There is dialect variation across the UK.
Soon after the dialect had reached its latest form, the Latin alphabet was adopted.
It was a dialect closely related to Bulgarian.
The one is commonly transitory, a sound, a tongue, a dialect merely, almost brutish, and we learn it unconsciously, like the brutes, of our mothers.
Among the few prose writers of distinction were Andrew Spangar, whose " Hungarian Bookstore," Magyar Konyvtdr (Kassa, 1738), is said to be the earliest work of the kind in the Magyar dialect; George Baranyi, who translated the New Testament (Lauba, 1 754); the historians Michael Cserei and Matthew Bel, which last, however, wrote chiefly in Latin; and Peter Bod, who besides his theological treatises compiled a history of Hungarian literature under the title Magyar Athends (Szeben, 1766).
He was a master at dialect poetry!
Dialect poet William Barnes wrote on Bridport Harbor.
The dialect spoken by everyone looked toward Oslo rather than London.
As there are no traces of literary productions in the native or Magyar dialect before the 12th century, the early condition of the language is concealed from the philologist.
Even the Macedonian dialect, which it was considered proper for the kings to use on occasion, was often for gotten (Plut.
These, as has been seen, spoke a cognate dialect, and the tombs which belong to their period show exactly the same culture with Greek and Siberian elements.
The merchant families of Iannina are well educated; the dialect spoken in that town is the purest specimen of colloquial Greek.
3 By Syriac is denoted the dialect of Aramaic which, during the early centuries of the Christian era, prevailed in Mesopotamia and the adjoining regions.
The technical terms of municipal government are mostly Greek, transliterated into Palmyrene; a few Latin words occur, of course in Aramaic forms. For further characteristics of the dialect see Nuldeke, ZDMG.
His work was entitled the Khoda'inama, which in the old dialect also meant the "Book of Kings."
I am the first academic to gain a PhD by public output featuring video capture and speaking the Doric dialect of NE Scotland.
Subsequently the Dorian element became greatly strengthened by fresh immigrations from the Peloponnesus, and during the historical period all the principal cities of the island were either Dorian colonies, or had adopted the Dorian dialect and institutions.
The book has many fascinating bits of lore, as well as extensive oral poetry, all in Scots dialect.
These can be poems, prose, essays or plays, written in standard English or Northumbrian dialect.
The Panayano dialect of the Visayan language is spoken by most of the inhabitants.
For the text and fuller account of the Volscian inscription, and for other records of the dialect, see R.
The people continued to use a German dialect as their native tongue, though the educated classes also spoke French.
Conway, The Italic Dialects, 352) shows a final -s and a medial -d-, both apparently preserved from the changes which befell these sounds, as we shall see, in the dialect of Iguvium.
Do we first ask do they know the dialect, or do we say, here are people learning the language of Jesus?
Ethnologically the Galicians (Gallegos) are allied to the Portuguese, whom they resemble in dialect, in appearance and in habits more than the other inhabitants of the peninsula.
The Adeli and Akposso hill tribes have a dialect of their own.
The chief record of the dialect or patois we owe to the goddess Angitia, whose chief temple and grove stood at the south-west corner of Lake Fucinus, near the inlet to the emissarius of Claudius (restored by Prince Torlonia), and the modern village of Luco.
From its remote position Carpathus has preserved many peculiarities of dress, customs and dialect, the last resembling those of Rhodes and Cyprus.
The language spoken at Palmyra was a dialect of western Aramaic, and belongs to the same group as Nabataean and the Aramaic spoken in Egypt.
nix, nivis, snow) is adopted from the French dialect of the French Alps; firn is German, meaning "last year's (snow)."
Although the Ingushes speak a Chechen dialect, they have recently been proved to be, anthropologically, quite a distinct race.
Cowie, Shetland (1896); Dr Jakob Jakobsen, The Dialect and Place Names of Shetland (1897).
These were drawn up in the language of the country, a Romance dialect (1288 being the date of the most ancient written code), and are remarkable for the manner in which they define the rights of the sovereign, determining the reciprocal obligations of the viscount and his subjects or vassals.
The thirteen words, in a local dialect of Pali, are written in very ancient characters, and are the oldest inscription as yet discovered in India.
Others found shelter in Rome or Venice, and a large number settled in Ragusa, where they doubtless contributed to the remarkable literary development of the 16th and 17th centuries in which the use of the Bosnian dialect was a characteristic feature.
They display, in a rather irregular style and with some oddities of dialect and phrase, extraordinary narrative skill and a high degree of ability in that special art of the 17th century - the drawing of verbal portraits or characters.
There are two considerable fragments of an English alliterative romance on the subject written in the west midland dialect, and dating from the second half of the 14th century.
Although of Dorian stock, he wrote in the Ionic dialect, like all the physiologi (physical philosophers).
Two forms of Western Aramaic survive: the Jerusalem form of the dialect, in the Aramaic portions of Daniel and Ezra; and the Galilean, in isolated expressions in the Talmud (3rd century), and in a fragmentary 5th century translation of the Bible.
This preeminence may perhaps be due to an early infusion of Fijian blood: it has been observed that such crosses are always more vigorous than the pure races in these islands; and this influence seems also traceable in the Tongan dialect, and appears to have been partially transmitted thence to the Samoan.
Syriac is the eastern dialect of the Aramaic language which, during the early centuries of the Christian era, prevailed in Mesopotamia and the adjoining regions.
More than this, there are many resemblances between the dialect of Koheleth and that of Mishna.
This is occasioned by the y-sound with which u now begins, and is carried further in dialect than in the literary language, sue and suit, for example, being pronounced in Scotland like the Eng.
All these Germanic tribes, which were known from the 3rd century onwards by the generic name of Franks, doubtless spoke a similar dialect and were governed by customs which must scarcely have differed from one another; but this was all they had in common.
The name Albania (in the Tosk dialect Arberia, in the Gheg Arbenia), like Albania in the Caucasus, Armenia, Albany in Britain, and Auvergne (Arvenia) in France, is probably connected with the root alb, alp, and signifies "the white or snowy uplands."
- At least four periods in the history of the dialect can be distinguished in the records we have left to us, by the help of the successive changes (a) in alphabet and (b) in language, which the Tables exhibit.
The population of the different parts of Italy differs in character and dialect; and there is little community of sentiment between them.
2 Elster (Beitrage) says that the poem is the work of two poets: the first part by a Thuringian wandering minstrel, the second - which differs in style and dialect - by a Bavarian official.
Another alliterative poem in the northern dialect, of 15th-century origin, is based on the Historia de proeliis, and was edited by Skeat for the E.E.T.S.
It is not likely that he would write in support of Cardinal Beaton's policy, and the dialect is an exaggerated form of Latinized Middle Scots, differing materially from the language of the Compendious Book.
1 They speak the languages of the localities in which they are settled (Arabic or Persian), but the language of their sacred books is an Aramaic dialect, which has its closest affinities with that of the Babylonian Talmud, written in a peculiar character suggestive of the old Palmyrene.
Kretschmer goes further and divides the Illyrian language into two sharply defined dialects, the northern dialect being represented by the Heneti.
His influence upon his successors has scarcely been as far-reaching as might have been expected - a circumstance which is perhaps in some measure owing to the unfamiliar dialect in which he wrote.
Philological investigations show that it is probable that the progenitors I From the enlistment of Kabyles speaking the Zouave dialect the Zouave regiments of the French army came to be so called.
Approximately to the same period as these early renderings of the Psalter belongs a version of the Apocalypse with a Commentary, the earliest MS. of which (Harleian 874) is written in the dialect of the North Midlands.
The inscription of Scoppito shows that at the time at which it was written the upper Aternus valley must be counted Vestine, not Sabine, in point of dialect.
The inhabitants are mainly of the Saxon stock and speak Low German dialects, except in the Upper Frankish district around Siegen, where the Hessian dialect is spoken.
Apart from some southern dialect forms which have found their way into the literary language, as vat (for fat or wine fat which still survives in the English Bible) and vixen the feminine of fox, all the words in English which begin with V are of foreign, and most of Latin origin.
Douglas's longest, last, and in some respects most important work is his translation of the Aeneid, the first version of a great classic poet in any English dialect.
The Italian and Sicilian Albanians are of Tosk descent, and many of them still speak a variation of the Tosk dialect.
Each tribe occupied a recognized territory, averaging perhaps a dozen square miles, and used a common dialect.
Much of it in later times was written in a curious Tatar dialect.
The Turkoman is the purest form of the Turk element, and his language is the purest form of the Turkish tongue, which is represented at Constantinople by a comparatively mongrel, or mixed, dialect.
Further, one-third of the Belgian provinces was inhabited by a Walloon population divided from the Flemings by racial characteristics and their use of a Romance instead of a Teutonic dialect.
Presumably, therefore, the Scyths also spoke an Iranian dialect.
The use of the same dialect appears in the earliest Christian literature connected.
2), which in turn was so called from its winter frost (14Xa in the Sicel dialect; cf.
Evidently derived from the Chinese, of which it appears to be a very ancient dialect, the Annamese language is composed of monosyllables, of slightly varied articulation, expressing different ideas according to the tone in which they are pronounced.
The rise of speculative philosophy in Greece was coincident with the beginning of prose composition, and many of the earliest philosophers wrote in the prose of the Ionic dialect; others, however, and especially the writers of the Greek colonies in Italy and Sicily, expounded their systems in continuous poems composed in the epic hexameter.
" Bow bells " are famous, and any person born within hearing of them is said to be a " Cockney," a term now applied particularly to the dialect of the lower classes in London.
The coins of Aspendus, though of Greek character, bear legends in a barbarous dialect; and probably the Pamphylians were of Asiatic origin and mixed race.
The population is shown as follows: - Of the inhabitants, who belong to the Lower Saxon (NiederSachsen) race and in daily intercourse mostly speak the Low German (Plattdeutsch) dialect, about two-thirds are natives of the state and one-third immigrants from other parts of Germany, chiefly from Hanover and Oldenburg.
The English dialect in which the Anglo-Saxon laws have been handed down to us is in most cases a common speech derived from West Saxon - naturally enough as Wessex became the predominant English state, and the court of its kings the principal literary centre from which most of the compilers and scribes derived their dialect and spelling.
The local dialect differs from the Mandarin mainly in pronunciation.
Northern: Dialect of Bani Kenz or Mattokki, from the first cataract to Sebu` and Wadi al-`Arab, probably dating from the Diocletian period.
The Cebu dialect of the Visayan language is spoken.
As the district was full of traders, Subura may very well be an imported word, but the form with C must either go back to a period before the disappearance of g before v or must come from some other Italic dialect.
The language is a dialect of Sinhalese, but indicating a separation of ancient date and more or less mahommedanized.
of Savoy, who planted a colony of Genoese, whose dialect and costume still prevail.
Dorian states usually had in common the " Doric " dialect, a peculiar calendar and cycle of festivals of which the Hyacinthia and Carneia were the chief, and certain political and social institutions, such as the threefold " Dorian tribes."
But these have also some forms in common with the " Aeolic " dialect of Boeotia and Thessaly, which in historic times was spoken also in Doris; Locris and Elis present similar northern " Achaean-Doric " dialects.
Arcadia, on the other hand, in the heart of Peloponnese, retained till a late date a quite different dialect, akin to the ancient dialect of Cyprus, and more remotely to Aeolic. This distribution makes it clear (r) that the Doric dialects of Peloponnese represent a superstratum, more recent than the speech of Arcadia; (2) that Laconia and its colonies preserve features alike, -n and -w which are common to southern Doric and Aeolic; (3) that those parts of " Dorian " Greece in which tradition makes the pre-Dorian population " Ionic," and in which the political structure shows that the conquered were less completely subjugated, exhibit the Ionic -a and -ov; (4) that as we go north, similar though more barbaric dialects extend far up the western side of central-northern Greece, and survive also locally in the highlands of south Thessaly; (5) that east of the watershed Aeolic has prevailed over the area which has legends of a Boeotian and Thessalian migration, and replaces Doric in the northern Doris.
All this points on the one hand to an intrusion of Doric dialect into an Arcadian-and-Ionic-speaking area; on the other hand to a subsequent expansion of Aeolic over the north-eastern edge of an area which once was Dorian..
Language is no better guide, for it is not clear that the Dorian dialect is that of the most recent conquerors, and not rather that of the conquered Achaean inhabitants of southern Greece; in any case it presents no such affinities with any non-Hellenic speech as would serve to trace its origin.
SOPHRON, of Syracuse, writer of mimes, flourished about 43 o B.C. He was the author of prose dialogues in the Doric dialect, containing both male and female characters, some serious, others humorous in style, and depicting scenes from the daily life of the Sicilian Greeks.
It is not, however, to be regarded as a reproduction in written form of a Palestinian translation, but rather as an official translation of the Law, in the Judaean dialect, which was carried out in Babylon, probably about the 4th century A.D.: in its final form, according to Dalman (l.c.) it cannot be earlier than the 5th century.
The fallacy that Maltese is a dialect of Arabia has been luminously disproved by A.
In the Chinese history translated into the Tatar dialect by order of the emperor K'ang-hi, who died in 1721, the characters of the cycle begin to appear at the year 2357 B.C. From this it has been inferred 8th May.
They are inhabited by a few families of Arabs, who however speak a dialect differing considerably from the ordinary Arabic. The islands yield some guano.
That these books are the result of compilation (like the book of Chronicles itself) is evident from the many abrupt changes; the inclusion of certain documents written in an Aramaic dialect (Ezr.
The inhabitants to the north of the Eder are of Saxon stock, to the south of Franconian, a difference which is distinctly marked in dialect, costumes and manners.
They are mainly elegiac and in the Ionic dialect, written partly in praise of the Spartan constitution an King Theopompus (Ebvoµia), partly to stimulate the Spartan soldiers to deeds of heroism in the field (`T7roOi icacthe title is, however, later than Tyrtaeus).
Of the marching songs ('Eµ 4 6a-rpea), written in the anapaestic measure and the Doric dialect, only scanty fragments remain (Lycurgus, In Leocratem, p. 211, § 107; Pausanias iv.
7), speaking an " Ashdodite " dialect (xiii.
Their language is a dialect of Persian and does not differ materially from Kurdish.
I by no means say in all his gifts, but only in some single point; as, for instance, the beauty of his language, or its harmony, or the natural and peculiar grace of the Ionic dialect, or his fulness of thought, or by whatever name those thousand beauties are called which to the despair of his imitator are united in him."
Hence scholars are now agreed that the term "Chaldee" is a misnomer, and that the dialect so called is really the language of the SouthWestern Arameans, who were the immediate neighbours of the Jews (W.
Of the two dialects commonly called Sabaean and Minaean the latter might be better called Hadramitic, inasmuch as it is the dialect of the inscriptions found in Hadramut, and the Minaeans seem undoubtedly to have entered the Jauf from Ijadramut.
The dialect of the Minaeans is sharply distinguished from the Sabaeans (see above).
The country had four universities, those of Leipzig, Wittenberg, Jena and Erfurt; books began to increase rapidly, and, by virtue of Luther's translation of the Bible, the Saxon dialect became the ruling dialect of Germany.
The language of the people of Mosul is a dialect of Arabic, partly influenced by Kurdish and Syriac. The Moslems call themselves either Arabs or Kurds, but the prevalent type, very different from the true Arabian of Bagdad, proves the Aramaean origin of many of their number.
Robert of Brunne's Chronicle exists in two MSS.: Petyt MS. 511, written in the Northern dialect, in the Inner Temple library; and Lambeth MS. 131 in a Midland dialect.
To it Sundanese stands in the relation that Low German holds to High German, and the Madurese in the relation of a strongly individualized dialect.
Among the other languages which have been reduced to writing and grammatically analysed are the Balinese, closely connected with the Javanese, the Batta (with its dialect the Toba), the Dyak and the Macassarese.
28 romance of Thomas and the elf-queen was attributed to Erceldoune by Robert Mannyng de Brunne, but the earliest text, in the Auchinleck MS. in the Advocates' library, Edinburgh, is in a dialect showing southern forms, and dates from the beginning of the 14th century.
The language of the people is a dialect of Songhoi.
They spoke a dialect of Turkish preserved in the Kudatku Bilik, a moral treatise composed in 1065.
Here appeared the Monumenta Poloniae historica of Bielowski, previously mentioned; but Polish in this province has to struggle with the Red-Russian or Ruthenian, a language or dialect which for all practical purposes is the same as the Southern or Little Russian.
Castilian is spoken by the upper and commercial classes; the lower and agricultural employ a dialect resembling that of the Catalans.
We further possess a Samaritan Targum of the Pentateuch written in the Samaritan dialect, a variety of western Aramaic, and also an Arabic translation of the five books of the law; the latter dating perhaps from the 11th century A.D.
Horner's The Coptic Version of the New Testament in the Northern Dialect (Oxford); Scrivener's Introduction (ed.
Spanish, with various modifications of dialect, and the introduction of many Indian words, is the principal language; and the majority of the inhabitants claim descent from the Spanish colonists - chiefly Galicians - who came hither during the 16th and subsequent centuries.
They are distinct in origin from the other inhabitants of Spain, from whom they differ in their dialect and costume.
Confirmatory evidence of this is to be found, not only in the character of their constructions, but in the circumstance that a tribe closely akin to the Mayas (the Huastecos) still occupies a retired mountain valley of Vera Cruz, entirely separated from their kinsmen of the south, and that a dialect of the Maya language is still spoken in northern Vera Cruz.
In Mexico itself the languages of the Nahua nations, of which the Aztec is the best-known dialect, show no connexion of origin with the language of the Otomi tribes, nor either of these with the languages of the regions of the ruined cities of Central America, the Quiche of Guatemala and the Maya of Yucatan.
The language spoken by the Pipils of Salvador (Balsam Coast) is a very old dialect of the Mexican language of the highland of Mexico.
The Sumo-Misquito Indians occupied the Atlantic coast and the interior of Nicaragua and Honduras, where they still live in small tribes; a dialect of the hitherto unknown Sumo languages.
The dialect of the translation of St Matthew is Mercian.'
In the 12th century the same gospels were again copied by pious hands into the Kentish dialect of the period.
French - or rather the Anglo-Norman dialect of the period - reigned supreme amongst the upper classes, in schools, in parliament, in the courts of law and in the palace of the king.
In fact before the middle of the r4th century the entire Old Testament and the greater part of the New Testament had been translated into the Anglo-Norman dialect of the period.
The Commentary gained immediate and lasting popularity, and spread in numerous copies throughout the country, the peculiarities of the hermit's vigorous northern dialect being either modified or wholly removed in the more 4 K.
Of the Lollard movement in Scotland but little is known, but a curious relic has come down to our times in the shape of a New Testament of Purvey's Revision in the Scottish dialect of the early 16th century.
With the exception of a few fragments written in a Pehlevi dialect, all this recovered Manichaean literature is in the Ouigour or Vigur dialect of Tatar.
German is the official language, though among themselves the natives speak a dialect of Frisian, barely intelligible to the other islands of the group. There is regular communication with Bremen and Hamburg.
But the native tradition of the Ghuzz was unquestionably right, as they spoke a pure Turkish dialect.
In character and interests he was rather Provencal than Spanish, a favourer of the troubadours, no enemy of the Albigensian heretics, and himself a poet in the southern French dialect.
Like so many of his countryman he displayed great linguistic ability, and his quick ear caught up even peculiarities of dialect.
The Hawaiian language is a member of the widely-diffused Malayo-Polynesian group and closely resembles the dialect of the Marquesas; Hawaiians and New Zealanders, although occupying the most remote regions north and south at which the race has been found, can understand each other without much difficulty.
66 and 74) that the dialect used in the district differed somewhat from urban Latin.
Though again in the Transcendental Dialect he spoke of pure reason conceiving " ideals " of noumena, he did not mean that a noumenon is nothing but a thought arising only through thinking, or projected by reason, but meant that pure reason can only conceive the " ideal " while, over and above the " ideal " of pure reason, a noumenon is a real thing, a thing in itself, which is not indeed known, but whose existence is postulated by practical reason in the three instances of God, freedom, and immortality.
The men are tall, handsome and well-made, and the women are among the most beautiful in Spain; while the dark complexion and hair of both sexes, and their peculiar dialect of Spanish, so distasteful to pure Castilians, are indisputable evidence of Moorish descent.
Most of these elements have now become merged in the general type, but there are still many communities in which the popular language is a corrupt German dialect, largely Rheno-Franconian in its origin, known as " Pennsylvania Dutch."
The Tibetans call their country Bod, which (For the northern part, see China) Scale, 1:9.500.000 0 Railways Longitude East 85 of Greenwich word in colloquial pronunciation is aspirated into Bhod or Bhot, and in the modern Lhasa dialect is curtailed into Bho.
On the north bordering on Turkestan the dialect of the nomadic Hor-pa tribes is much mixed with Turkic ingredients.
Lewin with the help of a Sikkimese lama compiled A Manual of Tibetan, or rather a series of colloquial phrases in the Sikkimese dialect, in 1879.
Bell (Calcutta, 1905), which has full English-Tibetan vocabularies, graduated exercises and examples in the Lhasa dialect of to-day.
The question has turned mainly upon the elucidation of the phenomenon of the silent letters, generally prefixed, which differentiate the spelling of many words from their pronunciation, in the central dialect or current speech of Lhasa.
- Inscriptions, coins, topographical names preserved by Greek and Latin writers, names of persons and the Punic passages in the Poenulus of Plautus, all show conclusively that the Phoenician language belonged to the North-Semitic group, and to that subdivision of it which is called the Canaanite and includes Hebrew and the dialect of Moab.
As a rustic dialect the language lasted on in North Africa till the 5th century A.D.
While still a boy he accompanied his father to Florence, and there acquired a love for that Tuscan form of speech which he afterwards cultivated in preference to the dialect of his native city.
A dialect with many old Persian forms and resembling the Mazan daran dialect is spoken.
The fellow-countrymen of Stevinus were proud that he wrote in their own dialect, which he thought fitted for a universal language, as no other abounded like Dutch in monosyllabic radical words.
In Switzerland there are Italian-speaking regions, as well as some spots (in the Grisons) where the old Romance dialect of Romansch or Ladin survives; while in Austria, besides German, Italian and Ladin, we havea Slavonic-speaking population in the South-Eastern Alps.
Zimmerli, Die deutsch franzosische Sprachgrenze in der Schweiz (3 vols., 1891-1899); besides the great Swiss Dialect Dictionary (Schweiz.
The Mazurs are distinguished from the Poles by their lower stature, broad shoulders and massive frame, and still more by their national dress, which has nothing of the smartness of that of the southern Poles, and by their ancient customs; they have also a dialect of their own, containing many words now obsolete in Poland, and several grammatical forms bearing witness to Lithuanian influence.
The language of the Kaszubes can also be considered as a separate dialect.
The Nubas have their own language, though the inhabitants of each hill have usually a different dialect.
In and after the later part of the 5th century it received many Celtic immigrants from the British Isles, fleeing (it is said) from the Saxons; and the Celtic dialect which the Bretons still speak is thought to owe its origin to these immigrants.
The most interesting of these are such as are written in the Oscan dialect, which appears to have continued in official use down to the time when the Roman colony was introduced by Sulla.
The vernacular language is not Bengali, but a dialect of Hindi; and the people likewise resemble those of Upper India.
The East and West Franks were unable to understand each others speech, so Charles took the oath in a Romance, and Louis in a German dialect.
Rolle wrote in the northern dialect, but southern transcripts are also found, and the poem exists in a Latin version (Stimulus conscientiae).
The result of these various forms of Italian influence has been that all the other tongues of the island have died out before the advance of a peculiar dialect of Italian.
Hence comes the fact, at first sight so strange, that Greek, Arabic and French have all given way to a dialect of Italian.
In Athens the Hellenic genius was focussed, its tendencies drawn together and combined; nor was it a circumstance of small moment that the Attic dialect attained, for prose, a classical authority; for if Hellenism was to be propagated in the world at large, it was obviously convenient that it should have some one definite form of speech to be its medium.
How far the country generally may be regarded as Hellenized is a problem which involves the vexed question what right the Macedonian people itself has to be classed among the Hellenes, and Macedonian to be considered a dialect of Greek.'
It is said that Othman directed Zaid and his associates, in cases of disagreement, to follow the Koreish dialect; but, though well attested, this account can scarcely be correct.
They are written in the Doric dialect, with epic licences; the metre is dactylico-trochaic. Brief as they are, they show us what Longinus meant by calling Stesichorus "most like Homer"; they are full of epic grandeur, and have a stately sublimity that reminds us of Pindar.
Each tribe has a different ju-ju, and each speaks a separate language or dialect, the most widely diffused tongues being the Ibo and Efik, which have been reduced to writing.
Familiar with Greek as the language in common use among the cultivated classes of his district, and with Oscan, the prevailing dialect of lower Italy, he further acquired a knowledge of Latin; to use his own expression (Gellius xvii.
The Arabic spoken by the middle and higher classes is generally inferior in grammatical correctness and pronunciation to that of the Bedouins of Arabia, but is purer than that of Syria or the dialect spoken by the Western Arabs.
The inscriptions we possess are enough to show that the dialect spoken by these tribes was substantially the same from the northern boundary of the Frentani to some place in the upper Aternus valley not far from Amiternum (mod.
Aquila), and that this dialect closely resembled the Oscan of Lucania and Samnium, though presenting some peculiarities of its own, which warrant, perhaps, the use of the name North Oscan.
3087, 3137); and, on the other hand, as several of the native inscriptions, which are all in the Latin alphabet, show the normal letters of the Ciceronian period, there is little doubt that, for religious and private purposes at least, the Paelignian dialect lasted down to the middle of the 1st century B.C.
In Assyrian the name was Mu~ri, Mien: in Arabic it is Milr, y~.a, pronounced Ma~r in the vulg~mr dialect of Egypt.
The Neuagyptische Grammatik (1880) dealt with texts written in the vulgar dialect of the New Kingdom (Dyns.
There is evidence that the amount of stress on syllables, and the consequent length of vowels, varied greatly in spoken Coptic, and that the variation gave much trouble to the scribes; the early Christian writers must have taken as a model for each dialect the deliberate speech of grave elders or preachers, and so secured a uniform system of accentuation.
The main divisions of Christian Coptic as recognized and named at present are: Sahidic (formerly called Theban), spoken in the upper Thebais; Akhmimic, in the neighborhood of Akhmim, but driven out by Sahidic about the 5th century; Fayumic, in the Fayum (formerly named wrongly Bashmuric, from a province of the Delta); Bohairic, the dialect of the coast district (formerly named Memphite), spoken in the north-western Delta.
=kl Coptic K;or(V~,X, according to dialect.
Not improbably they spoke a dialect (or dialects) akin to Arabic or Aramaic. 5 According to the Mahommedans, Ishmael, who is recognized as their ancestor, lies buried with his mother in the Kaaba in Mecca.
Among the documents is one of the earliest specimens of the Scots dialect.
In the 6th century the Sla y s penetrated to the Morea, where a Slavonic dialect was spoken down to the middle of the 15th century.
The mannerism, which has been attributed to an imitation of Jean Paul, appeared to Carlyle himself to be derived rather from the phrases current in his father's house, and in any case gave an appropriate dialect for the expression of his peculiar idiosyncrasy.
is written in pure south-western dialect.
The language shows considerable traces of the Midland dialect.
209), giving an analysis of the differences in dialect between the two works; and Edgar Elliott Bramlette, "The Original Language of the Ancren Riwle," in Anglia, xv.
Each of the two schools kept an arrangement of the canon - still in Pali, or some allied dialect.
It may be also regarded as 'part of the boundary line between north and south Germany, for dialect, customs, local names and costume are different on the two sides.
The Caras, according to tradition, entered the country from the coast, and had thoroughly established themselves there long before the conquest by the Inca rulers Tupac-Yupanqui and his son Huayna-Capac. This conquest was comparatively easy because the Caras spoke a dialect of the same language, and were not greatly unlike their conquerors in manners and customs. The present Indian population of Ecuador, excepting those of the trans-Andean region, may be considered as descendants of these two races.
The inhabitants of this tract are Persians or Arabs who by domicile and intermarriage with Persians have lost nearly all their racial and most of their social characteristics, but retain a dialect of Arabic as their mother tongue.
These people live under the poorest conditions, by doing smith's work; they speak among themselves a Romani dialect, much contaminated with Arabic in its vocabulary.
Hanoteau, Essai de grammaire de la langue tamachek, &c. (Paris, 1860); Minutoli, Siwah Dialect (Berlin, 1827).
Just as two centuries earlier the Jesuits at Madura, in the extreme south, composed works in Tamil, which are still acknowledged as classical by native authors, so did the Baptist mission at Serampur, near Calcutta, first raise Bengali to the rank of a literary dialect.
He collected the body of doctrine into an authoritative version, in the Magadhi language or dialect of his central kingdom in Behar - a version which for two thousand years has formed the canon (pitakas) of the southern Buddhists.
He opened schools and universities, and he himself wrote poetry in Sicilian dialect.
Some phonetic characteristics of the dialect may be regarded as quite certain; (I) the change of the original short o to a (as in the last syllable of the genitive kalatoras); (2) of final -m to -n (as in g ran); (3) of -ni- -ti- -si- respectively to -nn- -to- and -ss- as in dazohonnes " Dasonius," dazohonnihi " Dasonii"; dazetOes, gen.
The change of o to a is exceedingly interesting as being a phenomenon associated with the northern branches of Indo-European such as Gothic, Albanian and Lithuanian, and not appearing in any other southern dialect hitherto known.
The Arakanese are of Burmese origin, but separated from the parent stock by the Arakan Yoma mountains, and they have a dialect and customs of their own.
The inhabitants are distinguished from those of the mainland by peculiarities of dialect, costume and habits; and even the various peninsulas differ from each other in these particulars.
In the " cockney " dialect, really the dialect of Essex but now no less familiar in Cambridge and Middlesex, the ai sound of i is represented by of as in toime, " time," while a has become ai in Kate, pane, &c. In all southern English o becomes more rounded while it is being pronounced, so that it ends with a slight u 'sound.
In the vulgar dialect already mentioned, the sound begins as a more open sound than in the cultivated pronunciation, so that no is really pronounced as naou.
Though the chronology of the period is somewhat uncertain, the date must be in the first half of the 9th century B.C. It is to be remembered, however, that important as this monument is for the development of the alphabet, and because it can be dated with tolerable accuracy, the dialect and alphabet of Moab are not in themselves proof for the Phoenician forms which influenced the peoples of the Aegean, and through them Western Europe.
The explanation is possible, but it is not easy to see why, for example, the symbol 9 or cp = Koppa, the Latin Q, should have been utilized for a sound so different as p-h; nor, again, why the symbol for 0 (e) by losing its cross stroke should become 4), seeing that the sounds of o and outside Aeolic (a dialect which is not here in question) are never confused.
Y and Z were added in the last century of the republic for use in transliterating Greek words containing v and 1.1 The dialect which was most closely akin to Latin was Faliscan.
Besides the Italic alphabets already mentioned, which are all derived from the alphabet of the Chalcidian Greek colonists in Italy, there were at least four other alphabets in use in different parts of Italy: (i) the Messapian of the south-east part of the peninsula, in which the inscriptions of the Illyrian dialect in use there were written, an alphabet which, according to Pauli (Alt-italische Forschungen, iii.
In all these matters Glagolitic differs very little from Cyrillic; it has only one symbol for ja (ya) and e because both in this dialect were pronounced the same.
Either two sounds are confused under one symbol, or these records represent a dialect which, like Hebrew and Assyrian, shows sh, z, and c, where the ordinary Aramaic representation is t, d, and t, the Arabic tic, dh, and th.
Inscriptions in a kindred dialect were brought from El-Ola, in the north of the Hedjaz, by Professor Euting.
The rock inscriptions in the wild district of Safah near Damascus which have been collected by Halevy are also written in an Arabic dialect, but, owing chiefly to their careless execution, they are to a large extent unintelligible.
It may be premised that although the existing MS. is written in the West-Saxon dialect, the phenomena of the language indicate transcription from an Anglian (i.e.
The longest is written in the Ionic dialect, and bears the name of Herodotus, but is certainly spurious.
But in the Ionic dialect the sound of died out soon after Homer's time, if indeed it was still pronounced then.
(b) The dialect of Homer is an early or " primitive " form of the language which we know as that of Attica in the classical age of Greek literature.
It has been thought indeed that the Homeric dialect was a mixed one, mainly Ionic, but containing Aeolic and even Doric forms; this, however, is a mistaken view of the processes of language.
It is clear that the variety of forms in Homer is too great for any actual spoken dialect.
The effect of dialect on style was always recognized in Greece, and the dialect which had once been adopted by a particular kind of poetry was ever afterwards adhered to.
Experience shows how some one dialect in a country gains a literary supremacy to which the whole nation yields.
But as soon as the dialect is adopted, it begins to diverge from the colloquial form.
There were doubtless poets before Homer, as well as brave men before Agamemnon; and indeed the formation of a poetical dialect such as the Homeric must have been the work of several generations.
The use of that dialect (instead of Aeolic) by the Boeotian poet Hesiod, in a kind of poetry which was not of the Homeric type, tends to the conclusion that the literary ascendancy of the epic dialect was anterior to the Iliad and Odyssey, and independent of the influence exercised by these poems.
The view that Homer underwent at any time a passage from one dialect to another may be dismissed.
As the dialect of the Arno in Italy, of Castille in Spain, by the virtue of the genius of the singers who used them, became literary " Italian " and " Spanish," so this variety of Achaean elevated itself to the position of the volgare illustre of Greece)] (T.
(Oxford, 1901, P. 455 sqq.), and the abstract of his paper on the Homeric Dialect read to the Congress of Historical Sciences at Rome, 1903: Atti del Congresso internazionale di scienze storiche, ii.
The Homeric dialect must be studied in the books (such as those of G.
A copy of it, in the poet's own Northumbrian dialect, and in a handwriting of the 8th century, appears ona blank page of the Moore MS. of Beeda's History; and five other Latin MSS.
of Bada have the poem (but transliterated into a more southern dialect) as a marginal note.
Hickes, whose chief argument, based on the character of the language, is now known to be fallacious, as most of the poetry that has come down to us in the West Saxon dialect is certainly of Northumbrian origin.
But these words are mere jargon, not belonging to any known or possible Old English dialect.
From the mention in the letters of towns (Phintia, Alaesa and Tauromenium) which did not exist in the time of Phalaris, from the imitations of authors (Herodotus, Democritus, Euripides, Callimachus) who wrote long after he was dead, from the reference to tragedies, though tragedy was not yet invented in the lifetime of Phalaris, from the dialect, which is not Dorian but Attic, nay, New or Late Attic, as well as from absurdities in the matter, and the entire absence of any reference to them by any writer before Stobaeus (c. A.D.
He says expressly that they were not pure Scythians, but, being descended from young Scythian men and Amazons, spoke an impure dialect and allowed their women to take part in war and to enjoy much freedom.
The Greek dialect of Cyprus points in the same direction; it shows marked resemblances with that of Arcadia, and forms with it a " South Achaean " or " South Aeolic " group, related to the " Northern Aeolic " of Thessaly and other parts of north Greece.'
In Citium and Idalium, on the other hand, a Phoenician dialect and alphabet were in use from the time of Sargon onward.'
Gaulish, which was supplanted in France by Latin, had p, as in petor-ritum, " fourwheeled car," and is thus allied to the Brythonic group; but it is believed that remains of a continental Celtic qu- dialect appear in such names as Sequani, and in some recently discovered inscriptions.
dialect (akin to Mandaitic), that of the Pal.
It got its name from the resemblance of the promontory at the confluence of the two Niles to an elephant's trunk, the meaning of khartum in the dialect of Arabic spoken in the locality.
The possibility that Zoroaster himself was not a native of East Iran,but had immigrated thither (from Rhagae?), is of course always to be considered; and this theory has been used to explain the phenomenon that the Gathas, of his own composition, are written in a different dialect from the rest of the Avesta.
of which the language was the dialect of Edessa, a city in which the last king of Osroene, Abgar IX.
Here the poems of the prophet and fragments of ancient religious literature survived, understood by the Magians and rendered accessible to the faithful laity by versions in the modern dialect (Pahlavi).
The interpretation of the Persian seiform, the character and dialect of which were equally known, was begun by G.
The tongue of the vast majority of the Dutch-speaking inhabit ants may thus be said to be a degenerate dialect of the 17th-century Dutch of Holland, with a very limited vocabulary.
There thus grew up an ungrammatical dialect of Dutch, suited only to the most ordinary requirements of the everyday life of a rural population.
Moreover, the services of the Church have always been conducted in grammatical though simple Dutch; and the clergy, in their intercourse with the people, have as a general rule abstained from conversing in the ordinary dialect.
Owing probably to the fact that Makran was for many generations under the rule of the Persian kings, the Baluchi spoken on the west of the province, which is also called Makrani, is more largely impregnated with Persian words and expressions than the Eastern dialect.
The philological classification of the Brahui dialect has been much disputed, but the latest enquiries, conducted by Dr G.
The peasantry, especially in the north, are closely akin to the Galician and Asturian Spaniards in character, physique and dialect; and these three ethnical groups - Portuguese of the north, Galicians, Asturians - may perhaps be regarded as the purest representatives of the Spanish stock.
His chief claim to recognition consists in the fact that he transplanted rhetoric to Greece, and contributed to the diffusion of the Attic dialect as the language of literary prose.
Where possible, he substitutes human for divine intervention, and ignores the idea of the glorification of Rome and Augustus, which dominates the Virgilian epic. On this work were founded the Eneide or Eneit (between i180 and 1190) of Heinrich von Veldeke, written in Flemish and now only extant in a version in the Thuringian dialect, and the Eneydos, written by William Caxton in 1490.
He was the first of their kings who collected their customs under the name of laws - and he did this, not in their own Teutonic dialect, but in Latin.
The Kazan Tatars speak a pure Turkish dialect; they are middle-sized, broadshouldered and strong, and mostly have black eyes, a straight nose and salient cheek bones.
(11) The Altai Tatars, or "Altaians," comprise - (a) the Mountain Kalmucks (12,000), to whom this name has been given by mistake, and who have nothing in common with the Kalmucks except their dress and mode of life, while they speak a Turkish dialect, and (b) the Teleutes, or Telenghites (5800), a remainder of a formerly numerous and warlike nation who have migrated from the mountains to the lowlands, where they now lave along with Russian peasants.
Among the Germans the prevalent tongue is Low German, but the North Frisians on the west coast of Schleswig and the North Sea islands (about 19,000 in all) still speak a Frisian dialect, which, however, is dying out.
By his editio princeps of the Samaritan Pentateuch and Targum, in the Paris Polyglott, he gave the first impulse in Europe to the study of this dialect, which he acquired without a teacher (framing a grammar for himself) by the study of MSS.
The town of Hyeres seems to have been founded in the 10th century, as a place of defence against pirates, and takes its name from the aires (hierbo in the Provencal dialect), or threshingfloors for corn, which then occupied its site.
Each tribe speaks a different language or dialect of Bantu,, the chief groups being described in the article Bantu Languages.
A larger collection, possibly more extensive than that of Artemidorus, and including poems of doubtful authenticity, was known to Suidas, who says: ` L' Theocritus wrote the so-called bucolic poems in the Dorian dialect.
The mother-tongue of this mixed race is Spanish, with an infusion of Mexican words; and a large proportion cannot speak any native dialect.
His language, expressing thoughts by conventional articulate sounds, is the same in essential principle as the most cultivated philosophic dialect, only less exact and copious.
is the Palestinian dialect of Aramaic.'
They wrote in the Ionic dialect, in what was called the unperiodic style, and preserved the poetic character of their epic model.
Mention may also be made of the following: Hecataeus of Miletus (550-476); Acusilaus of Argos, 2 who paraphrased in prose (correcting the tradition where it seemed necessary) the genealogical works of Hesiod in the Ionic dialect; he confined his attention to the prehistoric period, and made no attempt at a real history; Charon of Lampsacus (c. 450), author of histories of Persia, Libya, and Ethiopia, of annals (a)pot) of his native town with lists of the prytaneis and archons, and of the chronicles of Lacedaemonian kings; Xanthus of Sardis in Lydia (c. 450), author of a history of Lydia, one of the chief authorities used by Nicolaus of Damascus (II.
Apart from the wealthier landowners, who speak French fluently, and send their children to be educated in France, they use the Catalan dialect of Spanish.
Ferdinand grew up athletic, but ignorant, ill-bred, addicted to the lowest amusements; he delighted in the company of the lazzaroni (the most degraded class of the Neapolitan people), whose dialect and habits he affected, and he even sold fish in the market, haggling over the price.
The port of K`iungchow-fu at the mouth of the river, which is nearly dry at low water, is called simply Hoi-how, or in the court dialect Hai-Vow, i.e.
The Chinese were for the most part originally from Kwang-si and the neighbouring provinces, and they speak a peculiar dialect, of which a detailed account by Mr Swinhoe was given in The Phoenix, a Monthly Magazine for China, &c. (1870).
They speak a marked Persian dialect, but a Turki idion closely akin to the Turkoman is still current amongst the tribes, although they have mostly already passed from the nomad to the settled state.
Edessa now became the principal seat of Aramaic-Christian (Syriac) language and literature; the literary dialect of Syriac is the dialect of Edessa.
The Veddahs exhibit the phenomenon of a race living the wildest of savage lives and yet speaking an Aryan dialect.
There is, however, in Travancore, on the mainland, a low-caste "Veda" tribe, nearly black, with wavy or frizzly hair, and now speaking a Malayalim (Dravidian) dialect (Jagor), who probably approach nearer than the insular Veddahs to the aboriginal pre-Dravidian "negrito" element of southern India and Malaysia.
Like the Buddhist scriptures, the earlier Jain books are written in a dialect of their own, the so-called Jaina Prakrit; and it was not till between A.D.
The apprehension never died out in his mind; and when he knew that the principles and abstractions, the un-English dialect and destructive dialectic, of his former acquaintances were predominant in the National Assembly, his suspicion that the movement would end in disastrous miscarriage waxed into certainty.
Their customs and dialect persisted, the latter maintaining a peculiar resemblance to that of the equally conservative Cypriotes.
The Upper and Lower Saxon, the Thuringian and the Frankish races have all contributed to form the present people, and their respective influences are still to be traced in the varieties of dialect.
The Uzbegs, who played a predominant political part in Turkestan before the Russian conquest, are of Turko-Tatar origin and speak a pure Jagatai (Turkish) dialect; but they are mixed to a great extent with Persians, Kirghiz and Mongols.
There are valuable vegetable dye-stuffs, medicinal plants (especially sarsaparilla, copaiba and ipecacuanha), cabinet and building timber (mahogany, &c.), india-rubber, tropical fruits (especially bananas), and various palms; fish are economically important - the name Panama is said to have meant in an Indian dialect " rich in fish " - and on the Pacific coast, oysters and pearl " oysters " (Meleagrina californica) - the headquarters of the pearl fishery is the city of San Miguel on the largest of the Pearl Islands, and Coiba Island.
The Portuguese withdrew from the coast in the 18th century, but one of the most striking proofs of their commercial influence is the fact that a corrupt Lusitanian dialect was spoken by the older natives up to the last quarter of the 19th century.
In the dignity and simplicity of the old backwoodsman there is something almost Hebraic. With his naïve vanity and strong reverent piety, his valiant wariness, his discriminating cruelty, his fine natural sense of right and wrong, his rough limpid honesty, his kindly humour, his picturesque dialect, and his rare skill in woodcraft, he has all the breadth and roundness of a type and all the eccentricities and peculiarities of a portrait.
A separate tribe, the Filmans, i.e Finnmans, wander about the Pazyets, Motov and Pechenga tundras, and retain the peculiar dialect and the Lutheran creed which they owe to a former connexion with Sweden.
Qvigstad; a dictionary (1890) and two grammars (1891 and 1897) of the Lulea dialect, and a chrestomathy of Norwegian Lappish (1894), by K.
Wiklund; a dictionary of Russian Lappish, or the Kola dialect (1891), by A.
It was not until 1840 that the New Testament was translated into Norwegian Lappish, and not until 1895 that the entire Bible was printed in the same dialect.
In the Russian dialect of Lappish there exist only two versions of St Matthew's gospel.
Vuk Stefanovich Karajich called the first dialect the " South-Western or Herzegovinian dialect," the second the " Syrmian," the third the " Ressava " dialect.
Of all the Servian dialects the most correct, richest and softest is the Herzegovinian or Zetta-Bosnian dialect.
All the national songs which he transcribed from the recitations of the bards were written and published by him in that dialect, into which the Bible has also been translated.
But, as in the second half of the 19th century the kingdom of Servia, speaking the Ressava or ShumadiyaSyrmian dialect, became the centre of Servian literary activity, the last-mentioned dialect tended to become the literary language.
These differences are so insignificant that it was very natural that the Croats after having tried to convert the chaka y ski dialect into a separate literary language were compelled to abandon that attempt and to adopt the shtokayski.
Barnes also wrote a number of educational books, such as Elements of Perspective, Outlines of Geography, and in 1833 first began his poems in the Dorsetshire dialect, among them the two eclogues " The'Lotments "and" A Bit o'Sly Coorten," in the pages of the local paper.
In 1844 he published Poems of Rural Life in the Dorset Dialect.
The second series of dialect poems, Hwomely Rhymes, appeared in 1859 (2nd ed.
A new series of Poems of Rural Life in the Dorset Dialect appeared in 1862, and he was persuaded in 1868 to publish a series of Poems of Rural Life in Common English, which was less successful than his dialect poems. These latter were collected into a single volume in 1879, and on the 7th of October 1886 Barnes died at Winterborne Came.
His original and suggestive books on the English language, which are valuable in spite of their eccentricities, include: - Se Gefylsta: an Anglo-Saxon Delectus (1849); A Grammar and Glossary of the Dorset Dialect (1864); An Outline of English Speech-Craft (1878); and A Glossary of the Dorset Dialect (Dorchester, 1886).
The Italians are chiefly confined to the coast; the Germans congregate at Semlin and Warasdin; the Slovenes are settled along the north-western frontier, where they have introduced their language, and so greatly modified the local dialect; the gipsies wander from city to city, as horse-dealers, metal workers or musicians; there are numerous Moravian and Bohemian settlements; and near Mitrovica there is a colony of Albanians.
Apart from the Kajkavci dialect, the whole body of SerboCroatian literature up to the 19th century may justly be regarded as the common heritage of Serbs and Croats.
One result of this nationalist revival was the unsuccessful attempt made between 1814 and 1830 to raise the Cakavci dialect to the rank of a distinctive literary language for CroatiaSlavonia; but the Illyrist movement of 1840 led to the adoption of the Stokavci, which was already the vernacular of the majority of Serbo-Croats.
To the south of the line the condition of affairs is entirely different; here the entire population speaks one or another dialect of the Bantu Languages.
It is an interesting fact that both Wilfrid and Willibrord appear to have found no difficulty from the first in preaching to the Frisians in their native dialect, which was so nearly allied to their own Anglo-Saxon tongue.
At present a Frisian dialect is spoken only between Tondern and Husum, but formerly it extended farther both to the north and south.
The inhabitants of the neighbouring islands, Sylt, Amrum and Fiihr, who speak a kindred dialect, have apparently never regarded themselves as Frisians, and it is the view of many scholars that they are the direct descendants of the ancient Saxons.
It maintained throughout the whole of the republican period a certain distinctiveness of nationality, which was marked by the preservation of a different dialect and of a separate stadtholder.
The extent and permanence of the Danish influence in Lincolnshire is still observable in the names of its towns and villages and in the local dialect, and, though about 918 the confederate boroughs were recaptured by Edward the Elder, in 993 a Viking fleet again entered the Humber and ravaged Lindsey, and in 1013 the district of the five boroughs acknowledged the supremacy of Sweyn.
FALISCI, a tribe of Sabine origin or connexions, but speaking a dialect closely akin to Latin, who inhabited the town of Falerii, as well as a considerable tract of the surrounding country, probably reaching as far south as to include the small town of Capena.
Its most characteristic signs are t As a specimen of the dialect may be quoted the words written round the edge of a picture on a patera, the genuineness of which is established by the fact that they were written before the glaze was put on: "foied vino pipafo, cra carefo," i.e.
This shows some of the phonetic characteristics of the Faliscan dialect, viz.: - 1.
73) is discussed, and where reason is given for thinking that the change of initial f (from an original bh or dh) into an initial h was a genuine mark of Faliscan dialect.
It seems probable that the dialect lasted on, though being gradually permeated with Latin, till at least 150 B.C.
A large number of inscriptions consisting mainly of proper names may be regarded as Etruscan rather than Faliscan, and they have been disregarded in the account of the dialect just given.
Their language is almost exclusively Shilhah, a dialect of Berber.
744 - which seems to connect it with the locative of aequum " a plain," so that it would mean "dwellers in the plain"; but in the historical period they certainly lived mainly in the hills), we should know whether they were to be grouped with the q or the p dialects, that is to say, with Latin on the one hand, which preserved an original q, or with the dialect of Velitrae, commonly called Volscian (and the Volsci were the constant allies of the Aequi), on the other hand, in which, as in the Iguvine and Samnite dialects, an original q is changed into p. There is no decisive evidence to show whether the q in Latin aequus represents an Indo-European q as in Latin quis, Umbro-Volsc. pis, or an Indo-European k + u as in equus, Umb.
See further the articles MARSI, VOLSCI, LATINI, and the references there given; the place-names and other scanty records of the dialect are collected by R.
They had learnt to write in Arabic, and used Arabic letters even when writing Latin, or the corrupt dialect of Latin which they spoke.
Aragon spoke a dialect of Castilian.
Catalan, by its most characteristic features, belongs to the Romance of southern France and not to that of Spain; it is legitimate, therefore, to regard it as imported into Spain by those His pani whom the Arab conquest had driven back beyond the mountains into Languedoc, and who in the 9th century regained the country of their origin; this conclusion is confirmed by the fact that the dialect is also that of two French provinces on the north of the PyreneesRoussillon and Cerdagne.
Even Murcia was peopled by Catalans in 1266, but this province really is part of the Castilian conquest, and accordingly the Castilian element took the upper hand and absorbed the dialect of the earlier colonists.
Cabalan Dialect of Aighero (Sardinia).As compared with that of the mainland, the Catalan of Alghero, introduced into this portion of Sardinia by the Aragonese conquerors and colonists, does not present any very important differences; some of them, such as they are, are explicable by the influence of the indigenous dialects of Sassari and Logudoro.
A ndaiusianThe word dialect is still more appropriately applied to Andalusian than either to Asturian or Navarrese-Aragonese.
It is with the Andalusian dialect that we can most readily associate the varieties of Castilian which are spoken in South America.
Leonese.Proceeding on inadequate indications, the existence of a Leonese dialect has been imprudently admitted in some quarters; but the old kingdom of Leon cannot in any way be considered as constituting a linguistic domain with an individuality of its own.
Portuguese and Galician even now are practically one language, and still more was this the case formerly: the identity of the two idioms would become still more obvious if the orthography employed by the Galicians were more strictly phonetic, and if certain transcriptions of sounds borrowed from the grammar of the official language (Castilian) did not veil the true pronunciation of the dialect.
In conjugation the peculiarities of Gallego are more marked; some find their explanation within the dialect itself, others seem to be due to Castilian influence.
For the Catalan dialect of Sardinia see G.
See also C. C. Marden, The Phonology of the Spanish Dialect of Mexico City (Baltimore, 1896); J., Sanchez Somoano, Modismos, locuciones y trm/nos mexicanos (Madrid, 1892), and F.
The peculiar dialect and customs of the inhabitants still survive to some extent.
The Aeolic form of the name, /piipva, was retained even in the Attic dialect, and the epithet "Aeolian Smyrna" remained long after the conquest.
And the whole local colour of the work, in point of dialect and also as regards the manners and customs described, clearly belongs to Egypt as it was from the 14th to the 16th century.
De Roepstorff, Dictionary of the Nancowry Dialect (Calcutta, 1884); Vocabulary of Dialects in the Nicobar and Andaman Islands (2nd ed., Calcutta, 1875); Prevost and Heing, Report on Preliminary Tour through the Nicobar Islands (Government, Rangoon, 1897); J.
The former are (I) the Dohabali, consisting of 573 miscellaneous doha and soratha verses; of this there is a duplicate in the Reim-satsai, an arrangement of seven centuries of verses, the great majority of which occur also in the Dohabali and in other works of Tulsi; (2) the Kabitta Ramayan or Kabittabali, which is a history of Rama in the kabitta, ghanakshari, chhappai and sawaiya metres; like the Ram-charitmanas, it is divided into seven kands or cantos, and is devoted to setting forth the majestic side of Rama's character; (3) the GitRamayan, or Gitabali, also in seven kands, aiming at the illustration of the tender aspect of the Lord's life; the metres are adapted for singing; (4) the Krishnawali or Krishna gitabali, a collection of 61 songs in honour of Krishna, in the Kanauji dialect: the authenticity of this is doubtful; and (5) the Binay Pattrika, or "Book of petitions," a series of hymns and prayers of which the first 43 are addressed to the lower gods, forming Rama's court and attendants, and the remainder, Nos.
Like Wace, she used a literary dialect which probably differed very widely from common Norman speech.
Most of his stories portray the pioneer manners and dialect of the Central West, and the Hoosier Schoolmaster was one of the first examples of American local realistic fiction; it was very popular, and was translated into French, German and Danish.
NIBELUNGENLIED, or DER Nibelunge Not, an heroic epic written in a Middle High German dialect.
He always used the dialect of Piedmont when conversing with natives of that country, and he had a vast fund of humorous anecdotes and proverbs with which to illustrate his arguments.
At a minimum they may need to be translated into the local language or dialect, or the wording changed to include local idioms.
Last year the trust published an anthology of new dialect writing, called Still Life.
bastardized version of Cockney dialect ' .
colloquial dialect is no doubt accurate enough, for this was one form of speech he would have heard regularly in the trenches.
Professor Paul Kerswill Professor Paul Kerswill is a sociolinguist specializing in social dialectology, with a focus on dialect leveling.
fluent in the correct dialect of the requisite language.
In general, that is doubtless right, but I consider that dialect geography is not the whole explanation for antlingen in Tatian.
Anne Kirkman sent in a song about an early 19th century hermit in Sunderland a rare piece of dialect writing for that town.
inflexionicular, it shows several distinctive Northern features, eg. the verbal inflections, which are generally a good indication of dialect localisation.
HOLIDAY FUN FOR LINGUISTS The Linguists among us will enjoy the various lexemes for the word " snow " found in one Inuit dialect.
lexemes for the word " snow " found in one Inuit dialect.
Or marvel at the various lexemes for the word " snow " found in one Inuit dialect.
Barnes is chiefly remembered as the Dorset dialect poet.
refers specifically to: Regional affiliation: Scottish dialect; lift versus elevator.
In 1826, he gave evidence to a Parliamentary Commission on Railways at which his blunt speech and dialect drew contemptuous sneers.
Policeman's English is the archetype: the slightly stilted " jobsworth " version of local dialect.
subtletyable to represent the language of the East Anglian perfectly and capture the subtleties of the dialect.
translated into the local language or dialect, or the wording changed to include local idioms.
There is now no significant dialect variation between speakers from different areas.
A peculiarity of the Rif dialect is the change of the Arabic "1" to "r," and this would seem to support this derivation, "b" and "f" being interchangeable through "v."
There is no evidence to show that the Hernici ever spoke a really different dialect from the Latins; but one or two glosses indicate that they had certain peculiarities of vocabulary, such as might be expected among folk who clung to their local customs. Their name, however, with its Co-termination, classes them along with the Co-tribes, like the Volsci, who would seem to have been earlier inhabitants of the west coast of Italy, rather than with the tribes whose names were formed with the No-suffix.
He was the author of several widely popular poems (principally in the Lancashire dialect) showing sympathy with the conditions of his class, and his Passages in the Life of a Radical (1840-1844) is an authoritative history of the condition of the working classes in the years succeeding the battle of Waterloo.
Similarly his pioneer work in mechanics is illustrated by the story of his having said 80s pot iroi Kai KU'i Tip 'yi]v (or as another version has it, in his dialect, 7ra 0c7) Kai Kivw TOY -yav), " Give me a place to stand and I (will) move the earth."
Common to all groups of Ionians in the Aegean is a dialect of Greek which has n for a (in Attic only partially) and (in Asiatic Ionian especially) for r in certain words.
142) and the dialect of Attica differed widely from all other forms of Ionic. Earlier phases of Ionic forms are dominant in the language of Homer.
Smyth, The Ionic Dialect (1889).
Although it has been postulated that the inhabitants of the modern village are of Albanian origin (Arvanites), this is contradicted by the fact that modern Megarians lack any knowledge of the Albanian dialect (Arvanitika), remnants of which still survive in the populations of neighboring towns such as Mandra, Eleusis, and Magoula.
of dova, "I will"), like the Greek 6a, is prefixed without change to all persons of the verb: a similar usage in Servian and Bulgarian, as well as in Rumanian (especially the Macedonian dialect), is peculiar to these languages in the Slavonic and Latin groups.
The dialect in which this ancient set of liturgies is written is usually known as Umbrian, as it is the only monument we possess of any length of the tongue spoken in the Umbrian district before it was latinized (see Umbria).
(6) In the latest stage of the dialect (see below) the change of final -s to -r, as in abl.
(5) Turning now to the languages which constitute the Italic groupinthenarrowersense, (a) Oscan; (b) the dialect of Velitrae, commonly called Volscian; (c) Latinian (i.e.
The literary language has embodied many of its ingredients from the Old Javanese, as spoken in Java at the time of the fall of Majapahit (15th century), while the vulgar dialect has kept free from such admixture.
In the 16th century it was a thinly populated region inhabited chiefly by Cossacks, speaking the so-called Little Russian dialect, and until 1569 it formed nominally part of Lithuania, but was practically independent.
" the biter off "; aemete in Middle English became differentiated in dialect use to amete, then amte, and so ant, and also to emete, whence the synonym " emmet," now only used provincially, " ant " being the general literary form).
In some important points, however, the dialect was related to the eastern Aramaic or Syrian (e.g.
the Tembeling valley in Pahang, whose people are now Mahommedans and in many respects indistinguishable from the ordinary Malays of the peninsula, reveals the fact that words, current in the archipelago to the south but incomprehensible to the average peninsula Malays, by whom these more ancient populations are now completely surrounded, have been preserved as local words, whereas they really belong to an older dialect once spoken widely in the peninsula, as to-day it is spoken in the Malayan islands.
The latter is no separate dialect at all, but a mere brogue or jargon, the medium of intercourse between illiterate natives and Europeans too indolent to apply themselves to the acquisition of the language of the people; its vocabulary is made up of Malay words, with a conventional admixture of words from other languages; and it varies, not only in different localities, but also in proportion to the individual speaker's acquaintance with Malay proper.
The inhabitants of Formosa may be divided into four classes: the Japanese, who are comparatively few, as there has not been much tendency to immigration; the Chinese, many of whom immigrated from the neighbourhood of Amoy and speak the dialect of that district, while others were Hakkas from the vicinity of Swatow; the subjugated aborigines, who largely intermingled with the Chinese; and the uncivilized aborigines of the eastern region who refuse to recognize authority and carry on raids as opportunity occurs.
We know something of the language of the Marrucini from an inscription known as the "Bronze of Rapino," which belongs to about the middle of the 3rd century B.C. It is written in Latin alphabet, but in a dialect which belongs to the North Oscan group (see Paeligni).
The Slovenes - clericals no less than progressives - became increasingly active in the Yugoslav movement, and their press began to demand the abandonment of the distinctive Slovene dialect as a hindrance to unity..
Other extant works of Arrian are: Indica, a description of India in the Ionic dialect, including the voyage of Nearchus, intended as a supplement to the Anabasis; Acies Contra Alanos, a fragment of importance for the knowledge of Roman military affairs; Periplus of the Euxine, an official account written (iii) for the emperor Hadrian; Tactica, attributed by some to Aelianus, who wrote in the reign of Trajan; Cynegeticus, a treatise on the chase, supplementing Xenophon's work on the same subject; the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, attributed to him, is by a later compiler.
In 1900 its population was 852,712 (all but wholly Romanist), of whom more than half were German-speaking, and many in the south Italian-speaking, while in certain side valleys of the Adige system the quaint old Ladin dialect, still surviving also in the Swiss Engadine, is the prevailing tongue; in the southern half of the region there are a few German-speaking among the Italian-speaking folk.
The origin of the Minaeans from Hadramut is rendered probable by the predominance of their dialect in the inscriptions of that country (except in that of Hisn Ghorab), by the rule, already mentioned, of a Minaean prince in Hadramut, and by Pliny's statement (H.N.
Moreover, he employed comparatively few obsolete inflexions, and his work no doubt furthered the adoption of the Midland dialect as the acknowledged literary instrument.
It is idle indeed to rewrite the Gospel narratives in the Aramaic dialect spoken by Christ and the apostles, but the main watchwords of the Gospel theology - phrases like " the Kingdom of God," " the World to come," the " Father in Heaven," " the Son of Man," - can be more or less surely reconstructed from Jewish writings, and their meaning gauged apart from the special significance which they received in Christian hands.
xi.), the local dialect, which belongs to the north Oscan group, survived certainly to the middle of the 2nd century B.C. (see the inscriptions cited below) and probably until the Social War.
The assumption that Latin was properly the language of the Latian plain and of the Plebs at Rome, which the conquering patrician nobles learnt from their subjects, and substituted for their own kindred but different Safine idiom, renders easier to understand the borrowing of a number of words into Latin from some dialect (presumably Sabine) where the velars had been labialized; for example, the very common word bos, which in pure Latin should have been *vos.
Owing to their almost entire immunity from any alien domination except that of the Romans and Goths, the Asturians may perhaps be regarded as the purest representatives of the Iberian race; while their dialect (linguaje bable) is sometimes held to be closely akin to the parent speech from which modern Castilian is derived.
By this time Christianity had secured a foothold, perhaps first among the Jews (see Edessa), and we enter upon the earliest period from which documents in the Edessan dialect of Aramaic, known as Syriac, have been preserved.
It is not a uniform speech, but comprises several dialects which have been classed by Jaeschke into three groups, namely (i) the central or the dialects of Lhasa and the central provinces of U and Tsang (including Spiti) which is the lingua franca of the whole country, (2) the western dialects of Ladak, Lahul, Baltistan and Purig, and (3) the eastern dialects of the province of Khams. In addition to these, however, are many sub-dialects of Tibetan spoken in the frontier Himalayan districts and states outside Tibet, namely, in Kunawar and Bashahr, Garhwal, Kumaon, Nepal including especially the Serpa and Murmi of eastern Nepal, Sikkim (where the dialect is called Danjong-ka), Bhutan (Lho-ka or Duk-ka.), all of which are affiliated to a central group of dialects.
A comparison between Phoenician and Hebrew reveals close resemblances both in grammatical forms and in vocabulary; in some respects older features have been preserved in Phoenician, others are later, others again are peculiar to the dialect; many words poetic or rare or late in Hebrew are common in Phoenician.
There can be no doubt that Eme-sal means " woman's language," and it was perhaps thus designated because it was a softer idiom phonetically than the other dialect.
Thus, in the English " Backslang," which is nothing more than ordinary English deliberately inverted, in the similar Arabic jargon used among school children in Syria and in the Spanish thieves' dialect, the principles of inversion and substitution play the chief part.
TEA (Chinese cha, Amoy dialect te), the name given to the leaves of the tea bush (see below) prepared by decoction as a beverage The term is by analogy also used for an infusion or decoction of other leaves, e g.
The Servian dialect extending into regions which escaped the Turkish yoke, enjoyed certain advantages denied to the Bulgarian: in free Montenegro the first Slavonic printing-press was founded in 1493; at Ragusa, a century later, Servian literature attained a high degree of excellence.
The revival of the various Balkan nationalities was in every case accompanied or preceded by a literary movement; in Servian literature, under the influence of Obradovich and Vuk Karajich, the popular idiom, notwithstanding the opposition of the priesthood, superseded the ecclesiastical RussianSlavonic; in Bulgaria the eastern dialect, that of the Sredna Gora, prevailed.
Most of the inscriptions are sepulchral; by far the longest and most important is that on an obelisk found at Xanthus, which is a historical document, the concluding part of it being in a peculiar dialect, supposed to be an older and poetical form of the language.
The Homeric dialect has passed into New Ionic and Attic by gradual but ceaseless development of the same kind as that which brought about the change from Vedic to classical Sanskrit, or from old high German to the present dialects of Germany.
Johan Ihre (1707-1780), a professor at Upsala, edited the Codex argenteus of Ulfilas, and produced the valuable Svenskt Dialect Lexicon (1766) based on an earlier learned work, the Dialectologia of Archbishop Erik Benzelius (d.
There the seat of its pontiff was at Samarkand; thence it penetrated into Central Atia, where, buried in the desert sands which entomb the cities of eastern Turkestan, numerous fragments of the works of Mani and his disciples, in the Persian language (Pahlavi) and Syrian script, and in an East Iranian dialect, called Sogdian, which was used by the Manichaeans of Central Asia, have been discovered (K.
(and xxx.) are in Aeolic, that being the traditional dialect for such poems. Two poems, xii.
Thus the Jews in Europe have almost lost the use of Hebrew, but speak as their vernacular the language of their adopted nation, whatever it may be; even the JewishGerman dialect, though consisting so largely of Hebrew words, is philologically German, as any sentence shows: " Ich hab noch hoiom to geachelt, " I have not yet eaten to-day."
(See Ethiopia.) The best modern representative of Geez is the Tigrina of Tigre and Lasta, which is much purer but less cultivated than the Amharic dialect, which is used in state documents, is current in the central and southern provinces and is much affected by Hamitic elements.
Of his treatises, On Leros, On Iphigeneia, On the Festivals of Dionysus, nothing remains; but numerous fragments of his genealogies of the gods and heroes, variously called `Iaropiac, FeveaXoyiac, Airrox06ves, in ten books, written in the Ionic dialect, have been preserved (see C. W.
It is written in the East Midland dialect, and is generally cited as the earliest dramatic work of any kind preserved in the language, though it was in reality probably intended for recitation rather than performance.
In the dignity and simplicity of the old backwoodsman there is something almost Hebraic. With his naÃ¯ve vanity and strong reverent piety, his valiant wariness, his discriminating cruelty, his fine natural sense of right and wrong, his rough limpid honesty, his kindly humour, his picturesque dialect, and his rare skill in woodcraft, he has all the breadth and roundness of a type and all the eccentricities and peculiarities of a portrait.
Of the language spoken by the Aequi before the Roman conquest we have no record; but since the Marsi, who lived farther east, spoke in the 3rd century B.C. a dialect closely akin to Latin, and since the Hernici, their neighbours to the south-west, did the same, we have no ground for separating any of these tribes from the Latian group (see Latini).
To this hour, particularly in Valencia and the Balearics, Lemosi is employed to designate on the one hand the old Catalan and on the other the very artificial and somewhat archaizing idiom which is current in the jochs fiorals; while the spoken dialect is called, according to the localities, Valencid (in Valencia), Major qul and Menorqui (in Majorca and Minorca), or Catald (in Catalonia); the form Catalanesch is obsolete.
Navarrese-Aragonese.----Ir~ its treatment ef the post-tonic vowel-i this dialect parts company with normal Castilian and comes neares Catalan, in so far as it drops the final e, especially after nt ci (inon4 plazient, snueri, fuerl, parenis, genis); and, when the atonic e has dropped after a 1, this v becomes a vowelbreu (b rev e ni), grieu (*g rave rn) nueu (no v e m).
Samnan Dialect," Zeitsch.
Originally "mugwump" (mogkiomp) was a North American Indian word, in the Massachusett dialect of the Algonquian, meaning "great man" (mogki, great; omp, man); and in New England it was used of self-conceited politicians.
It refers specifically to: Regional affiliation: Scottish dialect; lift versus elevator.
The texts to be analyzed are research articles by academics working in the field of dialect didactics, and school curricula.
Policeman 's English is the archetype: the slightly stilted " jobsworth " version of local dialect.
He is able to represent the language of the East Anglian perfectly and capture the subtleties of the dialect.
Online translators don't take into account dialect or slang, although language dictionaries can give you single-word translations.
Translators can be a big help in learning new words, but actually talking to some who speaks German helps you learn tone and dialect.
The American Dialect Society named the word "truthiness," which he used in the first episode of The Colbert Report, as the 2005 Word of the Year.
The word mumps comes from an old English dialect, meaning lumps or bumps within the cheeks.
You'll also want to note that the Rosetta Stone Spanish curriculum offers not just Latin American Spanish but also the Spain-based dialect.
The book Cajun Night Before Christmas is rendered in Cajun dialect and Santa's sleigh is pulled by an alligator.
Not only can you hear at least a few different languages when you're out and about, but you can also hear an entirely different dialect of English depending on where in the United States you are.
The character Hagrid speaks with a very thick dialect and it's hard not to stumble through his words, but reading slowly through his dialog allows the reader to really hear the voice of this character.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.