How to use Determinism in a sentence
Mill tried to reconcile criminal law and its punishments with his very hard type of determinism by saying that law was needed in order to weight the scale, and in order to hold out a prospect of penalties which might deter from crime and impel towards good citizenship, so Paley held that virtue was not merely obedience to God but obedience " for 1 Criticism of the scheme, from the point of view of an idealist theism, will be found in John Caird's Introduc to the Phil.
Accordingly, the Thomist doctrine may be described as a moderate determinism.
It has frequently been confused with determinism, which, however, differs from it categorically in assigning a certain function to the will.
From this principle, it follows (I) that the distinction between right and wrong is part of the constitution of human nature; (2) that morality stands apart from theology, and the moral qualities of actions are determined apart from the arbitrary will of God; (3) that the ultimate test of an action is its tendency to promote the general harmony or welfare; (4) that appetite and reason concur in the determination of action; and (5) that the moralist is not concerned to solve the problem of freewill and determinism.
He attacked it mainly on the score of the moral evils that must flow from any system of determinism, and exerted himself in particular to vindicate the freedom of the will.Advertisement
It was not less against this form of idealism than against the determinism of the early physicists that Socrates protested.
Determinism had other forms besides that of a crude materialism, and the direction that Malebranche succeeded in giving to speculation led only to the more complete denial of freedom and individuality in the all-devouring pantheism of Spinoza.
There are various degrees of determinism.
As perhaps the first clear exposition and defence of the psychological doctrine of determinism, Hobbes's own two pieces must ever retain a classical importance in the history of the free-will controversy; while Bramhall's are still worth study as specimens of scholastic fence.
The Intellectual System arose, so its author tells us, out of a discourse refuting "fatal necessity," or determinism.Advertisement
He brought his pantheism and his determinism with him to the study of Descartes from the mystical theologians of his race.
He has Augustine's Predestinarianism, stiffened (according to Loofs) by Arab philosophical determinism, and he has much of Augustine's doctrine of the grace of God, though it is flanked with doctrines of human merit which might have astonished Augustine.
And though the Stoic doctrine of determinism did not, when applied to moral problems, advance much beyond the reiteration of arguments derived from the universal validity of the principles of causality, nor the Epicurean counter-assertion of freedom avoid the error of regarding chance as a real cause and universal contingency as an explanation of the universe, it was nevertheless a real step forward to perceive the existence of the problem.
Moreover, the argument by means of which Chrysippus endeavoured to prove the compatibility of determinism with ethical responsibility is in some respects an anticipation of modern views.
Hobbes is the great exponent of materialistic determinism.Advertisement
In more recent times the controversy has been concerned either with the attempted proof of determinism by the advocates of psychological Hedonism, an attempt which at the present time is generally admitted to have failed; or with the new biological knowledge concerning the influence of heredity and environment in its bearing upon the development of character and the possibility of freedom.
And the determinism of modern science no longer consists in a crude denial of the reality of conscious processes, or an attempt to explain them as only a sublimated form of matter and its movements; it is content to admit the relative independence of the world of consciousness, while it maintains that laws and hypotheses sufficient to explain material processes may be extended to and will be discovered to be valid of the changing sequences of conscious states of mind.
Nor, finally, is the last defensive position of scientific determinism - the theory, namely, that the freedom of the will is incompatible with the doctrine of the conservation of energy - to be accepted without question.
The mistake of earlier advocates of determinism lay in the supposition that self-conscious moral action could be explained by the use of the same categories and upon the same hypotheses usually considered sufficient to explain the causal sequences observable in the physical world.
It might, however, be thought that whatever be the compatibility of theories of punishment or of the activity of the state as a moralizing agency with determinism, to reconcile the R denial of freedom with a belief in the reality of remorse or penitence will be plainly impossible.Advertisement
They argue with considerable cogency that determinism is very far from affording any ground for believing in the impotence of will.
Just as the phenomena of sudden conversion, complete revolutions of character occurring to outward appearance in a momentary space of time, are no valid argument against determinism - they may be due to the sudden emergence of elements in life and character long concealed - so what looks like the orderly and necessary development of a character growing and exhibiting its activity in accordance with fixed laws may in reality be due to innumerable secret struggles and momentous decisions, acts of choice of which only the results are outwardly apparent.
Neither the doctrine of Hobbes, that deliberation is a mere alternation of competing desires, voluntary action immediately following the " last appetite," nor the hardly less decided Determinism of Locke, who held that the will is always moved by the greatest present uneasiness, appeared to either author to require any reconciliation with the belief in human responsibility.
The comparison of the will unable to act between two equally balanced motives to an ass dying of hunger between two equal and equidistant bundles of hay is not found in his works, and may have been invented by his opponents to ridicule his determinism.
That is one possibility for trying to find a middle way between Wiles modern deism and White's theological determinism.Advertisement
The impersonal will does not of itself produce determinism or confusion, since it is simply a perpetual flow of power.
Nevertheless, there is a view that realism implies technical determinism.
Such studies avoid a global determinism which emerges from mythic thinking and magic behaviors.
One of them is an old fear of something called genetic determinism.
The prophets of technological determinism have been with us for some time.Advertisement
We also argue that a potent direct challenge to moral responsibility from causal determinism does not succeed.
Where does Buddhism stand in regard to genetic determinism, whether hard or soft?
However, I do not believe in biological determinism.
Labor's crude economic determinism will not improve those lives made a daily hell by crime.
According to the first, linguistic determinism, our thinking is determined by language.Advertisement
When anxiety becomes attached to the memory of an event it causes the problem of subconscious determinism.
And it is this variety of determinism which is sometimes referred to as media determinism.
Mandel's Late Capitalism has a historical schema based on productive forces determinism.
Further, we introduce a flexible approach to resolving non- determinism which gives this translation a practical advantage.
This is a universal view of causality and determinism where humans are essentially mechanistic, emotionally driven carbon units.Advertisement
Such thinking rather smacks of the historical determinism that Third Way thinkers associate with the 'old left ' and claim to have moved beyond.
The controversy between determinism and libertarianism hinges largely on the significance of the word "motive"; indeed in no other philosophical controversy has so much difficulty been caused by purely verbal disputation and ambiguity of expression.
It has always been maintained by convinced libertarians that without a belief in the freedom of the will morality becomes unmeaning (see Determinism).
Below when we discuss determinism in relativistic theories we will revisit this assumption.
The younger theologian has accepted determinism.Advertisement
Realism, more particularly of the Wundt type, is represented by Emericus Pauer, Az ethikai determinismus (" Ethical Determinism "), and Eugen Posch (Az idorb'l, " On Time ").
Determinism thus became a leading characteristic of Jewish apocalyptic, and its conception of history became severely mechanical.
These two kinds of determinism are sometimes distinguished as "hard" and "soft" determinism.
The materialism of Hobbes, the pantheism of Spinoza, the empiricism of Locke, the determinism of Leibnitz, Collins' necessitarianism, Dodwell's denial of the natural immortality of the soul, rationalistic attacks on Christianity, and the morality of the sensationalists - all these he opposed with a thorough conviction of the truth of the principles which he advocated.
Descartes advocates a kind of freedom which is apparently consistent with forms both of determinism and indeterminism.Advertisement
Determinism is not necessarily the logic of despair.