Development sentence example

development
  • But three years later a new economic development began.
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  • The rapid development of Helen's mind is beautiful to watch.
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  • Learning a new language has proven to be very beneficial to cognitive development.
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  • These substances were regarded as being in some sense alive, and taking some active part in the development of being.
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  • Direct radiators are a development of the early coil of pipe; they are made in various types and designs and are usually of cast iron.
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  • The development of commerce is retarded by lack of communications; the country possesses no railways and few roads.
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  • Efforts to hasten this development have created some serious financial and industrial crises, and have burdened the country with heavy debts and taxes.
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  • In 1890 appeared The Development of Theology since Kant, and its Progress in Great Britain since 1825, which was written for publication in England.
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  • Despite recent development the town maintains ample green space.
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  • But the Civil War interrupted development.
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  • The cafe is also a garden landscaping design business where folks can go to seek out assistance, planning and development of their properties.
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  • There is a veliger stage in development, but the velum is reduced.
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  • The continent accepted the new development of his System.
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  • These words are a key to Feuerbach's development.
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  • Meantime the development of the coast region had been taken in hand.
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  • The development of telephony in the United States of America is much greater than anywhere else; on the 1st of January 1907, 5 per cent.
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  • During the rapid development of physical geography many branches of the study of nature, which had been included in the cosmography of the early writers, the physiography of Linnaeus and even the Erdkunde of Ritter, had been as so much advanced by the labours of specialists that their connexion was apt to be forgotten.
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  • More remarkable still is the development of a small allantoic placenta.
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  • The development of the equatorial and the Brazil currents in the South Atlantic has already been described.
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  • The new comedy of Greece was probably limited for the most part to scenes written in the metres of dialogue; it remained for Plautus, as Leo has shown, to enliven his plays with cantica modelled on the contemporary lyric verse of Greece or Magna Graecia, which was in its turn a development of the dramatic lyrics of Euripides.
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  • The twelve senior thegns of the hundred play a part, the nature of which is rather doubtful, in the development of the English system of justice.
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  • On the other hand, it is significant how everything in the development of new instruments seems to suggest, and be suggested by, the new methods of expression.
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  • The development of pianoforte technique since Beethoven has been in some ways even more revolutionizing than that of the brass instruments; and pianoforte instrumentation, both in solo and in chamber-music, is a study for a lifetime.
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  • Neither here nor elsewhere are cilia found at any period of development.
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  • Although some attain their full development in the body of a single host - in this respect differing from all other Entozoa - the majority do not become sexually mature until after their transference from an "intermediate" to a "definitive" host.
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  • The female is viviparous, and the young, which, unlike the parent, are provided with a long tail, live free in water; it was formerly believed from the frequency with which the legs and feet were attacked by this parasite that the embryo entered the skin directly from the water, but it has been shown by Fedschenko, and confirmed by Manson, Leiper and others, that the larva bores its way into the body of a Cyclops and there undergoes further development.
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  • The Nematoda which are parasitic during their whole life may similarly be divided into two classes - those which undergo their development in a single host, and those which undergo their development in the bodies of two distinct hosts.
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  • The use of cranes is of great antiquity, but it is only since the great industrial development of the 19th century, and the introduction of other motive powers than hand labour, that the crane has acquired the important and indispensable position it now occupies.
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  • That now employed is, however, practically a development of his B 2 1 4 3 3 / ? ?
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  • The Creed system is a development of the Morse-Wheatstone system, and provides a keyboard perforator which punches Morse letters or figures on a paper strip by depressing type writer keys.
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  • Some of the complaints against the companies, however, were exaggerated, and the estimates formed of the possible commercial development of telegraphy were optimistic. The basis for these estimates was the experience of other countries, which, however, did not justify the expectation that a large increase of business consequent on reduction of rates could be obtained without serious diminution of profit.
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  • Among the men of business it was undoubtedly Sir John Pender (1815-1896) who contributed most to the development of this colossal industry, and to his unfailing faith in their ultimate realization must be ascribed the completion of the first successful Atlantic cables.
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  • A full account of the development of his system was given by him in an article published in the Fortnightly Review for June 1902; see also a paper by him in the Journ.
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  • From and after that time the British Admiralty and the navies of other countries began to give great attention to the development of electric wave telegraphy.
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  • One of the greatest advances made in the development of the art of telephony was the introduction of the " common battery relay system."
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  • After the withdrawal of the restriction against the companies erecting trunk wires it became evident that the development of the telephone services throughout the country would be facilitated by complete intercommunication and uniformity of systems, and that economies could be effected by concentration of management.
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  • The only European country which can be compared with the United Kingdom in telephone development is Germany.
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  • Gaine, general manager of the company, stated before the Select Committee that in the view of the directors the bargain was a hard one, because it gave no consideration in respect of the goodwill of the great business, with its gross income of over £ 2,000,000 per annum and its net revenue of over £750,000, which the company had built up. The company had had to pay for all the experiments and mistakes which are inherent in the launching and development of any new industry.
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  • The capital expenditure on the purchase and development of the trunk wire system amounted to £3,376,252.
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  • The character and development of the order are traced in the article Franciscans; here the story of Francis's own life and the portrayal of his personality will be attempted.
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  • After another period of preaching in Italy and watching over the development of the order, Francis once again set out for the East (1219).
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  • The pitcher is a development at the end of the tendril.
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  • Above the rim of the pitcher is a broad flattened lid, which is also a laminar development.
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  • With the development of agricultural knowledge, notable improvements have been effected in the manufacture of oil.
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  • A sign of industrial development is to be found in the growing number of manufacturing companies, both Italian and foreign.
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  • The chief development has taken place in mechanical industries, though it has also been marked in metallurgy.
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  • Handlooms and small spinTextiles ning establishments have, in the silk industry, given place to large establishments with steam looms. The production of raw silk at least tripled itself between 1875 and 1900, and the value of the silks woven in Italy, estimated in 1890 to be 2,200,000, is now, on account of the development of the export trade calculated to be almost 4,000,000.
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  • Pharmaceutical industries as distinguished from those above mentioned, have kept pace with the general development of Italian activity.
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  • Since then special laws have hampered development, some provinces, as for instance Sardinia, being allowed to manufacture for their own consumption but not for export.
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  • The jewellers art received large encouragement in a country which had so many independent courts; but nowhere has it attained a fuller development than at Rome.
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  • Wages vary greatly in different parts of Italy, according to the cost of the necessaries of life, the degree of development of working-class needs and the state of working-class organization, which in some places has succeeded in increasing the rates of pay.
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  • Labor legislation is backward in Italy, on account of the late development of manufacturing industry and of working-class organization.
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  • The low level of wages in many trades and the jealousies of the Chambers of Labor and other working-class organizations impede rapid development.
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  • Popular universities have lately attained considerable development.
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  • Debt has continually increased with the development of the state.
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  • The development of the large cities has induced these banks to turn their attention rather to building enterprise than to mortgages on rural property.
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  • Left to themselves by absentee emperors and exiled popes, the Italians pursued their own course of development unchecked.
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  • The subsequent events of Italian history will be rendered most intelligible if at this point we trace the development of these five constituents of Italian greatness separately.
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  • He took public education out of the hands of the Jesuits, which, for the future development of manliness in his dominions, was a measure of incalculable value.
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  • Towards Prince Bjsmarck Robilant maintained an attitude of dignified independence, and as, in the spring of 1886, the moment for the renewal of the triple alliance drew near, he profited by the development of the Bulgarian crisis and the threatened Franco-Russian understanding to secure from the central powers something more than the bare territorial guarantee of the original treaty.
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  • Gradually the increase of traffic consequent upon the industrial development of Italy decreased the annual losses of the state, but the position of the government in regard to the railways still remained so unsatisfactory as to render the resumption of the whole system by the state on the expiration of the first period of twenty years in 1905 inevitable.
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  • Besides the realization of the formal programme of the Left, consisting of the repeal of the grist tax, the abolition of the forced currency, the extension of the suffrage and the development of the railway system Depretis laid the foundation for land tax re-assessment by introducing a new cadastral survey.
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  • An effort to encourage the development of the mercantile marine was made in the same year, and a convention was concluded with the chief lines of passenger steamers to retain their fastest vessels as auxiliaries to the fleet in case of war.
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  • The history of the two cognate names reflects in some measure the development of Indian religious speculation generally.
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  • It is only in the institutes of Manu, where we find the system of castes propounded in its complete development, that Brahma has his definite place assigned to him in the cosmogony.
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  • An even more complete and minutely detailed view of the sacrificial system is no doubt obtained from the ceremonial manuals, the Kalpa-sutras; but it is just by the speculative discussions of the Brahmanasthe mystic significance and symbolical colouring with which they invest single rites - that we gain a real insight into the nature and gradual development of this truly stupendous system of ritual worship.
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  • Indian Vedic henotheism (otherwise called kathenotheism); 3 Semitic monolatry, so important as the probable starting-point of religious development in Israel; the Greek use of " Zeus " almost as we say " God " - even the attempt to arrange deities in a monarchical pantheon, all show the tendency, though it so seldom attains a real victory.
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  • The fixed given points of intuitionalism furnish Hamilton with one of his arguments in his unexpected development towards a sceptical or " faith philosophy."
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  • We must conceive nature as overruled by God not so much Later for the sake of man's happiness as for the sake of his form; moral development.
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  • We may religion regard his ambitious programme as the last logical development of idealism and indeed of philosophy itself.
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  • The threatened dualism of ideal and material becomes for Aristotle mainly a contrast of matter and form; the lower stage in development desires or aims at the higher, matter more and more tending to pass into form, till God is form without any matter.
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  • In its fullest development, therefore, the sub-epithelial layer consists of four classes of cellelements.
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  • The circular system is developed continuously over the entire subumbral surface, and the velum represents a special local development of this system, at a region where it is able to act at the greatest mechanical advantage in producing the contractions of the umbrella by which the animal progresses.
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  • Two stages in the development of the otocyst can be recognized, the first that of an open pit FIG.
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  • Beyond this simple condition the visual organs of the Hydromedusae do not advance, and are far from reaching the wonderful development of the eyes of Scyphomedusae (Charybdaea).
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  • If the bud, however, is destined to give rise not to a free medusa, but to a gonophore, the development is similar but becomes arrested at various points, according to the degree to which the gonophore is degenerate.
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  • Hence the budding of medusae exemplifies very clearly a common phenomenon in development, a phylogenetic series of events completely dislocated in the ontogenetic time-sequence.
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  • The general course of the development is described in the article Hydrozoa.
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  • This is the full, ideal development, which is always contracted or shortened to a greater or less extent.
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  • In Ieptolinae the embryonic development culminates in a polyp, which is usually formed by fixation of a planula (parenchymula), rarely by fixation of an actinula.
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  • In Trachylinae the development produces always a medusa, and there is no polyp-stage.
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  • Hydra must, in short, be a living representative of the ancestor of which the actinula-stage is a transient reminiscence in the development of higher forms. It may be pointed out in this connexion that the fixation of Hydra is only temporary, and that the animal is able at all times to detach itself, to move to a new situation, and to fix itself again.
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  • Secondly, there is the evidence from the development, namely, the presence of the entocodon in the medusa-bud, a structure which, as explained above, can only be accounted for satisfactorily by derivation from a medusan type of organization.
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  • The Hertwigs when they discovered the endoderm-lamella showed on morphological grounds that polyp and medusa are independent types, each produced by modification in different directions of a more primitive type represented in development by the actinulastage.
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  • This must not be taken to mean, however, that the medusa is derived from a sessile polyp; it must be regarded as a direct modification of the more ancient free actinula form, without primitively any intervening polyp-stage, such as has been introduced secondarily into the development of the Leptolinae and represents 'a revival, so to speak, of an ancestral form or larval stage, which has taken on a special role in the economy of the species.
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  • The development of the Trachomedusae, so far as it is known, shows an actinula-stage which is either free (larval) or passed over in the egg (foetal) as in Geryonia; in no case does there appear to be a free planula-stage.
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  • The development of the Narcomedusae is in the main similar to that of the Trachomedusae, but shows some remarkable features.
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  • In some cases the buds do not become detached at once, but the stolon continues to grow and to produce more buds, forming a " bud-spike " (Knospencihre), which consists of the axial stolon bearing medusa-buds in all stages of development.
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  • In such cases the original parent-actinula does not itself become a medusa, but remains arrested in development and ultimately dies off, so that a true alternation of generations is brought about.
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  • Haeckel regards it as the equivalent of the manubrium, and as it is implanted on the blind end of the pneumatophore, such a view leads necessarily to the air-sack and gland being a development on the ex-umbral surface of the medusa-person.
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  • The subsequent development is slightly different according as the future cormus is headed by a pneumatophore (Physophorida, Cystophorida) or by a nectocalyx (Calycophorida).
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  • The following exposition of the historical development of the doctrine is taken from Sully's article, and for the most part is in his own words.
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  • Finally, human development, as exhibited in historical and prehistorical records, is regarded as the highest and most complex result of organic and physical evolution.
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  • These first unscientific ideas of a genesis of the permanent objects of nature took as their pattern the process of organic reproduction and development, and this, not only because these objects were regarded as personalities, but also because this particular mode of becoming would most impress these early observers.
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  • Yet this primordial creative nature is endowed with volition with regard to its own development.
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  • In conclusion, it is noteworthy that though resorting to utterly fanciful hypotheses respecting the order of the development of the world, Anaximander agrees with modern evolutionists in conceiving the heavenly bodies as arising out of an aggregation of diffused matter, and in assigning to organic life an origin in the inorganic materials of the primitive earth (pristine mud).
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  • Aristotle's brief suggestions respect ing the origin of society and governments in the Politics show a leaning to a naturalistic interpretation of human history as a development conditioned by growing necessities.
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  • Very curious, in relation to modern evolutional ideas, is the Stoical doctrine that our world is but one of a series of exactly 1 Zeller says that through this distinction Aristotle first made possible the idea of development.
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  • Pregnant hints are given respecting a natural development of language which has its germs in sounds of quadrupeds and birds, of religious ideas out of dreams and waking hallucinations, and of the art of music by help of the suggestion of natural sounds.
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  • More importance attaches to Duns Scotus, who brings prominently forward the idea of a progressive development in nature by means of a process of determination.
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  • In this case, however, we cannot say that each step goes out of the other as in that of individual development.
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  • In his doctrine of human development he does indeed recognize an early stage of existence in which our species was dominated by sensuous enjoyment and instinct.
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  • He further conceives of this stage as itself a process of (natural) development, namely, of the natural disposition of the species to vary in the greatest possible manner so as to preserve its unity through a process of self-adaptation (Anarten) to climate.
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  • From this capability of natural development (which already involves a teleological idea) Kant distinguishes the power of moral self-development or selfliberation from the dominion of nature, the gradual realization of which constitutes human history or progress.
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  • This moral development is regarded as a gradual approach to that rational, social and political state in which will be realized the greatest possible quantity of liberty.
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  • Heinrich Steffens, in his Anthropologie, seeks to trace out the origin and history of man in connexion with a general theory of the development of the earth, and this again as related to the formation of the solar system.
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  • Yet this process of development is not to be conceived as if one stage is naturally produced out of the other, and not even as if the one followed the other in time.
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  • So, too, some of his conceptions respecting the development of art and religion (the absolute spirit) lend themselves to a similar interpretation.
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  • In his Entwickelungsgeschichte der Thiere (p. 264) he distinctly tells us that the law of growing individuality is " the fundamental thought which goes through all forms and degrees of animal development and all single relations.
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  • The consequence of this intussusceptive growth is the " development " or " evolution " of the germ into the visible bird.
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  • Supported by the great authority of Haller, the doctrine of evolution, or development, prevailed throughout the whole of the 18th century, and Cuvier appears to have substantially adopted Bonnet's later views, though probably he would not have gone all lengths in the direction of " emboitement."
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  • Nevertheless, though the conceptions originally denoted by " evolution " and " development " were shown to be untenable, the words retained their application to the process by which the embryos of living beings gradually make their appearance; and the terms" development," " Entwickelung,"and " evolutio " are now indiscriminately used for the series of genetic changes exhibited by living beings, by writers who would emphatically deny that " development " or " Entwickelung " or " evolutio," in the sense in which these words were usually employed by Bonnet or Haller, ever occurs.
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  • Evolution, or development, is, in fact, at present employed in biology as a general name for the history of the steps by which any living being has acquired the morphological and the physiological characters which distinguish it.
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  • The Recherches sur l'organisation des corps vivants, which sketches out Lamarck's doctrines, was published in 1802; but the full development of his views in the Philosophic zoologique did not take place until 1809.
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  • Meckel proceeds to exemplify the thesis, that the lower forms of animals represent stages in the course of the development of the higher, with a large series of illustrations.
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  • In its original form, the doctrine of " arrest of development," as advocated by Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire and Serres, was no doubt an over-statement of the case.
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  • It is not true, for example, that a fish is a reptile arrested in its development, or that a reptile was ever a fish; but it is true that the reptile embryo, at one stage of its development, is an organism which, if it had an independent existence, must be classified among fishes; and all the organs of the reptile pass, in the course of their development, through conditions which are closely analogous to those which are permanent in some fishes.
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  • Another group of investigations that seems to play an important part in the future development of the theory of evolution relates to the study of what is known as organic symmetry.
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  • In its simplest form, this phrase implies such an obvious fact as that whatever be the future development of, say, existing cockroaches, it will be on lines determined by the present structure of these creatures.
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  • With the " Nicene period " came a great development on the criminal side.
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  • This was favoured by the development of the greater sees into positions of great administrative dignity, shortly to be called " patriarchal."
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  • The story of the administrative development of the Church in the 5th century is mainly the story of the final emergence and constitution of the great " patriarchates," as authorities superior to metropolitans and provincial synods.
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  • While preserving most of the ancient features of its High Street, the town has tended to become a suburb of the capital, its fine beach and golf course hastening this development.
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  • The hind limbs appear as buds at the base of the tail, and gradually attain their full development during the tadpole life.
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  • Some account of the history of plant classification and the development of a natural system in which an attempt is made to show the actual relationships of plants, is given in the article BOTANY.
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  • The male gametophyte is represented by one or few cells and, except in a few primitive forms where the male cell still retains the motile character as in the Pteridophyta, is carried passively to the macrospore in a development of the pollen grain, the pollen tube.
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  • The ANGIOSFERMS, which are much the larger class, derive their name from the fact that the carpel or carpels form a closed chamber, the ovary, in which the ovules are developedassociated with this is the development of a receptive or stigmatic surface on which the pollen grain is deposited.
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  • The seed is enclosed when ripe in the fruit, a development of the ovary as a result of fertilization of the egg-cell.
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  • The sporogonium of the liverworts is in the simpler forms simply a spore-capstile with arrangements for the development, protection and distribution of the spores.
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  • In the liverworts we find fixation of the thallus by water-absorbing rhizoids; in certain forms with a localized region of water-absorption the development of a primitive hydrom or water-conducting system; and in others with rather a massive type of thallus the differentiation of a special assimilative and transpiring system.
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  • It is only or germination of the latter that the development of the embryc into the free plant is begun.
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  • In the Pteridophytes, on the other hand, development from the egg is continuous.
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  • This i correlated with the comparatively late formation and small development of the first leaves.
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  • In this case also the differentiation of leaf-bundles, which typically begins at the base of the leaf and extends upwards into the leaf and downwards into the stem, is the first phenomenon in the development of vascular tissue, and is seen at a higher level than the formation of a stele.
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  • Sometimes development stops altogether, and a layer of undifferentiated parenchyma (the mesodesm) is left between them; or it may continue indefinitely, the central cells keeping pace by their tangential division with the differentiation of tissue on each side.
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  • The main feature is the development of special vascular stereom and storage tissue.
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  • In other cases a most intricate arrangement of secondary tissue masses is produced, quite impossible to interpret unless all stages of their development have been followed.
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  • The extent of development of the phelloderm is dependent upon whether the phellogen has a superficial or a deep-seated origin.
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  • Provision is made for gaseous interchange between the internal tissues and the external air after the formation of cork, by the development of lenticels.
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  • This has had a most important effect on the development in recent years of morphological anatomy.
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  • It does not at first appear to be the same with the bulkier plants, such as the ordinary green herbs, shrubs or trees, but a study of their earlier development indicates that they do not at the outset differ in any way from the simple undifferentiated forms. Each commences its existence as a simple naked protoplast, in the embroyo-sac or the archegonium, as the case may be.
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  • We have the formation of numerous mechanisms which have arisen in connection with the question of food supply, which may not only involve particular cells, but also lead to differentiation in the protoplasm of those cells, as in the development of the chloroplastids of the leaves and other green parts.
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  • The formation and gradually increasing thickness of its bark are explained by the continually increasing need of adequate protection to the living cortex, under the strain of the increasing framework which the enormous multiplication of its living protoplasts demands, and the development of which leads to continual rupture of the exterior.
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  • The increasing development of the wood as the tree grows older is largely due to the demands for the conduction of water and mineral matters dissolved in it, which are made by the increased number of leaves which from year to year it bears, and which must each be put into communication with the central mass by the formation of new vascular bundles.
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  • If we go back to the first instance cited, the embryo in the seed and its development during germination, we can ascertain what is necessary for its life by inquiring what are the materials which are deposited in the seed, and which become exhausted by consumption as growth and development proceed.
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  • The development of these structures has been studied by many observers, both in England and on the continent of Etirope.
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  • The cells of the tip at any given moment may be sensitive, but in a few days the power of receiving the stimulus has passed to other and younger cells which then constitute the tip. The power of appreciating the environment is therefore to be associated with the protoplasm only at a particular stage of its development and is transitory in its character.
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  • This has a relatively large development of succulent parenchyma on its upper and lower sides.
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  • The irritation set up by the hatching egg and its resulting larva appears to be the stimulus to development, and net a poison or enzyme injected by the insect.
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  • The outermost, newly formed layer is composed of a more homogeneous, denser substance than the inner one, and can be distinguished in all starch-grains that are in process of development.
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  • They are present from the beginning of the development of the cell-wail, and arise from the spindle fibres, all of which may be continued as connecting threads (endosperm of Tamus communis), or part of them may be overlaid by cellulose lamellae (endosperm of Lilium Martagon), or they may be all overlaid as in pollen mother-cells and pollen grains of Helleborus foetidus.
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  • The term morphology, which was introduced into science by Goethe (1817), designates, in the first place, the study of the form and composition of the body and of the parts of which the body may consist; secondly, the relations of the parts of the same body; thirdly, the comparison of the bodies or parts of the bodies of plants of different kinds; fourthly, the study of the development of the body and of its parts (ontogeny); fifthly, the investigation of the historical origin and descent of the body and its parts (phylogeny); and, lastly, the consideration of the relation of the parts of the body to their various functions, a study that is known as organography.
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  • This point of view was further developed in the following century by Caspar Friedrich Wolff (Theorici generationis, 1759), who first followed the development of the members at the growing-point of the stem.
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  • The leaf (phyllome) is an appendicular member only borne by a stem, but differing from it more or less obviously in form and development, though co-ordinate with it in complexity of structure.
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  • The homology of members was based, in the first instance, upon similarity of development and upon similar relations to the other parts of the body, that is, upon ontogeny.
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  • Thus in the series Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Phanerogamia, whilst the sporophyte presents progressive development, the gametophyte presents continuous reduction.
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  • Evolution means the gradual development of highly organized from lowly organized forms; that is, of forms in which the physiological division of labor is more complete, from those in which it is less complete; of forms possessing a variety of organs, from forms possessing but few.
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  • Differentiation means the development and the specialization as organs of various parts of the body.
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  • The closed ovary implies a mode of fertilization which is profoundly different, and which was probably correlated with a simultaneous development of insect life.
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  • We may therefore regard the Himalayan flora as a westward extension of the Chinese rather than the latter as a development of the former.
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  • Nearly related to myrtles are Melastomaceae which, poorly represented in the Old World, have attained here so prodigious a development in genera and species, that Ball looks upon it as the seat of origin of the family.
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  • It confirms the general belief on geological grounds that this was the seat of their development at the close of the Mesozoic era.
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  • Further development was, however, not stopped, but in many cases stimulated by migration and settlement in new homes.
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  • The great development of photography has been a notable aid to explorers, not only by placing at their disposal a faithful and ready means of recording the features of a country and the types of inhabitants, but by supplying a method of quick and accurate topographical surveying.
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  • The ratio between these two coast-lines represents the " coastal development " of any region.
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  • Phillipson, Studien uber Wasserscheiden (Leipzig, 1886); also I.C. Russell, River Development (London, 1898) (published as The Rivers of North America, New York, 1898).
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  • The contrast between the yellow and white types has been softened by the remarkable development of the Japanese following the assimilation of western methods.
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  • Australia and Polynesia By 87, 000,000 392,000,000 170,000,000 1 43, 000,000 7,000,000 influence of climate, and by the development of trade even to inhabit countries which cannot yield a food-supply, the mass of mankind is still completely under the control of those conditions which in the past determined the distribution and the mode of life of the whole human race.
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  • When the pursuit of game becomes the chief occupation of a people there is of necessity a higher development of courage, skill, powers of observation and invention; and these qualities are still further enhanced in predatory tribes who take by force the food, clothing and other property prepared or collected by a feebler people.
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  • Dorsal vertebrae frequently have a ventral outgrowth of the centrum; these hypapophyses may be simple vertical blades, I-shaped, or paired knobs; they serve for the attachment of the thoracic origin of the longus collianticus muscle, reaching their greatest development in Sphenisci and Colymbidae.
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  • He was, however, the first to show clearly that the Ratitae are the retrograde descendants of flying ancestors, that the various groups of surviving Ratitae are, as such, a polyphyletic group, and he has gone fully into the interesting question of the development and subsequent loss of the power of flight, a loss which has taken place not only in different orders of birds but also at various geological periods, and is still taking place.
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  • The forebrain forms the bulk of the whole brain, but the large size of the hemispheres is due to the greater development of the basal and lateral portions (pedunculi cerebri and corpora striata), while the pallium (the portion external to the lateral ventricles) is thin, and restricted to the median side of each hemisphere.
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  • The moving mechanism is a further and much higher development of that which prevails in reptiles, there being two muscles completely separate from each other.
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  • But the positive characteristics of the region as a whole are not its peculiar forms alone; there are at least four families which, being feebly represented elsewhere, here attain the maximum of development.
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  • Most interesting is the avifauna of the Sandwich islands; entirely devoid of Psittaci and of Coraciiformes, these islands show an extraordinary development of its peculiar family Drepanidae, which are probably of South or Central American descent.
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  • Another chief feature is the extraordinary development of the cassowaries, the richness and specialization of the kingfishers, parrots, pigeons, honeysuckers and some remarkable flycatchers.
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  • The HoLARCTIC Region, comprising North America and the extratropical mass of land of the Old World, may from an ornithological point of view be characterized by the Colymbi, Alcidae, Gallidae or Alectoropodous Galli, and the Oscines, which have here reached their highest development; while Ratitae, Tinami, Psittaci, and non-Oscine Passeres (with the exception of Tyrannidae extending into North America and Conurus carolinensis) are absent.
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  • Each of these schools impresses its pupils, in the case of the birds, with its own stamp, but there are many combinations, since in the course of phyletic development many a group of birds has exchanged one school for another.
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  • The land-locked character of this region greatly restricts the city's trade and development; but it is considered the most important town in the department.
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  • But this very development of Mosaism implies the existence of an original nucleus or substratum, although the recovery of its precise extent is very difficult.
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  • At all stages of religious development, however, and more especially in the case of the more primitive types of cult, prayer as thus understood occurs together with, and shades off into, other varieties of observance that bear obvious marks of belonging to the same family.
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  • Individual Geonim produced valuable works (of which later), but what is perhaps most important from the point of view of the development of Judaism is the literature of their Responsa or answers to questions, chiefly on halakhic matters, addressed to them from various countries.
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  • With the 13th century Hebrew literature may be said to have reached the limit of its development.
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  • Under the Empire, however, it was overshadowed by the development of Dyrrachium and Apollonia.
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  • It agrees with the vigorous development of this worship that the Three Provinces, though romanized, retained their own local feeling.
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  • Partly on account of his inability to share in the amusements of his fellows by reason of a deformity due to vaccine poisoning before he was five (the poison permanently arresting the growth and development of his legs), he was an eager student, and in 1814 he graduated at the College of South Carolina with the highest rank in his class and with a reputation throughout the state for scholarship and eloquence.
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  • Expert opinions have been advanced stating that gold-mining in Uruguay is capable of development into an important industry.
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  • The economic development of Uruguay was retarded by the corruption of successive governments, by revolutionary outbreaks, by the seizure of farm stock without adequate compensation for the support of military forces, by the consequences of reckless borrowing and over-trading in 1889 and 1890, and also by the transference of commercial undertakings from Montevideo to Buenos Aires between 1890 and 1897.
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  • Nearly half the ex- penditure goes to meet debt charges, while government, internal development and defence absorb most of the remainder.
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  • When perfectly dry this oxide has no caustic properties; it combines rapidly, however, with water to form sulphuric acid, with the development of much heat.
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  • On the other hand, neither sex of the latter at any age puts off its striped garb - the mark, it may be pretty safely asserted, of an inferior stage of development.
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  • Disregarding all the accidental excrescences of the doctrine, Cynicism must be regarded as a most valuable development and as a real asset in the sum of ethical speculation.
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  • It is probable that the Liberian chimpanzee may offer one or more distinct varieties; there is an interesting local development of the Diana monkey, sometimes called the bay-thighed monkey (Cercopithecus diana ignita) on account of its brilliant orange-red thighs.
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  • Nowhere, perhaps, does the flora of West Africa attain a more wonderful development than in the republic of Liberia and in the adjoining regions of Sierra Leone and the Ivory Coast.
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  • On the other hand, faith has no special interest in claiming that we can compose a biographical study of the development of Jesus.
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  • If it fails - there are other channels; character can be known and trusted even when we are baffled by a thing necessarily so full of mystery as the development of a personality.
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  • If we assume, as we must needs do, that the opinions which Basilides promulgates as the teaching of the "barbari" (Acta Archelai c. 55) were in fact his own, the fragments prove him to have been a decided dualist, and his teaching an interesting further development of oriental (Iranian) dualism.
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  • This speculation is clearly a development of that which the Iranian cosmology has to tell about the battles between Ahura-Mazda and Angro-Mainyu (Ormuzd and Ahriman).
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  • When, then, Basilides identified the highest angel of the seven, the creator of the worlds, with the God of the Jews, this is a development of the idea which did not occur until late, possibly first in the specifically Christian circles of the Gnostics.
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  • So far as we can see, on the other hand, Basilides appears actually to represent a further development of Iranian dualism, which later produced the religious system of Mani.
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  • The most striking feature in the development of beetles is the great diversity noticeable in the outward form of the larva in different families.
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  • The growth of the parasitic larva does not stop the development of the host-larva, and when the latter pupates and assumes the winged form, the stylopid, which has completed its transformation, is carried to the outer world.
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  • The wings are well developed for flight, and there is a tendency in the group, especially among the males, towards an excessive development of the mandibles or the presence of enormous, horn-like processes on the head or pronotum.
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  • In the same species, however, great variation occurs in the development of the mandibles, and the breadth of the head varies correspondingly, the smallest type of male being but little different in appearance from the female.
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  • In Great Britain the beetle, after completing its development, winters in the seed, waiting to emerge and lay its eggs on the blossom in the ensuing spring.
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  • The Scolytidae, or bark-beetles, are a family of some 1500 species, closely allied to the Curculionidae, differing only in the feeble development of the snout.
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  • That this tragedy should have been reprinted in 1714 and acted in 1745 only shows that the public, as is often the case, had an eye to the catastrophe rather than to the development of the action.
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  • For his place in the development of early philosophy see also articles IONIAN SCHOOL OF PHILOSOPHY and LOGOS.
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  • Its most famous development was the so-called " Third Section " (of the imperial chancery) instituted by the emperor Nicholas I.
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  • Notwithstanding the wealth of the country in minerals and metals of all kinds, and the endeavours made by government to encourage mining, including the imposition of protective Mining tariffs even against Finland (in 1885), this and the related and re- industries are still at a low stage of development.
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  • Since the time of Peter the Great, the Russian government has been unceasing in its efforts for the creation and development of home manufactures.
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  • The peculiar feature of Russian industry is the development out of the domestic petty handicrafts of central Russia of a semifactory on a large scale.
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  • Peter had endeavoured to import from western Europe the essentials of good government and such of the useful arts as were required for the development of the natural resources of the country; Catherine did likewise, but she did not restrict herself to purely utilitarian aims in the narrower sense of the term.
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  • In this way the development of Russian policy with regard to Turkey was checked for some years, but the project of confirming and extending the Russian protectorate over the Orthodox Christians was revived in 1852, when Napoleon III.
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  • From it came the three archaic metopes now in the museum at Palermo, which are of great importance in the history of the development of art, showing Greek sculpture in its infancy.
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  • He published in 1911 The Rise and Development of Presbyterianism in Scotland.
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  • The next important development in rail design originated in America, which, for the few lines that had been laid up to 1830, remained content with wooden bars faced with iron.
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  • The main features of the steam locomotive were thus established, and its subsequent development is chiefly a history of gradual increase in size and power, and of improvements in design, in material and in mechanical construction, tending to increased efficiency and economy of operation.
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  • Recent American railway development, viewed in its larger aspects, has thus been characterized by what may be described as the rediscovery of the Pacific coast.
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  • Development of these lines has been primarily an extension from the large cities in the East to the agricultural districts in the West, but a change of great importance was brought about in 1910 by the completion of the last tunnel on the Argentine Transandine Railway, which serves to connect Santiago, Valparaiso and the other great cities of the west coast with Buenos Ayres, Montevideo, Bahia, Rio de Janeiro and the other great cities of the east coast.
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  • In proportion to its population China has the least railway development of any of the great countries of the world; the probability that its present commercial awakening will extend seems large, and in that case it will need a vast increase in its interior communications.
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  • But in the development of the railway business it soon became evident that no such dependence on free competition was possible, either in practice or in theory.
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  • The subsequent development of rack railways is especially associated with a Swiss engineer, Nicholas Riggenbach, and his pupil Roman Abt, and the forms of rack introduced by them are those most commonly used.
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  • A current development is the application of superheaters to locomotives, and the results obtained with them are exceedingly promising.
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  • The next development in intra-urban railways was an elevated line in the city of New York.
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  • The superiority, so far as the convenience of passengers is concerned, of an elevated over an underground railway, when both are worked by steam locomotives, and the great economy and rapidity of construction, led to the quick development and extension of this general design.
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  • The fourth step in the development of intra-urban railways was to go to the other extreme from the deep tunnel which Greathead introduced.
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  • The cable is slow; and unless development along new lines of com p ressed air or some sort of chemical engine takes place, electricity will monopolize the field.
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  • Their primary object being the development and peopling of the land, they have naturally been made as cheaply as possible; and as in such cases the cost of the land is inconsiderable, economy has been sought by the use of lighter and rougher permanent way, plant, rolling stock, &c. Such railways are not " light " in the technical sense of having been made under enactments intended to secure permanent lowness of cost as compared with standard lines.
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  • There seems to have been little practical interest in spiritualism in England till 1852, when its first development took the form of a mania for table-turning.
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  • If tradition is any guide, human sacrifice seems in many important areas to be of secondary character; in spite of the great development of the rite among the Aztecs, tradition says that it was unknown till two hundred years before the conquest; in Polynesia human sacrifices seem to be comparatively modern; and in India they appear to have been rare among the Vedic peoples.
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  • It was a further and perhaps much later development of the same idea that the good works of those who had previously enjoyed the favour of God were invoked to give additional weight to the prayer of the offerer.
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  • The development of this undertaking necessitated the establishment of stores and workshops at Stanley, and ships can be repaired and provided in every way; a matter of importance since not a few vessels, after suffering injury during heavy weather off Cape Horn, call on the Falklands in distress.
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  • Thus the exile period marks the parting of the ways in the development of Hebrew religion.
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  • The first is represented by the Deutero-Isaiah, who constitutes the climax and close of Hebrew prophetism, which is henceforth (with the possible exception of the Trito-Isaiah, Malachi and Jonah, who reproduce some features of the earlier prophecy) a virtually arrested development.
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  • The development of the priestly code of legislation (Priestercodex) was a gradual process, and probably occupied a considerable part of the 5th century B.C. The Hebrew race now definitely entered upon the new path of organized Jewish legalism which had been originally marked out for it by Ezekiel in the preceding century.
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  • It is impossible to deny Persian influence in the development of this conception, and that the Persian Ahriman (Angromainyu), the evil personality opposed to the good, Ahura Mazda, moulded the Jewish counterpart, Satan.
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  • During 1905 the town of Goldfield had a period of mushroom growth, then quieted, and finally revived to a healthy development.
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  • In its industrial development Nevada has always been hampered by lack of transportation facilities.
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  • Since 1900, however, there has been considerable development, and the total mileage on the 1st of January 1909, was 1,866.92 m.
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  • The San Pedro, Los Angeles & Salt Lake railway, also an important factor in east and west transcontinental traffic, opened in May 1905, has been of special value in the development of the southern part of the state.
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  • The period from 1860 to 1864 was one of rapid development accompanied by the wildest speculation.
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  • His career is extremely interesting as illustrating the development of religious opinion at a remarkable crisis in the history of English religious thought.
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  • The labours of Golgi, Marchiafava, Celli and others established the nature of the parasite and its behaviour in the blood; they proved the fact, guessed by Rasori so far back as 1846, that the periodical febrile paroxysm corresponds with the development of the organisms; and they showed that the different forms of malarial fever have their distinct parasites, and consequently fall into distinct groups,.
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  • Following up this line of investigation, Major Ronald Ross in 1895 found that if a mosquito sucked blood containing the parasites they soon began to throw out flagellae, which broke away and became free; and in 1897 he discovered peculiar pigmented cells, which afterwards turned out to be the parasites of aestivo-autumnal malaria in an early stage of development, within the stomachwall of mosquitoes which had been fed on malarial blood.
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  • All puddles and collections of water should be filled in or drained; as a temporary expedient they may be treated with petroleum, which prevents the development of the larvae.
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  • This immunity is apparently not due to the absence of favourable conditions, but rather to the presence of some inimical factor which prevents the development of the parasite.
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  • The National Verein, its work being done, was now dissolved; but Bennigsen was chiefly instrumental in founding a new political party - the National Liberals, - who, while they supported Bismarck's national policy, hoped to secure the constitutional development of the country.
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  • With the exception of a few species from the Solenhofen lithographic Oolite, fossil Diptera belong to the Tertiary Period, during which the members of this order attained a high degree of development.
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  • The beginnings of modern thermochemistry, though made independently of the doctrine of the conservation of energy, are practically contemporaneous with the recognition of that law, and without it the science could scarcely have reached the degree of development which it rapidly attained.
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  • A development of ideals and a growth of spirituality can be traced which render the biblical writings with their series of prophecies a unique 1 This is philosophically handled by the Arabian historian Ibn Khaldun, whose Prolegomena is well worthy of attention; see De Slane, Not.
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  • Here it is enough to observe that the highly advanced doctrines of the distinctive character of Yahweh, as ascribed to the 8th century B.C., presuppose a foundation and development.
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  • The true inwardness of this movement, its extent and its history, can hardly be recovered at present, but it is noteworthy that the evidence generally involves the Levites, an ecclesiastical body which underwent an extremely intricate development.
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  • There is also an unmistakable development in the laws; and the priestly legislation, though ahead of both Ezekiel and Deuteronomy, not to mention still earlier usage, not only continues to undergo continual internal modification, but finds a further distinct development, in the way of definition and interpretation, outside the Old Testament - in the Talmud.
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  • Yet it is impossible to recover with confidence or completeness the development of Hebrew history from the pages of the Old Testament alone.
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  • This development of Judaism was eminently to the mind of the rulers; and Herod did much to encourage it.
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  • Already under Charlemagne this development is noticeable; in his generous treatment of the Jews this Christian emperor stood in marked contrast to his contemporary the caliph Harun al-Rashid, who persecuted Jews and Christians with equal vigour.
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  • Most Jews not only confidently believe that their own future lies in progressive development within the various nationalities of the world, but they also hope that a similar consummation is in store for the as yet unemancipated branches of Israel.
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  • The prosperity of the island depends on the development of agriculture, the acquirement of industrious habits by the people, and the abandonment of political agitation.
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  • The ceiling of that of Orchomenos, and the painted vases and gold cups from the Vaphio tomb by Sparta, with their marvellous reliefs showing scenes of bull-hunting, represent the late palace style at Cnossus in its final development.
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  • Here and there, as in Cyprus, we watch the development of some local schools.
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  • The musical development of the city was stimulated by the creation of a symphony orchestra.
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  • After his return to America he had other offers from abroad, and thereafter was engaged in mining development throughout the world.
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  • The State Geological and Economic Survey has made a careful study of the fishes of North Carolina, of the shad fisheries, of oyster culture, and of the development of terrapin.
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  • Weeks deals with the religious history in his Religious Development in the Province of North Carolina (Baltimore, 1892), Church and State in North Carolina (Baltimore, 1893) and Southern Quakers and Slavery (Baltimore, 1896); he is anti-Anglican, but judicial.
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  • The development of such diversely-formed insects as the offspring of the unmodified females which show none of their peculiarities raises many points of difficulty for students in heredity.
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  • Part of these rivers are navigable for small steamers, and the Sao Francisco must some day be of great importance in the development of Central Brazil.
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  • This fact possesses great significance in connexion with the development of Asiatic railways.
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  • Meanwhile, in the Farther East so rapid has been the progress of geographical research since the first beginnings of investigation into the route connexion between Burma and China in 1874 (when the brave Augustus Margary lost his life), that a gradually increasing tide of exploration, setting from east to west and back again, has culminated in a flood of inquiring experts intent on economic and commercial development in China, essaying to unlock those doors to trade which are hereafter to be propped open for the benefit of humanity.
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  • In Asia Minor, Syria and Mesopotamia there is little to record of progress in material development beyond the promises held out by the Euphrates Valley railway concession to a A s i a German company.
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  • Russ a n Here there has been a development of the resources Asia.
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  • E Arabian Sea Ba Of G A L e Geological information incomplete Desert Deposits Quaternary Tertiary Mesozoic Palaeozoic Archaean and Metamorphic Younger Volcanic Rocks English Miles b iuHi iiiiuiiiiii after llargl,aua Geology The geology of Asia is so complex and over wide areas so little known that it is difficult to give a connected account of either the structure or the development of the continent, and only the broader features can be dealt with here.
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  • This diminution of pressure, which continues as the heat increases till it reaches its maximum in July soon after the solstice, is followed by the corresponding development of the south-west monsoon; and as the barometric pressure is gradually restored, and becomes equalized within the tropics soon after the equinox in October, with the general fall of temperature north of the equator, the south-west winds fall off, and are succeeded by a north-east monsoon, which is developed during the winter months by the relatively greater atmospheric pressure which then occurs over Asia, as compared with the equatorial region.
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  • Here again we have an absence of all tropical forms, and a great development of groups characteristic of cold and temperate regions.
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  • The Siluridae attain their chief development in tropical regions.
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  • The chief development of this family, both as to size and number of forms, is in the mountain regions with a temperate climate; the smaller species are found in the hotter regions and in the low-lying rivers.
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  • But this originality cannot be absolute, for, whatever may have been the relations of Babylonia and the Aryans, the latter brought civilization to India from the west, and it is not always clear whether similarity of government and institutions is the result of borrowing or of parallel development.
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  • In politics these races have been less successful in modern times, but the Semitic states of Babylonia and Assyria were once the principal centres for the development and distribution of civilization.
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  • This sudden development of the Japanese is perhaps the most important event of the second half of the 19th century, since it marks the rise of an Asiatic power capable of competing with Europe on equal terms. Their history is so different from that of the rest of Asia that it is not surprising if the result is different.
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  • Unlike the Chinese and Indians, they have hitherto not had the smallest influence on the intellectual development of Asia, and though they have in the past sometimes shown themselves intensely nationalist and conservative, they have, compared with India and China, so little which is really their own that their assimilation of foreign ideas is explicable.
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  • For many centuries the culture and development of the Hindus depended mainly on the interaction of the old Brahmanical religion and Buddhism.
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  • Indian history until Mahommedan times is marked by the unusual prominence of religious ideas, and is a record of intellectual development rather than of political events.
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  • Though the Turks have profoundly affected the whole of eastern Europe, the result of their conquests has been not so much to plant Asiatic culture in Europe as to arrest development entirely, the countries under their rule remaining in much the same condition as under the moribund Byzantine empire.
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  • The facts of development, however, prove their distinctness, though those same facts do not speak clearly as to the true nature of the blood system.
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  • One view of the origin of the latter (largely based upon observations upon the development of Polygordius) sees in the blood system a persistent blastocoel.
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  • A consideration of the mode of development and appearance of the coelomoducts that have thus far been enumerated (with the possible exception of those of the leeches) seems to show that there is a distinct though varying relation between them and the nephridia.
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  • No specialized system of spermathecae, sperm reservoirs, and copulatory apparatus, as in Oligochaeta; development generally through a larval form; reproduction by budding also occurs.
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  • In Myrianida there is a further development of this process.
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  • The testes during development become hollowed out and are prolonged into the vasa efferentia.
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  • Lancelot, however, is not an original member of the cycle, and the development of his story is still a source of considerable perplexity to the critic.
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  • The Lancelot story, in its rise and development, belongs exclusively to the later stage of Arthurian romance; it was a story for the court, not for the folk, and it lacks alike the dramatic force and human appeal of the genuine "popular" tale.
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  • The Theban legend, which reached its fullest development in the Thebais of Statius and in Seneca, reappeared in the Roman de Thebes (the work of an unknown imitator of Benoit de Sainte-More).
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  • But the annals of Kano distinctly record the introduction and describe the development of Mahommedanism at an early period of local history.
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  • Webster's brief reply drew from Hayne a second speech, in which he entered into a full exposition of the doctrine of nullification, and the important part of Webster's second reply to Hayne on the 26th and 27th of January is a masterly exposition of the Constitution as in his opinion it had come to be after a development of more than forty years.
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  • Whatever may be said of the original creation of the Constitution, whether by the states or by the people, its development under the influences of a growing nationalism was a strong support to Webster's argument, and no other speech so strengthened Union sentiment throughout the North; its keynote was "Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable."
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  • The Order was from the first, therefore, of a national character, unlike the cosmopolitan orders of the Templars and Hospitallers; but in other respects it was modelled upon the same lines, and shared in the same development.
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  • Lower down the valley cattle-breeding is the chief source of wealth, while in the small towns and villages of the former Georgian kingdom various petty trades, exhibiting a high development of artistic taste and technical skill, are widely diffused.
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  • As a preventive repeated spraying with dilute Bordeaux mixture is recommended, during the flowering season and early development of the fruit.
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  • It is not, however, necessary to deal with the agricultural evolution of continental Europe, the gradual progress of agriculture as a whole being well enough typified in the story of its development in England, which indeed has led the way in modern times.
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  • Such, moreover, is the effect of different manures that the gross produce of the mixed herbage is totally different on the respective plots according to the manure employed, both as to the proportion of the various species composing it and as to their condition of development and maturity.
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  • These trials taking place, with few intermissions, year after year serve to direct the public mind to the development, which is continually in progress, of the mechanical aids to agriculture.
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  • About this work he said little in the Autobiography, probably because his main concern there was to expound the influences that effected his moral and mental development.
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  • Its chief importance is perhaps the stress which it laid on the vital connexion which must subsist between true economic theory and the wider facts of social and national development.
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  • Both his logical and his metaphysical studies were thus undertaken as the pre-requisites of a practical theory of human development.
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  • Meanwhile we can illustrate the economic life of the middle ages, describe its main features, indicate the more important measures of public policy and draw attention to some of the main lines of development.
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  • We have to be saturated, as it were, with 18th-century influences, so that we can realize the conditions in which industry and trade were carried on, before we can rightly explain the course of development.
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  • The community we are studying must have reached such a stage of development that its economic functions and those immediately cognate to them form a well-defined group, and adequate means must be available so that we can, as it were, watch the performance of these functions and test our hypotheses and conclusions by observation and experience.
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  • While it is impossible to give a strictly economic interpretation of the earlier history of nations, economic interests so govern the life and determine the policy of modern states that other forces, like those of religion and politics, seem to play only a subsidiary part, modifying here and there the view which is taken of particular questions, but not changing in any important degree the general course of their development.
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  • Her insular position, continuity of political development and freedom from domestic broils played an important part in bringing about a steady and continuous growth of industry and manufactures for several generations before the modern era.
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  • The historical relations between philosophy and economics are of great importance in tracing the development of the latter, and have done much to determine its present form.
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  • There would probably have been no controversy at all on this subject but for the fact that economics was elaborated into systematic form, and made the basis of practical measures of the greatest importance, long before the remarkable development in the 19th century of historical research, experimental science and biology.
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  • In all branches of economics, even in what is called the pure theory, there is an implied reference to certain historical or existing conditions of a more or less definite character; to the established order of an organized state or other community, at a stage of development which in its main features can be recognized.
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  • But every genuine attempt to overcome its difficulties brings us into closer touch with the period we are examining; and though we may not be able to throw our conclusions into the form of large generalizations, we shall get to know something of the operation of the forces which determined the economic future of England; understand more clearly than our forefathers did, for we have more information than they could command, and a fuller appreciation of the issues, the broad features of English development, and be in a position to judge fairly well of the measures they adopted in their time.
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  • Economic motives, again, are as varied as the forms of competition, and their development is coeval with that of human society.
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  • So that cross-sections of the stream of economic thought will reveal the existence, at different times, in varying proportions and at different stages of development, of most of the modern " schools."
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  • But the net result of the development of the doctrine of rent is that all problems in which this factor appears, and they embrace the whole range of economic theory, must apparently be treated on their merits.
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  • The great increase in recent years in British military and naval expenditure, made necessary by the exceptional demands of a state of war and the great development of foreign powers, was partly responsible for the new difficulties; partly it was due to the great extension of the functions of the state during the latter part of the 19th century.
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  • The development of the powers of the central government has been less than that of the functions of local governing authorities.
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  • The growth of the town was further checked twenty years later by the development of Neyland, or New Milford, further east on the Haven, whither the Irish packet service was transferred; but towards the close of the 19th century the town recovered much of its former prosperity.
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  • The transformation has been actually shown to take place in the development of Paludina.
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  • It is clear that, if we start from the condition of full eversion of the tube and watch the process of introversion, we shall find that the pleurecbolic variety is introverted by the apex of the tube sinking inwards; it may be called acrembolic, whilst conversely the acrecbolic tubes are pleurembolic. Further, it is obvious enough that the process either of introversion or of eversion of the tube may be arrested at any point, by the development of fibres connecting the wall of the introverted tube with the wall of the body, or with an axial structure such as the oesophagus; on the other hand, the range of movement of the tubular introvert may be unlimited or complete.
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  • The development of the Pectinibranchia has been followed in several examples, e.g.
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  • A well-marked trochosphere is formed by the development of an equatorial ciliated band; and subsequently, by the disproportionate growth of the lower hemisphere, the trochosphere becomes a veliger.
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  • In other Pectinibranchia (and such variations are representative for all Mollusca, and not characteristic only of Pectinibranchia) we find that there is a very unequal division of the egg-cell at the commencement of embryonic development, as in Nassa.
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  • One further feature of the development of the Pectinibranchia deserves special mention.
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  • B, The diblastula has become a trochosphere by the development of the ciliated ring y r (optical section).
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  • In some cases all the eggs in a capsule develop; in other cases one egg only in a capsule (Neritina), or a small proportion (Purpura, Buccinum), advance in development; the rest are arrested either after the first process of cell-division (cleavage) or before that process.
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  • The arrested embryos or eggs are then swallowed and digested by those in the same capsule which have advanced in development.
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  • What it is that determines the arrest of some eggs and the progressive development of others in the same capsule is at present unknown.
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  • The Heteropoda are further remarkable for the high development of their cephalic eyes, and for the typical character of their osphradium (Spengel's olfactory organ).
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  • In development they pass through the typical trochosphere and veliger stages provided with boat-like shell.
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  • Comparative anatomy and embryology prove that this condition is due, not as formerly supposed to a difference in the relations of the visceral commissure which prevented it from being included in the torsion of the visceral hump, but to an actual detorsion which has taken place in evolution and is repeated to a great extent in individual development.
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  • In many respects the sea-hare (Aplysia), of which several species are known (some occurring on the English coast), serves as a convenient example of the fullest development of the organization characteristic of Opisthobranchia.
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  • Such special irregularities in the development of ganglia upon the visceral loop, and on one or more of the main nerves connected with it, are very frequent.
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  • The great development of the parapodia seen in Aplysia is usual in Tectibranchiate Opisthobranchs.
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  • The development of many Opisthobranchia has been examined - e.g.
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  • Some form their diblastula by emboly, others by epiboly; and in the later history of the further development of the enclosed cells (archenteron) very marked variations occur in closely-allied forms, due to the influence of a greater or less abundance of food-material mixed with the protoplasm of the egg.
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  • From the ovo-testis, which lies near the apex of the visceral coil, a common hermaphrodite duct ve proceeds, which receives the duct of the compact white albuminiparous gland, Ed, and then becomes much enlarged, the additional width being due to the development of glandular folds, which are regarded as forming a uterus u.
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  • Except in Oncidium, there is no longer a veliger stage in development.
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  • Returning to the period of the Consulate, we notice the founding of an institution which also had its complete development during the Empire, namely, the Legion of Honour (19th of May 1802).
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  • Thereafter, by exact observation of stratification, eight more periods have been distinguished by the explorer of Cnossus, each marked by some important development in the universal and necessary products of the potter's art, the least destructible and therefore most generally used archaeological criterion.
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  • To treat the actual forms of religion as expressions of our various human needs is a fruitful idea which deserves fuller development than it has yet received; but Feuerbach's treatment of it is fatally vitiated by his subjectivism.
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  • Once more a supplementary estimate, largely due to aircraft development, added two millions and a half; and in 1914 Mr. Churchill introduced the highest estimates hitherto on record, £51,J50,000 - an increase on the total of 1913 of some two millions and threequarters.
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  • But, as society exists only for the proper development of persons, we have a criterion by which to test these institutions, viz.
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  • It is obvious that the final moral ideal is not realized in any body of civic institutions actually existing, but the same analysis which demonstrates this deficiency points out the direction which a true development will take.
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  • The last-named, the most prominent of the three, is the king of light properly so called, from whom the development of all things begins.
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  • Out of the further development and combination of these primary manifestations arise numerous aeons (` Uthre, " splendours," from "is rich"), of which the number is often stated to be three hundred and.
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  • All of these are to be regarded as primitively post-oral, but in the course of development the mouth moves back to the mandibular segment, so that the first three somitesocular, antennal and intercalary - lie in front of it.
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