How to use Di in a sentence

di
  • Such is the Lago di Bolsena, near the city of the same name, which is an extensive sheet of water, as well as the much smaller Lago di Vico (the Ciminian lake of ancient writers) and the Lago di Bracciano, nearer Rome, while to the south of Rome the well known lakes of Albano and Nemi have a similar origin.

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  • The Pincian, the Esquiline, and the south-easterly part of the Caelian hills received essentially their present form by the creation of the Via Sistina, Felice, delle Quattro Fontane, di Sta Croce in Gerusalemme, &c.; by the buildings at Sta Maria Maggiore, the Villa Montalto, the reconstruction of the Lateran, and the aqueduct of the Felice, which partially utilized the Alexandrina and cost upwards of 300,000 scudi.

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  • Maroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica (Venice, 1840 sqq.), all of which contain articles on individual popes and subjects connected with the papacy, with bibliographies.

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  • Thus the Gran Sasso and the Maiella are separated by the deep valley of the Aterno, while the Tronto breaks through the range between Monte Vettore and the Pizzo di Sevo.

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  • Another lateral rsnge, the Prato Magno, which branches off from the central chain at the Monte Falterona, and separates the upper valley of the Arno from its second basin, rises to 5188 ft.; while a similar branch, called the Alpe di Catenaja, of inferior elevation, divides the upper course of the Arno from that of the Tiber.

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  • Its principal tributary is the Sieve, which joins it at Pontassieve, bringing down the waters of the Val di Mugello.

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  • Sepolcro and Città di Castello, then between Perugia and Todi to Orte, just below which it receives the Nera.

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  • This mountainous tract, which has an average breadth of from 50 to 60 m., is bounded west by the plain of Campania, now called the Terra di Lavoro, and east by the much broader and more extensive tract of Apulia or Puglia, composed partly of level plains, but for the most part of undulating downs, contrasting strongly with the mountain ranges of the Apennines, which rise abruptly above them.

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  • Eastward from this the ranges of low bare hills called the Murgie of Gravina and Altamura gradually sink into the still more moderate level of those which constitute the peninsular tract between Brindisi and Taranto as far as the Cape of Sta Maria di Leuca, the south-east extremity of Italy.

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  • The Crati, which flows from Cosenza northwards, and then turns abruptly eastward to enter the same gulf, is the only stream worthy of notice in the rugged peninsula of Calabria; while the arid limestone hills projecting eastwards to Capo di Leuca do not give rise to anything more than a mere streamlet, from the mouth of the Ofanto to the south-eastern extremity of Italy.

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  • Of a wholly different character is the Lago di Varese, between the Lago Maggiore and that of Lugano, which is a mere shallow expanse of water, surrounded by hills of very moderate elevation.

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  • The most important of these, the Lacus Fucinus of the ancients, now called the Lago di Celano, situated almost exactly in the centre of the peninsula, occupies a basin of considerable extent, surrounded by mountains and without any natural outlet, at an elevation of more than 2000 ft.

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  • Its highest peak, the Pizzuto di Melfi, attains an elevation of 4365 ft.

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  • The district from the south-east of Lake Fucino to the Piano di Cinque Miglia, enclosing the upper basin of the Sangro and the small lake of Scanno, is the coldest and most bleak part of Italy south of the Alps.

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  • Considerable trade is done in agro di limone or lemon extract, which forms the basis of citric acid.

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  • Of the numerous sub-varieties, the finest is said to be that of the Val di Chiana, where the animals are stall-fed all the year round; next is ranked the so-called Valle Tiberina type.

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  • Large landlords are usually represented by ministri, or factors, who direct agricultural operations and manage the estates, but the estate is often let to a middleman, or mercante di campagna.

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  • The French institution of Prudhommes was introduced into Italy in 1893, under the name of Coltegi di Probiviri.

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  • Most large towns contain important state or communal archives, iii which a considerable amount of research is being done by local investigators; the various societies for local history (Societd di Storia Patria) do very good work and issue valuable publications; the treasures which the archives contain are by no means exhausted.

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  • The revenue in the Italian financial year 1905-1906 (July I, 1905 to June 30, 1906) was 102,486,108, and the expenditure 99,945,253, or, subtracting the partite di giro, 99,684,121 and 97,143,266, leaving a surplus of 2,54o,855.f The surplus was made up by contributions from every branch of the effective revenue, except the contributions and repayments from local authorities.

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  • The most important of the local dues is the gate tax, or dazio di consumo, which may be either a surtax upon commodities (such as alcoholic drinks or meat), having already paid customs duty at the frontier, in which case the local surtax may not exceed 50% of the frontier duty, or an exclusively communal duty limited to 10% on flour, bread and farinaceous products,2 and to 20% upon other commodities.

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  • Herein he was aided by the troops of Facino Cane, who, dying opportunely at this period, left considerable wealth, a welltrained band of mercenaries, and a widow, Beatrice di Tenda.

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  • Alessandro de Medici was placed there with the title of duke of Civit di Penna; and, on his murder in 1537, Cosimo de Medici, of the younger branch of the ruling house, was made duke.

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  • Leopold, among other useful works, drained the Val di Chiana, and restored those fertile upland plains to agriculture.

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  • In March 1821, Count Santorre di Santarosa and other conspirators informed Charles Albert of a constitutional and anti-Austrian plot, and asked for his help. After a momentary hesitation he informed the king; but at his request no arrests were made, and no precautions were taken.

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  • A third important publication was Massimo dAzeglios Degli ultimi casi di Romagna, in which the author, another Piedmontese nobleman, exposed papal misgovernment while condemning the secret societies and advocating open resistance and protest.

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  • At the opening of the Piedmontese parliament in 1859, Victor Emmanuel pronounced the memorable words that he could not be insensible to the cry of pain (ii grido di dolore) which reached him from all parts of Italy.

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  • Zanichellis Scritti del Conte di Cavour (Bologna, 1892) are very important, and so are Prince Metternichs 7ff moires (7 vols., Paris, f881).

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  • Count di Robilant, anxious that Italy should not seem to beg a smile from the central Powers, advised Mancini to receive with caution the suggestions of the Austrian press.

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  • They hastened Mancinis downfall (17th June 1885), and prepared the advent of count di Robilant, who three months later succeeded Mancini at the Italian Foreign Office.

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  • In November 1887 a strong expedition under General di San Marzano raised the strength of the Massawa garrison to nearly 20,000 men.

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  • Menelek, by means of Count Antonelli, resident in the Shoa country, requested Italy to execute a di version in his favor by occupying Asmar and other points on the high plateau.

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  • Within four months the death of Depretis (29th July 1887) opened for Crispi the way to the premiership. Besides assuming the presidency of the council of ministers and retaining the ministry of the interior, Crispi took over the portfolio of foreign affairs which Depretis had held since the resignation of Count di Robilant.

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  • A few days later he was succeeded in the premiership by the marquis di Rudini, leader of the Right, who formed a coalition cabinet with Nicotera and a part of the Left.

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  • Fortunately for Italy, the marquis Visconti Venosta shortly afterwards consented to assume the portfolio of foreign affairs, which had been resigned by Duke Caetani di Sermoneta, and again to place, after an interval of twenty years, his unrivalled experience at the service of his country.

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  • The Archivii storici and Deputazloni di storia patria of the various Italian towns and provinces contain a great deal of valuable material for local history.

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  • The foundations of this theory of history as an upward progress of man out of a barbaric and animal condition were laid by Vico in his celebrated work Principii di scienza nuova.

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  • Other works which may be mentioned are Zeitgenossen, Biografien and Charakteristiken (Berlin, 1862); Bibliografia del lavori pubblicati in Germania sulla storia d'Italia (Berlin, 1863); Biographische Denkblatter nach personlichen Erinnerungen (Leipzig, 1878); and Saggi di storia e letteratura (Florence, 1880).

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  • Di,fferentiation.Any account of the general morphology of living organisms is incomplete if it does not include some attempt at an explanation of its causation; though such an attempt cannot be carried far at the present time.

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  • One of the most remarkable of the Italian travellers was Ludovico di Varthema, who left his native land in 1502.

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  • The harbour consisted of the outer basin, or Porto di Miseno, protected by moles, of which remains still exist, and the present Mare Morto, separated from it by a comparatively modern embankment.

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  • He at once took a leading position in the mathematical teaching of the university, and published treatises on the Di f ferential calculus (in 1848) and the Infinitesimal calculus (4 vols., 1852-1860), which for long were the recognized textbooks there.

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  • In the principal square stands the town hall, built in1448-1457in the VenetianGothic style, and skilfully restored after a fire in 1876; opposite is a clock tower resembling that of the Piazza di San Marco at Venice.

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  • In 1767 also he joined with Di.

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  • Three years later he was appointed to the chair of philosophy at the Istituto di Perfezionamento at Florence, and, in 1871, was made professor of philosophy in the university of Rome.

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  • On the death of Mamiani in 1885 he became editor of the Filosofia delle scuole italiane, the title of which he changed to Rivista italiana di filosofia.

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  • A rare work on the earlier church (Buonamici, La Metropolitana di Ravenna) gives details of its construction.

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  • In the eastern part of the city he built for himself a large palace, which probably occupied about a sixth of the space now enclosed within the city walls, or nearly the whole of the rectangle enclosed by Strada di Porta Alberoni on the south, Strada Nuova di Porta Serrata on the west and the line of the city walls on the north and east.

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  • There still remains close to the first-named street and fronting the Corso Garibaldi a high wall built of square Roman bricks, with pillars and arched recesses in the upper portion, which goes by the name of Palazzo di Teodorico.

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  • More than five centuries later (1320) Dante became the guest of Guido Novello di Polenta, lord of Ravenna, and here he died on the 14th September of the following year.

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  • In the meanwhile Ruggiero di Lauria appeared before Naples and destroyed another Angevin fleet commanded by Charles's son, who was taken prisoner (May 1284).

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  • The Milhamoth was published in 1560 at Riva di Trento, and has been published at Leipzig, 1866.

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  • Assuming then the leadership of the constitutional opposition, he combated the alliance between the Di Rudini cabinet and the subversive parties, criticized the financial schemes of the treasury minister, Luzzatti, and opposed the "democratic" finance of the first Pelloux administration as likely to endanger financial stability.

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  • The springs are situated in the valley of the Lima, a tributary of the Serchio; and the district is known in the early history of Lucca as the Vicaria di Val di Lima.

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  • The chief glory of the place is its splendid cathedral, dedicated to the Virgin; it was begun before 1285, perhaps by Arnolfo di Cambio, on the site of an older church; and from the 13th till the 16th century was enriched by the labours of a whole succession of great Italian painters and sculptors.

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  • Milchhdfer (Anfdnge der Kunst) had called attention to certain remarkable examples of archaic Greek bronze-work, and the subsequent discovery of the votive bronzes in the cave of Zeus on Mount Ida, and notably the shields with their fine embossed designs, shows that by the 8th century B.C. Cretan technique in metal not only held its own beside imported Cypro-Phoenician work, but was distinctly ahead of that of the rest of Greece (Halbherr, Bronzi del antro di Zeus Ideo).

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  • Urquhart states that he went to Mantua, became the tutor of the young prince of Mantua, Vincenzo di Gonzaga, and was killed by the latter in a street quarrel in 1582.

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  • Although bitterly opposed by the partisans of scholastic routine, Genovesi found influential patrons, amongst them Bartolomeo Intieri, a Florentine, who in 1754 founded the first Italian or European chair of political economy (commerce and mechanics), on condition that Genovesi should be the first professor, and that it should never be held by an ecclesiastic. The fruit of Genovesi's professorial labours was the Lezioni di Commercio, the first complete and systematic work in Italian on economics.

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  • The town is situated in the valley of the Metauro, in the centre of fine scenery, at the meeting-point of roads to Fano, to the Furlo pass and Fossato di Vico (the ancient Via Flaminia), to Urbino and to Sinigaglia, the last crossing the river by a fine bridge.

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  • In 12 9 5 the Malatesta obtained possession of it, and kept it until 1444, when it was sold, with Pesaro, to Federico di Montefeltro of Urbino, and with the latter it passed to the papacy under Urban VIII.

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  • The incident led to a feud with the supporters of Morati, among whom was Pozzo di Borgo (destined to be his life-long enemy), and opened a breach between the Bonapartes and Paoli.

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  • The following year Ranzani of Bologna, in his Elementi di zoologia - a very respectable compilation - came to treat of birds, and then followed to some extent the plan of De Blainville and Merrem (concerning which much more has to be said by and by), placing the Struthious birds in an Order by themselves.

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  • Raulich, Storia di Carlo Emanuele I.

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  • The remains of a Byzantine façade now almost entirely built into a wall in the Rio di Ca' Foscari offer us excellent illustration of this decorative work.

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  • Similar results are obtained in the magnificent facade of the Scuola di San Marco, at SS.

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  • We have already mentioned two of these, the Scuola di San Giovanni Evangelista and the Scuola di San Marco, both of them masterpieces of the Lombardesque style.

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  • The Scuola di San Marco is now a part of the town hospital, and besides its facade, already described, it is remarkable for the handsome carved ceiling in the main hall (1463).

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  • But the most magnificent of these gild halls is the Scuola di San Rocco, designed by Bartolomeo Buono in 1517 and carried out by Scarpagnino and Sante Lombardo.

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  • The republic entrusted the work to the Florentine Verrocchio, who dying before the statue was completed begged the government to allow his pupil Lorenzo di Credi to carry it to a conclusion.

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  • They contain the voluminous and invaluable records of the Venetian republic, diplomatic, judicial, commercial, notarial, &c. Under the republic the various departments of state stored their records in various buildings, at the ducal palace, at the Scuola di San Teodoro, at the Camerlenghi.

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  • Altogether the gallery contains twenty rooms, one being assigned to the complete cycle of the "History of Saint Ursula," by Carpaccio; another to Giambellino and to the Celliniani; and a whole wall of a third being occupied by the famous Veronese, "11 Convito in casa di Levi."

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  • The Heralds' College, the avvogadori di comun, in order to ensure purity of blood, were ordered to open a register of all marriages and births among members of the newly created caste, and these registers formed the basis of the famous Libro d'oro.

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  • Maria di Leuca (so called since ancient times from its white cliffs), the S.E.

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  • A cup found in an Etruscan tomb bears the inscription "Lavernai Pocolom," and in a fragment of Septimius Serenus Laverna is expressly mentioned in connexion with the di inferi.

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  • It is on the main line to Battipaglia, at the point of junction of a branch line from Cancello round the east of Vesuvius, and of the branch to Castellammare di Stabia and Gragnano.

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  • The cathedral has a Romanesque Gothic portal of 1332 by a Roman marble worker named Deodatus, and the interior is decorated in the Baroque style, but still retains the pointed vaulting of 1154, introduced into Italy by French Benedictines; it contains a splendid silver antependium by the 15th-century goldsmith Nicolo di Guardiagrele (1433-48).

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  • His chief work is his Istorie della Gila di Firenze, covering the period from 1498 to 1538, in part based on Biagio Buonaccorsi's Diario.

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  • His largest work,Trattato generale di numeri e misure, is a comprehensive mathematical treatise, including arithmetic, geometry, mensuration, and algebra as far as quadratic equations (Venice, 1556, 1560).

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  • After two weeks he left, having received the blessing of Pope Adrian VI., and proceeded by Padua to Venice, where he begged his bread and slept in the Piazza di San Marco until a rich Spaniard gave him shelter and obtained an order from the doge for a passage in a pilgrim ship bound for Cyprus, whence he could get to Jaffa.

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  • Selmi, Enciclopedia di chimica, are more valuable; the latter two are kept up to date by annual supplements.

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  • In a letter, Del movimento della cometa apparsa it mese di decembre 1664, published in 1665 under the pseudonym Pier Maria Mutoli, he was the first to suggest the idea of a parabolic path; and another of his astronomical works was Theorica mediceorum planetarum ex causis physicis deducta (Florence, 1666), in which he considered the influence of attraction on the satellites of Jupiter.

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  • How anxious the Pergamene kings, with their ardent Hellenism, were to avoid offence is shown by the elaborate forms by which, in their own capital, they sought to give their real control the appearance of popular freedom (Cardinali, Regno di Pergamo, p. 281 seq.).

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  • The works of this period are Les Philosophes Salaries, Machiavel juge des revolutions de notre temps (1849), La Federazione repubblicana (1851), La Filosofia della rivoluzione (1851), L' Italia dopo it colpo di Stato (1852), Histoire des revolutions, ou Guelfes et Gibelins (1858; Italian trans., 1871-1873).

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  • The objects discovered are in the Museo di Papa Giulio at Rome.

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  • The whole of antiquity seemed precious in the eyes of its discoverers; and even a thinker so acute as Pico di Mirandola dreamed of the possibility of extracting the essence of philosophical truth by indiscriminate collation of the most divergent doctrines.

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  • At the ninth mile the road crosses a ravine by the well-preserved and lofty Ponte di Nona, with seven arches, the finest ancient bridge in the neighbourhood of Rome.

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  • It consists of a series of apartments approached by staircases, Bulletino di archaeologia cristiana, 1865.

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  • All new discoveries made by the active Commissione di archeologia sacra are chronicled with as little delay as possible in the Nuovo Bulletino de archeologia cristiana published in Rome.

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  • With the exception of Benevento, surrounded by the Neapolitan province of Principato Ulteriore, and the small state of Pontecorvo, enclosed within the Terra di Lavoro, the States of the Church formed a compact territory, bounded on the N.W.

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  • Opposite to the promontory of Sabbioncello, and at the entrance to the Bocche di Cattaro, the frontier of Herzegovina comes down to the Adriatic; but these two strips of coast do not contain any good harbour, and extend only for a total distance of 141 m.

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  • It then pierces through the mountains of northern Herzegovina, traverses the Narenta valley, and runs almost parallel with the coast to Trebinje, Ragusa and the Bocche di Cattaro.

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  • His daughter Cornelia married Prince Giulio Cesare Colonna di Sciarra in 1728, who added her name to his own.

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  • The vicinity of Trani produces an excellent wine (Moscato di Trani); xxvii.

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  • Steam tramways .run to Vignola, Pieve di Cento and Malalbergo.

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  • They are held in the public square, the curious and historic Piazza del Campo (now Piazza di Vittorio Emanuele) in shape resembling an ancient theatre, on the 2nd of July and the 16th of August of each year; they date from the middle ages and were instituted in commemoration of victories and in honour of the Virgin Mary (the old title of Siena, as shown by seals and medals, having been "Sena vetus civitas Virginis").

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  • It has a beautiful but incomplete facade designed by Giovanni di Mino del Pellicciaio in 1382, and a marvellous font with bas-reliefs by Donatello, Ghiberti, Jacopo della Quercia and other 15th-century sculptors.

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  • Maria di Provenzano, a vast baroque building of some elegance, designed by Schifardini (1594) Sant' Agostino, rebuilt by Vanvitelli in 1755, containing a Crucifixion and Saints by Perugino, a Massacre of the Innocents by Matteo di Giovanni, the Coming of the Magi by Sodoma, and a St Anthony by Spagnoletto (?); the beautiful church of the Servites (15th century), which contains another Massacre of the Innocents by Matteo di Giovanni and other good examples of the Sienese school; San Francesco, designed by Agostino and Agnolo about 1326, and now restored, which once possessed many fine paintings by Duccio Buoninsegna, Lorenzetti, Sodoma and Beccafumi, some of which perished in the great fire of 1655; San Domenico, a fine 13th-century building with a single nave and transept, containing Sodoma's splendid fresco the Swoon of St Catherine, the Madonna of Guido da Siena, 1281, and a crucifix by Sano di Pietro.

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  • The Accademia di Belle Arti contains a good collection of pictures of the Sienese school, illustrating its development.

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  • The atrium has a fresco by Bartolo di Fredi and the two ground-floor halls contain a Coronation of the Virgin by Sano di Pietro and a splendid Resurrection by Sodoma.

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  • In the Sala dei Nove or della Pace above are the noble allegorical frescoes of Ambrogio Lorenzetti representing the effects of just and unjust government; the Sala delle Balestre or del Mappamondo is painted by Simone di Martino (Memmi) and others, the Cappella della Signoria by Taddeo di Bartolo, and the Sala del Consistorio by Beccafumi.

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  • Another hall, the Sala di Balia, has frescoes by Spinello Aretino (1408) with scenes from the life of Pope Alexander III., while yet another has been painted by local artists with episodes in recent Italian history.

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  • We may also mention the two celebrated fountains, Fonte Gaia and Fontebranda; the former, in the Piazza del Campo, by Jacopo della Quercia (1409-1419), but freely restored in 1868, the much-damaged original reliefs being now in the Opera del Duomo; the Fonte Nuova, near Porta Ovile, by Camaino di Crescentino also deserves notice (1298).

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  • During the rule of the nobles and the mixed rule of nobles and popolani the commune of Siena was enlarged by fortunate acquisitions of neighbouring lands and by the submission of feudal lords, such as the Scialenghi, Aldobrandeschi, Pannocchieschi, Visconti di Campiglia, &c.

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  • The rival claims to the Neapolitan kingdom of Carlo di Durazzo and Louis of Anjou caused fresh disturbances in Tuscany.

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  • The balia was reconstituted several times by the imperial agents - in 1530 by Don Lopez di Soria and Alphonso Piccolomini, duke of Amalfi, in 1540 by Granvella (or Granvelle) and in 1548 by Don Diego di Mendoza; but government was carried on as badly as before, and there was increased hatred of the Spanish rule.

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  • The first hostilities of the imperial forces in Val di Chiana (1552-1553) did little damage; but when Cosimo took the field with an army commanded by the marquis of Marignano the ruin of Siena was at hand.

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  • On the 2nd of August of the same year, at Marciano in Val di Chiana, he won a complete victory over the Sienese and French troops under Piero Strozzi, the Florentine exile and marshal of France.

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  • In the 17th century we find Ludovico Sergardi (Quinto Settano), a Latinist and satirical writer of much talent and culture; but the most original and brilliant figure in Sienese literature is that of Girolamo Gigli (1660-1722), author of the Gazzettino, La Sorellina di Don Pilone, Il Vocabolario cateriniano and the Diario ecclesiastico.

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  • They are Orlando Malavolti (1515-1596), a man of noble birth, the most trustworthy of all; Antonio Bellarmati; Alessandro Sozzini di Girolamo, the sympathetic author of the Diario dell' ultima guerra senese; and Giugurta Tommasi, of whose tedious history ten books, down to 1354, have been published, the rest being still in manuscript.

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  • In the 15th century we have Domenico di Bartolo, Sano di Pietro, Giovanni di Paolo, Stefano di Giovanni (Il Sassetta) and Matteo and Benvenuto di Giovanni Bartoli, who fell, however, behind their contemporaries elsewhere, and made indeed but little progress.

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  • There may, also be mentioned many sculptors and architects, such as Lorenzo Maitani, architect of Orvieto cathedral (end of 13th century); Camaino di Crescentino; Tino di Camaino, sculptor of the monument to Henry VII.

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  • Appointed minister of the treasury in the first Di Rudini cabinet of 1891, he imprudently abolished the system of frequent clearings of bank-notes between the state banks, a measure which facilitated the duplication of part of the paper currency and hastened the bank crisis of 1893.

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  • In 1896 he entered the second Di Rudini cabinet as minister of the treasury, and by timely legislation helped to save the bank of Naples from failure.

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  • Willaert, dying in 1562, was succeeded by Cipriano di Rore, on whose removal to Parma in 1565 Zarlino was elected choirmaster.

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  • Lombroso, Antropometria di 400 delinquenti (1872); Roberts, Manual of Anthropometry (1878); Ferri, Studi comparati di antropometria (2 vols., 1881-1882); Lombroso, Rughe anomale speciali ai criminali (1890); Bertillon, Instructions signaletiques pour l'identification anthropometrique (1893); Livi, Anthropometria (Milan, D900); Furst, Indextabellen zum anthropometrischen Gebrauch (Jena, 1902); Report of Home Office Committee on the Best Means of Identifying Habitual Criminals (1893-1894).

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  • The Palazzo Fodri, now the Monte di Pieta, has a beautiful 15thcentury frieze of terra-cotta bas-reliefs, as have some other palaces in private hands.

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  • See Guida di Cremona (Cremona, 1904).

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  • Deputazione di Storia Patria Toscana has recently published a Codice diplomatico delle relazioni di Carlo d'Angib con la Toscana; the contents of the Angevin archives at Naples have been published by Durrien, Archives angevines de Naples (Toulouse, 1866-1867).

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  • In October 1848 Cibrario was made senator, and after the battle of Novara (March 1849), when Charles Albert abdicated and retired to a monastery near Oporto, Cibrario and Count Giacinto di Collegno were sent as representatives of the senate to express the sympathy of that body with the fallen king.

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  • He was especially successful in making vases and circular dishes of vitro di trina; one of the latter in the Correr collection at Venice, believed to have been made in his glass-house, measures 55 centimetres (nearly 23 in.) in diameter.

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  • Har Rai was charged with friendship for Dara Shikoh, the son of Shah Jahan, and also with preaching a religion di s tinct from Islam.

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  • Opposite is the Baptistery built by Arnolfo di Cambio in the 13th century on the site of an earlier church, and adorned with beautiful bronze doors by Ghiberti in the 15th century.

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  • After the new centre was built, a society called the Societa per la difesa di Firenze antica was formed by many prominent citizens to safeguard the ancient buildings and prevent them from destruction, and a spirit of intelligent conservatism seems now to prevail in this connexion.

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  • Higher education is imparted at the university (Istituto di studii superiori e di perfezionalnento), with 600 to 650 students; although only comprising the faculties of literature, medicine and natural science, it is, as regards the first-named faculty, one of the most important institutions in Italy.

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  • Besides the Istituto di studii superiori there is the Istituto di scienze sociali "Cesare Alfieri," founded by the marchese Alfieri di Sostegno for the education of aspirants to the diplomatic and consular services, and for students of economics and social sciences (about 50 students); an academy of fine arts, a conservatoire of music, a higher female training-college with 150 students, a number of professional and trade schools, and an academy of recitation.

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  • The tumults against the Paterine heretics (1244-1245), among whom were many Ghibelline nobles favoured by the podestd Pace di Pesamigola, indicate a successful Guelphic reaction; but Frederick II., having defeated his enemies both in Lombardy and in the Two Sicilies, appointed his natural son, Frederick of Antioch, imperial vicar in Tuscany, who, when civil war broke out, entered the city with 1600 German knights.

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  • The attempt to seize Montevarchi and other castles where the Guelph exiles were congregated failed, and in 1250 the burghers elected thirty-six caporali di popolo, who formed the basis of the primo popolo or body of citizens independent of the nobles, headed by the capitano del popolo.

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  • Other bodies and magistrates were maintained, and the capitano del popolo, now called capitano della massa di parte Guelfa, tended to become a very important person.

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  • The property of the Ghibellines was confiscated, and a commission of six capitani di parte Guelfa appointed to administer it and in general to expend it for the persecution of the Ghibellines.

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  • The priori were reduced to 8 (2 popolani grassi, 3 mediani and 3 artifici minuti), while the gonfaloniere was to be chosen in turn from each of those classes; the grandi were excluded from the administration, but they were still admitted to the consiglio del comune, the cinque di mercanzia, and other offices pertaining to the commune; the Ordinamenti were maintained but in a somewhat attenuated form, and certain grandi as a favour were declared to be of the popolo.

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  • Savonarola also proposed a court of appeal for criminal and political crimes tried by the Otto di guardia e balia; this too was agreed to, but the right of appeal was to be, not to a court as Savonarola suggested, but to the Greater Council, a fact which led to grave abuses, as judicial appeals became subject to party passions.

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  • The parlamenti were abolished and a monte di pieta to advance money at reasonable interest was created.

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  • At the mouth of the Arno, joined to the city by a steam tramway, is the seaside resort of Marina di Pisa, also known as Bocca d'Arno, a well-known centre for landscape painters.

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  • Thus it is not surprising that Pisa should already have had its own code of laws (Consuetudini di mare), which in 1075 were approved by Gregory VII., and in 1081 confirmed by a patent from the emperor Henry IV., a document which mentions for the first time the existence of a magistrate analogous to the consuls of the republic, although the latter, according to some writers, already existed in Pisa as early as the year 1080; the point, however, is doubtful, and other writers place the first authentic mention of the consuls in the year 1094.1 The oldest of Pisan statutes still extant is the Breve dei consoli di mare of 1162.

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  • St Catherine of Siena was the youngest of the twenty-five children of Giacomo di Benincasa, a dyer, and was born, with a twin-sister who did not survive her birth, on the st 25th of March 1347.

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  • To this year, 1376, belongs the admission to Catherine's circle of disciples of Stefano di Corrado Maconi, a Sienese noble distinguished by a character full of charm and purity, and her healing of the bitter feud between his family and the Tolomei.

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  • Among them were Fra Raimondo, who became master-general of the Dominicans, William Flete, an ascetically-minded Englishman from Cambridge, Stefano Maconi, who joined the Carthusians and ultimately became prior-general, and the two secretaries, Neri di Landoccio and Francesco Malavolti.

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  • Under the rule of Venice the university was governed by a board of three patricians, called the Riformatori dello Studio di Padova.

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  • While wintering at Napoli di Romania (Nauplia) he died on the 6th of January 1694.

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  • The Arco di Riccardo, which derives its name from a popular delusion that it was connected with Richard Coeur-de-Lion, is believed by some to be a Roman triumphal arch, but is probably an arch of a Roman aqueduct.

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  • Maria di Collemaggio, just outside the town, has a very fine Romanesque facade of simple design (1270-1280) in red and white marble, with three finely decorated portals and a rose-window above each.

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  • He would have been executed had not the Austrians intervened in his favour, and he was exiled instead to Briinn in Moravia; in 1823 he was permitted to settle in Florence, where he spent the rest of his days engaged on his Storia del reame di Napoli.

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  • See Gino Capponi's memoir of him published in the Storia del reame di Napoli (2nd ed., Florence, 1848).

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  • A creature of the Arrabbiati, a Franciscan friar named Francesco di Puglia, challenged Savonarola to prove the truth of his doctrines by the ordeal of fire.

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  • The standard modern work on Savonarola is Pasquale Villari's, La Storia di Fra Girolamo Savonarola e de' suoi tempi (Florence, 1887) based on an exhaustive study of the original authorities and containing a number of new documents (English translation by Linda Villari, London, 1889).

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  • Here, too, is the Badia di Fiesole, founded in 1028 and re-erected about 1456-1466 by a follower of Brunelleschi.

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  • His Storia critica di Spagna e della cultura spagnuola in ogni genere (2 vols., 1781-1784) was finally expanded into the Historia critica de Espana y de la cultura espanola (1783-1805), which, though it consists of twenty volumes, was left unfinished; had it been continued on the same scale, the work would have consisted of fifty volumes.

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  • Peter I., through his commander Ruggiero di Loria, defeated the French off the Faro; and from 1282 to 1713 Messina remained a possession of the Spanish royal house.

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  • Messina was the birthplace of Dicaearchus, the historian (c. 322 B.C.); Aristocles, the Peripatetic; Euhemerus, the rationalist (c. 316 B.C.); Stefano Protonotario, Mazzeo di Ricco and Tommaso di Sasso, poets of the court of Frederick II.

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  • The Galleria di Minerva was'first published at Venice in 1696.

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  • The next that deserve mention are the Giornale enciclopedico (1806) of Naples, followed by the Progresso delle scienze (1833-1848) and the Museo di scienze e letteratura of the same city, and the Giornale arcadico (1819) of Rome.

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  • The Rassegna nazionale, conducted by the marchese Manfredo di Passano, a chief of the moderate clerical party, the Nuova rivista of Turin, the Fanfulla della Domenica, and the Gazzetta letteraria may also be mentioned.

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  • In 1692 he lost Namur and was badly defeated at Steinkirk (August 4th), and in 1693 he was di astrously beaten at Neerwinden or Landen (July 19th).

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  • This conception of the nature of the numina and man's relation to them is the root notion of the old Roman religion, and the fully-formed state cult of the di indigetes even at the earliest historical period, must have been the result of long and gradual development, of which we can to a certain extent trace the stages.

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  • The consequence was the introduction of certain new deities, the di novensides, from external sources, and the birth of new conceptions of the gods and their worship. We may distinguish three main influences, to a certain extent historically successive.

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  • Within the town are two subterranean vaulted buildings in good masonry, of uncertain nature, some other remains under modern buildings, and a concrete ruin known as the "Bagni di Bacco."

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  • Below the town is the massive tomb chamber (originally subterranean, but now lacking the mound of the earth which covered it) known as the Grotta di Pitagora (grotto of Pythagoras).

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  • Maria del Calcinaio, a fine early Renaissance building by Francesco di Giorgio Martini of Siena, with fine stained glass windows.

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  • Scanty remains of walling and of buildings of the Roman period exist above ground; traces of a large rectangular platform were found in 1876, and part of the thermae in 1829; it occupied the summit of a hill defended by ravines, called Piano di Civita.

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  • Some authorities indeed consider, and very likely with good reason, that this was the site of the Etruscan city, and that the Piano di Civita, which lies further inland and commands but little view of the sea, was only occupied in Roman times.

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  • I, 4), the modern Citta di Castello, he set up a temple at his own expense and adorned it with statues of Nerva and Trajan (x.

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  • To the south, outside the Porta di Lecce, is the Citta Nuova, on the site of the main part of the ancient town.

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  • Under the Aragonese, Malta, as regards local affairs, was administered bya Universitd or municipal commonwealth with wide and indefinite powers, including the election of its officers, Capitan di Verga, Jurats, &c. The minutes of the " Consiglio Popolare " of this period are preserved, showing it had no legislative power; this was vested in the king, and was exercised despotically in the interests of the Crown.

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  • After her death, much against the advice of his remaining son arrd heir, Carlino (afterwards Charles Emmanuel III.), he married the Contessa di San Sebastiano, whom he created Marchesa di Spigno, abdicated the crown and retired to Chambery to end his days (1730).

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  • The Ponte di Cecco (so named from Cecco d'Ascoli), with two arches, is also Roman and belongs to the Via Salaria; the Ponte Maggiore and the Ponte Cartaro are, on the other hand, medieval, though the latter perhaps preserves some traces of Roman work.

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  • By successive trials two beads, of known density, say di, d 2, are obtained, one of which floats above, and the other below, the test crystal; the distances separating the beads from the crystal are determined by means of a scale placed behind the tube.

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  • Nicola di Bari (Bari, 1901); Charles Cahier, Caracteristiques des saints (Paris, 186 7), p. 354; Frances ArnoldForster, Studies in Church Dedications (London, 1899), i.

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  • His ancestry claimed blood relationship with the lords of Montespertoli, a fief situated between Val di Pesa and Val d'Elsa, at no great distance from the city.

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  • The masters he had to serve were the dieci di liberta e pace, who, though subordinate to the signoria, exercised a separate control over the departments of war and the interior.

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  • On the 6th of December 1506 his plan was approved by the signoria, and a special ministry, called the nove di ordinanza e militia, was appointed.

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  • The same qualities are noticeable in his Ritratti delle cose di Francia, which he drew up after an embassy to Louis XII.

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  • The year 1520 saw the composition of the Arte della guerra and the Vita di Castruccio.

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  • The Vita di Castruccio was composed at Lucca, whither Machiavelli had been sent on a mission.

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  • Similar summer resorts are situated among the woods above the Casentino or upper valley of the Arno to the east, such as Camaldoli, Badia di Prataglia, &c. Camaldoli was the original headquarters of the Camaldulensian order, now partly occupied by an hotel.

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  • From the earliest Christian times the saints took the place of the pagan tutelary deities (Di tutelares) and were in this capacity called tutelares or patroni, patron-saints.

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  • Charles Albert no doubt was aware of this, but he never actually became a Carbonaro, and was surprised and startled when after the outbreak of the Neapolitan revolution of 1820 some of the leading conspirators in the Piedmontese army, including Count Santorre di Santarosa and Count San Marzano, informed him that a military rising was ready and that they counted on his help (2nd March 1821).

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  • Here the name of Laurentum is preserved by the modern name Pantan di Lauro.

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  • The remains of the villa of Pliny, too, were excavated in 1713 and in 1802-1819, and it is noteworthy that the place bears the name Villa di Pino (sic) on the staff map; how old the name is, is uncertain.

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  • Several remains of reservoirs exist; one very large one is now called Piscina di Cardito.

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  • He was one of the founders of the Annali universali di statistica.

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  • Potentia must be distinguished from Potentia in Picenum, on the Adriatic coast, near the modern Porto di Recanati, a colony founded in 184 B.C., the same year as Pisaurum, but of which little is known.

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  • The last gained him the friendship of the Marchesa di Barolo, the reformer of the Turin prisons, and in 1834 he accepted from her a yearly pension of 1200 francs.

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  • The walls by which it is surrounded were erected in 1320 by Guido Tarlati di Pietramala, its warlike bishop, who died in 1327, and is buried in the cathedral; they were reconstructed by Cosimo I.

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  • In 1793 he distinguished himself by the brilliant defence of a redoubt at the Col di Tenda, with only thirty men against a battalion of the enemy.

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  • A branch of the Cadolingi di Borgonuovo family, lords of Fucecchio in Tuscany from the 10th century onwards, which had acquired the name of Bonaparte, had settled near Sarzana before 1264; in 1512 a member of the family took up his residence in Ajaccio, and hence, according to some authorities, was descended the emperor Napoleon I.

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  • Failing to receive aid from Pozzo di Borgo, his mother's uncle, Louis Blanc studied law in Paris, living in poverty, and became a contributor to various journals.

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  • Capo d'Istria, Nesselrode, Stein, Pozzo di Borgo were perhaps the best men in Europe to manage the Russian policy, while Czartoriski represented at the imperial court the hope of Polish nationality.

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  • After this Fondi was much neglected; in 1721 it was sold to the Di Sangro family, in which it still remains.

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  • The Lago di Fondi, which lies in the middle of the plain, and the partially drained marshes surrounding it, compelled the ancient Via Appia, followed by the modern road, to make a considerable detour.

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  • The differences OD and DI are thus calculated, while the values of D(v) and I (v) are obtained by summation with the arithmometer, and entered in their respective columns.

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  • Streams of rainwater, formed by condensation of exhaled steam often mingled with volcanic ashes so as to produce mud, are known as lava d'acqua, whilst the streams of molten matter are called lava di fuoco.

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  • He returned to the mainland at the head of 200 convicts, and committed further excesses in the Terra di Lavoro; but the French troops were everywhere on the alert to capture him and he had to take refuge in the woods of Lenola.

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  • An indiscreet announcement of the limitations of the Triple Alliance contributed to his fall in June 1885, when he was succeeded by Count di Robilant.

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  • His great work, Le Istorie del regno di Napoli dal 1250 fino al 1498, first appeared at Naples in 1572, and was the fruit of thirty or forty years' labour; but nine more years were devoted to the task before it was issued in its final form at Aquila (1581).

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  • The Rime of di Costanzo are remarkable for finical taste, for polish and frequent beauty of expression, and for strict obedience to the poetical canons of his time.

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  • That same year the Dorias inherited the fiefs and titles of the house of Pamphilii-Landi of Gubbio, patricians of Rome and princes of San Martino, Valmontano, Val di Toro, Bardi and Corupiano.

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  • In ancient Rome the Di manes, or as we should say the blessed dead, who reposed in their necropolis outside the walls, were specially commemorated on the dies parentales or days of placating them (placandis Manibus).

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  • In later times the place became a municipium, and unimportant Roman remains still exist upon the hill known as Monte di Canne.

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  • The citadel of the 15th century, constructed by Francesco di Giorgio Martini of Siena, is on the S.E.

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  • Acqualagna is the site of an ancient town; the place is now called piano di Valeria, and is scattered with ruins.

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  • The socalled Arco di Riccardo is a half-buried Roman arch with Corinthian pilasters, possibly a triumphal arch, possibly connected with an aqueduct.

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  • The university, founded in 1400 by Lodovico di.

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  • Among the hospitals is that called by the name of its founder, Cottolengo, a vast institution providing for more than 5000 persons; there are also the Ospedale Maggiore di San Giovanni, the Ospedale Mauriziano, and many other hospitals for special diseases, as well as asylums and charitable institutions of all kinds.

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  • Turin has, however, the advantage of being the nearest to the Mont Cenis, while the completion of the line through Cuneo over the Col di Tenda affords direct communication with the French Riviera.

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  • Not far from Turin are also the castles of Moncalieri, Stupinigi, Rivoli, Racconigi, Agle, Venaria, and the ancient monastery of the Sagra di San Michele (753 metres above sea-level), famous for its view of the Alps as far as the beginning of the Lombard plain.

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  • It was at his court that Piero della Francesca wrote his celebrated work on the science of perspective, Francesco di Giorgio Martini his Trattato d'architettura (published by Saluzzo, Turin, 1841), and Giovanni Santi his poetical account of the chief artists of his time.

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  • Most of the finest pieces of Urbino ware were made specially for the dukes, who covered their sideboards with the rich storied piatti di pompa.

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  • Besides the silver altar it contains many fine works of sculpture; the chief are the monument of Cino da Pistoia, lawyer and poet, Dante's contemporary (1337), by Cellino di Nese, surrounded by his scholars, and Verrocchio's finest work in marble, the monument to Cardinal Forteguerra (1474), with a large figure of Christ, surrounded by angels, in high relief.

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  • The octagonal baptistery is by Cellino di Nese (1339).

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  • The gem of the collection is Raphael's "Madonna di San Sisto," for which a room is set apart.

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  • In 1350 Cola di Rienzi, "the last of the tribunes," was confined by the emperor Charles IV.

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  • The Tomba di Rotari is a domed building of the Norman period.

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  • In Rome there ensued, during the pontificate of Clement, the revolutions of the visionary Cola di Rienzo (q.v.) who restored the old republic, though not for long.

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  • It was in vain that Carlo di Malatesta, a stanch adherent of Gregory, sought at the eleventh hour to negotiate a compromise between Gregory and the synod.

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  • Giolitti became premier, the Marquis di San Giuliano was selected as undersecretary for agriculture, while in the Pelloux ministry (1899-1900) he held the portfolio of posts and telegraphs.

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  • During the whole tenure of office the Marquis di San Giuliano was an ardent believer in the Triple Affiance, on which he thought that Italy's foreign policy should be based, and attached the greatest importance to a good understanding with Austria, an attitude not calculated to win him popularity in many circles; under his guidance consequently Italy opposed Serbia's desire for a port on the Adriatic and Greece's aspirations in Epirus, and supported the policy of creating an independent Albanian State.

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  • But it is certain that, once the decision had been taken, the Marquis di San Giuliano carried out the policy it involved with the most complete loyalty.

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  • This scholarly linguist, equipped with modern methods of scientific research, did not confine himself to the classical period like Csoma, but extended his ' The Capuchin friars who were settled in Lhasa for a quarter of a century from 1719 studied the language; two of them, Francisco Orazio della Penna, well known from his accurate description of Tibet, and Cassian di Macerata sent home materials which were utilized by the Augustine friar Aug.

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  • The islands, which are long and narrow (the long axis lying parallel with the coast of the mainland), rise rather abruptly to elevations of a few hundred feet, while on the mainland, notably in the magnificent inlet of the Bocche di Cattaro, lofty mountains often fall directly to the sea.

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  • From about 1864 he occupied himself almost exclusively with spectrum analysis, both of stars (Catalogo delle stelle di cui si e determinato lo spettro luminoso, Paris, 1867, 8vo; "Sugli spettri prismatici delle stelle fisse," two parts, 1868, in the Atti della Soc. Ital.) and of the sun (Le Soleil, Paris, 1870, 8vo; 2nd ed., 1877).

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  • Guido of Citta di Castello (Tiferno), born of noble Tuscan family, able and learned, studied under Abelard and became a cardinal priest.

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  • For physiognomy of disease, besides the usual medical handbooks, see Cabuchet, Essai sur l'expression de la face dans les maladies (Paris, 1801); Mantegazza, Physiology of Pain (1893), and Polli, Saggio di fisiognomonia e potognomonia (1837).

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  • It was built as a Jesuit college in 1651, but since 1776 has been the seat of the Accademia di Belle Arti, and contains besides the picture gallery a library of some 300,000 volumes, a collection of coins numbering about 60,000, and an excellent observatory founded in 1766.

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  • It was under him that the cathedral of Milan and the Certosa di Pavia were begun.

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  • Starting from the Col d'Altare or di Cadibona (west of Savona), the main chain extends first south-west, then north-west to the Col de Tenda, though nowhere rising much beyond the zone of coniferous trees.

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  • Thence to the Reschen Scheideck Pass the main chain is ill-defined, though on it rises the Corno di Campo (10,844 ft.), beyond which it runs slightly north-east past the sources of the Adda and the Fra g ile Pass, sinks to form the depression of the Ofen Pass, soon bends north and rises once more in the Piz Sesvenna (10,568 ft.).

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  • Ghicet di Sea (Balme to Forno Alpi Graie), foot path (C).

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  • Umbrail Pass or Wermserjoch (Munster Valley to the Stelvio road), carriage road Passo di Val Viola (Bernina road to Bormio), bridle path Giufplan Pass (Ofen road to Fraele), bridle path.

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  • Tabarettascharte (Sulden to Trafoi), foot path Stelvio Pass (Trafoi to Bormio), carriage road 9,055 Gavia Pass (Santa Caterina to Ponte di Legno), foot path 8,651 Timmeljoch orTimblerjoch (Solden to the Passeierthal and Meran), bridle path.

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  • On the west the belt is narrow, but towards the east it gradually widens, and north of Lago di Garda its northern boundary is suddenly deflected to the north and the zone spreads out so as to include the whole of the Dolomite mountains of Tirol.

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  • He published many physical memoirs on electricity, the dilatation of liquids by heat, specific heats, capillary attraction, atomic volumes &c. as well as a treatise in 4 volumes on Fisica di corpi ponderabili (1837-1841).

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  • The work was executed in 1470-1476 by Giovanni Antonio Amadeo, who was also employed at the Certosa di Pavia.

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  • The vowel i could become e as de = di, &c. Consonantal variation is most common.

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  • Latium Antiquum consisted principally of an extensive plain, now known as the Campagna di Roma, bounded towards the interior by the Apennines, which rise very abruptly from the plains to a height of between 4000 and 5000 ft.

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  • Later on the name Latium entirely disappeared, and the name Campania extended as far as Veii and the Via Aurelia, whence the medieval and modern name Campagna di Roma.

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  • The land is for the most part let by the proprietors to mercanti di Campagna, who employ a subordinate class of factors (fattori) to manage their affairs on the spot.

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  • The castle was built in 1470 by Pirro di Balzo, and contains four stables each for fifty horses.

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  • As the election of any cardinal seemed impossible, on the 5th of July 1294 the Sacred College united on Pietro di Morrone; the cardinals expected to rule in the name of the celebrated but incapable ascetic. Apocalyptic notions then current doubtless aided his election, for Joachim of Floris and his school looked to monasticism to furnish deliverance to the church and to the world.

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  • The first-mentioned of the two principal streets was crossed, a little before it reached the forum, by the street which led directly to the gate of Nola (Strada delle Terme, della Fortuna, and di Nola).

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  • More considerable and important was a temple which stood at no great distance from the forum at the point where the so-called Strada di Mercurio was crossed by the wide line of thoroughfare (Strada della Fortuna) leading to the gate of Nola.

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  • It appears, however, that these two establishments were found inadequate to supply the wants of the inhabitants, and a third edifice of the same character, the socalled central baths, at the corner of the Strada Stabiana and the Strada di Nola, but on a still more extensive scale, intended for men only, while the other two had separate accommodation for both sexes, was in course of construction when the town was overwhelmed.

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  • Di Every Prussian scheme was in like manner resisted by Austria.

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  • The harbour of Ragusa, once one of the chief ports of southern Europe, is too small for modern needs; but Gravosa (Gruz), a village at the mouth of the river Ombla, on the north, is a steamship station and communicates by rail with Herzegovina and the Bocche di Cattaro.

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  • Tradition identifies Epidaurum, whence the majority came, with the neighbouring village of Ragusavecchia; but some historians, including Gelcich, place it on the shores of the Bocche di Cattaro.

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  • Maria di Castello (11th century), the columns and capitals of which are almost all antique.

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  • Among other modern thoroughfares, the Via di Circonvallazione a Monte, laid out since 1876 on the hills at the back of the town, leads by many curves from the Piazza Manin along the hill-tops westward, and finally descends into the Piazza Acquaverde; its entire length is traversed by an electric tramway, and it commands magnificent views of the town.

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  • A similar road, the Via di Circonvallazione a Mare, was laid out in 18 93189S on the site of the outer ramparts, and skirts the seafront from the Piazza Cavour to the mouth of the Bisagno, thence ascending the right bank to the Ponte Pila.

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  • An outer harbour, 247 acres in area, has been constructed in front of this by extending the Molo Nuovo by the Molo Duca di Galliera, and another basin, the Vittorio Emanuele III., for coal vessels, with an area of 96 acres, is in course of construction to the west of this, between it and the lofty lighthouse which rises on the promontory at the south-west extremity of the harbour.

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  • The inhabitants of the district round the Bocche di Cattaro (the Bocchesi, as they are commonly called) refused to obey this order, and when a military force was sent it failed to overcome their resistance; and by an agreement made at Knezlac in December 1869, Rodics, who had taken command, granted the insurgents all they asked and a complete amnesty.

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  • Baldacci, Descrizione geologica dell' isola di Sicilia (Rome, 1886), with map. For fuller and later information reference should be made to the publications of the Reale Comitato Geologico d'Italia.

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  • This is into three valleys, known in later forms of language as Val di Mazzara or Mazza in the N.W., Val di Noto in the S.E.

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  • The chief work of the next ten years was the conquest of the Val di Noto, but the first great advance was made elsewhere.

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  • At last, in 859, the very centre of the island, the stronghold of Henna, was taken, and the main part of Val di Noto followed.

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  • He contributed to Platner's Beschreibung der Stadt Rom, then under the direction of Bunsen, and was one of the principal originators and during his residence in Italy director of the Instituto di corrispondenza archeologica, founded at Rome in 1828.

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  • Owing to the discovery of inscriptions relating to the Gens Vitruvia at Formiae in Campania (Mola di Gaeta), it has been suggested that he was a native of that city, and he has been less reasonably connected with Verona on the strength of an existing arch of the 3rd century, which is inscribed with the name of a later architect of the same family name -- "Lucius Vitruvius Cerdo, a freedman of Lucius."

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  • At Rocca di Papa near Rome there is a pair of horizontal pendulums with booms 8 ft.

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  • This predatory tribe, issuing from Nubia, was long to be- the terror DI Upper Egypt.

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  • A rich collection of materials was made by Andrea Niccoletti, Della vita di Papa Urbano VIII.

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  • The castle was the birthplace of Ruggiero di Loria, the great Italian admiral of the 13th century.

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  • The evidences of this travel (which are really incontestable, though a small minority of critics still decline to admit them) consist of (1) some fine drawings, three of them dated 1494 and others undated, but plainly of the same time, in which Diirer has copied, or rather boldly translated into his own Gothic and German style, two famous engravings by Mantegna, a number of the "Tarocchi" prints of single figures which pass erroneously under that master's name, and one by yet another minor master of the North-Italian school; with another drawing dated 1495 and plainly copied from a lost original by Antonio Pollaiuolo, and yet another of an infant Christ copied in 1495 from Lorenzo di Credi, from whom also Diirer took a motive for the composition of one of his earliest Madonnas; (2) several landscape drawings done in the passes of Tirol and the Trentino, which technically will not fit in with any other period of his work, and furnish a clear record of his having crossed the Alps about this date; (3) two or three drawings of the costumes of Venetian courtesans, which he could not have made anywhere but in Venice itself, and one of which is used in his great woodcut Apocalypse series of 1498 (4) a general preoccupation which he shows for some years from this date with the problems of the female nude, treated in a manner for which Italy only could have set him the example; and (5) the clear implication contained in a letter written from Venice in 1506 that he had been there already eleven years before; when things, he says, pleased him much which at the time of writing please him no more.

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  • In examples of a few years later, like the "Virgin with the Monkey," the design of Mother and Child clearly betrays the influence of Italy and specifically of Lorenzo di Credi.

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  • Contemporary documents prove that the interior was begun in 1508 by Cola Matteuccio da Caprarola, and the exterior completed in1516-1524by Ambrogio da Milano and Francesco di Vito Lombardo; the slender dome was not added till .1606; its plan is a Greek cross.

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  • Donato, of the Lombard period, with Byzantine capitals, is interesting; Giosue Carducci has written a fine ode on the subject (La Chiesa di Polenta, Bologna, 1897).

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  • It lies on the north side of a huge isolated mass of granite (the Rocca di Cavour) which rises from the plain.

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  • Paolo, Di Moniglia (1444-1502), a member of the order of Dominicans, was, from a comparatively early age, prior of their convent at Genoa.

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  • His annals of Genoa (Castigatissimi annali di Genova) were published posthumously in 1537.

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  • He travelled by way of Munich, the Brenner and Lago di Garda to Verona and Venice, and from thence to Rome, where he arrived on the 29th of October 1786.

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  • For his work on La Proprieta fondiaria Lombardia (Milan, 1856) he received a prize from the Milanese Societa d'incoraggiamento di scienze e lettere and was made a member of the Istituto Lombardo.

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  • The architrave of the larger, known as Porta di Civita, measures about 17 ft.

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  • A reconstruction of it has been erected in the Museo di Villa Giulia at Rome.

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  • Maria di Sastello has a large altarpiece by Foppa and Brea (of 1490).

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  • The cobra di capello (Naia tripudians) - the name given to it by the Portuguese, from the appearance of a hood which it produces by the expanded skin about the neck - is the most dreaded.

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  • Sirturus, in his De Telescopio (1618), states that "a Frenchman proceeded to Milan in the month of May 1609 and offered a telescope for sale to Count di.

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  • The Sicilian fleet under Ruggiero di Lauria defeated that of the Angevins at Malta in 1283, and 1284 in the Bay of Naples, where the king's son, Charles the Lame, was captured.

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  • For the more recent history P. Colletta's Storia del reame di Napoli (Florence, 1848) will be found very useful, though.

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  • He set to work to restore some of these ruins, to reconstitute and pacify the Papal State, to put an end to the Schism, which showed signs of continuing in Aragon and certain parts of southern France; to enter into negotiations, unfortunately unfruitful, with the Greek Church also with a view to a return to unity, to organize the struggle against heresy in Bohemia; to interpose his pacific mediation between France and England, as well as between the parties which were rending France; and, finally, to welcome and act as patron to saintly reformers like Bernardino of Siena and Francesca Romana, foundress of the nursing sisterhood of the Oblate di Tor de' Specchi (1425).

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  • Among the older works relating to Herculaneum, in addition to those already quoted, may be mentioned de Brosses, Lettre sur l'etat actuel de la y ule souterraine d'Heraclea (Paris, 1750); Seigneux de Correvon, Lettre sur la decouverte de l'ancienne ville d'Herculane (Yverdon, 1770); David, Les Antiquites d'Herculaneum (Paris, 1780); D' Ancora Gaetano, Prospetto storico-fisico degli scavi d'Ercolano e di Pompei (Naples, 1803); Venuti, Prime Scoverte di Ercolano (Rome, 1748); and Romanelli, Viaggio ad Ercolano (Naples, 181 I).

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  • In 1874 he was appointed first professor of palaeography and diplomatics at the Istituto di Studii Superiori in Florence, where he continued to work at the interpretation of MSS.

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  • Du Cane, Punishment and Prevention of Crime (1885); Braco, Estudos penitenciarios e criminaes (Lisbon, 1888); Garofalo, Studio sul delitto, sulle sui cause e sui mezzi di repressione (1890); Adolphe Guillot, Les Prisons de Paris (1890); Tallack, Preventive and Penological Principles (1896); Salillas, Vida penal en Espana (Madrid).

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  • Notwithstanding these fine words, Abu'l-Abbas did not trust 1 Merwan has been nicknamed al-Ja`di and al-Himar (the Ass).

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  • By May ig the Austrians were attacking hard all along the line to which the Italians had retired, from Coni Zugna and the Passo di Buole to Pasubio, and the Campomolon line had gone.

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  • The latter was holding firmly on Coni Zugna and the Passo di Buole, and neither here nor on Pasubio could the repeated attacks of the Austrian right make any impression.

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  • On May 24 a desperate effort was made to storm the Passo di Buole and Pasubio, but the Sicilia and Taro Bdes., who held the Zugna ridge, and the right wing of the 44th Div.

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  • The columns attacking Passo di Buole suffered heavily from the flanking fire of the 44th Div.

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  • Next day the attack was renewed, heavy columns coming up the slopes against the Passo di Buole, only to be thrown back, broken and decimated, one brigade being practically destroyed.

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  • The importance of the defence at the Passo di Buole can hardly be over-estimated.

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  • On May 21 the order was given to retire to the line Monte Verena - Cima di Campolongo, and the stay on this line was short.

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  • Owing to an error in the transmission of an order the Alpine troops who were holding the positions of Cima Undici and Cima Dodici retired before the Austrians attacked, and uncovered the flank of the division, while on the same day (May 25) the attacking forces succeeded in occupying the important position of Corno di Campo Verde (6,815 ft.).

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  • Stiff fighting took place beneath Soglio di Campiglia and Pria Fora, and the Italians withdrew to the mountain line which had been hastily prepared from Forni Alti by Monte Spin to Pria Fora.

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  • In the weeks that followed, the men who held at Passo di Buole and on Pasubio, south of the Posina and east of the Val Canaglia and in the Seven Communes, outnumbered at first and always outgunned, completely broke up the attack that had begun so well.

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  • Landing at Reggio di Calabria he hastened to Monza, where he conducted with firmness and tact the preparations for the burial of King Humbert and for his own formal accession, which took place on the 9th and nth of August 1900.

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  • The vestibule was decorated with stucco mouldings by Domenico di Paris of Padua.

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  • These were the avvogadori di commune, and, since Tiepolo's conspiracy in 1310, the Consiglio dei Dieci, the Council of Ten, which controlled the whole of the state, and out of which there developed in the 16th century the state inquisition.

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  • Maria di Canepanova with its small dome was designed by Bramante.

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  • Five miles north of Pavia is the Carthusian monastery of Certosa di Pavia, one of the most magnificent in the world.

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  • The Certosa di Pavia is thus a practical textbook of Italian art for wellnigh three centuries.

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  • On the right of the XXVII., holding the line as far as the Sella di Dol between Monte Santo and Monte San Gabriele, were Caviglia's XXIV.

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  • A little later the Bavarian Alpenkorps, advancing from Tolmino, attacked the ridges below the Passo di Zagradan, while Berrer and Scotti attacked farther south.

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  • Only one battalion, however, was placed on Monte Plezia; the rest of this regiment (the 76th) lay at Passo di Zagradan, high upon the ridge to the west, and the other regiment of the brigade (the 75th), together with the brigade command, was nearly three m.

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  • Di Giorgio was sent northward, with two divisions from the general reserve, to occupy both banks of the Tagliamento in the region of Pinzano.

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  • Two divisions under Di Giorgio had been dispatched to hold this line, but their march, at right angles to the line of the retreat and athwart the long streams of retiring troops and civilians, had been very difficult.

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  • The following morning Di Giorgio was strongly attacked at Pinzano and Krauss established a sufficient bridgehead.

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  • Di Robilant wished to hold on in Cadore.

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  • Di Giorgio's force and the rest of the covering troops of the II.

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  • Army was being carried out with much skill, and Di Robilant's troops succeeded in bringing away with them a great amount of material, but several detachments were cut off, including remnants of the Carnia force, which had been attached to the IV.

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  • Di Robilant had taken over the XVIII.

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  • Various other attacks at San Dona, Intestadura, and the Grave di Papadopoli were unsuccessful, and the troops at Zenson could make no headway.

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  • At dusk a message came from Di Robilant that he was sending up a brigade of the VI.

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  • The breathing-space was needed by Di Robilant's troops, for the XVIII.

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  • Corps, already re-made, under the command of Di Giorgio; and the Corps distinguished itself greatly in the fighting which followed.

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  • Four days more, and Krauss's men had captured Monte Asolone, which looks down the Valle di Santa Felicita to the longed-for haven of the plain.

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  • Giovanni di Sinis is a heavy building of the 8th (?) century A.D.

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  • Let DID be the path of contact, consisting of the arc of approach DI and the arc of recess ID.

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  • It appears from experience that the mean obliquity should not exceed 15; therefore the maximum obliquity should be about 30; therefore the equal arcs DI and ID should each be one-sixth of a circumference; therefore the circumference of the describing circle should be six limes the pitch.

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  • Ci, C1 are the axes of the two parallel shafts; Di, D2 two disks facing each other, fixed on the ends of the two shafts FIG.

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  • From the stores of valuable materials contained in those ten volumes, it will be enough here to cite (1) the Ricordi politici, already noticed, consisting of about 400 aphorisms on political and social topics; (2) the observations on Machiavelli's Discorsi, which bring into remarkable relief the views of Italy's two great theorists on statecraft in the 16th century, and show that Guicciardini regarded Machiavelli somewhat as an amiable visionary or political enthusiast; (3) the Storia Fiorentina, an early work of the author, distinguished by its animation of style, brilliancy of portraiture, and liberality of judgment; and (4) the Dialogo del reggimento di Firenze, also in all probability an early work, in which the various forms of government suited to an Italian commonwealth are discussed with infinite subtlety, contrasted, and illustrated from the vicissitudes of Florence up to the year 1 494.

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  • In the Roman period we find Aufidena figuring as a post station on the road between Sulmo and Aesernia, which, however, runs past Castel di Sangro, crossing the river by an ancient bridge some 5 m.

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  • Castel di Sangro has remains of ancient walls, but these are attributed to a road by Mariani, and in any case the fortified area there was quite small, only one-sixteenth the size of Aufidena.

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  • The attempted identification of Castel di Sangro with Aufidena must therefore be rejected, though we must allow that it was probably the Roman post station; the ancient city, since its capture by the Romans in the 3rd century B.C., having lost something of its importance.

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  • Clemente di Casauria, founded by the emperor Louis II.

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  • His chief work is his Lezioni di letteratura italiana, of which the dominant note is the conviction that Italian literature "is as the very soul of the nation, seeking, in opposition to medieval mysticism, reality, freedom, independence of reason, truth and beauty" (P. Villari).

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  • Brit., 11 General Louis P. di Cesnola (q.v.), American consul, was already exploring ancient sites, and opening tombs, in all parts of the island, though his results were not published till 1877.12 But though his vast collection, now 1 Dio Cass.

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  • From 1876 to 1878 Major Alexander P. di Cesnola continued his brother's work, but the large collection which he exhibited in London in 1880 was dispersed soon afterwards.14 On the British occupation of Cyprus in 1878, the Ottoman law of 1874 in regard to antiquities was retained in force.

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  • The "dolce libriccino," the famous Trattato utilissimo del beneficio di Gesu Christo crocifisso verso i christiani, which was the composition of a Sicilian Benedictine and had been touched up by the great latinist Flaminio, just appeared at Mantua in 1542 under the auspices of Morone, and had a wide circulation (over 40,000 copies of the second edition, Venice 1543, were sold).

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  • Important also are the introduction to and commentary upon the Mishnah by Maimonides (q.v.), and the commentary of Rabbenu Obadiah di Bertinoro (died 1510).

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  • This kidnapping of Mattioli, however, was no secret, and it was openly discussed in La Prudenza trionfante di Casale (Cologne, 1682), where it was stated that Mattioli was masked when he was arrested.

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  • In 1855 he published an edition of Benefizio della Morte di Cristo, a remarkable book of the Reformation period, attributed to Paleario, of which nearly all the copies had been destroyed by the Inquisition.

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  • Lang, Myth, Ritual and Religion (1899); C. Pascal, Studii di antichita e mitologia (1896), who sees in Lycaon a god of death honoured by human sacrifice; Ed.

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  • In archaeology his great achievement was Saggio di lingua Etrusca (1789), followed by Saggio delle lingue Ital.

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  • What was true of the antiquities would be true also, he argued, of the Etruscan language, and the object of the Saggio di lingua Etrusca was to prove that this language must be related to that of the neighbouring peoples - Romans, Umbrians, Oscans and Greeks.

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