by 7, 0 3 5,093 persons or more than 72% of the total population.
Conway's Italic Dialects (Camb.
Conway, The Italic Dialects, 352) shows a final -s and a medial -d-, both apparently preserved from the changes which befell these sounds, as we shall see, in the dialect of Iguvium.
Before this there had been translations into French dialects, as by Philippe de Thaun (1121), by Guillaume, "clerc de Normandie," also, about the same period, by Pierre, a clergyman of Picardy.
Dialects, p. 16) that a tradition (preserved in Stephanus of Byzantium, s.v.
Conway, The Italic Dialects (1897), for Bruttian inscriptions and local and personal names; P. Orsi in Atti del congresso storico (Rome, 1904), v.
A much more advanced stage of weakening is seen in some of the other dialects.
West of the Indus the dialects approach more to Persian, which language meets Arabic and Turki west of the Tigris, and along the Turkoman desert and the Caspian.
The difficulty of communication between the valleys has resulted in the growth of a great number of dialects.
Avarian is a sort of inter-tribal tongue, while Lakh or Kazi-kumukh, Kurin, Darghi-kaitakh, Andi, and Tabasaran are some of the more important dialects, each subdivided into subdialects.
Oberlin published several manuals on archaeology and ancient geography, and made frequent excursions into different provinces of France to investigate antiquarian remains and study provincial dialects, the result appearing in Essai sur le patois Lorrain (1775); Dissertations sur les Minnesingers (1782-1789); and Observations concernant le patois et les mceurs des gens de la campagne (1791).
A study of the local dialects to be met with in some of the districts of the 'far interior, e.g.
In the reign of Darius, however, the Susianians attempted to revolt, first under Assina or Atrina, the son of Umbadara, and later under Martiya, the son of Issainsakria, who called himself Immanes; but they gradually became completely Aryanized, and their agglutinative dialects were supplanted by the Aryan Persian from the south-east.
Thirty languages and a hundred and six dialects are found in the Central Provinces alone, and twenty-eight languages and sixty-eight dialects in Berar.
The chief of these languages are Western Hindi, Eastern Hindi, Rajasthani, Marathi, Oriya, Telugu and Dravidian dialects.
Of these last the chief dialects are Gondi, Oraon or Kurukh, Kandhi and Kanarese, of which Gondi is by far the most important.
His language, which is very peculiar, seems to be a sort of mixture of the Ottoman and Azerbaijan dialects of Turkish, and was most probably that of the Persian Turks of those days.
No fewer than three separate dialects and a dozen sub-dialects are known in it.
This periodical, issued by the academy, has during the last decade (1870-1880) contained also comparative studies, by Arminius Vambery and Gabriel Balint, of the Magyar, TurkishTatar and Mongolian dialects.
Badakshan proper is peopled by Tajiks, Turks and Arabs, who speak the Persian and Turki languages, and profess the orthodox doctrines of the Mahommedan law adopted by the Sunnite sect; while the mountainous districts are inhabited by Tajiks, professing the Shiite creed and speaking distinct dialects in different districts.
In Palestine and western Syria, the home of pre-Christian Aramaic dialects, the vernacular Semitic speech had under Roman dominion been replaced by Greek for official and literary purposes.
A Christian revision of it is probably preserved in the two dialects of Coptic. Of these the Akhmim text is the original of the Sahidic. These texts and their translations have been edited by Steindorff, Die Apokalypse des Elias, eine unbekannte Apokalypse and Bruchstiicke der Sophonias-Apokalypse (1899).
Such remains as there are of their language, a few expressions and the proper names of ancient chieftains still borne by certain families, connect it with the Berber dialects.
Of the Nilotic as distinguished from the Kordofan branch of the Nuba language there are three principal dialects current from Assuan along the Nile southwards to Meroc, as under: I.
The Mosquito Coast is so called from its principal inhabitants, the Misskito Indians, whose name was corrupted into Mosquito by European settlers and has been entirely superseded by that form except in the native dialects.
Berber dialects are still spoken in Tunisia in the island of Jerba, in the Matmata country, and in the Tunisian Sahara.
After spending six years in Constantinople, where he published a Turkish-German Dictionary and various linguistic works, and where he acquired some twenty Oriental languages and dialects, he visited Teheran; and then, disguised as a dervish, joined a band of pilgrims from Mecca, and spent several months with them in rough and squalid travel through the deserts of Asia.
There are at least two possibilities: (1) that in Latium g and k were pronounced almost identically, as, e.g., in the German of Wurttemberg or in the Celtic dialects, the difference consisting only in the greater energy with which the k-sound is produced; (2) that the confusion is graphic, K being sometimes written I C, which was then regarded as two separate symbols.
In other dialects of Italy b is found representing an original voiced guttural (gw), which, however, is regularly replaced by v in Latin.
In other dialects, however, it had been palatalized to a sibilant before i-sounds some time before the Christian era; e.g.
Thus Norman-French spelt its palatalized c-sound (= tsh) with ch as in cher and the English palatalized cild, &c. became child, &c. In Provençal from the 10th century, and in the northern dialects of France from the 13th century, this palatalized c (in different districts is and tsh) became a simple s.
In some foreign words like cicala the ch- (tsh) value is given to c. In the transliteration of foreign languages also it receives different values, having that of tsh in the transliteration of Sanskrit and of is in various Slavonic dialects.
This arises from the pronunciation of u as yu, and does not affect the English dialects which have not thus modified the u sound.
At the headquarters of his order, in Fremona, he soon acquired the two chief dialects of the country, translated a catechism, and set about the education of some Abyssinian children.
The northern Doris, for example, spoke Aeolic, while Elis, Phocis, and many non-Dorian districts of north-west Greece spoke dialects akin to Doric. Many Dorian states had additional " nonDorian tribes "; Sparta, which claimed to be of pure and typical Dorian origin, maintained institutions and a mode of life which were without parallel in Peloponnese, in the Parnassian and in the Asiatic Doris, and were partially reflected in Crete only.
But the attempt to interpret, in terms of this Asiatic diagram, the actual distribution of dialects and peoples in European Greece, led to difficulties.
But these have also some forms in common with the " Aeolic " dialect of Boeotia and Thessaly, which in historic times was spoken also in Doris; Locris and Elis present similar northern " Achaean-Doric " dialects.
Arcadia, on the other hand, in the heart of Peloponnese, retained till a late date a quite different dialect, akin to the ancient dialect of Cyprus, and more remotely to Aeolic. This distribution makes it clear (r) that the Doric dialects of Peloponnese represent a superstratum, more recent than the speech of Arcadia; (2) that Laconia and its colonies preserve features alike, -n and -w which are common to southern Doric and Aeolic; (3) that those parts of " Dorian " Greece in which tradition makes the pre-Dorian population " Ionic," and in which the political structure shows that the conquered were less completely subjugated, exhibit the Ionic -a and -ov; (4) that as we go north, similar though more barbaric dialects extend far up the western side of central-northern Greece, and survive also locally in the highlands of south Thessaly; (5) that east of the watershed Aeolic has prevailed over the area which has legends of a Boeotian and Thessalian migration, and replaces Doric in the northern Doris.
As evidence of an intrusion of northerly folk, however, the distribution of dialects remains important.
Even in northern and westcentral Greece, all vestige of any former prevalence has been obliterated by the spread of " Aeolic " dialects akin to those of Thessaly and Boeotia; even the northern Doris, for example, spoke "Aeolic" in historic times.
Attention is frequently called to the large number of linguistic families in America, nearly 200 having been named, embracing over 1000 languages and dialects.
Factions separated from the parent body developed dialects or languages by contact, intermarriage and incorporation with foreign tribes.
Ethnol.) Bandelier declares that in Mexico existed neither state nor nation, nor political society of any kind, but tribes representing dialects, and autonomous in matters of government, and forming confederacies for the purposes of self-defence and conquest.
Among the Germans, who are most numerous in the north-east, Low German dialects are spoken, except in a Swabian colony round Kulmsee.
Of the two dialects commonly called Sabaean and Minaean the latter might be better called Hadramitic, inasmuch as it is the dialect of the inscriptions found in Hadramut, and the Minaeans seem undoubtedly to have entered the Jauf from Ijadramut.
He also studied Arabic, Sanskrit and the old South French dialects.
Here he devoted himself to the preparation of school-books, and the translation of the Bible and Prayer-Book into Yoruba and other dialects.
They are found in various dialects of Coptic, the mutual relations of which are not Coptic. yet certain, but the only ones which are preserved with any completeness are the Bohairic, or Lower Egyptian, and Sahidic, or Upper Egyptian, though it is certain that fragments of intermediate dialects such as Middle Egyptian, Fayumic, Akhmimic and Memphitic also exist.
Codrington (Melanesian Languages) has adduced evidence to prove that Melanesia is the most primitive form of the oceanic stock-language, and that both Malays and Polynesians speak later dialects of this archaic form of speech.
Older than these divisions, the date of which is uncertain, the ancient limits of the dioceses of Pamplona, Bayonne and Calahorra, probably corresponded more nearly to the boundaries of the ancient tribes, the Autrigones, the Caristi, the Varduli and the Vascones, with their still differing dialects, than do these civil provinces.
In their speech several hundred words persist which elsewhere have been obsolete for three centuries or occur only in dialects in England.
They have left their traces in the different dialects, Khoswar, Burishki and Shina, spoken in the Gilgit agency.
By the year 1906 versions, more or less complete, had been published in more than 530 distinct languages and dialects, and in 400 of these the work of translation, printing or distribution had been promoted by the society.
Not a few noteworthy versions of the Bible, such as those in Arabic, 15 dialects of Chinese, Armenian, and Zulu, and many American Indian, Philippine, and African languages have appeared under the auspices of the American Bible Society.
As the tendency among separated tribes of the same race is to develop dialects and as habitat and customs tend still further to differentiate them, it may be that some of these smaller families are branches.
In 1864 Don Manuel Orozco y Berra found no fewer than 51 distinct languages and 69 dialects among the Indian inhabitants of Mexico, to which he added 62 extinct idioms - making a total of 182 idioms, each representing a.
Thirty-five of these languages, with 69 dialects, he succeeded in classifying under II linguistic families.
In fact in the Northern Midlands, and in the North even before the middle of the r4th century, the book of Psalms had been twice rendered into English, and before the end of the same century, probably before the great Wycliffite versions had spread over the country, the whole of the New Testament had been translated by different hands into one or other of the dialects of this part of the country.
The speech of the inhabitants, Amharic, which differs in several features from the dialects spoken in Tigre and Shoa, is the official language of Abyssinia.
The inhabitants are mainly of the Saxon stock and speak Low German dialects, except in the Upper Frankish district around Siegen, where the Hessian dialect is spoken.
From this time to his death he devoted himself to the preparation of numerous philological works, consisting of grammars and dictionaries in the Mahratta, Sanskrit, Punjabi, Telinga, Bengali and Bhotanta dialects.
From the Serampore press there issued in his lifetime over 200,000 Bibles and portions in nearly forty different languages and dialects, Carey himself undertaking most of the literary work.
The language is of pure Melanesian type, though a number of dialects are spoken.
His valuable notes on Indian dialects are in The Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (1862), in The American Journal of Science (1862) and in The Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society (1869).
The conquered strata of the population speak servile Indian dialects, called Hindki in the north and Jatki in the south, while Gujari is spoken by the large Gujar population in the hills of Hazara and north of Peshawar.
Conway in The Italic Dialects (Cambridge, 1897).
And in general it may be stated that the hypothesis of such an intermixture of forms from neighbouring dialects has been rendered in recent years far more credible by the striking evidence of such continual intermixture going on within quite modern periods of time afforded by the Atlas linguistique de la France, even in the portion which has already been published.
Conway, the Italic Dialects (Cambridge, 1897), p. 35 1.
These invaders brought Celtic civilization and dialects.
The assiduity with which Huc devoted himself to the study of the dialects and customs of the Tatars, for whom at the cost of much labour he translated various religious works, was an admirable preparation for undertaking in 1844, at the instigation of the vicar apostolic of Mongolia, an expedition whose object was to dissipate the obscurity which hung over the country and habits of the Tibetans.
Farther east the Takpa of Tawang in the eastern Assam Himalayas appears to form a transition between the central and the Sifan group of dialects on the Chinese frontier, which includes the Minyak, Sungpan, Lifan and Tochu dialects.
The number of speakers of Tibetan dialects is probably not far short of eight millions.
Linguistically, Tibetan is allied to the Burmese languages, and forms with the latter a family of the so-called Turano-Scythian stock called " Tibeto-Burman " (q.v.), the unity of which family was first recognized by Brian Hodgson in 1828, and indeed several of the dialects of Tibetan are still only known through the copious vocabularies collected by him.
Agglomerations of consonants are often met with as initials, giving the appearance of telescoped words - an appearance which historical etymology often confirms. IVlany of these initial consonants are silent in the dialects of the central provinces, or have been resolved into a simpler one of another character.
In 1868 at Kyelang he published by lithography A Short Practical Grammar of the Tibetan Language, with special reference to the spoken dialects, and the following year a Romanized Tibetan and English Dictionary.
Afterwards he prepared for the English Government a Tibetan-English Dictionary, with special reference to the prevailing dialects, in 1881.
An interesting and important analysis of many of the dialects and of the general structure of the language has been made by Dr G.
Since then the problem has been disentangled; and now minor points only remain to be cleared up. Jaeschke devoted special attention to the dialectical sounds, and showed in several papers and by the comparative table prefixed to his dictionary that in the western and eastern dialects these sounds correspond more or less closely to the written forms.
Many of these old soft initial consonants which are now hardened in the modern dialects are preserved in classical Tibetan, i.e.
The natives, still mainly independent of their nominal Dutch and Portuguese rulers, are divided into many hostile tribes, speaking as many as forty distinct Papuan and Malayan languages or dialects.
The Alamannic and Swabian dialects are now spoken in German Switzerland, the southern parts of Baden and Alsace, Wurttemberg and a small portion of Bavaria.
In some of the dialects of northern Greece (especially Macedonia and Delphi) 0 had a tendency to become 0.
As to Alpine dialects, consult J.
Conway, Italic Dialects, i.
The discussion of these phenomena brings us to another point which precludes the possibility of Sumerian having been merely an artificial system, and that is the undoubted existence in this language of at least two dialects, which have been named, following the inscriptions, the Eme-ku, " the noble or male speech," and the Eme-sal, " the woman's language."
It should be added here in passing that the geographical or tribal significance of these two Sumerian dialects has never been established.
It is much more likely that the two dialects were thus designated because of their respectively harsh and soft phonetics.'
He had also collected vocabularies of nearly fifty African dialects, and translated portions of the Bible and prayer-book into Hausa.
See Conway, Italic Dialects, p. 51; J.
Conway, The Italic Dialects, pp. 54 sqq.; Nissen, Pompeianische Studien; J.
Languages.The German-speaking nations in their various branches and dialects, if we include the Dutch and the Walloons, extend in a compact mass along the shores of the Baltic and of the North Sea, from Memel in the east to a point between Gravelines and Calais near the Straits of Dover.
They looked on the German schoolmaster as the apostle of German culture, and they looked forward to the time when the feeling of a common Austrian nationality should obscure the national feeling of the Sla y s, and the Slavonic idioms should survive merely as the local dialects of the peasantry, the territories becoming merely the provinces of a united and centralized state.
It would be rash to deny that traces of other dialects may not have lingered on; but Greek and Arabic were the two written tongues of Sicily when the Normans came.
One very favourite, but utterly untenable interpretation is that the " seven forms," are seven different Arabic dialects.
Although of the Aramaic dialects none employs the term Melltha in the sense of religion, it appears that the prophet found such a use.
Conway, The Italic Dialects, p. 216).
Paelignian and this group of inscriptions generally form a most important link in the chain of the Italic dialects, as without them the transition from Oscan to Umbrian would be completely lost.
The Greek alphabet, reinforced by a few signs borrowed from demotic, rendered the spoken tongue so accurately that four distinct, though closely allied, dialects are readily distinguishable in Coptic MSS.; ample remains are found of renderings of the Scriptures into all these dialects.
The distinctions between the dialects consist largely in pronunciation, but extend also to the vocabulary, word-formation and syntax.
The monks whose task it was to perfect the adaptation of the alphabet to the dialects of Egypt and translate the Scriptures out of the Greek, flung away all pagan traditions.
The Arabic dialects, which gradually displaced Coptic as Mahominedanism supplanted Christianity, adopted but few words 3f the old native stock.
dialects, each of these having left abundant remains; the former spread over the Whole of Upper Egypt, and the latter since the 14th century has been the language of the sacred books of Christianity throughout the country, owing to the hierarchical importance of Alexandria and the influence of the ancient monasteries established in the north-western desert.
It presents some features of great antiquity, and, unlike all others, has the truly popular character of being written in the three dialects of the language.
Not improbably they spoke a dialect (or dialects) akin to Arabic or Aramaic. 5 According to the Mahommedans, Ishmael, who is recognized as their ancestor, lies buried with his mother in the Kaaba in Mecca.
Some of the personal names are foreign and find analogues in Asia Minor; but even as the Philistines appear in biblical history as a " Semitic " people, so inscriptions from north Syria (c. 800-700) are in Canaanite and early Aramaean dialects, and are in entire agreement with " Semitic thought and ideas.
Although the Berber tongue shows a certain affinity with Semitic in the construction both of its words and sentences Berber is quite distinct from the Semitic languages; and a remarkable fact is that in spite of the enormous space over which the dialects are spread and the thousands of years that some of the Berber peoples have been isolated from the rest, these dialects show but slight differences from the long-extinct Hamitic speech from which all are derived.
Whatever these dialects be called, the Kabyle, the Shilha, the Zenati, the Tuareg or Tamashek, the Berber language is still essentially one, and the similarity between the forms current in Morocco, Algeria, the Sahara and the far-distant oasis of Siwa is much more marked than between the Norse and English in the sub-Aryan Teutonic group. The Berbers have, moreover, a writing of their own, peculiar and little used or known, the antiquity of which is proved by monuments and inscriptions ranging over the whole of North Africa.
The various spoken dialects, though apparently very unlike each other, are not more dissimilar than are Portuguese, Spanish, French and Italian, and their differences are doubtless attributable to the lack of a literary standard.
The great difficulty of satisfactory comparison arises from the fact that few of the Beber dialects possess any writings.
The Dravidian family includes the four literary languages of the south, as well as many dialects spoken by hill tribes in central India, and also the isolated Brahui in Baluchistan.
Gipsy dialects are used by the nomadic tribes of India, while Andamanese has not been connected by philologists with any recognized family of speech.
Discouraged by the official authorities, and ever liable to banishment or deportation, they not only devoted themselves with courage to their special work of evangelization, but were also the first to study the vernacular dialects spoken by the common people.
The Kanishka commentaries were written in the Sanskrit language, perhaps because the Kashmir and northern priests who formed his council belonged to isolated Aryan colonies, which had been little influenced by the growth of the Indian vernacular dialects.
Therefore the ancient Abyssinian language, Geez, and its living dialects, Amharic and Tigrina, are Semitic, although modified by the influence of the old Hamitic Agau or Agao.
It was far easier for the monks to learn the native dialects than to teach their parishioners Spanish.
Conway, The Italic Dialects, p. 31; for the Tarentine-Ionic alphabet see ibid.
He had acquired such a mastery of the Greek language that, when he presided over the courts in Asia, he was able to answer each suitor in ordinary Greek or any of the dialects in use.
Most of the native dialects have ceased to exist, but a corrupt form of English is spoken on parts of the east coast.
The dialects of Micronesia, though grammatically alike, differ widely in their vocabularies.
In some of the dialects there appears to be no true article, but in the Gilbert Islands the Polynesian to is used for both definite and indefinite article.
In familiar, if vulgar, dialects, A tends in the same direction.
Before history begins it had also lost, except sporadically in out-of-the-way dialects, the semi-vowel i (approximately English y).
He shows that " twelve of the letter-names are words with meanings [in the northern dialects of Semitic], all of them indicating simple objects, six of the twelve being parts of the body.
With Vau it was different; the u-sound existed in some form in all dialects, the w-sound survived in many far into historical times.
The runes are found in all Teutonic countries, and the Romans were in close contact with the Germans on the Rhine before the beginning I For further details of these alphabets, see Conway, The Italic Dialects, ii.
Glagolitic has a symbol for the palatalized g (5), but it is used only in the transcription of Greek words, y having become y early between vowels in the popular dialects.
This is of two main kinds: (a) evidence of history, consisting in a comparison of the political and social condition, the geography, the institutions, the manners, arts and ideas of Homer with those of other times; (b) evidence of language, consisting in a comparison with later dialects, in respect of grammar and vocabulary.
Considering that the divergence of two alphabets (like the difference of two dialects) requires both time and familiar use, we may gather from these facts that writing was well known in Greece early in the 7th century B.e.2 The rise of prose composition in the 6th century B.C. has been thought to mark the time when memory was practically superseded by writing as a means of preserving literature - the earlier use of letters being confined to short documents, such as lists of names, treaties, laws, &c. This conclusion, however, is by no means necessary.
This letter, however, died out earlier in Ionic than in most dialects, and there is no proof that the Homeric poems were ever written with it.
These are not, speaking generally, the differences that are produced by the gradual divergence of dialects in a language.
The points that have been mentioned, to which many others might be added, make it clear that the Homeric and Attic dialects are separated by differences which affect the whole structure of the language, and require a considerable time for their development.
There are doubtless many Homeric forms which were unknown to the later Ionic and Attic, and which are found in Aeolic or other dialects.
There is one sense, however, in which an admixture of dialects may be recognized.
If, however, as is the view of some of Fick's followers, the transposition took place several centuries earlier, before species of literature had appropriated particular dialects, then the linguistic facts upon which Fick relied to distinguish the " Aeolic " and " Ionic " elements in Homer disappear.
We have no means of knowing what the Aeolic and Ionic of say the 9th century were, or if there were such dialects at all.
The tendency of modern dialectologists is to divide the Greek dialects into Dorian and non-Dorian.
The nonDorian dialects, Ionic, Attic and the various forms of Aeolic, are regarded as relatively closely akin, and go by the common name " Achaean."
Ramananda's teaching was thus of a distinctly levelling and popular character; and, in accordance therewith, the Bhakta-mala and other authoritative writings of the sect are composed, not in Sanskrit, but in the popular dialects.
Whilst very numerous, particularly amongst the low-caste population, in western, central and northern India, resident adherents of Kabir's doctrine are rare in Bengal and the south; although there is hardly a town in India where strolling beggars may not be found singing songs of Kabir in the original or as translated into the local dialects."
In the forms of worship favoured by votaries of these creeds the emotional and erotic elements are allowed yet freer scope than in those that preceded them; and, as an effective auxiliary to these tendencies, the use of the vernacular dialects in prayers and hymns of praise takes an important part in the religious service.
Meanwhile the languages of Greece and Rome had been so thoroughly appropriated that a final race of scholars, headed by Politian, Pontano, Valla, handled once again in verse and prose both antique dialects, and thrilled the ears of Europe with new-made pagan melodies.
The German dialects were too rough to receive that artistic elaboration under antique influences which had been so facile in Tuscany.
was pronounced differently from K; hence no doubt its early disappearance in most dialects.
roi, &c., from the same stem as the Latin quo, qui, &c. This, however, is not found in all dialects alike (see GREEK LANGUAGE).
It would be well-nigh impossible to exaggerate the services rendered to the ancient British tongue, and consequently to the national spirit of Wales, by these Elizabethan and Jacobean translations, issued in 1567, 1588 and 1620, which were able definitely to fix the standard of classical Welsh, and to embody the contending dialects of Gwynedd, Dyfed and Gwent for all time in one literary storehouse.
But for this sudden revival of Cymric literature under the patronage of Elizabeth (for the obtaining of which Wales must ever owe a deep debt of gratitude to Bishop Richard Davies, " her second St David "), there is every reason to believe that the ancient language of the Principality must either have drifted into a number of corrupt dialects, as it then showed symptoms of doing, or else have tended to ultimate extinction, much as the Cornish tongue perished in the 17th century.
Primitive Celtic split up, as already shown, into two dialects, represented in modern times by two groups of languages - (i) the Goidelic group, comprising Irish, Scottish, Gaelic and Manx.
The great work of Dr Carey's life was the translation of the Bible into the various languages and dialects of India.
They cling tenaciously to their native language, which is closely allied to the Finnish, and divisible into two, or according to some authorities into three, principal dialects - Dorpat Esthonian and Reval Esthonian, with Pernau Esthonian.
From antiquity we have sufficient knowledge of two dialects, the first belonging to eastern Iran, the second to western.
The clearest evidence of the extreme age of the language of the pi ithas is its striking resemblance to the oldest Sanskrit, the language P the Vedic poems. The gatha language (much more than the k1 ter Zend) and the language of the Vedas have a close resemblance, Ai :ceeding that of any two Romanic languages; they seem hardly th ore than two dialects of one tongue.
A logical system of comparative exegesis, Ze led by constant reference to Sanskrit, its nearest ally, and to the her Iranian dialects, is the best means of recovering the lost of rise of the Zend texts.
The other ancient tongues and dialects of s family are known only by name; we read of peculiar idioms Sogdiana, Zabulistan, Herat, &c. It is doubtful whether the guages of the Scythians, the Lycians and the Lydians, of which dly anything remains, were Iranian or not.
Amongst modern languages and dialects other than Persian which must be also assigned to the Iranian family may be Modern mentioned: Dialects.
For the New Persian dialects see Fr.
The Dialects of South Africa (Cape Town, 1858); Books, Pamphlets and Articles on British South Africa (Birmingham Free Library, 1901), Mendelssohn's South African Bibliography (2 vols.
It is divided into two main dialects which are so different that speakers of the one are almost unintelligible to speakers of the other.
These two dialects are separated by the belt of Brahui and Sindhi speakers who occupy the Sarawan and Jalawan hills, and Las Bela.
- Theocritus wrote in various dialects according to the subject.
The epics in general show a mixture of Homeric, Ionic and Doric forms. The Bucolics, Mimes, and the " Marriage-song of Helen" (xviii.) are in Doric, with occasional forms from other dialects.
For all that known dialects prove to the contrary, on the one hand, there may have been one primitive language, from which the descendant languages have varied so widely, that neither their words nor their formation now indicate their unity in long past ages, while, on the other hand, the primitive tongues of mankind may have been numerous, and the extreme unlikeness of such languages as Basque, Chinese, Peruvian, Hottentot and Sanskrit may arise from absolute independence of origin.
The supersession of the Celtic Cornish by English, and of the Slavonic Old-Prussian by German, are but examples of a process which has for untold ages been supplanting native dialects, whose very names have mostly disappeared.
As regards language, several of the indigenous groups, such as the Khamtas of Lasta, the Agau or Agaos of Agaumeder ("Agao land") and the Falashas, the so-called "Jews" of Abyssinia, still speak rude dialects of the old Hamitic tongue.
His studies of the Indian dialects were scholarly and valuable.
The word is variously derived from the Persian padshah, Turkish padishah, equivalent to king or emperor, and from the Turkish bash, in some dialects gash, a head, chief, &c. In old Turkish there was no fixed distinction between b and p. As first used in western Europe the title was written with the initial b.
Important studies on the separate dialects of Moldavia, Walachi, the Dobrudja, Bessarabia, Bukovina, the Banat, Macedonia, Istria, &c., have been published by G.
Many of the civilized Indian communities have not become wholly Hispanicized and still retain their own dialects and customs, their attitude being that of a conquered race submitting to the customs and demands of a social organization of which they form no part.
The local dialects are Cagayan, and, of less importance, Ilocano and Tagalog.
Their influence is also evident in the dialects spoken in these districts to the present day.
There are also Bhil (120,000) and Gipsy (30,000) dialects.
His first work was directed to the restoration of the old Italian dialects, and the French government, which at one time proposed to undertake the task of compiling a complete collection of all extant Roman inscriptions, asked for his co-operation.
The Veddahs are not to be confounded with the Rodiyas of the western uplands, who are a much finer race, tall, wellporportioned, with regular features, and speak a language said to be radically distinct from all the Aryan and Dravidian dialects current in Ceylon.
Dr Grierson has shown in his monograph on "The Pisaca Languages of North-Western India" (Royal Asiatic Society, 1906) that there is good reason for regarding various dialects of the north-western frontier (Kafiristan, Chitral, Gilgit, Dardistan) as a separate group descended from Aryan but independent of either Sanskrit or Iranian.
Here, as a student of theology under Johann Gerhard, he directed his attention especially to Hebrew and the cognate dialects; in 1619 he was made an "adjunctus" of the philosophical faculty, and some time afterwards he received an appointment to the chair of Hebrew.
Thus in 1816 he had published a translation of the Agamemnon of Aeschylus, and in 1817 corrections and additions to Adelung's Mithridates, that famous collection of specimens of the various languages and dialects of the world.
In this work he endeavoured to show, by an examination of geographical names, that a race or races speaking dialects allied to modern Basque once extended through the whole of Spain, the southern coast of France and the Balearic Islands, and suggested that these people, whom he identified with the Iberians of classical writers, had come from northern Africa, where the name of Berber still perhaps perpetuates their old designation.
It is broken up into very distinct and even mutually unintelligible dialects, the origin of several of which is, however, easily found in the political and social dismemberment of the people.
Diiben distinguishes four leading dialects; but a much greater number are recognizable.
Genetz; readers of different dialects (1885-1896), by J.
Even language does not afford a sure criterion, so nearly akin are many spoken dialects of Servian and Bulgarian.
There can be little doubt that this absorption softened and enriched the Serbo-Croatian dialects, a process to which climatic conditions and intercourse with Italy also contributed, until Serbo-Croatian became one of the richest and most melodious of Slavonic languages.
It ranks with Bulgarian as one of the two principal Slav languages of the Balkan Peninsula; the Macedonian dialects are intermediate between these two.
Considering the extent of territory in which the language is spoken, it is not surprising that it should have several dialects.
Practically, however, there are only three principal dialects, which are differentiated by the manner in which the Old Slavonic double vocal ye (the so-called yach) is pronounced.
Professor Belich of Belgrade University has tried to give in the Servian Dialectological Compendium (Belgrade, 1905) a new division of the Servian dialects into five groups, viz.
Of all the Servian dialects the most correct, richest and softest is the Herzegovinian or Zetta-Bosnian dialect.
Servian and Croatian are only two dialects of the same Slavonic language.
The Papuan languages or dialects are very numerous, owing, doubtless, to the perpetual intertribal hostility which has fostered isolation.
In grammatical structure there is considerable resemblance between these dialects, but the verbal differences have become great.
Several dialects are sometimes found on one island.
There are several dialects, the construction resembling Fijian, as in the pronominal suffixes in singular, triad and plural; the numerals, however, are Polynesian in character.
For the place of the Croatian dialects among Slavonic languages generally, see Slavs.
The Croatian dialects, like the Servian, have gradually developed from the Old Slavonic, which survives in medieval liturgies and biblical or apocryphal writings.
As the literary language of both nations is now practically the same, and is, indeed, commonly known as "SerboCroatian," the reader may be referred to the article Servia: Language and Literature, for an account of its history, of its chief literary monuments up to the 19th century and inclusive of Dalmatian literature, and of the principal differences between the dialects spoken in Servia and Croatia-Slavonia.
The three most important Croatian dialects are known as the Cakavci, Caka y stina or, in Servian, Chaka y ski, spoken along the Adriatic littoral; the Stokavci (Stoka y stina, Shtokayski), spoken in Servia and elsewhere in the north-west of the Balkan Peninsula; and the Kajkavci (Kajka y stina, Kayka y ski), spoken by the partly Slovene population of the districts of Agram, Warasdin and Kreuz.
Ljudevit Gaj (1809-1872), though he failed to create an artificial literary language by the fusion of the principal dialects spoken by Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, was by his championship of Illyrism instrumental in securing the triumph of the Stokavci.
Conway, Italic Dialects, p. 312, b).
744 - which seems to connect it with the locative of aequum " a plain," so that it would mean "dwellers in the plain"; but in the historical period they certainly lived mainly in the hills), we should know whether they were to be grouped with the q or the p dialects, that is to say, with Latin on the one hand, which preserved an original q, or with the dialect of Velitrae, commonly called Volscian (and the Volsci were the constant allies of the Aequi), on the other hand, in which, as in the Iguvine and Samnite dialects, an original q is changed into p. There is no decisive evidence to show whether the q in Latin aequus represents an Indo-European q as in Latin quis, Umbro-Volsc. pis, or an Indo-European k + u as in equus, Umb.
Conway, The Italic Dialects, pp. 300 ff.
e Catalpnia and Valencia, together with the Balearic Islands, spoke, and speak, dialects of the southern French, the so-called Limos, though it was not the language of the Limousin.
These three varieties of the Romana rustica are marked off from one another more distinctly than is the case with, say the Romance dialects of Italy; they do not interpenetrate one another, but where the one ends the other begins.
It is not to be supposed that the separation of Catalan from the Gallo-Roman family occurred before the transformation had taken place; there is good reason to believe that Catalan possessed the it at one time, but afterwards lost it in its contact with the Spanish dialects.
Cabalan Dialect of Aighero (Sardinia).As compared with that of the mainland, the Catalan of Alghero, introduced into this portion of Sardinia by the Aragonese conquerors and colonists, does not present any very important differences; some of them, such as they are, are explicable by the influence of the indigenous dialects of Sassari and Logudoro.
to call dialects, considering the meaning ordinarily attached to that word, but which are none the less worthy of attention.
We shall proceed in the first instance to examine the most salient features of the normal Castilian, spoken in the provinces more or less closely corresponding to the old limits of Old and New Castile, so as to be able afterwards to note the peculiarities of what, for want of a better expression, we must call the Castiian dialects.
The words in which i and have kept their ground are either learned words like mdi-co,mrsbo, or have been borrowed from dialects which do not suffer diphthongization.
ch), which are still found in Portuguese and in the Castilian dialects of the north-west.
of the present of ser is eres, which is best explained as borrowed from the imperfect (eras), this tense being often used in Old Spanish with the meaning of the present; alongside of eres one finds (but only in old documents or in dialects) sos, formed like sois (2nd pen.
Thus the Aramaic languages may be geographically defined as the Semitic dialects originally current in Mesopotamia and the regions extending south-west from the Euphrates to Palestine.
The Nicobarese may be best described as a Far Eastern race, having generally the characteristics of the less civilized tribes of the Malay Peninsula and the south-eastern portion of the Asiatic continent, and speaking varieties of the Mon-Annam group of languages, though the several dialects that prevail are mutually unintelligible.
De Roepstorff, Dictionary of the Nancowry Dialect (Calcutta, 1884); Vocabulary of Dialects in the Nicobar and Andaman Islands (2nd ed., Calcutta, 1875); Prevost and Heing, Report on Preliminary Tour through the Nicobar Islands (Government, Rangoon, 1897); J.
A striking proof of this was the fact that so late as the time of the historian distinct dialects were spoken by the inhabitants of different cities within the limits of so restricted an area.
a This when borrowed by other dialects showed at first some variety of usage, though practically none in form.
Scots has a wide range of dialects.
He studied the dialects of the Kurdish language.
Whoever listens to our program on a daily basis will understand both dialects, whether intended or not.
She learned the local dialects, and was able to accompany her husband on his tours of inspection and watch him dispense justice.
The number of Kurds with access to Internet who can read in Kurdish dialects is another parameter.
Nonstandard dialects are language varieties that deviate from a commonly accepted language norm.
pitch and stress: Japanese is only minimally semantically tonal, tho the majority of dialects have a word pitch accent.
bogglend boggling statistic was that the Lord's Prayer or some portion of Scripture had been embossed in 419 languages and dialects.
Unlike C but like most Lisp dialects, Perl internally and dynamically handles all memory allocation, garbage collection, and type coercion.
To make the picture even more colorful, these languages are also spoken in different dialects.
This article introduces dialectology - the study of accents and dialects.
traditional dialectology The systematic study of dialects goes back well over a century.
Meanwhile, in school the use of regional dialects was severely frowned upon.
You must know a fair amount about Greek dialects and morphological rules to retrieve the differently inflected occurrences of a " word.
Links to sites dealing with Italian dialects and European minority languages.
These include pidgins, creoles, regional dialects, minority dialects and varieties.
speakers of these dialects i rapidly decreasing.
Conway, Italic Dialects, 145, and Verner's law in Italy, p. 78, where the change of s to r is explained as probably due to the Latin conquest).
Seeing that the tribe was blotted out at the beginning of the 3rd century B.e., we can scarcely wonder that no record of its speech survives; but its geographical situation and the frequency of the co-suffix in that strip of coast (besides Aurunci itself we have the names Vescia, Mons Massicus, Marica, Glanica and Caedicii; see Italic Dialects, pp. 283 f.) rank them beyond doubt with their neighbours the Volsci.
See Conway's Italic Dialects (Carob.
Herodotus states that there were four distinct dialects in Asiatic Ionia itself (i.
Conway, The Italic Dialects, pp. 267 sqq.
The occurrence of a large number of common roots proves them to be derived from one source, but the great variety of dialects - sometimes unintelligible between tribes separated by only a few miles - cannot be explained except by supposing a vast period to have elapsed since their first settlement.
Conway in The Italic Dialects, vol.
Of these only the outstanding features can be mentioned here; for a fuller discussion the reader must be referred to The Italic Dialects, pp. 400 sqq.
Of all the other tribes that inhabited Italy down to the classical period, of whose speech there is any record (whether explicit or in the form of names and glosses), it is impossible to maintain that any one does not belong to the Indo-European group. Putting aside the Etruscan, and also the different Greek dialects of the Greek colonies, like Cumae, Neapolis, Tarentum, and proceeding from the south to the north, the different languages or dialects, of whose separate existence at some time between, say, 600 and 200 B.C., we can be, sure, may be enumerated as follows: (I) Sicel, (2) South Oscan.
A bilingual inscription (Gallic and Latin) of the 2nd century B.C. was found as far south as Tuder, the modern Todi (Italic Dialects, ii.
between the dialects which preserved the IndoEuropean velars (especially the breathed plosive q) as velars or back-palatals (gutturals), with or without the addition of a w-sound, and the dialects which converted the velars wholly into labials, for example, Latinian quis contrasted with Oscan, Volscian and Umbrian pis (see further LATIN LANGUAGE).
This distinction, however, takes us but a little way towards an historical grouping of the tribes, since the only Latinian dialects of which, besides Latin, we have inscriptions are Faliscan and Marsian (see FALISCT, MAR51); although the place-names of the Aequi suggest that they belong to the same group in this respect.
What is called Volscian, known only from the important inscription of the town of Velitrae, and what is called Umbrian, known from the famous Iguvine Tables with a few other records, would be regarded as Safine dialects, spoken by Safine communities who had become more or less isolated in the midst of the earlier and possibly partly Etruscanized populations, the result being that as early as the 4th century n.c. their language had suffered corruptions which it escaped both in the Samnite mountains and in the independent and self-contained community of Rome.
Martiis) shows its derivation and exhibits the assibilation of -tio- into -tso- proper to many Oscan dialects (see Osca Lingua) but strange to classical Latin.
Conway, The Italic Dialects, pp. 290 seq.
Aramaic gives to the noun instead an ending a, 1 On the place of Aramaic among the Semitic languages, and of Syriac among the various dialects, see Semitic Languages.
In the older Aramaic dialects this is used exactly as the noun with prefixed article is used in other languages; but in Syriac the emphatic state has lost this special function of making the noun definite, and has become simply the normal state of the noun.
The main grammatical distinction between Syriac and all the west Aramaic dialects is that in Syriac the 3rd person of the imperfect (singular and plural) of the verb begins with n, but in west Aramaic, as in the other Semitic languages, it begins with y.
The word "pear" or its equivalent occurs in all the Celtic languages, while in Slavonic and other dialects different appellations, but still referring to the same thing, are found - a diversity and multiplicity of nomenclature which led Alphonse de Candolle to infer a very ancient cultivation of the tree from the shores of the Caspian to those of the Atlantic. A certain race of pears, with white down on the under surface of their leaves, is supposed to have originated from P. nivalis, and their fruit is chiefly used in France in the manufacture of Perry (see Cider).
Cable, The Creoles of Louisiana (New York, 1884), and his later writings; but Mr Cable's views of the Creoles are very unpopular in Louisiana; for other views of them, and for a guide to the English and Creole literature of Louisiana, consult Alcee Fortier, Louisiana Studies - Literature, Customs and Dialects, History and Education (New Orleans, 1894).
Cambodian idiom bears a likeness to some of the aboriginal dialects of south Indo-China; it is agglutinate in character and rich in vowel-sounds.
word for the implement being sulh, still found in some dialects in the form sell.
In the English dialects of Kent, Essex and Norfolk there is a common change of v to w, but Ellis says (English Pronunciation, V, pp. 132, 229) that though he has made diligent search he has never been able to hear the v for w which is so characteristic of Sam and Tony Weller in the Pickwick Papers.
Thus Norman-French spelt its palatalized c-sound (= tsh) with ch as in cher and the English palatalized cild, &c. became child, &c. In ProvenÃ§al from the 10th century, and in the northern dialects of France from the 13th century, this palatalized c (in different districts is and tsh) became a simple s.
These dialects have strongly marked features in common (future in -UEw -atw -o; ist pers.
According to Dalman, 13 its language differs in many material particulars from the Aramaic dialects of the Palestinian and Babylonian Talmuds, and is more closely allied to the biblical Aramaic. On the linguistic side, therefore, we may regard Onkelos " as a faithful representative of a Targum which had its rise in Judaea, the old seat of Palestinian literary activity."
Many different dialects are spoken by the Bantu tribes, Swahili being the most widely known (see Bantu Languages).
Conway, The Italic Dialects, pp. 258 ff., on which this article is based.
A few Oscan inscriptions survive, mostly in Greek characters, from the 4th or 3rd century B.C., and some coins with Oscan legends of the 3rd century (see Conway, Italic Dialects, p. 11 sqq.; Mommsen, C.I.L.
It is not a uniform speech, but comprises several dialects which have been classed by Jaeschke into three groups, namely (i) the central or the dialects of Lhasa and the central provinces of U and Tsang (including Spiti) which is the lingua franca of the whole country, (2) the western dialects of Ladak, Lahul, Baltistan and Purig, and (3) the eastern dialects of the province of Khams. In addition to these, however, are many sub-dialects of Tibetan spoken in the frontier Himalayan districts and states outside Tibet, namely, in Kunawar and Bashahr, Garhwal, Kumaon, Nepal including especially the Serpa and Murmi of eastern Nepal, Sikkim (where the dialect is called Danjong-ka), Bhutan (Lho-ka or Duk-ka.), all of which are affiliated to a central group of dialects.
The gradual supersession of the old dialects by the Koine the common speech of the Greeks, a modification of the Attic idiom coloured by Ionic, was one obvious sign of the new order of things (see Greek Language).
Conway, The Italic Dialects, pp. 235 sqq., and the earlier authorities there cited.
The Homeric dialect has passed into New Ionic and Attic by gradual but ceaseless development of the same kind as that which brought about the change from Vedic to classical Sanskrit, or from old high German to the present dialects of Germany.
Four dialects are pretty clearly marked (see the article Celt: Language, "Breton," p. 328).
The two most important dialects are the Istro-Rumanian, spoken in part of Istria but rapidly becoming extinct, and the Macedo-Rumanian, spoken by the Kutzo-Vlachs (see Vlachs).
It is probable that until the end of the 10th century Scandinavian dialects were almost the sole language spoken in the district of the Danelagh, and when English triumphed, after an intermediate bilingual state, large numbers of words were adopted from the earlier Scandinavian speech.
According to recent surveys, the number of speakers of these dialects i rapidly decreasing.
Dialects are ungrammatical forms of English · All speakers speak grammatically according to a set of regular patterns (standard or non-standard).
In some dialects, the four utterance types were more clearly distinguished than in others.
Nothing beats an actual human translator, especially one that understands regional dialects and slang words from all Portuguese-speaking areas.
There are many different dialects of spoken Chinese used throughout the world, but written Chinese has been standardized (first as Classical Chinese and since 1919, Vernacular Chinese).
Digital Dialects is a website for fun games you can use to review basics that you have learned.
Squid.org provides character name generators based in cultural dialects or lexicons.
There are different dialects or "modes" of the language such as Quenya, Sindarin or English.
Lord of the Rings Wiki - The Wiki site offers a break down of the Elvish languages, dialects, prononuciations and more.
The two main dialects are that of the Logudoro in the north and that of Cagliari in the south of the island.
Conways Italic Dialects, p. 5).
(I) It is probable, though not very clearly demonstrated, that Venetic, East Italic and Messapian are connected together and with the ancient dialects spoken in Illyria, so that these might be provisionally entitled the Adriatic group, to which the language spoken.
Their language bore the same relation to the Vedic speech as the various Italian dialects bore to Latin.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.