Despotism sentence example
At the same time his paternal despotism tended to emasculate the Tuscan character.
The appeal to Rome was a natural course to be advocated by Wolsey, whose despotism over the English church depended upon an authority derived from Rome; but it was probably a mistake.
The government was a despotism, but a king who aroused the extreme dissatisfaction of his subjects was liable to be murdered.
He came into collision with philanthropists, and was supposed to approve of despotism for its own sake.
But this despotism was of a mild type.Advertisement
Although to a certain extent opposed to the despotism of the emperor, he was not in favour of his deposition, though he accepted the fait accompli of the Restoration in April 1814.
Together with almost all his countrymen he welcomed the meeting of the states-general in 1789 as the downfall of a despotism hostile to Great Britain.
His government was a military despotism resting upon a well-appointed army; it was administered through officials absolutely subservient to an inflexible will and controlled by a widespread system of espionage; while the exercise of his personal authority was too often stained by acts of unnecessary cruelty.
No mere despotism was here exercised by the king.
The podest marks an essentially transitional state in civic government, and his intervention paved the way for despotism.Advertisement
It must further be noticed that the rise of mercenaries was synchronous with a change in the nature of Italian despotism.
All political institutions tended toward despotism.
Such views and sentiments are incompatible with the idealization of a benevolent despotism.
He knew that love of novelty and contempt for the gouty old king and his greedy courtiers had brought about this bloodless triumph; and he felt instinctively that he had to deal with a new France, which would not tolerate despotism.
Of these a portion may probably be attributed to the Peisistratids, in whose time the Acropolis once more became the stronghold of a despotism.Advertisement
Alexander availed himself of the defeat of the French to break the power of the Orsini, following the general tendency of all the princes of the day to crush the great feudatories and establish a centralized despotism.
The monarchical government introduced by Deiphontes gave way to an oligarchy, and the oligarchy degenerated into a despotism.
With Maria Theresa (1740-1780) began the age of enlightened despotism.
It was, in fact, after all his professions, little better than a military despotism.
As a natural consequence he was the steady opponent of Pitt's foreign policy, which he condemned as a species of crusade against freedom in the interest of despotism.Advertisement
His theory, which corresponded on the whole to the state of things in France in the time of Louis XI., was a theory of despotism.
But after 1884 under the rule of Diaz, the Federal system continued in name, but it concealed in fact, with great benefit to the nation, a highly centralized administration, very intelligent, and on the whole both popular and successful - a modern form of rational despotism.
The Syrian Christians, however, found that they had only exchanged the domination of a Zoroastrian monarch for an unsympathetic ecclesiastical despotism.
These four years were perhaps the most miserable and degrading in Swedish history (an age of lead succeeding an age of gold, as it has well been called) and may be briefly described as alternations of fantastic jacobinism and ruthless despotism.
On his accession he proceeded at once to repeal the recent reforms in the constitution, and attempted to set up a pure despotism.Advertisement
The mingling of despotism and good-natured familiarity there described (and the spirit is doubtless correctly given by Josephus, whether or not his details are historical) agrees with the picture in Proverbs.
If Wurttemberg suffered from a bureaucracy tempered by despotism, the Fatherland in general suffered no less.
Gradually they extended their powers, aided by the jealousy between the royal houses, which made it almost impossible for the two kings to co-operate heartily, and from the 5th to the 3rd century they exercised a growing despotism which Plato justly calls a tyrannis (Laws, 692).
With these resources, and with the advantage of an assurance from the British government that he would be aided against foreign aggression, he was able to establish an absolute military despotism inside his kingdom, by breaking down the power of the warlike tribes which held in check, up to his time, the personal autocracy of the Kabul rulers, and by organizing a regular army well furnished with European rifles and artillery.
His benevolent despotism had healed the wounds inflicted by the barbarian invaders, and given to his subjects a false feeling of security.Advertisement
He persecuted the nobles who had sided with Manfred, and established a military despotism which proved more oppressive than that of the Hohenstaufens had ever been.
The difficulty of securing proper officials gradually resulted in the more important civil functions being handed over to the friars, who frequently exercised a benevolent despotism.
The latter, entrusted to irresponsible subordinates, degenerated into a despotism which brought the system into great discredit.
Meanwhile the rule of the town was extending over more and more territory, so that finally it governed 52 bailiwicks (acquired between 1324 and 1729), the Bernese patricians being thus extremely powerful and forming an oligarchy that administered affairs like a benevolent and well-ordered despotism.
But the end was in most cases the establishment of the despotism of some leading family, such as the Visconti at Milan, the Gonzaga at Mantua, the della Scala in Verona and the Carrara in Padua.Advertisement
The result for the nation was in the one case despotism, equality and order, in the other individual liberty and an inability to move as a whole.
He won his cause; but in the eyes of all posterity he justified the reproaches of his contemporaries, who describe him as a cruel, venal, grasping seeker after power, eager to support a despotism for the sake of honours, offices and emoluments secured for himself by a bargain with the oppressors of his country.
On the contrary, the Renaissance was rather the last stage of the middle ages, emerging from ecclesiastical and feudal despotism, developing what was original in medieval ideas by the light of classic arts and letters, holding in itself the promise of the modern world.
It indicates the endeavour of man to reconstitute himself as a free being, not as the thrall of theological despotism, and the peculiar assistance he derived in this effort from Greek and Roman literature, the litterae humaniores, letters leaning rather to the side of man than of divinity.
Yet none the less was the new learning, through the open spirit of inquiry it nourished, its vindication of the private reason, its enthusiasm for republican antiquity, and its proud assertion of the rights of human independence, linked by a strong and subtle chain to that turbid revolt of the individual consciousness against spiritual despotism draped in fallacies and throned upon abuses.Advertisement
Here the antagonistic principles were plainly posed in the course of struggle against foreign despotism.
His firmness in thwarting the activities of Edmond Charles Edouard Genet, minister from France, alienated the partisans of France; his suppression of the "Whisky Insurrection" aroused in some the fear of a military despotism.
Before Elizabeth's accession to the English crown, and after the queen mother in Scotland had disappointed his hopes, he had published a treatise against what he called "The Monstrous Regiment (regimen or government) of Women"; though the despotism of that despotic age was scarcely appreciably worse when it happened to be in female hands.
He did not desire revolution, but reform; and thus he became the leader of a moderate party, and the steady opponent not only of despotism but of democracy.
The pressure of despotism was manifest, not so much in that the king and his officials consistently interfered in individual cases, but that they did so on isolated and arbitrary occasions, and then swept aside the privileges of the subject, who was impotent to resist.Advertisement
The police were to be employed, it was said, as the instruments of a new despotism, the enlisted members of a new standing army, under the centralized authority, riding roughshod over the peaceable citizens.
The police have become the ministers of a social despotism resolute in its watchful care and control of the whole community, well-meaning and paternal, although when carried to extreme length the tendency is to diminish self-reliance and independence in the individual.
C. Swinburne has suggested that the secret of Juvenal's concentrated power consisted in this, that he knew what he hated, and that what he did hate was despotism and democracy.
But it is only in connexion with its indirect effects that he seems to think of despotism; and he has no thought of democracy at all.
At first sight it seems absurd to characterize this period of despotism ending in war, ruin and anarchy as a period of reform.Advertisement
Early in the 18th century the spirit of revolt against despotism led to an attempt at the restoration of the drama by authors sprung from the people, who wrote for spectators .
In this effort he was defeated, mainly because the Revolution, for lack of experience in the right use of liberty, changed into a military despotism which allied itself with the spiritual despotism of Rome; partly because, when the Revolution was overthrown,, the parties of reaction sought salvation in the "union of altar and throne."
So Edward's personal rule became in its character autocratic; but it was in the art of courting popularity and concealing despotism that he most shows himself as a type of tyranny.
To this policy he may be said to have given his name, and he has enjoyed the reputation of having introduced a generous spirit into British politics, and of having undone the work of his predecessor at the foreign office, who was constantly abused as the friend of despotism and of despots.
It likewise vindicated afresh the rights of the Christian laity in regard to their own beliefs and the work of the Church, against the assumptions and despotism of an arrogant clergy.
During the last period of Edwards rule England might have been described as a despotism, if only the king had cared to be a despot.
It is with little justification that he has been called the founder of the new monarchy, and the spiritual ancestor of the Tudor despotism.
Such a revolution might have ended in the substitution of the despotism of a class for the despotism of a man.
Under Diocletian the senate became a political nonentity, the last traces of republican institutions disappeared, and were replaced by an absolute monarchy approaching to despotism.
A tremor of revolt ran through the cities of the south which chafed under the despotism of the Parisian mob.
There was no real political freedom, yet none of the ease or security which enlightened despotism can bestow.
Nor is that obscurity to any appreciable degree illuminated by the tendency also noticeable in idealist writers to find the true possession of freedom only in a self emancipated from the influence of irrational passion, and liberated by knowledge from the dominion of chance or the despotism of unknown natural forces.
Hence Hobbes's ideal constitution naturally comes to be an unquestioned and unlimited - though not necessarily monarchical - despotism.
As an officer of the Imperial Guard, he saw service in Poland, but resigned his commission from a disgust of despotism aroused by witnessing the repressive methods employed against the Poles.
A despotism of mere power and liberalism, which naturally produces socialism, are equally objectionable.
When they subsequently eluded the conditions imposed by the states, the deputiesnobles, clergy and burgessesshowed their incapacity, to oppose the progress of despotism.
In order to establish this absolute despotism Richelieu created no new instruments, but made use of a revolutionary institution Methods of the 16th century, namely intendants (q.v.), employed agents who were forerunners of the commissaries of by Riche- the Convention, gentlemen of the long robe of inferior lieu, condition, hated by every one, and for that reason the more trustworthy.
All the ties of caste, class, corporation and family were severed; the jealous despotism of Louis XIV.
He could never make the rights over the drink traffic uniform and equal, nor restrict privileges in the matter of the taille; while he was soon much embarrassed, not only by the coalition of particular interests and local immunities, which made despotism acceptable by tempering it, but also by Louis XIV.s two masterpassions for conquest and for building.
From 1723 to 1743 came the mealy- eighteenth mouthed despotism of Cardinal Fleury, and his century.
Whilst some, like Voltaire and the Physiocrats, representatives of the privileged classes and careless of political rights, wished to make use of the omnipotence of the prince to accomplish desirable reforms, or, like Montesquieu, adversely criticized despotism and extolled moderate governments, other, plebeiaris like Rousseau, proclaimed the theory of the social contract and the sovereignty of the people.
But the other, the philosophic current, had been set going in the 18th century; and the policy of despotism tempered by privilege had been criticized in the name of liberty as no longer justifying itself by its services to the state.
Leaning on the bourgeois, conservative, liberal and anti-clerical republicans, they were no more able than was the Thermidor party to re-establish the freedom that had been suspended by revolutionary despotism; they created a ministry of police, interdicted the clubs and popular societies, distracted the press, and with partiality undertook the separation of Church and State voted on the 18th of September 1794.
Thus every act of violence still further confirmed the new empire of the army and the defeat of principles, preparing the way for military despotism.
Finally, amidst profound silence from the press and the Assemblies, a protest was raised against imperial despotism by the literary world, against the excommunicated sovereign by Catholicism, and against the author of the continental blockade by the discontented bourgeoisie, ruined by the crisis of 1811.
The cowed inhabitants had been trained out of all habit of acting for themselves by the imperial despotism, and could only flee or submit.
The father, though enlightened, had been a thorough despot; the son was sluggish and stupid to the verge of imbecility, but the despotism remained.
Though ruling in the spirit of an enlightened despotism rather than in that of a constitutional government, Seor Maura had succeeded in doing a notable work for Spain.
Abdullah's rule was a pure military despotism which brought the country to a state of almost complete agricultural and commercial ruin.
The courts of justice became corrupt, administrative power was abused and degenerated into a despotism controlled only by personal considerations, oppressive taxes destroyed industry and gradually desolated the country.
It fell into obscurity under the rule of the popes, and was not again mentioned in history until, in 1831 and 1845, it began taking a prominent part in the revolutionary movements against papal despotism and in favour of Italian independence.
Second - even if governments refrain from these mild persecutions, identity cards will tend to establish a despotism.
He will temper the despotism of Nature by epigrams.
Many would argue that it is an enlightened despotism.
For example they gave us that symbol of a revived oriental despotism, the National Curriculum.
Instead, he serves the ends of absolute, arbitrary despotism.
There is no human heart that sympathizes with your cause, unless it sympathizes with the cause of despotism in every form.
It is tyranny imposed by a military machine of immense power; it is tyranny imposed by a military machine of immense power; it is tyranny by an utterly ruthless despotism.
True, they had the unpleasantness of often witnessing acts of odious despotism, ' lettres de cachet ', etc.
When their ministers, moved by an intense desire to keep the Church pure by means of the exercise of scriptural discipline, claimed special spiritual rule over the people, it was not wonderful that the latter should have been reluctant to submit to a new spiritual despotism.
On the other hand, the execution seemed to Cromwell the only alternative to anarchy, or to a return to despotism and the abandonment of all they had fought for.
Though there is reason to suppose that the Roman laws were still administered within the cities, yet the Lombard code was that of the kingdom; and the Lombards being Arians, they added the oppression of religious intolerance to that of martial despotism and barbarous cupidity.
The most brilliant period of their chequered history, the period which includes the rise of communes, the exchange of municipal liberty for despotism and the gradual discrimination of the five great powers (Milan, Venice, Florence, the Papacy and the kingdom of Naples), now begins.
The ancient classes are confounded and obliterated in a population more homogeneous, more adapted for democracy and despotism.
Yet generals from time to time arose, the Conte Ugolino della Gheradesca at Pisa, Uguccione della Faggiuola at Lucca, the Conte Guido di Montefeltro at Florence, who threatened the liberties of Tuscan cities with military despotism.
Even the Florentines in 1342 submitted for a few months to the despotism of the duke of Athens.
He became an Italian in taste and sympathy, entering with enthusiasm into the humanistic ardour of the earlier Renaissance, encouraging men of letters at his court, administering his kingdom on the principles of an enlightened despotism, and lending his authority to establish that equilibrium in the peninsula upon which the politicians of his age believed, not without reason, that Italian independence might be secured.
Leroy-Beaulieu justly observes, a fundamental change in the conception of the Russian state, which, by placing the administration of justice outside the sphere of the executive power, ceased to be a despotism.
He points out that under this benevolent despotism, though men might be happy, their happiness was unstable, because it depended on the character of a single man; and the highest praise he can give to those virtuous princes is that they " deserved the honour of restoring the republic, had the Romans of their days been capable of a rational freedom."
Hiero through his long reign was the stanch friend and ally of Rome in her struggles with Carthage; but his paternal despotism, under which Greek life and civilization at Syracuse had greatly flourished, was unfortunately succeeded by the rule of a man who wholly reversed his policy.
This gives the Fichtean utopia organized on principles of pure reason; in too many cases the proposals are identical with principles of pure despotism.
Nevertheless the Kentucky legislature on the 22nd of November 1799 reaffirmed in a new resolution the principles it had laid down in the first series, asserting in this new resolution that the state " does now unequivocally declare its attachment to the Union, and to that compact [the Constitution], agreeably to its obvious and real intention, and will be among the last to seek its dissolution," but that " the principle and construction contended for by sundry of the state legislatures, that the General Government is the exclusive judge of the extent of the powers delegated to it, stop nothing [short] of despotism - since the discretion of those who administer the government, and not the Constitution, would be the measure of their powers," " that the several states who formed that instrument, being sovereign and independent, have the unquestionable right to judge of the infraction," and " that a nullification by those sovereignties of all unauthorized acts done under color of that instrument is the rightful remedy."
The atrocity of many of Henry's acts, the novelty and success of his religious policy, the apparent despotism of his methods, or all combined, have made it difficult to estimate calmly the importance of Henry's work or the conditions which made it possible.
When it became apparent that the conspirators had only removed the despot and left the despotism, he again devoted himself to philosophy, and in an incredibly short space of time produced the de Natura Deorum, de Divinatione, de Fato, Cato maior (or de Senectute), Laelius (or de Amicitia), and began his treatise de Officiis.
Ferdinand was succeeded by his son, Leopold II., who continued his father's policy R of benevolent but somewhat enervating despotism, which produced marked effects on the Tuscan character.
It is tyranny imposed by a military machine of immense power; it is tyranny by an utterly ruthless despotism.
The conditions which have the five been described, of despotism, mercenary warfare and bourgeois prosperity, determined the character of this epoch, which was also the period when the great achievements of the Renaissance were prepared.
Decisions favourable to the object of the king were given on these questions, though even the despotism of the most despotic of the Tudors failed to secure absolute unanimity.
The post of representative, and still more that of priest, was eagerly coveted and provided a scope for the ambitions which despotism usually crushes.
Her reign (1730-40) was a regime of methodical German despotism on the lines laid down by her uncle, Peter the Great, and as she was naturally indolent and much addicted to frivolous amusements, the administration was directed by her favourite Biren (q.v.) and other men of German origin.
The age of despotism, which lasted, with interruptions, from 560 to 510, was a period of great prosperity for Athens.
Transplanted into this foreign soil, the monarchy became an absolute despotism, unchecked by a proud territorial nobility and a hardy peasantry on familiar terms with their king.
Government at the same time, as an Oriental despotism understands it, often has little in view but the gathering in of the tribute and compulsion of the subjects to personal service in the army or in royal works, and if satisfied in these respects will leave much independence to the local authorities.
In this way the fourth estate would be emancipated from the despotism of the capitalist, and a great step taken in the solution of the great " social question."
In social economy his views are very vague; he preserves the family, country and property, but finds in all three, as they now are, a despotism which must be eliminated.
In 1778 he published at Amsterdam his Legislation orientale, in which he endeavoured to prove that the nature of oriental despotism had been greatly misrepresented.
The immediate effect of the peace of Karlowitz was thus only to strengthen despotism in Hungary.
From that time until his death the city was free from party strife under a de facto despotism, but after the Rinuccini conspiracy of that year the Council of Seventy passed a law declaring attempts on Lorenzo's life to be high treason.
Chosroes fled from his favourite residence, Dastagerd (near Bagdad), without offering resistance, and as his despotism and indolence had roused opposition everywhere, his eldest son, Kavadh II., whom he had imprisoned, was set free by some of the leading men and proclaimed king.
Although there are some works of this so-called Silver Age of considerable and one at least of supreme interest, from the insight they afford into the experience of a century of organized despotism and its effect on the spiritual life of the ancient world, it cannot be doubted that the steady literary decline which characterized the last centuries of paganism was beginning before the death of Ovid and Livy.
Under Emmanuel Philibert Savoy lost all traces of constitutional government and became an absolute despotism of the type then predominating throughout the greater part of Europe.
After getting rid of his brothers Pantagnotus and Syloson, who had at first shared his power, he established a despotism which is of great importance in the history of the island.
He threw himself heartily into an attempt to weaken the hold of the Austrian despotism by indirect educational means.
Even despotism is tempered by assassination and the liability of revolution (Dicey, Law of the Constitution, 6th ed., p. 75).
His experiments greatly interested Benjamin Franklin, who used to visit him and Goethe always regarded his rejection by the academy as a glaring instance of scientific despotism.
The Regulations substituted statute law for administrative and military despotism, and made the governorgeneral in council responsible to the minister of the colonies at the Hague.
For further details as to the development of the priestly caste and wisdom in India the reader must refer to Brahminism; here it is enough to observe that among a religious people a priesthood which forms a close and still more an hereditary corporation, and the assistance of which is indispensable in all religious acts, must rise to practical supremacy in society except under the strongest form of despotism, where the sovereign is head of the Church as well as of the state.
As far back as 1839 Louis Blanc had vehemently opposed the idea of a Napoleonic restoration, predicting that it would be "despotism without glory," "the Empire without the Emperor."
In these the tendency of the Syllabus towards obscurantism and papal despotism, and its incompatibility with modern thought, were clearly pointed out; and the evidence against papal infallibility, resting, as the Letters asserted, on the False Decretals, and accepted without controversy in an age of ignorance, was ably marshalled for the guidance of the council.
Perhaps Gertz deserved his fate for "unnecessarily making himself the tool of an unheard-of despotism," but his death was certainly a judicial murder, and some historians even regard him as a political martyr.
His last novel, Despotism, or the Fall of the Jesuits, appeared in 1811, but none of his romances was, popular.
Another result of Lessing's labours in Hamburg was the Antiquarische Briefe (1768), a series of masterly letters in answer to Christian Adolf Klotz (1738-1771), a professor of the university of Halle, who, after flattering Lessing, had attacked him, and sought to establish a kind of intellectual despotism by means of critical journals which he directly or indirectly controlled.
Among the people there was no public opinion to discourage despotism; the majority accepted their lot as inevitable, and tried rather to reproduce than to restrain the vices of their rulers.
The Austrian government, after the subjection of Hungary, withdrew every concession it had made under pressure, and established a thorough despotism, trampling upon the rights of the individual nationalities, and forcing all its subjects into a common political mould.
For the whole of Germany this was emphatically the period of petty despotism; and not only from Hesse, but from all parts of the country there was a vast stream of emigration, mainly to the New World.
Such a state of things could live on only under an enlightened despotism; the discordant elements could not join to work out really free and national institutions.
The escape from Omdurman of Father Ohrwalder and of two of the captive nuns in December 1891, of Father Rossignoli in October 1894, and of Siatin Bey in February 1895, revealed the condition of the Sudan to the outside world, threw a vivid light on the rule of the khalif a, and corroborated information already received of the discontent which existed among the tribes with the oppression and despotism under which they lived.
In a bureaucratic despotism the greatest merit of a sovereign is to choose capable and honest ministers.
His despotism consists not in any attempt to rule unconstitutionally, but in the extraordinary degree to which he was able to use constitutional means in the furtherance of his own personal ends.
Under William, Scotland was a constitutional country; the absolute despotism enjoyed by Charles II.
In theory it was an aristocracy based only upon military command; but practically it accomplished the object at which it aimed by incorporating the hereditary chiefships of Rajputana among the mushroom creations of a Mahommedan despotism.
The nature of Cromwell's statesmanship is to be seen rather in his struggles against the retrograde influences and opinions of his time, in the many political reforms anticipated though not originated or established by himself, and in his religious, perhaps fanatical, enthusiasm, than in the outward character of his administration, which, however, in spite of its despotism shows itself in its inner spirit of justice, patriotism and self-sacrifice, so immeasurably superior to that of the Stuarts.
He published in this year (1840) a volume in opposition to slavery, Despotism in America (2nd ed., 1854).
Thus were despotism and foreign predominance re-established throughout Italy save in Piedmont.
After his death in 289 comes another miserable and obscure period of revolution and despotism, in which Greek life was dying out; and but for the brief intervention of Pyrrhus in 278 Syracuse, and indeed all Sicily, would have fallen a prey to the Carthaginians.
A Chinese mandarin is as much the tool and creature of a despotism as the humblest cultivator.
In order to meet the universal discontent and the financial difficulties constitutional government was introduced; a parliament was established in which all races of the empire were represented, and in place of centralized despotism was established Liberal centralization under Schmerling and the German Liberals.
If ever there was a beneficent despotism, it was Jowett's rule as master.
This change of masters brought some relief to the unfortunate Cretans, who at least exchanged the licence of local misrule for the oppression of an organized despotism; and the government of Mustafa Pasha, an Albanian like Mehemet Ali, the ruler of the island for a considerable period (1832-1852), was more enlightened and intelligent than that of most Turkish governors.