Determination was her motivation to stand up to the bully.
A familiar look of determination was on her upturned face.
She left the room, sniffing, but with determination in her stride.
She met his gaze with as much determination as she could muster.
Glowing with the heat and from running, he felt at that moment more strongly than ever the sense of youth, animation, and determination that had come on him when he ran to save the child.
We'll get through this — with faith and determination, not magic.
The determination in Harmony's voice left him no doubt she'd do it.
She had the impression of extreme intelligence and extreme determination, a combination that awed and intimidated her.
She rubbed her neck, sensing the evil and determination in his tone.
The award of the court is thus the equivalent of the determination of a special board in Victoria, and deals with the same questions, the most important of which are the minimum rates of wages and the number of working hours per week.
Perhaps. Though I will say, I haven't yet made my final determination. He has a test he must pass.
And, if he found out she was meant to be his mate, he'd pursue her with the same wild determination he pursued Others.
And suddenly with a determination he himself did not expect, Rostov felt for the letter in his pocket and went straight to the house.
His determination to maintain autocracy was officially proclaimed a few days after his accession.
499) of combining two mural circles in the determination of the place of a single object, the one serving for direct and the other for reflected vision.
Such a determination is, however, extremely hazardous, even if it be admitted that the remains of cats from the rock-fissures of Gibraltar pertain to Felis ocreata.
Much of Shaftesbury's career, increasingly so as it came near its close, is incapable of defence; but it has escaped most of his critics that his life up to the Restoration, apparently full of inconsistencies, was evidently guided by one leading principle, the determination to uphold the supremacy of parliament, a principle which, however obscured by self-interest, appears also to have underlain his whole political career.
In conformity with this determination the various state legislatures enacted new laws or amended the existing laws to cope with the difficulty; these remained until they were in effect superseded by Commonwealth legislation.
Arrows continued to fall, and he kicked the horse on in determination, focusing hard on the road ahead of them.
But within the Trinity Gateway he was so pressed to the wall by people who probably were unaware of the patriotic intentions with which he had come that in spite of all his determination he had to give in, and stop while carriages passed in, rumbling beneath the archway.
"Fetch them back, fetch them back!" said Count Orlov with sudden determination, looking at his watch.
One result of the victory of Heiligerlee was the determination of Alva that Egmont and Hoorn Orange outlawed.
He now resolved to try the experiment of applying photography to the determination of stellar parallax.
After the Restoration the determination of the government to put down Presbyterianism was speedily felt in Ireland.
By De la Rue's advice, Pritchard began his career there with a determination of the physical libration of the moon, or the nutation of its axis.
Timokhin, armed only with a sword, had rushed at the enemy with such a desperate cry and such mad, drunken determination that, taken by surprise, the French had thrown down their muskets and run.
touching benefices, tithes and papal bulls showed her determination to be supreme in her own territory.
The struggle, however, with the Protestant princes of Germany not only led to continual demands of Charles for men and money from his Netherland dominions, but to his determination to prevent the spread of Protestant opinions; and a series of edicts was passed, the most severe of which (that of 1550) was carried out with extreme rigour.
The imposing figure of Nesvitski followed by his Cossack, and the determination of Denisov who flourished his sword and shouted frantically, had such an effect that they managed to squeeze through to the farther side of the bridge and stopped the infantry.
One of the first who took in hand the determination of the mechanical equivalent of heat was Marc. Seguin, a nephew of J.
Either party, or the minister for Labour, may refer a determination to the court of industrial appeals, and the court, in the event of a special board failing to make a determination, may itself be called upon to frame one.
While Dean was fully exonerated from any wrongdoing in the unfortunate affair, either Fitzgerald failed to agree with the determination or simply despised being judged wrong.
Valladolid was then the capital, and in due course eminent dignities were offered to him, but he gave signs of a determination to lead the sinple life of a Friar Preacher.
The determination with which this remarkable race has maintained its mountain stronghold through a long series of ages has hitherto met with scant appreciation in the outside world.
One remarkable discovery, however, of general interest, was the outcome of a long series of delicate weighings and minute experimental care in the determination of the relative density of nitrogen gas - undertaken in order to determine the atomic weight of nitrogen - namely, the discovery of argon, the first of a series of new substances, chemically inert, which occur, some only in excessively minute quantities, as constituents of the 1 The barony was created at George IV.'s coronation in 1821 for the wife of Joseph Holden Strutt, M.P. for Maldon (1790-1826) and Okehampton (1826-1830), who had done great service during the French War as colonel of the Essex militia.
The determination is then gazetted, and it becomes operative over a specified area, which varies in different cases, on a date fixed by the board.
One of the most remarkable of Airy's researches was his determination of the mean density of the earth.
Ten years after the passage of the law, the court decided that the Commission had no power to prescribe a rate, and that its jurisdiction over rates was confined to a determination of the question whether the rate complained of was unreasonable.
It may work even in Cicero's determination that his daughter should enjoy "- as he writes to Atticus - or receive the "honour" of consecratio (fragment of his De Consolatione).
For the quantitative determination of cobalt, it is either weighed as the oxide, C0304, obtained by ignition of the precipitated monoxide, or it is reduced in a current of hydrogen and weighed as metal.
The motions of the earth as a planet must be taken into account, as they render possible the determination of position and direction by observations of the heavenly bodies.
She met his commanding stare with determination.
Determination of Stresses in the Members of Bridges.
What form that took was almost always of her determination.
When the fear finally subsided, in its wake was a fierce determination.
The council of Constance (1414-1418) put an end to the papal schism, and also showed its determination to put down heresy by burning John Huss.
Though the high specialization of this ancient group of plants renders the determination of their natural affinities difficult, indications are afforded by anatomy and the morphology of the strobilus.
It was her determination to become a Russian in order that she might the better rule in Russia, and she succeeded.
This determination was placed beyond question by Cuvier (Ann.
It follows at once that any method which may be available for the determination of the velocity ratio is equally available for the determination of the force ratio, it being clearly understood that the forces involved are the components of the actual forces resolved in the direction of motion of the points.
The principal cause of his elevation was the determination of the various sections of the moderate republican party to exclude M.
They have failed particularly when they have left the idea of " determination " unpurged of the suggestion of time succession.
When an action is in court the parties may at any stage withdraw it from judicial determination, and refer it to arbitration.
- Consideration of the local conditions affecting the erection of bridges is always important, and sometimes becomes a controlling factor in the determination of the design.
This fact is very obvious, and has been known from a remote period; but the exact determination of the proportion of the work lost to the heat produced, and the experimental proof that that proportion is the same under all circumstances and with all materials, solid, liquid and gaseous, are comparativel recent achievements of J.
A more recent determination (Phil.
The powers of the old township were much more extensive than those of the present city of Boston, including as they did the determination of the residence of strangers, the allotment of land, the grant of citizenship, the fixing of wages and prices, of the conditions of lawsuits and even a voice in matters of peace and war.
where a person enters and pays rent under a lease for years, void either by law or by statute, or without any actual lease or agreement, or holds over after the determination of a lease whether for years or otherwise.
The decisive considerations for the determination of the date are the language, the historical background and the thought.
The most important points in soap analysis are (1) determination of the fatty matter, (2) of the total alkali, (3) of the substances insoluble in water, (4) of the water.
- Among recent works on the determination of orbits, J.
Pytheas, as far as known, was the first to utilize it for the determination of a latitude.
He developed a great research laboratory of experimental physics, attracting numerous workers from many countries and colonies; advances were made in the investigation of the conduction of electricity through gases, in the determination of the charge and mass of the electron and in the development of analysis by means of positive rays.
The chief difficulty lies in the determination of the quantity V', the change in volume the solution under the pressure Po when unit mass of solvent is mixed with it.
This determination involves a knowledge of the density and of the compressibility of the solution; the latter property is difficult to measure accurately.
A subsequent determination over mercury by A.
His determination to restrict the ambassadorial right of asylum, which had been grossly abused, was resented by Louis, who defied him in his own capital, seized the papal territory of Avignon, and talked loudly of a schism, without, however, shaking the pope in his resolution.
Great His determination to avenge himself on enemies Northern overpowered every other consideration.
The Hellenism of Seleucia was now attacked with greater determination.
These present special characters usually sufficient for ordinal determination.
The principle of correspondence, or say rather the theorem of united points, is a most powerful instrument of investigation, which may be used in place of analysis for the determination of the number of solutions of almost every geometrical problem.
Burke was not present, but he announced his determination to reply.
This is Spinoza's theory of the infinitely infinite," the limiting notion of infinity being of a numerical, quantitative series, each term of which is a qualitative determination itself quantitatively little, e.g.
He was a statesman of integrity, ability and determination, whose good qualities are too apt to be overlooked in consequence of his connexion with the unhappy fate of Maximilian.
At the Union, while the national functions of the lord high admiral were merged in the English office it was provided by the Act of Union that the Court of Admiralty in Scotland should be continued "for determination of all maritime cases relating to private rights in Scotland competent to the jurisdiction of the Admiralty Court."
But practically we are always dealing with limited systems, so any actual determination must always be regarded as to some extent provisional.
The solution may be worked out directly or through the determination of the equation of the centre which, being added to the mean anomaly, gives the true anomaly.
For the complete determination of the chemical structure of any compound, three sets of data are necessary: (I) the empirical chemical composition of the molecule; (2) the constitution, i.e.
Specific Heat and Composition.-The nature and experimental determination of specific heats are discussed in the article Calorimetry; here will be discussed the relations existing between the heat capacities of elements and compounds.
These relations may be readily tested, for the ratio C p /C„ is capable of easy experimental determination.
Specific Heats of Solids.-The development of the atomic theory and the subsequent determination of atomic weights in the opening decades of the 19th century inspired A.
In the determination of the atomic weight of an element two factors must be considered: (I) its equivalent weight, i.e.
The equivalent weight is capable of fairly ready determination, but the settlement of the second factor is somewhat more complex, and in this direction the law of atomic heats is of service.
To Jaeger is due the determination of the topic parameters of certain haloid-derivatives, and, while showing that the morphotropic effects closely resemble those occasioned by methyl, he established the important fact that, in general, the crystal form depended upon the orientation of the substituents in the benzene complex.
It was upon a map based upon such a source that Eratosthenes (276-196 B.C.) measured the distance between Syene and Alexandria which he required for his determination of the length of a degree.
He moreover accuses Eratosthenes, (whose determination of a degree he accepts without hesitation) with trusting too much to hypothesis in compiling his map instead of having recourse to latitudes and longitudes deduced by astronomical observations.
McCarthy (1881-1883), a former official of the Indian survey, which did good work in connexion with the determination of the FrancoSiamese frontier (1906).
It figured in astronomical tables until the time of Copernicus, but is now known to have no foundation in fact, being based on an error in Ptolemy's determination of precession.
determination to revoke the asiento, and Sir Robert Walpole was forced by popular feeling into war with Spain.
At the congress of Vienna (November 1814) the principle was acknowledged that the slave trade should be abolished as soon as possible; but the determination of the limit of time was reserved for separate negotiation between the powers.
O'Reilly put down the rebellion with determination and in accord with the instructions of his king.
By the treaty of Paris, signed on the 10th of December, Spain " relinquished " the island to the United States in trust for its inhabitants; the temporary character of American occupation being recognized throughout the treaty, in accord with the terms of the American declaration of war, in which the United States disclaimed any intention to control the island except for its pacification, and expressed the determination to leave the island thereupon to the control of its people.
In the determination of the relations that should subsist between the new republic and the United States certain definite conditions known as the Platt Amendment were finally imposed by the United States, and accepted by Cuba (12th of June 1901) as a part of her constitution.
Accordingly, it is a fallacy for any determination of x to consider "x is an x" or "x is not an x" as having the meaning of propositions.
Note that for any determination of x, "x is an x" and "x is not an x," are neither of them fallacies but are both meaningless, according to this theory.
When the Russians showed no signs of withdrawing from the valley of the Rion, the sultan threatened to renew the war, the sole result of which was to reveal the determination of the tsar not to be bullied into concessions.
Napoleon's determination to undertake the invasion of England has often been disputed, but it is hard to imagine what other operation he contemplated, for the outbreak of hostilities with his continental enemies found him ill-supplied with intelligence as to the resources of the country he had then to traverse.
For the siege of Burgos heavy guns were available in store on the coast; but he neither had, nor could procure, the transport to bring them up. By resource and dogged determination Wellington rose superior to almost every difficulty, but he could not overcome all; and the main teaching of the Peninsular War turns upon the value of an army that is completely organized in its various branches before hostilities break out.
The principal object of this more recent research has been the determination of the quantitative amount of chemical change associated with the passage for a given time of a current of strength known in electromagnetic units.
So accurate and convenient is this determination that it is now used conversely as a practical definition of the ampere, which (defined theoretically in terms of magnetic force) is defined practically as the current which in one second deposits i '18 milligramme of silver.
On the 8th of August representatives from every class in the capital urged the necessity of a vigorous resistance; and the citizens of Copenhagen, headed by the great burgomaster Hans Nansen, protested their unshakable loyalty to the king, and their determination to defend Copenhagen to the uttermost.
From the Russian point of view, Elizabeth's greatness as a statesman consists in her steady appreciation of Russian interests, and her determination to promote them at all hazards.
If the form, sometimes termed a quantic, be equated to zero the n+I coefficients are equivalent to but n, since one can be made unity by division and the equation is to be regarded as one for the determination of the ratio of the variables.
6th, 1907), probably the longest and most argumentative papal utterance extant, also aims primarily at Loisy, although here the vehemently scholastic redactor's determination to piece together a strictly coherent, complete a priori system of "Modernism" and his self-imposed restriction to medieval categories of thought as the vehicles for describing essentially modern discoveries and requirements of mind, make the identification of precise authors and passages very difficult.
The determination of the true relation between the length of a pendulum and the time of its oscillation; the invention of the theory of evolutes; the discovery, hence ensuing, that the cycloid is its own evolute, and is strictly isochronous; the ingenious although practically inoperative idea of correcting the "circular error" of the pendulum by applying cycloidal cheeks to clocks - were all contained in this remarkable treatise.
Up to about the middle of the 19th century it was supposed that transits of Venus across the disk of the sun afforded the most trustworthy method of making the determination in question; and when Encke in 1824 published his classic discussion of the transits of 1761 and 1769, it was supposed that we must wait until the transits of 1874 and 1882 had been observed and discussed before any further light would be thrown on the subject.
The third method is through the determination of the mass of the earth relative to that of the sun.
The minuteness of this displacement, about 20.50", makes its precise determination an extremely difficult matter.
The most careful determinations are affected by systematic errors arising from those diurnal and annual changes of temperature, the effect of which cannot be wholly eliminated in astronomical observation; and the recently discovered variation of latitude has introduced a new element of uncertainty into the determination.
This last value agrees very closely with a determination made by Gill at the Cape of Good Hope, and most other recent determinations give values exceeding 20.50".
So exact is the latter determination that, were there no weak point in the subsequent parts of the process, this method would give far the most certain result for the solar parallax.
The determination of the solar parallax through the parallactic inequality of the moon's motion also involves two elements - one of observation, the other of purely mathematical theory.
The determination of this ratio is one of the most difficult problems in the lunar theory.
Except in the few special cases when a uniform external field produces uniform magnetization, the value of the demagnetizing force cannot be calculated, and an exact determination of the actual magnetic force within the body is therefore impossible.
The magnetometric method, except when employed in connexion with ellipsoids, for which the demagnetizing factors are [[[Magnetic Measurements]] accurately known, is generally less satisfactory for the exact determination of induction or magnetization than the ballistic method.
12, and the determination of the downward limb of the curve is therefore completed.
13, is merely an inverted copy of the other, no separate determination of it is necessary.
The fundamental method of research which Riemann employed has just been alluded to; the results will be best indicated in his own words: "The methods in use hitherto for treating functions of a complex variable always started from an expression for the function as its definition, whereby its value was given for every value of the argument; by our investigation it has been shown that, in consequence of the general character of a function of a complex variable, in a definition of this sort one part of the determining conditions is a consequence of the rest, and the extent of the determining conditions has been reduced to what is necessary to effect the determination.
His determination 2 of maximum and minimum values for the slowly varying planetary eccentricities was the earliest attempt to deal with the problem.
The determination of Edinburgh as the national capital, and as the most frequent scene of parliamentary assemblies, dates from the death of James I.
His life was the triumph of steady determination unaided by a single brilliant or attractive quality.
the handing over of paten and chalice in ordination to the priesthood, are admittedly non-essential, unless we adopt the opinion of some Roman theologians that our Lord left the determination of matter and form to the church, which has insisted on different rites at different times.
And, though we may acquit Roscellinus of consciously propounding a theory so subversive of all knowledge, his criticism of the doctrine of the Trinity is proof at least of the determination with which he was prepared to carry out his individualism.
Only such a determination could enable the doctrines to be summarily presented as a system of thought.
A tolerably evident shortcoming of such a doctrine is that, while declaring the quantitative determination of matter to be the individual element in the individual, it gives no account of how such quantitative determination arises.
The divine will is, equally with the human, subject to a rational determination; God commands what is good because it is good.
The determination of Ferdinand to partition Hungary rather than drive the Turks out, which he might easily have done after Suleiman's unsuccessful attempts on Vienna in 1529-1530, led to a prolongation of the struggle till the 24th of February 1538, when, by the secret peace of Nagyvarad, 3 Hungary was divided between the two competitors.
The visible signs of this contemptuous point of view were (1) the suspension of the august dignity of palatine, which, after the death of Tamas Nadasdy, " the great palatine," in 1562, was left vacant for many years; (2) the abolition or attenuation of all the ancient Hungarian court dignitaries; (3) the degradation of the capital, Pressburg, into a mere provincial town; and (4) the more and more openly expressed determination to govern Hungary from Vienna by means of foreigners, principally German or Czech.
11, 1661) his son Fazil Ahmed succeeded him as grand vizier, and pursued his father's policy with equal genius and determination.
The conference at Vienna revealed the irreconcilable difference within the ministry; but it revealed also something more - the determination of the emperor Francis Joseph, if pressed beyond the limits of his patience, to appeal again to the non-Magyar Hungarians against the Magyar chauvinists.
p. 258), besides constructing satisfactory formulae for the barometrical determination of heights (Mec. cel.
The device known as the method of least squares, for reducing numerous equations of condition to the number of unknown quantities to be determined, had been adopted as a practically convenient rule by Gauss and Legendre; but Laplace first treated it as a problem in probabilities, and proved by an intricate and difficult course of reasoning that it was also the most advantageous, the mean of the probabilities of error in the determination of the elements being thereby reduced to a minimum.
In the first class come equations in a single unknown; here the function which is equated to zero is the Y whose values for different values of X are traced, and the solution of the equation is the determination of the points where the ordinates of the graph are zero.
The second class of cases comprises equations involving two unknowns; here we have to deal with two graphs, and the solution of the equation is the determination of their common ordinates.
The determination of the side of a regular heptagon which can be inscribed or circumscribed to a given circle was reduced to a more complicated equation which was first successfully resolved by Abul Gud.
A determination to keep clear of the British and to obtain access to the outer world through an independent channel led Potgieter and a considerable number of the Potchefstroom and Winburg burghers in 1845 to migrate towards Delagoa Bay.
improved, and a determination was shown by the European inhabitants of the Transvaal further to restrict their privileges and at the same time to stop the immigration of other Indians.
The problem was both economic and racial, and on both grounds South Africans showed a determination to exclude the competition of Indians and other Asiatics.
These were all men of progressive, in some respects democratic, views, and in thus forming his cabinet General Botha showed his determination not to be dominated by the " back veld " Boers.
Ministers declared their determination to keep the Transvaal a white man's country.
The drop will consequently be more intensely illuminated when viewed along these directions of minimum deviation, and since it is these rays with which we are primarily concerned, we shall proceed to the determination of these directions.
As there had been no money available to purchase supplies beforehand, each of these groups had to be scattered over a wide area for subsistence, and thus news as to the enemy's points of concentration necessarily preceded any determination of the plan of campaign.
Diagnosis, or recognition of the disease, must have been necessarily imperfect, when no scientific nosology or system of disease existed, and the knowledge of anatomy was quite inadequate to allow of a precise determination of the seat of disease; but symptoms were no doubt observed and interpreted skilfully.
wide, giving the Congo State a passage way to the lake, was to remain in its possession after the determination of the lease.
He also devoted much attention to the pyroelectric phenomena of crystals, which served as the theme of one of the two memoirs he presented for the degree of D.Sc. in 1869, and to the determination of crystallographic constants.
found himself in danger from the landing of the Prince of Orange he sent for the lord mayor and aldermen and informed them of his determination to restore the city charter and privileges, but he had no time to do anything before his flight.
The valuation of mines then involves the following steps: (1) The sampling of the deposit so far as developed, and assaying of the samples taken; (2) The measurement of the developed ore; (3) estimates of the probable amount of ore in the undeveloped part of the property; (4) estimates of probable profits, life of the mine, and determination of the value of the property.
The determination of W.
As stated first by Archimedes, the principle asserts the obvious fact that a body displaces its own volume of water; and he utilized it in the problem of the determination of the adulteration of the crown of Hiero.
Proceeding as in § 16 for the determination of the C.P. of an area, the same argument will show that an inclining couple due to K FIG.
- An important problem in the motion of a liquid is the determination of the state of velocity set up by the passage of a solid through it; and thence of the pressure and reaction of the liquid on the surface of the solid, by which its motion is influenced when it is free.
The determination of the O's and x's is a kinematical problem, solved as yet only for a few cases, such as those discussed above.
He frankly took up the policy of Gregory VII., but, while pursuing it with equal determination, showed greater flexibility and diplomatic skill.
Florence was now a thoroughly democratic and commercial republic, and its whole policy was mainly dominated by commercial considerations: its rivalry with Pisa was due to an ambition to gain secure access to the sea; its strong Guelphism was the outcome of its determination to secure the bank-business of the papacy, and its desire to extend its territory in Tuscany to the necessity for keeping open the land trade routes.
His unwillingness to agree to the coalition was magnified into a determination to defeat it, though it is quite obvious that he could only gain by the humiliation of Frederick, and nothing was ever proved against him.
He was recalled to Paris for a time in order to take part in the new determination of weights and measures, which had been decreed by the Revolutionary government.
The slates are interbedded with limestones containing fossil brachiopods, which have led to their determination as Silurian or Devonian; but L.
For six months the siege went on with varying fortune, but at last the courage and determination of Ibrahim triumphed, and on the 9th of September, after a heroic resistance, Abdallah, with a remnant of four hundred men, was compelled to surrender.
It is fair to assume that Grant would have followed other unsuccessful generals into retirement, had he not shown that, whatever his mistakes or failures, and whether he was or was not sober and temperate in his habits, he possessed the iron determination and energy which in the eyes of Lincoln and Stanton,' and of the whole Northern people, was the first requisite of their generals.
But Grant was unshaken in his determination.
Rather it was a resolute determination to possess that control over the machine of state which should enable him to fulfil without let or hindrance the political mission with which he believed that Providence had charged him.
Soon, however, the activity of the Schoffen became specifically confined to the determination of legal disputes, and in their place a new body (Collegium) of counsellors - Ratmannen - also fourteen in number, was appointed for the general administration of local matters.
He did perfect himself in French, and he showed no less determination to master mere sports.
He, like Pitt, was compelled to bow to the king's invincible determination not to allow the emancipation of the Roman Catholics.
and reported on Nevil Maskelyne's determination of the mean density and mass of the earth from measurements taken in 1774-1776 at Mount Schiehallion in Perthshire.
The reader is also referred to an article by Lord Kelvin (Reprint of Papers on Electrostatics and Magnetism, p. 178), entitled " Determination of the Distribution of Electricity on a Circular Segment of a Plane, or Spherical Conducting Surface under any given Influence," where another equivalent expression is given for the capacity of an ellipsoid.
In the absolute determination of capacity we have to measure the ratio of the charge of a condenser to its plate potential difference.
Such a measurement may be an absolute determination or a relative one.
An absolute measurement of capacity means, therefore, a determination in E.S.
On a visit to Rome La Condamine made careful measurements of the ancient buildings with a view to a precise determination of the length of the Roman foot.
From this principle, it follows (I) that the distinction between right and wrong is part of the constitution of human nature; (2) that morality stands apart from theology, and the moral qualities of actions are determined apart from the arbitrary will of God; (3) that the ultimate test of an action is its tendency to promote the general harmony or welfare; (4) that appetite and reason concur in the determination of action; and (5) that the moralist is not concerned to solve the problem of freewill and determinism.
The sound of the heavy firing coming from the eastward convinced him of what had been gradually dawning on him - that with barely 30,000 men he was in the presence of the whole French army, whose attitude at this moment sufficiently indicated their determination to fight.
In February, however,Bolivar formally resigned the presidency of the republic,at the same time expressing a determination to refute the imputations of ambition which had been so freely cast upon him, by retiring into private life, and spending the remainder of his days on his patrimonial estate.
Practical Determination Of Densities The methods for determining densities may be divided into two groups according as hydrostatic principles are employed or not.
The separate determination of the volume and mass of such substances as gunpowder, cotton-wool, soluble substances, &c., supplies the only means of determining their densities.
The stereometer of Say, which was greatly improved by Regnault and further modified by Kopp, permits an accurate determination of the volume of a given mass of any such substance.
The method of weighing equal volumes is particularly applicable to the determination of the relative densities of liquids.
The determination of the absolute densities of gases can only be effected with any high degree of accuracy by a development of this method.
Related to the determination of the density of a gas is the determination of the density of a vapour, i.e.
The principle is readily adapted to the determination of the relative densities of two liquids, for it is obvious that if W be the weight of a solid body in air, W, and W2 its weights when immersed in the liquids, then W - W, and W - W 2 are the weights of equal volumes of the liquids, and therefore the relative density is the quotient (W - W,)/(W - W2).
The determination in the case of solids lighter than water is effected by the introduction of a sinker, i.e.
Lincei, 1905 (iv.), 14, pp. I, 23, 104), who, by a determination of the electrochemical equivalent of the element, arrived at the value 127.61 A.
The third method is the most symmetrical of all, both in observation and reduction; but it was not employed by Bessel, on the ground that it involved the determination of the errors of two screws instead of one.
Before entering on the chief data which help towards the determination of this question, we shall first state the author's standpoint.
No quantitative determination of the amount of gold in solution is available.
The determination of salinity was formerly carried out by evaporating a weighed quantity of sea-water to dryness and weighing the residue.
Besides the determination of salinity by titration of the chlorides, the method of determination by the specific gravity of the sea-water is still often used.
Sorensen, carried out a careful investigation of the relation between the amount of chlorine, the total salinity and the specific gravity of sea-water of different strengths including an entirely new determination of the thermal expansion of sea-water.
The former determination is made by driving out the dissolved gases from solution and collecting them in a Torricellian vacuum, where the volume is measured after the carbonic acid has been removed.
The determination of the exact relationship of cause and effect in the origin of ocean currents is a matter of great practical importance.
He had drunk deeply of the spirit of the Renaissance, the determination to see for himself the noble universe, unclouded by the mists of authoritative philosophy and church tradition.
fixed in the earliest creed and protected by the determination of the canon of the New Testament.
All this evolution is the necessary consequence of the determination of the ego by the non-ego.
The final step in the determination of the present boundaries of the state was taken in 1896, when the Supreme Court of the United States decided the Greer county case.
It appears tolerably safe to conclude that, whatever errors 'may have affected the determination, the diameter or distance of the particles of water is between the two thousand and the ten thousand millionth of an inch " (= between 125 X I o 8 and 025 X 10 -8 cms.).
The determination of the series of configurations developing out of given initial conditions is not, however, the problem of the kinetic theory: the object of this theory is to explain the general properties of all gases in terms only of their molecular structure.
(2) The elders are to go before the congregation in laying open the rule so far as reacheth any particular now to be considered, and to express their judgment and determination thereof, so far as appertains to themselves.
Determination is not merely negation.
in which a place can be found at once for the idea of unity and determination and of movement and freedom.
This is merely another way of perpetuating the mistake of allowing the notion of determination by an other or a preceding to continue to dominate us in a region where we have in reality passed from it to the notion of determination by self or by self-acknowledged ideals.
As the correction from the one side consists in a more whole-hearted acceptance of the conception of determination by an ideal as the essence of mind, so from the other side it must consist in the recognition of the valuelessness of a freedom which does not mean submission to a self-chosen, though not selfcreated, law.
The position was simplified when, in 1220, Albert van Cuyck, the last of the hereditary burgraves, sold his rights to the bishop. These ecclesiastical princes were churchmen in little but name, and their desire to be absolute rulers found itself confronted by the determination of the burghers to secure greater independence.
The lateness of the hour at which the attack was delivered, and the emperor's determination to break Wellington's centre instead of outflanking the Anglo-Dutch left and further separating the allies, deprived him of whatever chance he still possessed of beating Wellington before Blucher could intervene.
Nor must we overlook Wellington's unswerving determination to co-operate with Blucher at all costs, and his firmness on June 18; or the invincible steadiness shown by the British troops and those of the King's German Legion.
Andros in Massachusetts was received, they took possession on the 31st of May 1689 of Fort James (at the southern end of Manhattan Island), renamed it Fort William and announced their determination to hold it until the arrival of a governor commissioned by the new sovereigns.
Barry owes its seaport to the determination of a number of colliery owners to secure an alternative port to Cardiff, with an independent railway to it from the coalfields.
The determination of the moments in these cases involves special methods, which are considered in the next two sections.
Badoglio's rapid rise was explained by the qualities which he showed in a special degree: determination, energy, and thoroughness.
The reasons that compelled their departure determined their quality; they were all men of rigorous consciences, who loved their fatherland much, but religion more, driven from home not by mercantile necessities or ambitions, but solely by their determination to be free to worship God.
It was pushed with determination, but achieved no success, and no further attempt was made.
Hippocrates of Chios (c. 430 B.C.), the discoverer of the square of a lune, showed that the problem reduced to the determination of two mean proportionals between two given lines, one of them being twice the length of the other.
North of the river, the Hudson's Bay Company discouraged settlement, believing that the final determination of the boundary controversy would make that stream the dividing line.
It is convenient to give this calculation before proceeding to describe the experimental determination of the velocity in air, in other gases and in water, since the calculation serves to some extent as a guide in conducting and interpreting the observations.
Trans., 1872, 162, p. 1, is given an interesting determination made by E.
The method is easily adapted for the converse determination of speed of revolution when the frequency of a fork is known.
Kundt's dust-tube may also be employed for the determination of the ratio of the specific heats of a gas or vapour.
This incident suggests two reflections - first that raids or attacks in rear of the " centre of operations " are valueless, however daring, and second that had Zasulich, in his determination to be worthy of his knighthood, concentrated for battle, the presence of the Madritov detachment on the field would have prevented the lamentable and costly misunderstandings of the retreat on Hamatan.
The style of the language, and also the position of the book in the Jewish Canon, stamp the book as one of the latest in the Old Testament, but lead to no exact determination of the date.'
The determination of the shortest distance between two small circles on a sphere is given in the article Variations, Calculus Of.
In "geodesy," and the cognate subject "figure of the earth," the matter of greatest moment with regard to the sphere is the determination of the area of triangles drawn on the surface of a sphere - the so-called "spherical triangles"; this is a branch of trigonometry, and is studied under the name of spherical trigonometry.
C. Lea, dealing with the determination of stress due to concentrated loads, by the method of influence lines will be found in Proc. Inst.
This inquiry yielded (in 1867) the result 783, and this Joule himself was inclined to regard as more accurate than his old determination by the frictional method; the latter, however, was repeated with every precaution, and again indicated 772.55 foot-pounds as the quantity of work that must be expended at sea-level in the latitude of Greenwich in order to raise the temperature of one pound of water, weighed in vacuo, from 60 to 61° F.
Against the determination to secure a conviction, however, his courage, eloquence, coolness and skill were of no avail, and the verdict of " guilty " was given.
The convection of a medium thus polarized involves electric disturbance, and therefore must contribute to the true electric current; the determination of this constituent of the current is the most delicate point in the investigation.
No personal wrongs, but the deliberate determination of a strong-minded, capable woman to snatch the reins of government from the hands of a semi-imbecile, was the cause of Peter's overthrow, and his stupendous blunders supplied Catherine with her opportunity.
On the contrary, the sacred formulae were revered because they were believed to contain the determination of the highest truths: the knowledge of God and of the mystery of salvation.
Lalande's Astronomie (1792), and republished in an improved form by the bureau of longitudes in 1817; Methodes analytiques pour la determination d'un arc du meridien (1799); Tables du soleil (publiees par le bureau des longitudes) (1806); Rapport historique sur les progres des sciences mathematiques depuis l'an 1789 (181o); A brege d'astronomie (1813); Astronomic theorique et pratique (1814); &c.
The determination to limit still further the power of the executive was at the bottom of this fatal parsimony, with the inevitable consequence that, while the king and the senate were powerless, every great noble or lord-marcher was free to do what he chose in his own domains, so long as he flattered his "little brothers," the szlachta.
Here congregated hundreds of the younger szlachta, fresh from their school benches, whence they brought nothing but a smattering of Latin and a determination to make their way by absolute subservience to their "elder brethren," the pans.
During the voyage he experimented upon the determination of longitude by lunar distances, and ultimately effected the introduction of the method into navigation (q.v.).
In 1772 he suggested to the Royal Society the famous Schehallion experiment for the determination of the earth's density and carried out his plan in 1774 (Phil.
323), executed by Mason and Dixon in 1766-1768, and later the determination of the relative longitude of Greenwich and Paris (ib.
In Bavaria, where Dollinger's influence was greatest, the strongest determination to resist the resolutions of the council prevailed.
As a preliminary step to the determination of the pressure in the bore of a gun, it is desirable to measure the pressure obtained by exploding a charge of powder in a closed vessel, varying the weight of the charge and thereby the density of the powder-gas.
The experimental determination of the time of burning under the influence of the varying pressure and density, and the size of the grain, is thus of great practical importance, as thereby it is possible to estimate close limits to the maximum pressure that will be reached in the bore of a gun, and to design the chamber so that the G.D.
This fact, coupled with the determination of the vapour density of the gas, establishes the molecular formula CO.
She had relentless determination to finish the project.
It was not until the people was stung by the humiliation of Bull Run that the unorganized enthusiasm of the North settled down into an invincible determination to crush the rebellion at all costs.
The ruthless determination of the superior leaders had been answered splendidly by the devotion of the troops, but the men of Chancellorsville and Gettysburg were mostly dead or wounded, and the recruits attracted by bounties or compelled by the "draft," which had at last been enforced in the North, proved far inferior soldiers to the gallant veterans whom they replaced.
This was a serious blow for the amir, whose determination to continue the contest was, however, as strong as ever.
To sum up: the various dates and intervals, to the approximate determination of which this article has been devoted, do not claim separately more than a tentative and probable value.
William, who had always been bitterly opposed to the policy of abandoning the French alliance in order to gain better terms from Spain, did his utmost to prevent the ratification, but matters were too far advanced for his interposition to prevail in the face of the determination of the states of Holland to conclude a peace so advantageous to their trade interests.
She alone could have given the Spanish Armada any real chance of success; and as the prospect of invasion loomed larger on the horizon, fiercer grew the popular determination to remove the only possible centre of a domestic rising, without which the external attack was bound to be a failure.
Great importance has been attached to the determination of this frontier by some historians, who consider that it coincided with the dividing line between the Teutonic and Romance races and languages; but nothing is known of the bases upon which the negotiations were effected, and the situation created by this treaty came to an end in 879.
Here is carried out the work of standardizing measuring instruments of various sorts in use by manufacturers, the determination of physical constants and the testing of materials.
Chabas, Determination metrique (1867) (Egyptian volumes);
Thus the recapitulation law, which had been built up independently from the observations and speculations on vertebrates by Lorenz Ofen (1779-1851), Johann Friedrich Meckel (1781-1833), St Hilaire, Karl Ernst von Baer (1;92-1876) and others, and had been applied (1842-1843) by Karl Vogt (1817-1895) and Agassiz, in their respective fields of observation, to comparison of individual stages with the adults of the same group in preceding geological periods, furnished the key to the determination of the ancestry of the invertebrates generally.
In England the political schemings of Parsons were no small factors in the odium which fell on the Society at large; and his determination to capture the English Catholics as an apanage of the Society, to the exclusion of all else, was an object lesson to the rest of Europe of a restless ambition and lust of domination which were to find many imitators.
To make no bitter notes upon any text, or yet to set down any determination in places of controversy.
Iodine has extensive applications in volumetric analysis, being used more especially for the determination of copper.
shown by the determination of its affinity constant, a much.
For the exact determination of the last element the census affords no precise data, but affords material for various approximations, based either upon the elimination of the probable progeny of immigrants since 1790; on the known increase of the whites of the South, where the foreign element has always been relatively insignificant; on the percentage of natives having native grandfathers in Massachusetts in 1905; or upon the assumed continuance through the 19th century of the rate of native growth (one-third decennially) known to have prevailed down at least to 1820.
The death-rate of the United States, though incapable of exact determination, was probably between 16 and 17 per 1000 in 1900; and therefore less than in most foreign countries.
The magnitude of these items is so great as to defy exact determination; data for the formation of some idea of them can be found in the account of the mineral, forest and agricultural resources of the country.
In the determination and allotment of the rights and powers of the national government on one side and of the states on the other, a determination which is the foundation of every federal system, the American Constitution proceeds upon these principles:-
In the event of a determination in favour of Great Britain the arbitrators were to determine what concurrent regulations were necessary for the preservation of the seals, and a joint commission was to be appointed by the two powers to assist them in the investigation of the facts of seal life.
This appointment was inaugurated by two events, - a course of eight lectures on sound, which proved no success and was not repeated, and the determination by means of a revolving mirror of the speed of electric discharge in conductors, a piece of work leading to enormously important results.
Hence the determination of the paging of the archetype (as was done for the archetype of Lucretius by Lachmann) has more than a merely antiquarian value.
In his widely used method for the quantitative determination of carbonic acid the gaseous mixture is shaken up with baryta or lime water of known strength and the change in alkalinity ascertained by means of oxalic acid.
Their Determination Of The Length Of The Tropical Year Has Been Extremely Exact.
The Observance Of This Rule Renders It Necessary To Reconcile Three Periods Which Have No Common Measure, Namely, The Week, The Lunar Month, And The Solar Year; And As This Can Only Be Done Approximately, And Within Certain Limits, The Determination Of Easter Is An Affair Of Considerable Nicety And Complication.
Such is the very complicated and artificial, though highly ingenious method, invented by Lilius, for the determination of Easter and the other movable feasts.
Instead, However, Of Employing The Golden Numbers And Epacts For The Determination Of Easter And The Movable Feasts, It Was Resolved That The Equinox And The Paschal Moon Should Be Found By Astronomical Computation From The Rudolphine Tables.
The instrument thus adapted to the determination of densities exceeding that of water was called the hydrometer for salts.
Perhaps the main object for which hydrometers have been constructed is the determination of the value of spirituous liquors, chiefly for revenue purposes.
c. 52, § 123, it was further enacted that the same instruments and methods should be employed in determining the duty upon imported spirits as should in virtue of any Act of Parliament be employed in the determination of the duty upon spirits distilled at home.
The lactometer constructed by Dicas of Liverpool is adapted for the determination of the quality of milk.
Any determination of density can be taken only as affording prima facie evidence of the quality of milk, as the removal of cream and the addition of water are operations which tend to compensate each other in their influence on the density of the liquid, so that the lactometer cannot be regarded as a reliable instrument.
He passed from the school at Kilkenny to Trinity College, Dublin (1700), where, owing to the peculiar subtlety of his mind and his determination to accept no doctrine on the evidence of authority or convention, he left the beaten track of study and was regarded by some as a dunce, by others as a genius.
Wellington's intimate association for several years with the sovereigns and statesmen of the Grand Alliance, and his experience of the evils which the Alliance existed to hold in check, naturally led him to dislike Canning's aggressive attitude towards the autocratic powers, and to view with some apprehension his determination to break with the European concert.
This latter differs very little in actual practice from the previous method of determination by the number of deniers per 476 metres, the denier being calculated on the equivalent of 0.0531 gramme, the English equivalent showing 333 deniers per one dram avoirdupois.
This led to the creation and determination of spheres of influence.
Bradley recognized the fact that the experimental determination of the aberration constant gave the ratio of the velocities of light and of the earth; hence, if the velocity of the earth be known, the velocity of light is determined.
The determination of the purity-factor requires the measurement of the width of the slit.
The judge shall determine " whether the member whose return is complained of, or any and what other person, was duly returned and elected, or whether the election was void," and shall certify his determination to the speaker.
But the very futility of the accusations must have betrayed to More the bitter determination of his enemies to compass his destruction.
The legislative session of 1892, during which four changes of ministry took place, was protracted to eight months chiefly by her determination to carry through the opium and lottery bills and to have a pliable cabinet.
The same reaction is made use of in the quantitative determination of magnesium, the white precipitate of magnesium ammonium phosphate being converted by ignition into magnesium pyrophosphate and weighed as such.
He supposes that evolution is primarily integration, from the incoherent to the coherent, exemplified in the solar nebula evolving into the solar system; secondly differentiation, from the more homogeneous to the more heterogeneous, exemplified by the solar system evolving into different bodies; thirdly determination, from the indefinite to the definite, exemplified by the solar system with different bodies evolving into an order.
Next, he supposes that mind obeys the same law of evolution, and exemplifies integration by generalization, differentiation by the development of the five senses, and determination by the development of the order of consciousness.
F His point was that there are no things in themselves different from minds or acting on them; that man is no product of things; nor does his thinking arise from passive sensations caused by things; nor is the end of his existence attainable in a world of things; but that he is the absolute free activity constructing his own world, which is only his own determination, his self-imposed limit, and means to his duty which allies him with God.
wax may or may not be melted, the determination between them is not always a decision of will, but in physical causation depends on the efficient cause, e.g.
The measurement of the declination involves two separate observations, namely, the determination of (a) the magnetic meridian and (b) the geographical meridian, the angle between the two being the declination.
When making a determination of declination a brass plummet having the same weight as the magnet is first suspended in its place, and the torsion of the fibre is taken out.
2 To carry out a determination of the total force by this method the Fox dip circle has been slightly modified by E.
This ordination of Ulfilas by the chiefs of the semi-Arian party is at once an indication of their determination to extend their influence by active missionary enterprise, and evidence that Ulfilas was now a declared adherent of the Arian or semi-Arian party.
There can be scarcely any doubt as to the propriety of considering this genus the type of a separate family of Psittaci; but whether it stands alone or some other forms (Pezoporus or Geopsittacus, for example, which in coloration and habits present some curious analogies) should be placed with it, must await future determination.
Among his contributions to astronomy may be noted his eleven zonecatalogues of 34,674 stars, his measurements, in 1836-1837, of nebulae and clusters, and his determination of the mass of Uranus from observations of its satellites (Mena.
The more so, as this is consonant with the determination of the Conference held at Bristol when he was supposed to be near death there, and confirmed in succeeding Conferences."
He fought with spirit and determination, and was killed in the battle.
Two applications of geometry to the solution of practical problems are also attributed to him: - (i) the determination of the distance of a ship at sea, for which he made use of the last theorem; (2) the determination of the height of a pyramid by means of the length of its shadow: according to Hieronymus of Rhodes (Diog.
The knowledge of this theorem is distinctly attributed to Thales by Plutarch, and it was probably made use of also in his determination of the distance of a ship at sea.
The situation was critical, but there was no panic. Throughout the revolted provinces there was a general determination to continue the struggle to the bitter end.
Without entering into details, which it is the less necessary to do because the subject has been recently discussed with great fulness in works readily accessible, it may be said that for Locke as for Hume the problem of psychology was the exact description of the contents of the individual mind, and the determination of the conditions of the origin and development of conscious experience in the individual mind.
We only feel a connexion or determination of the thought to pass from one object to another.
But the firmness of the allied powers and their determination to uphold the conditions of the treaty compelled the king most reluctantly to submit to the inevitable.
In applying the plate method to the determination of the conductivity of iron, E.
The chief difficulty, as usual, was the determination of the gradient, which depended on a difference of potential of the order of 20 microvolts between two junctions inserted in small holes 2 cms. apart in a bar 1 .
A determination of the conductivity of water by S.
Irritating as it was, it did not avail to shake Hobbes's determination to remain silent; and thus at last there was peace for a time.
At the same time he set himself, with a very characteristic determination, to inquire into the actual state of the law of heresy.
and Alexander VI., and set himself with courage and determination to restore, consolidate and extend the temporal possessions of the Church.
During the month of July his own mind reached the virtual determination to give slavery its coup de grace; on the 17th he approved a new Confiscation Act, much broader than that of the 6th of August 1861 (which freed only those slaves in military service against the Union) and giving to the president power to employ persons of African descent for the suppression of the rebellion; and on the 22nd he submitted to his cabinet the draft of an emancipation proclamation substantially as afterward issued.
Evil days did not, however, come in the time of Henry VI., who, although without his fathers greatness, had some of his determination and energy, and was at least his equal Henry VI in ambition.
A serious quarrel with the pope, who had moved the council from Trent to Bologna, only increased the determination of Charles to establish religious conformity.
Prussia, on the other hand, announced its determination to carry out the principles of the Union and to maintain the Hessian constitution.
The Austrian stroke had failed, and worse than failed, for Napoleon III., who had been filled with alarm at this attempt to create on his flank an empire of 70,000,000, saw in Prussias attitude no more than a determination to maintain for her own ends the division and weakness of Germany; and this mistaken diagnosis of the situation determined his attitude during the crisis that followed.
In his public speeches the emperor repeatedly expressed his reverence for am the memory of his grandfather, and his determination to continue his policy; but he also repudiated the attempt of the extreme Conservatives to identify him with their party.
When,onthe istof April 1902,a new stamp,withthe superscription Deutsches Reich, was issued for the Empire, including Wurttemberg, Bavaria refused to accept it, retaining the stamp with the Bavarian lion, thus emphasizing her determination to retain her separate postal establishment.
Asked if he will fulfil each of these, the postulant answers: "I have this will and determination.
The period from 1747 to 1756, the year of the outbreak of the Seven Years' War, was occupied in preparations for carrying into effect the determination of Maria Theresa to recover the lost provinces.
The proclamation on the 26th of February 1861 of the new constitution for the whole monarchy, elaborated by Anton von Schmerling, though far from satisfying the national aspirations of the races within the empire, at least gave Austria a temporary popularity in Germany; the liberalism of the Habsburg monarchy was favourably contrasted with the " reactionary " policy of Prussia, where Bismarck was defying the majority of the diet in his determination to build up the military power of Prussia.
Even the determination of the proportion which each half of the monarchy was to contribute was not left to the Delegations.
the determination of the Quota, and to this extent they are all dealt with together as part of a general settlement and bargain.
Austrian feeling strongly supported the monarch in his determination to defend the unity of the army, and the conflict gradually acquired an intensity that appeared to threaten the very existence of the dual system.
The announcement of his determination caused the Opposition to rally against him, and when on the 18th of November the Liberal party adopted a " guillotine " motion by a show of hands in defiance of orthodox procedure, a section of the party seceded.
The burning question of the " Magyar word of command " remained unsettled, save in so far as the fixed determination of the king-emperor had settled it; the equally important question of the renewal of the charter of the Austro-Hungarian State Bank had also formed no part of the agreement of 1907.
Bright was in Scotland when a letter came from Cobden announcing his determination, forced on him by business difficulties, to retire from public work.
On the 1st of January 1831, without a dollar of capital, and without a single subscriber, he and his partner Isaac Knapp (1804-1843) issued the first number of the Liberator, avowing their "determination to print it as long as they could subsist on bread and water, or their hands obtain employment."
It is better, therefore, to rest satisfied with a merely relative determination of the order of even the three great clusters of Meccan revelations.
Perhaps his most noted achievements were the raising of a corps at Philadelphia, called the Irish Volunteers, who under him became famous for their fighting qualities, and the victory of Hobkirk's Hill, which, in command of only a small force, he gained by superior military skill and determination against a much larger body of Americans.
~ Ali against the sultan on pretext of chastising the ex-slave Abdullah, pasha of Acre, for refusing to send back Egyptian fugitives from the effects of Mehemet Alis reforms. The true reason was the refusal of Sultan Mahmud to hand over Syria according to agreement, and Mehemet Alis determination to obtain at all hazards what had been from time immemorial an object of ambition to the rulers of Egypt.
He was impulsive, obstinate, severe, autocratic; but his mind was open to large ideas, and he threw himself into his undertakings with an energy and determination that often compelled success.
The advent in 1351 of Hofmeister's brilliant discovery of the changes proceeding in the embryo-sac of flowering plants, and his determination of the correct relationships of these with the Cryptogamia, fixed the true position of Gymnosperms as a class distinct from Dicotyledons, and the term Angiosperm then gradually came to be accepted as the suitable designation for the whole of the flowering plants other than Gymnosperms, and as including therefore the classes of Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons.
But to the general surprise and Lord Rosebery's own very evident mortification Sir Henry went a long way in his Stirling speech to nail the Home Rule colour to the mast; he did not indeed propose to introduce a Home Rule Bill, but he declared his determination to proceed in Irish legislation on lines which would lead up to the same result.
But the dominant cause in the determination of the topographical prominences and depressions of the district has been the relative hardness and softness of the rocks.
Prior to the meeting of the commissions appointed for the determination of the Russo-Afghan boundary in 1885, no very accurate geographical knowledge of the upper Oxus regions existed, and the course of the river itself was but roughly mapped.
His services were much frequented by the "freethinkers," and he himself expressed his determination "to die a rational."
It is noteworthy that a molar from the Tertiary of India has been referred to Agriochoerus, a determination which if correct probably indicates the occurrence of Oreodonts in the unknown Tertiary deposits of Central Asia.
Blanqui's uncompromising communism, and his determination to enforce it by violence, necessarily brought him into conflict with every French government, and half his life was spent in prison.
Pytheas certainly had one merit which distinguished him from almost all his contemporaries - he was a good astronomer, and was one of the first who made observations for the determination of latitudes, among others that of his native place Massilia, which he fixed with remarkable accuracy; his result, which was within a few miles of the truth, was adopted by Ptolemy, and became the basis of the Ptolemaic map of the western Mediterranean.
We cannot say by our present method of determination, how this document closed; for in the narratives of the Passion and the Resurrection St Matthew and St Luke only coincide in passages which they have taken from St Mark.
The Latin, the Peshitta Syriac and the Targum occasionally offer suggestions; the Hexaplar Syriac and the Coptic are of value for the determination of the text of the Septuagint.
For the quantitative determination of the metal, the salts are precipitated by caustic potash, the precipitate washed, dried and heated, and finally weighed as the dioxide.
In the important matter of foreign relations Habibullah showed a determination to adopt the policy of his father, to whom the British government had given an assurance of aid to repel foreign aggression, on the condition that the amir should follow the advice of that government in regard to external affairs.
It was felt in British circles at the time that a very considerable concession to Habibullah's independence of attitude was displayed in the fact that he was styled in the treaty " His Majesty "; but, in the circumstances, it seems to have been thought diplomatic to accede to the amir's determination to insist on this matter of style.
" The sum of his instructions was to begin with preaching, and, if that failed, to proceed to the sharp determination of the sword."
Repeated annexations, the spread of education, the appearance of the steam engine and the telegraph wire, all alike revealed a consistent determination to substitute an English for an Indian civilization.
Since the transit circle is preferable to the equatorial for such observations wherein great accuracy is required, the declination and hour circles of an equatorial are employed, not for the determination of the right ascensions and declinations of celestial objects, but for directing the telescope with ease and certainty to any object situated in an approximately known position, and which may or may not be visible to the naked eye, or to define approximately the position of an unknown object.
Its original use was the determination of geographical latitudes in the field work of geodetic operations; more recently it has been extensively employed for the determination S of variation of latitude, at fixed stations, under the auspices of the International Geodetic Bureau, and for the astronomical determination of the constant of aberration.
NIU?II1010 which he has erected at Cambridge (Eng.) and applied to an investigation of the change of latitude and a determination of the constant of refraction.
Innocent IV., in his determination to crush the Hohenstaufens, offered the kingdom in turn to Richard, earl of Cornwall, to Edward, son of Henry III.
A common example of this method is the determination of the specific heat of a liquid by filling a small calorimeter with the liquid, raising it to a convenient temperature, and then setting it to cool in an enclosure at a steady temperature, and observing the time taken to fall through a given range when the conditions have become fairly steady.
The difficulties arise in connexion with the determination of the quantities of ice melted or steam condensed, and in measuring the latent heat of fusion or vaporization in terms of other units for the comparison of observations.
The calorie employed by Regnault is to some extent uncertain, but the difference is hardly beyond the probable errors of experiment, since it appears from the results of recent experiments that Regnault made an error of the same order in his determination of the specific heat of water at ioo° C.
These methods have reached their highest development in connexion with the determination of the mechanical equivalent of heat, but they may be applied with great advantage in connexion with other problems, such as the measurement of the variation of specific heat, or of latent heats of fusion or vaporization.
There Can Be No Doubt, However, That The Final Result Is The Most Accurate Direct Determination Of The Value Of The Mean Calorie Between O° And Ioo° C. In Mechanical Units.
Gannon For The Determination Of The Specific Heat Of Water In Terms Of The International Electric Units (Phil.
But For The Determination Of Relative Values Of Specific Heats In Terms Of A Standard Liquid, Or Of The Variations Of Specific Heat Of A Liquid, The Method Depends Only On The Constancy Of The Standards, Which Can Be Readily And Accurately Tested.
It Must Be Observed, However, That There Is Another Grave Difficulty In The Accurate Determination Of The Specific Heat Of Water Near 100° C. By This Method, Namely, That The Quantity Actually Observed Is Not The Specific Heat At The Higher Temperature T, But The Mean Specific Heat Over The Range 18° To T.
The Direct Determination Of The Specific Heat At Constant Volume Is Extremely Difficult, But Has Been Successfully Attempted By Joly With His Steam Calorimeter, In The Case Of Air And C02.
The determination of stellar parallaxes is a matter of great difficulty on account of the minuteness of the angle to be measured, for in no case does the parallax amount to I"; moreover, there is always an added difficulty in determining an annual change of position, for seasonal instrumental changes are liable to give rise to a spurious effect which will also have an annual period.
The first determination of a stellar parallax was made by F.
Nowadays the determination is more usually made by measuring the displacement of the star relatively to the stars surrounding it.
Proper Motions of Stars.-The work of cataloguing the stars and determining their exact positions, which is being pursued on so large a scale, naturally leads to the determination of their proper motions.
A very extensive determination of proper motions from a comparison of all the principal catalogues has been made by Lewis Boss.
One of the problems, which has engaged a large share of the attention of astronomers in the last century, has been the determination of the direction of this " solar motion."
The difficulties of the determination are twofold.
Having regard to the special precautions taken to eliminate systematic error, and to the fact that the stars used were distributed nearly equally over both hemispheres, it is fair to conclude that this is the most accurate determination yet made.
But not much reliance can be placed on this kind of determination.
In this connexion it may be noticed that, when the smaller and larger proper motions are discussed separately, the latter category will include an unduly great proportion of stars belonging to the fast-moving drift, and the resulting determination will lead to a solar apex too near the apex of that drift, i.e.
Another anomalous determination of the apex, due to H.
Man and all that concerns man are but parts of this system, and are to be explained by reference to it; for explanation or understanding of a thing is determination of its place in the universal or all.
At the same time Pasubio was assailed with the utmost determination.
But the attack was well planned, and conducted with skill and determination.
It was the determination of Frederick II.
Thirdly, there is a determination to reveal the psychological basis of logical processes, and not merely to describe them as they are in adult reasoning, but to explain also how they arise from simpler mental operations and primarily from sense.
In the course of inquiry into the formal consequences from probable premises, the principle of mediation or linking was so laid bare that the advance to the analytic determination of the species and varieties of syllogism was natural.
It is to be regarded as a propaedeutic, 12 which, although it is in contact with reality in and through the metaphysical import of the axioms, or again in the fact that the categories, though primarily taken as forms of predication, must also be regarded as kinds of being, is not directly concerned with object-reality, but with the determination for the thinking subject of what constitutes the knowledge correlative to being.
In any case, however, definition, syllogism, induction all invited further determination, especially if they were to take their place in a doctrine of truth or knowledge.
4 means (i) contained in the definition of the subject; (2) having the subject contained in its definition, as being an alternative determination of the subject, crooked, e.g.
Its needs stricter determination therefore.
True it is that the rejection of all the cospecies is a long process, but what if therein their simultaneous or subsequent determination is helped forward ?
Lastly we have deduction the determination of the most complex phenomena by a continuous synthesis or combination of the simple elements.
The determination too of the sense in which Kant's theory of knowledge involves an unresolved antithesis is for the logical purpose necessary so far only as it throws light upon his logic and his influence upon logical developments.
If logic were treated as merely formal, the stress of the problem of knowledge fell upon the determination of the Log and processes of thepsychological mechanism.
They are confined to the determination of what the truth of any matter of thought, taken for granted upon grounds psychological or other, which are extraneous to logic, includes or excludes.
This can only be atoned with the original determination by fresh negation in which a new thought-determination is born, which is yet in a sense the old, though enriched, and valid on a higher plane.
The further step to the determination of the ground of harmony is not to be taken in logic, where limits are present and untranscended.
It throws light on many phases of the search for truth, upon the plain man's claim to start with a subject which he knows whose predicate which he does not know is still to be developed, or again upon his use of the negative form of judgment, when the further determination of his purposive system is served by a positive judgment from without, the positive content of which is yet to be dropped as irrelevant to the matter in hand.
Even in Hamilton's earlier work it was shown that all such questions were reducible to the solution of linear equations in quaternions; and he proved that this, in turn, depended on the determination of a certain operator, which could be represented for purposes of calculation by a single symbol.
The determination of E.
The exact determination of the appearances in any given case is a mere problem of convergents to a continued fraction.
Our sources will not permit the precise determination of the order or the nature of these appearances, but in any case from them arose the faith which was the basis of the Christian Church and the startingpoint of its theology.
Both belong to a period in Greek history when the great city states had exhausted themselves in the futile struggle against Macedon and Rome, and both represent a conscious popular determination in the direction of systematic government.
For the purposes of this determination he set up a continuous column of mercury, constructed with 13 sections of glass tube each 2 metres long and 5 mm.
Again, if G be the mass-centre of four particles a, $, 7, situate at the vertices of a tetrahedron ABCD, we find a: ~ :~: tet GBCD: tetUGCDA: tetGDAB: tetGABC, and by suitable determination of the ratios on the left hand we can make G assume any assigned position in space.
The complete determination of the result of a collision under given circumstances is not a matter of abstract dynamics alone, but requires some auxiliary assumption.
For the determination of the motion it has only, been necessary to use one of the dynamical equations.
(14) Whenever, as in the preceding examples, a body or a system of bodies, is subject to constraints which leave it virtually only one degree of freedom, the equation of energy is sufficient for th& complete determination of the motion.
In the case of a multiple root the minors of ~(o2) all vanish, and the basis for the determination of the quantities ar disappears.
As an example of the method of determination of the normal modes we may take the double pendulum.
The actual determination.
This property can often be utilized tc, estimate the frequency of the gravest normal mode of a system by means of an assumed approximate type, when the exact determination would be difficult.
In the investigation, therefore, of the comparative motion, of the driver and follower, in an elementary combination, it is unnecessary to consider relations of angular direction, which are already fixed by the connection of each piece with the frame; so that the inquiry is confined to the determination of the velocity ratio, and of tbe directional relation, so far only as it expresses the connection between forward and backward movements of the driver and follower.
The relation between the effort and the resistance in a machine to include the effect of friction at the joints has been investigated in a paper by Professor Fleeming Jenkin, On the application of graphrc methods to the determination of the efficiency of machinery (Trans.
For a given link, this force isthe resultant of all the accelerating forces distributed through the substance of the material of the link required to produce the requisite acceleration of each particle, and the determination of this force depends upon the principles of the two preceding sections.
I28.* The Connecting Rod Problem.A particular problem of practical importance is tbe determination of the force producing the motion of the connecting rod of a steam-engine mechanism of the usual type.
The determination of the distribution of the actual energy after collision and of the loss of energy is effected by means of the following principles:
When Akbar ascended the throne, only a small portion of what had formerly been comprised within the Mogul empire owned his authority, and he devoted himself with great determination and success to the recovery of the revolted provinces.
Since childhood he had been filled with zeal for foreign missions, and he conceived the determination to found a great English missionary college to fit young priests for the work of evangelizing the heathen.
In 1872 he suggested the use of caustic lime to prevent the corrosion of iron ships by the bilge water, which he noticed was acid, and in 1878 he began a determination of the velocity of white and coloured light by a modification of H.
The first three of these were recommended in his first annual message, and he privately announced to Bancroft his determination to seize California.
The invention of the apparatus, legalized in 1879, for the determination of the flash-point of petroleum, was another piece of work which fell to him by virtue of his official position.
His Basilicon Doron, published in 5599, shows a determination to make the church episcopal.
After the injustice and persecution it had suffered it could scarcely prove moderate or tolerant; it showed a vehement determination to carry out the truth it had vindicated with such enthusiasm, to the full extent and wherever possible.
Another of his great investigations was the determination of the law according to which electric force varies with the distance.
Maxwell suggested new methods for the determination of this ratio of the electrostatic to the electromagnetic units, and by experiments of great ingenuity was able to show that this ratio, which is also that of the velocity of the propagation of an electromagnetic impulse through space, is identical with that of light.
He followed up the early work of the British Association Committee on electrical units by a fresh determination of the ohm in absolute measure, and in conjunction with other work on the electrochemical equivalent of silver and the absolute electromotive force of the Clark cell may be said to have placed exact electrical measurement on a new basis.
Many observers have given attention to the exact determination of Verdet's constant of rotation for standard substances, e.g.
The Commons, however, passed a bill annulling the sentence; and a conference was held in which the Lords, while again acknowledging that legally they were wrong, adhered to their former determination.
For Edward, Henry III.'s son and heir, who had been created earl of Chester by his father and put in possession of all the royal claims in Wales, was generally credited with a strong determination to crush for ever Welsh independence, should a fitting opportunity to do so present itself.
It is difficult to lay down rules for the determination of the gender of names of inanimate objects.
Alarmed, however, by the strength of his enemies, and by their evident determination to punish him as a bigamist, he in June 1541 made a treaty with Charles V.
Hence the determination of France to remove him at any cost.
But all the efforts of the Swedish government were wrecked on the determination of Charles XII.
He did not live to put his method into practice; but this was done by Henry Cavendish, who made, by means of Michell's apparatus, the celebrated determination that now goes by the name of Cavendish's experiment (Phil.
The Persians attacked at five points, at one of which they would in all likelihood have been successful had not the Afghans been aided by Eldred Pottinger, a young Englishman, who with the science of an artillery officer combined a courage and determination which inevitably influenced his subordinates.
The solution, known as baryta-water, finds an extensive application in practical chemistry, being used in gas-analysis for the determination of the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere; and also being used in organic chemistry as a hydrolysing agent for the decomposition of complex ureides and substituted aceto-acetic esters, while E.
The atomic weight of the element has been determined by C. Marignac by the conversion of barium chloride into barium sulphate, and also by a determination of the amount of silver required to precipitate exactly a known weight of the chloride; the mean value obtained being 136.84; T.
Characteristic of the priestly calendar are (1) the enumeration of " holy convocations," (2) the prohibition of all work, (3) the careful determination of the date by the day and month, (4) the mention of " the offerings made by fire to Yahweh," and (5) the stereotyped form of the regulations.
The Results Give Material For The Determination Of The Function F In (I).
It is held by some historians that there was at the time on the part of many of the Roman nobles a determination to raise themselves to power, despite the opposition of the senate; others with "greater probability maintain that Catiline's object was simply the cancelling of the huge debts which he and his friends had accumulated.
His dominant ideas were horror of bloodshed and the determination to accept unresistingly all, even unjust, decrees of the worldly authorities.
This arises from Panurge's determination to marry - a determination, however, which is very half-hearted, and which leads him to consult a vast number of authorities, each giving occasion for satire of a more or less complicated kind.
In a restricted sense the term assaying is applied in metallurgy to the determination of the amount of g