How to use Diabetes in a sentence

diabetes
  • Combined with opium it is an efficient remedy in diabetes insipidus.

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  • The most common diseases of malassimilation (or "metabolic" diseases) are gout, rheumatism and diabetes.

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  • Diabetes risk Patients on beta blockers are also up to 30 per cent more likely to develop diabetes.

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  • Diabetes yourself a leads spare fuses or just to.

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  • The incidence of heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and other diseases has increased along with the dramatic increase in meat consumption during the twentieth century.

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  • The patient had had diabetes mellitus for 8 years.

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  • Around the same number of people have undiagnosed diabetes.

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  • The diagnosis of Type I diabetes is often obvious.

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  • Diabetes is treated with insulin and dietary changes.

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  • Cow's milk exposure and type I diabetes mellitus.

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  • Insulin dependant diabetes mellitus These patients are not suitable patients to be treated using general anesthesia in an outpatient environment.

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  • The two major types of diabetes are quite distinct in their origins.

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  • Moderate amounts of alcohol drunk just before, during or shortly after a meal should not affect your short-term diabetes control.

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  • The Diabetes Charitable Trust Fund is a major source of funding for diabetes initiatives.

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  • About a third of patients develop diabetes mellitus (sugar diabetes ).

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  • Increased plasma atrial natriuretic factor and reduced plasma renin in patients with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus.

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  • Obesity also plays an important role in the cause of some common diseases - including diabetes mellitus.

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  • Pathogenesis is poorly understood, it is important to exclude diabetes mellitus, anemia and perhaps immunosuppression.

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  • Diabetes is sometimes called diabetes mellitus or sugar diabetes.

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  • Prenatal diagnosis of macrosomia in pregnancy complicated by diabetes mellitus.

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  • The most common type of diabetes is type 2 diabetes, or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

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  • Author's objective The objective was to review research on screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM ).

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  • In patients with diabetes mellitus this may lead to a deterioration of metabolic control; latent diabetes mellitus may become manifest.

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  • Abstract Whether pregnant women with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus have an increased risk of spontaneous abortion is controversial.

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  • This is important when considering elderly people because of the rise in age related cardiac problems and the incidence of mature onset diabetes mellitus.

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  • Diabetes specialist dietitians are ideally placed to deliver dietary information to people with type 2 diabetes (BDA, 1999 ).

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  • Child Health Health inequalities, childhood disability, clinical trials, managing diabetes for young people and behaviourally effective sex education.

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  • The epidemic of obesity is followed by an epidemic of obesity is followed by an epidemic of Type 2 diabetes.

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  • Pharmacological doses of n-3 fatty acids can lower triglyceride levels but have also been shown to raise LDL cholesterol levels in people with diabetes.

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  • How exactly does diabetes affect the fetus in the womb?

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  • Evidence of hospital formulary success is essential for this vacancy preferably with some knowledge of the diabetes market.

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  • A team of scientists in Iceland has discovered one of the 'holy Grails ' of science a gene for Type 2 diabetes.

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  • It also provides insight into the expertise the dietitian can offer, both to the diabetes healthcare team and to the patient.

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  • Transplantation of pancreatic islets is arguably the most logical approach to restoring metabolic homeostasis in people with diabetes.

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  • There are many human diseases associated with disrupted lipid homeostasis but the most prevalent of these is type II diabetes.

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  • Patients need regular fasting blood glucose testing for patients who develop hyperglycemia (diabetes) while on atypical antipsychotics.

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  • Platelets from men and women with diabetes are often hypersensitive in vitro to platelet aggregating agents.

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  • In Type 2 diabetes hypertension is very common, occurring in up to 50% of patients.

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  • Type 1 diabetes is caused by a problem with the body's immune system.

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  • Vitamin E appears to lower the risk of cerebral infarction, a type of stroke, in people with diabetes who smoke.

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  • Diets filled with cereal fiber also may help prevent diabetes and a painful intestinal inflammation called diverticular disease.

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  • Ideally you would be a first level nurse with diabetes experience confident in insulin initiation.

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  • People with type 1 diabetes will require insulin injections for the rest of their life.

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  • In type 2 diabetes the pancreas does produce insulin but cells become increasingly intolerant to the action of the insulin.

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  • The NHS offers flu jabs free of charge to everyone with diabetes.

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  • But when you have diabetes rising blood glucose and rising blood ketones can go together.

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  • Many people with diabetes can benefit from measuring blood ketones as part of their overall diabetes management program.

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  • The recent spread of diabetes is often thought to be the result of a lack of exercise and eating the wrong kind of diet.

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  • At any one time up to 10% of people with diabetes will have retinopathy requiring medical follow up or treatment.

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  • And multiple clinical studies have clearly established the role of bitter melon in people with diabetes.

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  • Stable and dynamic microtubules are functionally distinct and we suggest that increased microtubule stability could contribute to cardiac dysfunction in diabetes.

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  • Click here to read our factsheet on nerve damage due to diabetes, called diabetic neuropathy.

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  • It is modeled on the multi-disciplinary team approach used by the specialist diabetes nurses.

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  • The former dictator has had three mild strokes, has diabetes and wears a pacemaker.

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  • They removed the pancreas from dogs which then developed diabetes.

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  • The rosy periwinkle, meanwhile, yields drugs which help treat diabetes.

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  • Background The Bertram Diabetes Center serves a population of about 510,000 in East Norfolk, with a diabetes prevalence of 2.5 per cent.

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  • To obtain the new york living with dental insurance PPO us diabetes that they quietly.

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  • There is a genetic predisposition to Type 1 diabetes, which occurs in 1 out of 800 people in the United States.

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  • Diabetes is becoming a major health problem in many parts of the world.

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  • For health care professionals, a way of giving patients a good start in learning to self-manage their diabetes.

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  • Hyperglycaemia New onset diabetes mellitus, hyperglycaemia, and exacerbation of existing diabetes mellitus have been reported in patients receiving protease inhibitors.

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  • Diabetes In diabetes this tight regulation of the glucose level is lost, leading to the raised glucose levels observed in affected individuals.

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  • Protein needed per diabetes Houston insurance renters texas needs to of whites within the similar.

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  • This process appears to fail in insulin resistance accompanying several forms of diabetes.

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  • Their research aims to discover why diabetes damages the retina, the complex light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye.

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  • The eye condition most commonly associated with diabetes is called diabetic retinopathy.

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  • The longer a person has diabetes, the higher their chances of developing diabetic retinopathy.

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  • In the US alone, where an estimated 16 million people have either type I or II diabetes, about 600,000 have retinopathy.

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  • Diabetes initiatives annual reviews The center runs a ' one-stop-shop ' service.

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  • Twins and insulin dependent diabetes mellitus Second trimester serum marker levels are raised in twin pregnancies.

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  • For diabetes specialists, a program designed to integrate structured education with clinical management.

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  • In part 3, they examine genome-wide searches for type 1 diabetes susceptibility genes.

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  • Just because you suffer from diabetes does not mean that you have to eat tasteless, bland food for the rest of your life.

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  • In women, recurrent vaginal thrush may be a symptom of diabetes.

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  • More recently, we have set up studies of the role of adipose tissues in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes.

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  • Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

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  • The project is looking for new genetic variants linked to diabetes type I, with cooperation from clinicians across the UK.

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  • Help Prevent Diabetes with Atkins One of the most disturbing trends in an age of growing waistlines is the increasing onset of diabetes.

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  • The waters are used in cases of liver affections, gout, diabetes and obesity; and the patients must conform during the cure to a strictly regulated diet.

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  • These new MIQUEST queries also include information on structure education for people with diabetes.

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  • The Audit Data was collected retrospectively from 105 sets of written patient records selected at random from the practice diabetes register.

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  • The diabetes nurse specialist taught her to test her blood glucose using reagent strips.

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  • Protein needed per diabetes houston insurance renters texas needs to of whites within the similar.

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  • Diabetes initiatives Annual reviews The center runs a ' one-stop-shop ' service.

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  • In other pathological states from diabetes to dementia, saccharide derivatives are being researched as possible therapeutics.

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  • Injection of schistosome eggs protects NOD mice against the development of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

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  • Senator about diabetes be sued by would go down.

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  • The diabetes took your sight and with it your smile, but the tail still wagged.

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  • One of the most useful strategies in the search for genes underlying complex diseases such as diabetes is to look at candidate genes.

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  • Under the DDA it is now unlawful for an employer to operate blanket bans on the recruitment of people with diabetes.

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  • Breastfeeding lowers incidences of infant diabetes, asthma and allergies.

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  • A large baby or increased weight gain may indicate that you are at risk for gestational diabetes.

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  • If you are diagnosed with gestational diabetes, you will meet with a dietician who will place you on a safe and healthy diet.

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  • A baby will receive antibodies through her mom's milk, and breastfeeding your baby will lower her chances of contracting meningitis, diabetes, allergies, respiratory illnesses, obesity, and childhood cancers, such as leukemia.

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  • Strong need for adequate nutrition to prevent problems such as anemia and gestational diabetes.

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  • Excessive sweeteners and salts - Sweeteners have been linked to the onset of diabetes, and too much sodium can lead to the development of heart disease.

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  • I have a fourteen-year-old male cat who has diabetes for which I give him insulin shots twice a day.

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  • He does not have fleas and blood work does not indicate any problems except the diabetes.

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  • First, hair loss can be a side effect of diabetes.

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  • The drug can produce side effects, including the onset of transient diabetes mellitus.

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  • Diabetes in cats is becoming almost as prevalent as it is in humans.

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  • Are there any other health issues to consider, such as sensitive skin, hairballs or diabetes?

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  • Cats can suffer from diabetes, particularly those that are overfed on inadequate diets.

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  • These criteria are essential in order to prevent diabetes and other health issues.

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  • This is highly beneficial in keeping with the cat's physiology as well as for managing health issues such as diabetes or food allergies.

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  • If your cat has a health condition such as diabetes, you should rely on your veterinarian's advice for a cat food.

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  • Being overweight increases the chances for developing insulin resistance diabetes and kidney disease.

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  • If you are under a doctor's care for a serious medical condition, such as diabetes, discuss the possible benefits of Acai supplementation and do not stop taking any medications unless your doctor directs you to do so.

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  • A small number of studies have discovered an improved ability for cirrhotic patients with diabetes to control their blood sugar levels.

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  • This is especially true if you're undernourished or have a health condition such as diabetes or anemia.

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  • In the Ayurveda methods of treatment used by ancient India cultures, cinnamon was heavily used as a tool for improving diabetes, colds and indigestion.

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  • In one, documented in the medical journal Diabetes Care, published in 2003, 60 people with Type 2 diabetes consumed one, three or six grams of cinnamon each day.

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  • This is very important for people who may be diagnosed with Adult Onset or Type II diabetes or insulin resistance, a warning sign of impending diabetes.

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  • Cinnamon taken with meals, a healthy diet low in sugar and moderate exercise may prevent development of full blown diabetes or delay its onset for many years.

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  • A study published in Diabetes Care, a medical journal, indicated that LDL cholesterol levels were reduced to 7 percent from 27 percent.

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  • For those with diabetes and dieters who choose a low carbohydrate lifestyle, artificial sweetener's impact on the blood sugar may work at cross-purposes to their health goals.

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  • This makes it especially attractive to those with diabetes and those who pursue low glycemic index diets.

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  • This makes stevia appear to be a promising supplement in the treatment of diabetes.

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  • Conditions such as diabetes and heart disease have long been recognized by Chinese medicine as resulting from "a rich man's diet."

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  • Many diabetics are looking for drug-free ways to manage their blood sugar levels, including the use of Chinese herbs for diabetes control.

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  • A variety of herbs are often used in Chinese medicine for both treating and preventing diabetes.

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  • Diabetes is thought to be a condition of what is referred to as Wasting and Thirsting Syndrome.

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  • While the results of research conducted on the use of Chinese herbs in the prevention of diabetes offers promising results, it is still considered preliminary and more clinical trials still need to be completed.

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  • The regeneration of these cells may help to reverse adult-onset diabetes.

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  • Emodin, which can be extracted from these herbs may help to lower blood glucose and serum insulin in individuals with obesity-induced diabetes.

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  • The clinical trials related to the use of emodin in treatment of diabetes were conducted on lab rats and show promising results.

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  • There are dozens of Chinese herbs that are used by qualified practitioners to help to treat and prevent adult-onset diabetes.

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  • If you are interested in learning more about using Chinese herbs for diabetes control, please be sure to consult a qualified Chinese Medicine practitioner.

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  • It seems too good to be true, but this common culinary spice holds great promise as a natural treatment for diabetes and the cluster of symptoms known as metabolic syndrome.

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  • The American Diabetes Association reports on its website the results of a study conducted at the Department of Human Nutrition in Peshawar, Pakistan.

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  • In this study, 60 people with Type 2 diabetes (adult onset), 30 men and 30 women, were divided randomly into six groups.

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  • Since the likelihood of cardiovascular disease increases substantially among people with Type 2 diabetes, the combined results of both lowered blood sugar levels and improved lipid profiles was especially promising.

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  • Many studies are needed to replicate these results before doctors can recommend cinnamon pills to fight diabetes and high cholesterol levels.

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  • This is a very small study, but again it shows promise to those with diabetes.

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  • First, the scientists in each article note that cinnamon appears to alter blood sugar levels in people with Type 2 diabetes only.

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  • It doesn't seem to change blood sugar levels for people with Type 1 diabetes.

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  • Never stop taking medications for diabetes except under the advice and supervision of your doctor.

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  • This can lead to cell dysfunction and eventually to health problems that are generally associated with aging, such as cancer, heart disease, cataracts, and diabetes.

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  • Ketosis can be fatal to people with diabetes, and during pregnancy, can cause fetal death or birth defects.

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  • Studies suggest that keeping dietary fat low reduces the risk of heart disease, as well as certain types of cancer and diabetes.

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  • A better understanding of diabetes gives diabetics more options in their diets.

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  • The American Diabetes Association is a good source of information regarding the exchange rate of sugars as well as several good recipes for diabetics.

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  • This makes you susceptible to illness such as colds and flu, and puts your body at risk for more serious medical disorders such as high blood pressure, diabetes,and heart disease.

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  • This includes diabetes, which is increasing in this country at an alarming rate.

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  • Even if a physician is recommending a less stressful job for health reasons, consider that peace of mind and attitude play critical roles in combating stress induced problems like high blood pressure, diabetes, and heart disease.

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  • According to the National Women's Health Information Center, stress can cause or exacerbate physical health problems like high blood pressure, back and neck pain, and even diabetes.

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  • Lack of physical activity negatively affects overall health and contributes to a number of health conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease, that may prevent us from coping with stress effectively.

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  • Carrying extra weight, particularly around the trunk of the body, is very dangerous to one's overall health, and can lead to a whole host of future complications, including diabetes.

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  • Being overweight can cause high blood pressure and diabetes.

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  • Heart disease, cancer and diabetes were never issues when the average person only lived 30 to 40 years.

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  • Along with that, they also prevent a host of obesity-related diseases, such as diabetes, high blood pressure and heart diseases.

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  • High levels of insulin can put stress on the heart - this is why untreated diabetes often leads to heart attacks.

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  • It may also reduce the risk of diabetes and certain types of cancer.

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  • Free radicals are thought to be risk factors for certain cancers, heart disease, diabetes and other serious ailments.

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  • If you've been diagnosed with diabetes and must modify your diet, the appetite suppressant effects of Prozac may be helpful.

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  • After all, even very thin people can suffer from diabetes, hypertension, or other serious medical conditions.

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  • You're also advised to tell your doctor if you take blood thinners or if you have asthma or have diabetes.

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  • Poor circulation can also complicate diabetes symptoms, making it even more difficult for cuts and sores to heal.

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  • Some diseases, such as diabetes, require that you be cautious with your sugar intake or lack thereof.

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  • Just as medications allow people with medical problems such as diabetes and heart disease to live effective lives, much the same can be said for those with BDD.

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  • Upon arriving at the house, Murphy's mother told paramedics that her daughter suffered from diabetes, though the exact cause of death is not yet known.

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  • When Johnson was young she was diagnosed with juvenile diabetes.

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  • As a result of learning to manage her disease, Casey penned a book, along with her dad as co-author, Managing Your Child's Diabetes.

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  • Suffering from diabetes since she was a child, many stated that Johnson did not properly care for herself and it was believed that her death was a result of diabetic ketoacidosis.

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  • He is also well known for his involvement with charitable causes such as Pets & Their Stars and the Juvenile Diabetes Foundation.

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  • He is also well known for his involvement with charitable causes, such as Pets & Their Stars and the Juvenile Diabetes Foundation.

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  • For example, "One great challenge I overcame in my life was being diagnosed with diabetes as a child."

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  • Many of the same health problems in people also affect our pets, such as heart disease, diabetes and arthritis.

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  • The company manufactures easily digested formulas suitable for dogs with chronic health conditions such as allergies, sensitive stomachs, arthritis or diabetes.

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  • Obesity contributes to major health issues such as diabetes, heart disease and hip dysplasia, so all dogs should be kept at a weight that is within proportion to their size to promote good health.

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  • If your dog has diabetes, you may want to leave honey out of a recipes that calls for that ingredient.

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  • With the rise of cancer, diabetes, and autoimmune disorders, consumers are starting to investigate diet as a possible cause of disease.

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  • Some natural health practitioners also recommend these capsules for use with patients affected by diabetes and cancer.

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  • Over the past century, diet related health problems like hypertension, obesity, cancer, and diabetes have increased in humans.

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  • In addition, according to the National Institutes of Health, a healthy diet can also help protect seniors from diabetes, stroke, heart disease and some types of cancer.

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  • Depending on genetics, you might not be able to avoid heart disease, diabetes or even cancer.

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  • The first step to maintaining your health as you age is to receive regular screenings for cholesterol, diabetes, colon, prostate and breast health as part of a full annual physical.

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  • If you have diabetes, kidney disease, or another long-term illness, your doctor can help you make any adjustments you need.

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  • Checking for problems like diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and even cancer can allow early treatment and ward off future problems.

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  • Adults usually get a type of diabetes called Type II.

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  • In Type II diabetes, the body becomes inefficient at absorbing sugars in the blood.

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  • Untreated diabetes can lead to heart attacks, blindness, circulation problems, kidney failure, limb amputation, and other serious complications.

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  • The American Diabetes Association recommends testing for diabetes every three years in all adults over age 45, and particularly in people who are overweight.

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  • Testing should be done more often if a person has other risk factors like high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or a close relative with diabetes.

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  • If you suffer from diabetes, physical activity can help your blood sugar decrease.

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  • If you have a condition such as diabetes, you may also find clothing such as wide-width shoes which will not constrict your feet when swelling occurs.

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  • Sometimes other conditions such as heart disease or diabetes may prevent a person from living independently.

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  • Medicare and most regular health insurance policies do not cover long-term care for many chronic illnesses such as Alzheimer's Disease, multiple sclerosis and diabetes.

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  • Peripheral neuropathy and diabetes are two medical conditions that can lead to RLS symptoms.

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  • Peripheral neuropathy is also associated with diabetes.

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  • Diabetes is a metabolic condition where the body cannot process the excess sugar.

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  • Patients who regularly get less sleep than needed are prone to heart disease, cancers and diabetes.

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  • People with undiagnosed OSA and type 2 diabetes may have trouble getting effective treatment for the diabetic condition.

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  • Sleep apnea can affect glucose levels, which can make diabetes worse.

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  • Common underlying causes include diabetes and peripheral neuropathy.

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  • Conditions such as chronic pain, breathing abnormalities, gastroesophageal reflux disease, congestive heart failure, diabetes and lung disease commonly cause insomnia.

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  • Prolonged sleep deprivation may also contribute to cardiovascular problems, obesity, and diabetes.

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  • Nighttime cramping in the legs is not necessarily a symptom of type 2 diabetes, but it is an indicator of dehydration.

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  • Speak with your doctor before finalizing your trip if you suffer from diabetes, heart disease, or another condition that requires a strict medication schedule.

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  • Dehydration, diabetes and thyroid problems can also contribute to cramping.

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  • Insomnia can lead to psychiatric disorders like depression or anxiety, and it can increase your risk for infections and other diseases like high blood pressure and diabetes.

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  • Heavy doses of the extract provide significant benefits, lowering the rate of fat-related illnesses, diabetes and liver problems and the extract may actually help you burn more calories than you take in with one glass.

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  • Risk factors for childhood stroke include a family history of stroke, cardiovascular disease or diabetes, as well as the presence of the conditions listed below.

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  • Maintaining a healthy weight is important to prevent the development of chronic diseases such as diabetes, high blood pressure (hypertension), and heart disease.

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  • Management of high cholesterol-especially high LDL (low-density lipoprotein) levels-high blood pressure and diabetes can help reduce the risk of a stroke.

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  • Although this number is small compared to the number of those treated for cancer or diabetes, the vasculitides can nonetheless have a significant financial and emotional impact on the families of children diagnosed with them.

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  • Symptoms include progressively constrained eye movements, droopy eye lids, muscle weakness, short stature, hearing loss, loss of coordination, heart problems, cognitive delays, and diabetes.

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  • They may be chronic, such as the skin ulcers caused by diabetes mellitus; or acute, such as a gunshot wound or animal bite.

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  • Individuals with certain underlying diseases such as diabetes mellitus may have more difficulty healing.

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  • Diabetes mellitus should be controlled with appropriate medication and dietary changes.

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  • These specific health issues include infant mortality rates, cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, HIV infection, and immunizations.

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  • One of the major health problems in the United States is overweight and obesity, which lead to increased risks for a wide variety of conditions, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, and cancer.

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  • The prevalence of diabetes in African Americans is about 70 percent higher than Caucasians.

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  • The burden of diabetes is much greater for minority populations than the white population.

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  • For example, 10.8 percent of non-Hispanic blacks, 10.6 percent of Hispanics, and 9 percent of Native Americans and Native Alaskans have diabetes, compared with 6.2 percent of whites.

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  • Cardiovascular disease is responsible for over 50 percent of the deaths in persons with diabetes.

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  • Diabetes and its complications can be detected by blood tests, indepth eye examinations, and studies that assess the flow of blood through blood vessels in the legs.

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  • The prognosis for chronic diseases such as cardiovascular problems, high blood pressure, cancer, and diabetes is variable.

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  • Educational programs concerning lifestyle modifications, diet, exercise, and testing may prevent the development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

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  • Dysthymia is prevalent in patients with certain medical conditions, including multiple sclerosis, AIDS, hypothyroidism, chronic fatigue syndrome, diabetes, and post-cardiac transplantation.

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  • Diabetes becomes increasingly likely as a person with CF ages.

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  • Scarring of the pancreas slowly destroys those pancreatic cells which produce insulin, producing type I, or insulin-dependent diabetes.

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  • Children who are overweight have an increased risk for long-term conditions and diseases, including cardiovascular disease, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, asthma, sleep apnea, and certain cancers.

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  • On the other hand, amenorrhea associated with glandular disturbances, tumors, genetic or anatomical abnormalities, diabetes, or other systemic disorders is part of a larger and more worrisome picture.

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  • Medical conditions that can cause secondary hyperhidrosis include hyperthyroidism, menopause, obesity, psychiatric disorders, and diabetes.

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  • In the United States, schizophrenics occupy more hospital beds than patients suffering from cancer, heart disease, or diabetes.

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  • In about 10 percent of children with FA, diabetes mellitus may develop in the later stages of the disease.

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  • Blood and urine samples are tested for elevated glucose levels, to determine whether the child has diabetes.

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  • Other features of the disease may include mild diabetes, premature graying of the hair, difficulty swallowing, and delayed physical and sexual development.

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  • Diabetes and rapid weight gain can also be factors in causing GERD.

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  • Specific risk factors include a family history of high cholesterol, obesity, coronary artery disease (atherosclerosis), stroke, alcoholism, diabetes, high blood pressure, and lack of regular exercise.

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  • However, the recommended cholesterol levels may vary from person to person, depending on other risk factors such as a family history of heart disease or stroke or the presence of hypertension, diabetes, advanced age, alcoholism, or smoking.

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  • Diabetes is a medical condition that is affected by pregnancy and, likewise, affects pregnancy.

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  • Diabetes can lead to miscarriages, birth defects, and stillbirths.

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  • Women with diabetes should have preconception counseling with a perinatologist.

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  • A perinatologist who specializes in diabetes is well aware of what the pregnant woman needs in each trimester and usually recommends the use of an insulin pump for better control.

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  • Before the advent of perinatology training, women with medical problems such as chronic hypertension, diabetes, and epilepsy were advised to not get pregnant because they could die.

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  • Unlike diabetes mellitus, gestational diabetes is caused by pregnancy and goes away when pregnancy ends.

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  • Like diabetes mellitus, gestational diabetes is treated with a special diet and insulin, if necessary.

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  • Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease in which the body is not able to correctly process glucose for cell energy due to either an insufficient amount of the hormone insulin or a physical resistance to the insulin the body does produce.

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  • Without proper treatment through medication and/or lifestyle changes, the high blood glucose (or blood sugar) levels caused by diabetes can cause long-term damage to organ systems throughout the body.

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  • While type 2 is the most prevalent, consisting of 90 to 95 percent of diabetes patients in the United States, type 1 diabetes is more common in children.

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  • Gestational diabetes occurs in pregnancy and resolves at birth.

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  • Type 1 diabetes occurs when the beta cells of the pancreas are damaged and stop producing the hormone insulin.

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  • Despite the name juvenile diabetes, type 1 diabetes can be diagnosed at any stage of life, although diagnosis in childhood through young adulthood is most common.

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  • Children who develop type 1 diabetes must eventually take regular insulin injections to keep blood glucose levels under control and do the job of the pancreas.

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  • The hallmark characteristic of type 2 diabetes is insulin resistance.

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  • Type 2 is the most common form of diabetes, and most individuals with the disease are adults.

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  • However, children and adolescents can develop type 2 diabetes too, particularly if they are overweight and have a history of type 2 diabetes in their family.

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  • Type 2 diabetes is treated with diet, exercise, and in some cases, oral medication and/or insulin.

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  • An estimated 18.2 million Americans live with diabetes, and over 5 million of those remain undiagnosed.

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  • Up to 95 percent of diabetes patients in the United States have type 2 diabetes; the vast majority of Americans with diabetes are over 20 years of age.

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  • While type 2 diabetes is a growing problem among American youth due to climbing obesity rates and more sedentary lifestyles, type 1 diabetes is more prevalent in children and adolescents.

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  • An estimated one in 400 to 500 children have type 1 diabetes.

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  • The American Diabetes Association reports that in 2002, diabetes cost Americans an estimated $132 billion in direct medical costs and indirect expenses such as lost productivity and disability payments.

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  • Research has shown that some people who develop diabetes have common genetic markers.

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  • Up to 90 percent of cases of type 1 diabetes are the autoimmune subtype, sometimes called type 1A or immune-mediated diabetes.

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  • The other subtype of type 1 diabetes is called idiopathic, or type 1B diabetes.

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  • People who have idiopathic type 1 diabetes also experience beta cell destruction, but it is due to a chromosomal abnormality or an unknown cause rather than any autoimmune process.

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  • In type 2 diabetes, family history, age, weight, activity level, and ethnic background can all play a role in the genesis of the disease.

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  • Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes share similar symptoms caused by chronically high blood glucose levels.

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  • Symptoms of diabetes can develop suddenly (over days or weeks) in previously healthy children or adolescents, or can develop gradually, particularly in the case of type 2 diabetes.

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  • Symptoms of type 2 diabetes can begin so gradually that a person may not know that he or she has it.

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  • If left untreated, diabetes is a life-threatening condition.

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  • Any child displaying symptoms of diabetes should be taken to a doctor or emergency care facility for evaluation immediately.

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  • Diagnosis of diabetes is suspected based on symptoms and confirmed by blood tests that measure the level of glucose in blood plasma.

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  • Dipstick or reagent test strips that measure glucose in the urine can only detect glucose levels above 180 mg/dl and are non-specific, so they are not useful in the diagnosis of diabetes.

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  • However, they are a non-invasive way to obtain a fast and simple reading that a physician might use as a basis for ordering further diagnostic blood tests for diabetes, particularly in children.

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  • Blood tests are the gold standard for the diagnosis of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes in children and adults.

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  • The American Diabetes Association recommends that a random plasma glucose, fasting plasma glucose, or oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) be used for diagnosis of diabetes.

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  • The OGTT is commonly used as a screening measure for gestational diabetes.

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  • Fasting plasma glucose is the test of choice unless a child is exhibiting classic symptoms of diabetes, in which case a random (or casual) plasma glucose test is acceptable.

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  • A fasting plasma glucose level of 126 mg/dl (7.0 mmol/l) or higher indicates diabetes (with a confirming retest on a subsequent day).

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  • A random plasma glucose concentration of 200 mg/dl (11.1 mmol/l) or higher in the presence of symptoms indicates diabetes.

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  • If plasma glucose levels taken two hours after the glucose drink is consumed are 200 mg/dl (11.1 mmol/L) or higher, the test is diagnostic of diabetes (and should be confirmed on a subsequent day if possible).

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  • Although the same diagnostic blood tests are used for both types of diabetes, whether a child is diagnosed as type 1 or type 2 can typically be determined based on her personal and medical history.

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  • The majority of children diagnosed in childhood are type 1, but if blood test results indicate prediabetes and a child is significantly overweight and has a history of type 2 diabetes in her family, type 2 is a possibility.

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  • Children with type 1 diabetes must take insulin injections or infusions.

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  • Children with diabetes and their parents should learn to operate a home blood glucose monitor.

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  • Children with type 1 diabetes need daily injections of insulin to help their bodies use glucose.

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  • Some patients with type 2 diabetes may also need to use insulin injections if their diabetes cannot be controlled with diet, exercise, and oral medication.

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  • Dietary changes and moderate exercise are usually the first treatments implemented in type 2 diabetes.

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  • Children with type 2 diabetes may be prescribed oral medications if they are unable to keep their blood glucose levels under control with dietary and exercise measures.

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  • Other adult type 2 diabetes medications, such as sulfonylureas and meglitinide drugs, which work by increasing insulin production, may be prescribed off-label for pediatric use.

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  • Transplantation of a healthy pancreas into a patient with type 1 diabetes can eliminate the need for insulin injections; however, this transplant is typically done only if a kidney transplant is performed at the same time.

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  • As of 2004 diabetes is a chronic and incurable disease.

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  • Diabetes and its related complications was the sixth leading cause of death in 2000.

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  • Uncontrolled diabetes is a leading cause of blindness, end-stage renal disease, and limb amputations.

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  • Eye problems including cataracts, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy also are more common in people with diabetes.

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  • Diabetic neuropathy is the result of nerve damage caused by uncontrolled diabetes.

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  • Diabetic kidney disease is another common complications of diabetes.

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  • Diabetes is the number one cause of chronic kidney failure in America.

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  • As of 2004 research continues on diabetes prevention and improved detection of those at risk for developing diabetes.

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  • While the onset of type 1 diabetes is unpredictable, the risk of developing type 2 diabetes may be reduced by maintaining ideal weight and exercising regularly.

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  • If school staff has little to no experience with diabetes, bringing in a certified diabetes educator (CDE) to offer basic training may be useful.

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  • Children with diabetes can lead an active life and enjoy most of the activities and foods their peers do, with a few precautions to avoid blood sugar highs or lows.

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  • A certified diabetes educator that has experience working with children can help them understand the importance of regular testing as well as methods for minimizing discomfort.

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  • Diabetes summer camps, where children can learn about diabetes care in the company of peers and counselors who also live with the disease, may be useful from both a health and a social standpoint.

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  • In addition, peer support groups can sometimes help children come to terms with their diabetes.

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  • While exercise can lower blood glucose levels, children with diabetes can and do excel in sports.

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  • An increase in insulin may also be necessary; parents of children with diabetes should talk with their pediatrician about a sick day plan for their child before they need it.

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  • Diabetic retinopathy-A condition seen most frequently in individuals with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus where the tiny blood vessels to the retina, the tissues that sense light at the back of the eye, are damaged.

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  • Honeymoon phase-A period of time shortly following diagnosis of type 1 diabetes during which a child's need for insulin may decrease or disappear altogether.

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  • Ketoacidosis-Usually caused by uncontrolled type I diabetes, when the body isn't able to use glucose for energy.

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  • For example, sulfonylurea drugs are not FDA approved for use in children with type 2 diabetes due to a lack of clinical studies in pediatric populations, but a physician may prescribe them in an off-label use of the drug.

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  • Prediabetes-A precursor condition to type 2 diabetes, sometimes called impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose.

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  • The doctor should be informed of any previous nasal fractures, nasal surgery, or such chronic diseases as diabetes or bleeding disorders.

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  • Women with diabetes and phenylketonuria (an inherited liver condition also called PKU) are at higher risk of having children with congenital heart defects.

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  • Blood tests can determine diabetes, high cholesterol, and other diseases.

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  • Low blood sugar associated with diabetes sometimes causes dizziness and is treated by controlling blood sugar levels.

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  • Persons with diabetes should eat their meals on a regular schedule.

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  • These diseases include diabetes, Down syndrome, AIDS, and any disease or condition that compromises the immune system and reduces the number of white blood cells in the body for extended periods.

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  • Individuals with diabetes and diseases that depress the immune system are more likely to develop periodontal disease.

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  • If the person already has symptoms of diabetes, a blood glucose test without fasting, called a casual plasma glucose test, may be performed.

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  • The same test or a different test can be used, but the result of the second test must be abnormal as well in order to establish a diagnosis of diabetes.

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  • Based on results of this study, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends routine glycated hemoglobin testing to measure long-term control of blood sugar.

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  • Diabetes may result from a lack of insulin or a subnormal response to insulin.

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  • Type I diabetes usually occurs in childhood and is associated with low or absent blood insulin and production of ketones even in the absence of stressed metabolic conditions.

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  • Gestational diabetes is a form of glucose intolerance that first appears during pregnancy.

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  • It usually ends after delivery, but over a 10-year span approximately 30 to 40 percent of females with gestational diabetes go on to develop noninsulin dependent diabetes.

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  • A glucose level equal to greater than 126 mg/dL is indicative of diabetes.

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  • A glucose concentration equal to or greater than 200 mg/dL is indicative of diabetes.

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  • The glycated (glycosylated) hemoglobin test is used to monitor the effectiveness of diabetes treatment.

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  • The ADA recommends that glycated hemoglobin testing be performed during a person's first diabetes evaluation, again after treatment is begun and glucose levels are stabilized, then repeated semiannually.

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  • Diabetes must be diagnosed as early as possible.

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  • Diabetes mellitus-The clinical name for common diabetes.

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  • This iron overload can lead to serious health consequences, including painful joints, diabetes, and liver damage, if the iron concentration is not lowered.

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  • Spina bifida may arise because of chromosome abnormalities, single gene mutations, or specific environmental insults such as maternal diabetes mellitus or prenatal exposure to certain anticonvulsant drugs.

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  • Itching that occurs all over the body may indicate a medical condition such as diabetes mellitus, liver disease, kidney failure, jaundice, thyroid disorders, or rarely, cancer.

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  • Sometimes bed-wetting can be caused by a serious medical problem like diabetes, sickle-cell anemia, or epilepsy.

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  • Episodes of numbness and tingling are more common among people with diabetes, hypothyroidism, alcoholism, malnutrition, or who experience mechanical trauma, especially to their limbs, neck or spine.

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  • Diabetes usually causes a symmetrical glove-and-stocking distribution in the hands and feet.

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  • If the paresthesia is caused by a chronic disease such as diabetes or occurs as a complication of treatments such as chemotherapy, most treatments are aimed at relieving symptoms.

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  • Psoriasis can be treated matter-of-factly as people do diabetes, another chronic disorder.

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  • Children with diabetes or cancer who have not had a tetanus shot in five years or who have a medical problem that can increase susceptibility to infection should seek medical treatment no matter how minor the bite appears.

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  • Obese children and adolescents are at increased risk for developing diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, sleep apnea, orthopedic problems, and psychosocial disorders.

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  • Obesity can cause a number of other conditions, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, joint pain, asthma, hypothyroidism, and gallstones.

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  • Type 2 diabetes, previously referred to as adult-onset diabetes, has increased dramatically in children, and this increase has been directly linked to obesity.

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  • Overweight and obese children should be evaluated by a physician for diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, and other medical conditions that are influenced by excessive weight gain.

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  • Comorbid conditions, such as diabetes and high cholesterol, are diagnosed using medical laboratory tests.

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  • Parents of obese children and adolescents should be concerned for their current and future health, since obesity can result in diabetes, hypertension, and coronary artery disease.

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