Des sentence example
The Hotel des Invalides founded by Louis XIV.
Chassin, La Vendee et la Chouannerie (Paris, 1892 seq.); "L'Etat des services de Santerre dresse par lui-meme," in the third volume of Souvenirs et memoires (1899), published by Paul Bonnefon.
Baumeister, Denkmdler des klassischen Altertums, iii.
In Der Ring des Nibelungen Wagner specifies the proportions of the string-band as 16 first and 16 second violins, 12 violas, 12 violoncellos, 8 double basses.
Ceillier's other work, Apologie de la morale des peres de l'eglise (Paris, 1718), also won some celebrity.Advertisement
The Italian General Staff is said to have undertaken, in the event of war against France, to operate with two armies on the north-western frontier against the French arme des Alpes, of which the war strength is about 250,000 men.
The effect of this point of view in regard to moral perceptions is that they represent an important relative truth, but that philosophy " passes " beyond them " into a higher region, where imputation of guilt is " absolutely " meaningless " 2 - enseits des Guten and Bosen.
Meanwhile in England, which was ruled by Peter des Roches as justiciar, the discontent had been increasing rather than diminishing, and its volume became much larger owing to an event of May 1214.
His first works, Theorie des lois criminelles (1781) and Bibliotheque philosophique du legislateur (1782), were on the philosophy of law, and showed how thoroughly Brissot was imbued with the ethical precepts of Rousseau.
On this second visit he became acquainted with some of the leading Abolitionists, and founded later in Paris a Societe des Amis des Noirs, of which he was president during 1790 and 1791.Advertisement
In his Naturgeschichte des Himmels, in which he anticipated the nebular theory afterwards more fully developed by Laplace, Kant sought to explain the genesis of the cosmos as a product of physical forces and laws.
Nothing really new is produced in the living world, but the germs which develop have existed since the beginning of things; and nothing really dies, but, when what we call death takes place, the living thing shrinks back into its germ state.3 et celle des especes.
The Recherches sur l'organisation des corps vivants, which sketches out Lamarck's doctrines, was published in 1802; but the full development of his views in the Philosophic zoologique did not take place until 1809.
It would be interesting to know what brought about the change of opinion manifested in the Recherches sur l'organisation des corps vivants, published only seven years later.
Soc. xx.; Haacke, Schopfung des Menschen; Mitchell, " Valuation of Zoological Characters," Trans.Advertisement
On the left bank of the Lys is the Oudeburg (s'Gravenstein, Château des Contes), the former castle of the first counts of Flanders, dating from 1180 and now restored.
For a comprehensive bibliography, including monographs and published documents, see Ulysse Chevalier, Repertoire des sources hist.
In 1804 Vauquelin resigned his professorship at the College de France and successfully used his influence to obtain the appointment for Thenard, who six years later, after Fourcroy's death, was further elected to the chairs of chemistry at the Ecole Polytechnique and the Faculte des Sciences.
Baumeister, Denkmaler des classischen Altertums, ii.
Kraus, Realencyklopadie des christlichen Alterthums, ii.Advertisement
The reputation thus gained, confirmed by his translation of Horace (1750), led to his becoming a member of the Academie des Inscriptions (1754) and of the French Academy (1761).
The rules for composition there laid down are, perhaps, somewhat pedantic. His philosophical writings were La Morale d'Epicure tiree de ses propres ecrits (1758), and the Histoire des causes premieres (1769).
His last and most extensive work was a Cours d'etudes a l'usage des eleves de l'ecole militaire (45 vols.).
His Histoire des causes premieres was among the first attempts at a history of philosophy, and in his work on Epicurus, following on Gassendi, he defended Epicureanism against the general attacks made against it.
This spirit of do ut des will be found to go closely with the gift-theory of sacrifice, and to be especially characteristic of those religions of middle grade that are given over to sacrificial worship as conducted in temples and by means of organized priesthoods.Advertisement
In 1881 Leroy-Beaulieu was elected professor of contemporary history and eastern affairs at the Ecole Libre des Sciences Politiques, becoming director of this institution on the death of Albert Sorel in 1906, and in 1887 he became a member of the Academic des Sciences Morales et Politiques.
He was sent as a child to be educated at Port Royal, and there he received his final bent towards the life of a recluse, and even of a hermit, which drew him to establish himself in the neighbourhood of Port Royal des Champs.
In 1553, on the recommendation of the Cardinal of Lorraine, he was named master of the requests, and afterwards president of the chambre des comptes.
In 1744 Alembert applied this principle to the theory of the equilibrium and the motion of fluids (Trcite de l'equilibre et du mouvement des fluides), and all the problems before solved by geometricians became in some measure its corollaries.
This discovery was followed by that of the calculus of partial differences, the first trials of which were published in his Reflexion sur la cause generale des vents (1747).Advertisement
In 1752 he published an Essai d'une nouvelle theorie sur la resistance des / g uides, which contains a large number of original ideas and new observations.
His Essai sur la societe des gens de lettres avec les grands was a worthy vindication of the independence of literary men, and a thorough exposure of the evils of the system of patronage.
A treatise, Sur la destruction des Jesuites (1765), involved him in a fresh controversy, his own share in which was rendered very easy by the violence and extravagance of his adversaries.
The list of his more noteworthy literary works is completed by the mention of the Histoire des membres de l'Academie frangaise, containing biographical notices of all the members of the Academy who died between 1700 and 1772, the year in which he himself became secretary.
Strauss-Durkheim, Anatomie comparee des animaux articulees (Paris, 1828).Advertisement
Seeberg, Die Theologie des Duns Scotus (1900), and in Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopddie fiir protestantische Theologie (1898), with bibliog.
See Leroy-Beaulieu, L'Empire des tsars, ii.
L'Empire des tsars, ii.
Bogdanov, Birds and Mammals of the Black-Earth Region of the Volga Basin (in Russian, Kazan, 1871); Karelin for the southern Urals; Kessler for fishes; Strauch, Die Schlangen des Russ.
For more detailed bibliographical information see Apercu des travaux zoo-ge'ographiques, published at St Petersburg in connexion with the Exhibition of 1878; and the index Ukazatel Russkoi Literatury for natural science, mathematics and medicine, published since 1872 by the Society of the Kiev University.Advertisement
Leroy-Beaulieu, L'Empire des Tsars, tome iii.
On practice concerning rates in continental Europe, see Ulrich, Des Eisenbahntarifwesen (Berlin, 1886).
Similarly in Europe they are often the property of the International Sleeping Car Company (Compagnie Internationale des Wagons-Lits), and the supplementary fares required from those who travel in them add materially to the cost of a journey.
Flournoy, Des Indes a la Planete Mars (Geneva, 1900; there is an English translation published in London); Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, passim.
Louis de Bougainville obtained a fuller acquaintance with the archipelago in 1768, and called them the Navigators' Islands (Iles des Navigateurs) .Advertisement
His works were published in 1693 by the Abbe Gallois, in the Recueil of the Memoires de l'Academie des Sciences.
This subject has been recently treated with admirable clearness by Marti in his useful treatise Die Religion des A.T.
Giesebrecht, Der Knecht Jahwes des Deuterojesaja.
Budde's Die Religion des Volkes Israel bis zur Verbannung, as well as Addis's recent Hebrew Religion (1906), is a most careful and scholarly compendium.
Bousset's Religion des Judentums (2nd ed.), and Volz, Die jiidische Eschatologie von Daniel bis Akiba, are highly to be commended.Advertisement
There were a number of important contributory conditions (enumerated in Harnack's Mission and Ausbreitung des Christentums) which Gibbon did not take into account.
It may be added that a special translation of the chapter on Roman Law (Gibbon's historische Ubersicht des romischen Rechts) was published by Hugo at GÃ¶ttingen in 1839, and has frequently been used as a text-book in German universities.
In his Christology he departed from the Lutheran and Zwinglian doctrine of the two natures by insisting on what he called the Vergotterung des Fleisches Christi, the deification or the glorification of the flesh of Christ.
This thesis he sustained brilliantly in his Histoire des institutions politiques de l'ancienne France, the first volume of which appeared in 1874.
In 1875 he was elected member of the Academie des Sciences Morales, and in 1880 reluctantly accepted the post of director of the Ecole Normale.
The violent personalities of a pamphlet entitled Marie Joseph Chenier et le prince des critiques (1844), in reply to Jules Janin, brought him a six months' sojourn in La Pelagic, in the cell just quitted by Lamennais.
Miillenhoff (Kudrun, die echten Teile des Gedichts, 1845) rejected more than three-quarters of the whole as "not genuine."
In 1507 he took up his residence in the Benedictine Abbey of St Germain des Pres, near Paris; this was due to his connexion with the family of Brigonnet (one of whom was the superior), especially with William Brigonnet, cardinal bishop of St Malo (Meaux).
Ropell, Polen urn die Mitte des 18.
Pfeiffer's Deutsche Mystiker des 14.
Pierre Huber's Traite des mceurs des fourmis indigenes (Geneve, 1810) is the most famous of the older memoirs.
From them he heard plenty of abuse of stock-jobbing, and seizing their ideas he began to regard stock-jobbing, or agiotage, as the source of all evil, and to attack in his usual vehement style the Banque de St Charles and the Compagnie des Eaux.
In 1859 he again took part in politics, resuming his place in the lower chamber, opposing in 1863 the project of Austria for the reform of the Confederation brought forward in the assembly of princes at Frankfort, in his book Die Reform des deutschen Bundestages, and becoming one of the leaders of the "little German" (kleindeutsche) party, which advocated the exclusion of Austria from Germany.
Voigt has traced the history of the Order previous to 1526 in his Geschichte Preussens (Konigsberg, 1827-1839), and he has dealt with the organization of the Order, and with its history in Germany from 1525 to 1858, in his Geschichte des deutschen Ritterorden in seinen zwolf Balleien in Deutschland (Berlin, 1857-1859).
So well was his position as a leading man of science now established that in 1854 he was appointed professor of chemistry and dean of the Faculte des Sciences at Lille.
At last in 1710 the controller-general, Nicolas Des - marets, established a new impost, the "tenth" (dixieme), which had some analogy with the project of Boisguilbert.
Boisguilbert's works were collected by Daire in the first volume of the Collection des grands economistes.
In 1752 he became substitut, and later conseiller in the parlement of Paris, and in 1753 maitre des requetes.
Among other works written during Turgot's intendancy were the Memoire sur les mines et carrieres, and the Memoire sur la marque des fers, in which he protested against state regulation and interference and advocated free competition.
It was in 1770 that he wrote his famous Lettres sur la liberte du commerce des grains, addressed to the comptroller-general, the abbe Terray.
Turgot's best known work, Reflexions sur la formation et la distribution des richesses, was written early in the period of his intendancy for the benefit of two young Chinese students.
Moreover, the commerce des bles had been a favourite topic of the salons for some years past, and the witty Galiani, the opponent of the physiocrats, had a large following.
The opposition was now continued by Linguet and Necker, who in 1 775 published his treatise Sur la legislation et le commerce des grains.
In April disturbances arose at Dijon, and early in May took place those extraordinary bread-riots known as the" guerre des farines,"which may be looked upon as a first sample of the Revolution, so carefully were they organized.
He at once retired to la Roche-Gtiyon, the château of the duchesse d'Enville, returning shortly to Paris, where he spent the rest of his life in scientific and literary studies, being made vice-president of the Academie des Inscriptions et Belleslettres in 1777.
His object in the Traite des verites premieres (1717), his best-known work, is to discover the ultimate principle of knowledge.
Kirchengeschichte des Mittelalters, i.
Lastly, one of his pieces (Le Baron des Fondrieres) contests the honour of being the first which was hissed off the stage.
The school of practical artillery and engineering was transferred to Fontainebleau from Metz by a decree of 1871, and now occupies the part of the palace surrounding the cour des offices.
The creator of the present edifice was Francis I., under whom the architect Gilles le Breton erected most of the buildings of the Cour Ovale, including the Porte Doree, its southern entrance, and the Salle des Fetes, which, in the reign of Henry II., was decorated by the Italians, Francesco Primaticcio and Nicolo dell' Abbate, and is perhaps the finest Renaissance chamber in France.
After Francis I., Fontainebleau owes most to Henry IV., to whom are due the Cour d'Henri IV., the Cour des Princes, with the adjoining Galerie de Diane, and Galerie des Cerfs, used as a library.
The palace is surrounded by gardens and ornamental waters - to the north the Jardin de l'Orangerie, to the south the Jardin Anglais and the Parterre, between which extends the lake known as the Bassin des Carpes, containing carp in large numbers.
Reichling, "Beitrage zur Charakteristik des Alex.
The incident reawakened the interest which had early been aroused in the young Corsican by converse with the savant Volney, author of Les Ruines, ou meditation sur les revolutions des empires.
With Robespierre he was now more than ever associated, and the Histoire des Brissotins, the fragment above alluded to, was inspired by the arch-revolutionist.
Chevallier, Repertoire des sources hist.
Voigt, Die Wiederbelebung des klass.
His Histoire naturelle, generale et particuliere, was begun in 1749, and in 1770 he brought out, with the assistance of Guenau de Montbeillard, 3 the first volume of his great Histoire naturelle des oiseaux.
Latham entered, so far as the limits of his work would allow, into the 1 They were drawn and engraved by Martinet, who himself began in 1787 a Histoire des oiseaux with small coloured plates which have some merit, but the text is worthless.
In 1783 Boddaert printed at Utrecht a Table des planches enlumineez, 9 in which he attempted to refer every species of bird figured in that extensive series to its proper Linnaean genus, and to assign it a scientific name if it did not already possess one.
It was reserved for Georges Cuvier, who in 1798 published at Paris his Tableau elementaire de l'histoire naturelle des ani-.
The first volume of a Histoire naturelle des perroquets, a companion work by the same author, appeared in the same year, and is truly a monograph, since the parrots constitute a family of birds so naturally severed from all others that there has rarely been anything else confounded with them.
Between 1803 and 1806 Le Vaillant also published in just the same style two volumes with the title of Histoire naturelle des oiseaux de Paradis et des rolliers, suivie de celle des toucans et des barbus, an assemblage of forms, which, miscellaneous as it is,.was surpassed in incongruity by a fourth work on the same scale, the Histoire naturelle des promerops et des guepiers, des couroucous et des touracos, for herein are found jays, waxwings, the cock-of-the-rock (Rupicola), and what not besides.
His colleague, Vieillot, brought out in 1805 a Histoire naturelle des plus beaux chanteurs de la Zone Torride with figures by Langlois of tropical finches, grosbeaks, buntings and other hard-billed birds; and in 1807 two volumes of a Histoire' naturelle des oiseaux de l'Amenique septentrionale, without, however, paying much attention to the limits commonly assigned by geographers to' that part of the world.
Temminck, whose father's aid to Le Vaillant has already been noticed, brought out at Paris a Histoire naturelle des pigeons illustrated by Madame Knip, who had drawn the plates for Desmarest's volume.3 Since we have begun by considering these large illustrated works in which the text is made subservient to the coloured plates, it may be convenient to continue our notice of such others of similar character as it may be expedient to mention here, though thereby we shall be led somewhat far afield.
A Century of Birds from the Himalaya Mountains was followed by The Temminck subsequently reproduced, with many additions, the text of this volume in his Histoire naturelle des pigeons et des gallinacees, published at Amsterdam in 1813-1815, in 3 vols.
The Galerie des oiseaux, a rival work, with plates by Oudart,' seems to have been begun immediately after the former.
Though the three works last mentioned fairly come under the same category as the Planches enluminees and the Planches coloriees, no one of them can be properly deemed their rightful Des Murs.
The claim to that succession was made in 1845 by Des Murs for his Iconographie ornithologique, which, containing seventy-two plates by Prevot and Oudart l (the latter of whom had marvellously improved in his drawings since he worked with Vieillot), was completed in 1849.
The views of neither of these systematizers pleased Temminck, who in 1817 replied rather sharply to Vieillot in some Observations sur la classification methodique des oiseaux, a pamphlet published at Amsterdam, and prefixed to the second edition m i nd.
Blanchard published some Recherches sur les caracteres osteo- logiques des oiseaux appliquees a la classification naturelle de ces animaux, strongly urging the superiority of such characters over those drawn from the bill or feet, which, he remarks, though they may have sometimes given correct notions, have mostly led to mistakes, and, if observations of habits and food have sometimes afforded happy results, they have often been deceptive; so that, should more be wanted than to draw up a mere inventory of creation or trace the distinctive outline of each species, zoology without anatomy would remain a barren study.
Its basis is the classification of Cuvier, the modifications of which by Des Murs will seldom commend themselves to systematists whose opinion is generally deemed worth having.
Oologists have no reason to be thankful to Des Murs, notwithstanding his zeal in behalf of their study.
The attempt of Des Murs was praiseworthy, but in effect it has utterly failed, notwithstanding the encomiums passed upon it by friendly critics (Rev. de Zoologie, 1860, pp. 176-183,313-325,370-373).2 Until about this time systematists, almost without exception, may be said to have been wandering with no definite purpose.
Oberlin published several manuals on archaeology and ancient geography, and made frequent excursions into different provinces of France to investigate antiquarian remains and study provincial dialects, the result appearing in Essai sur le patois Lorrain (1775); Dissertations sur les Minnesingers (1782-1789); and Observations concernant le patois et les mceurs des gens de la campagne (1791).
Quibell was charged by the Service des Antiquites solely with the excavations in this vast necropolis.
Certainly no miracles occur, but there is enough of the wonderful and the inexplicable " (Das Wesen des Christentums, p. 18).
A still more extended an elaborate monograph than either of the preceding followed in 1822, Der Heilige Johannes Chrysostomus and die Kirche, besonders des Orients in dessen Zeitalter, and again, in 1824, another on Tertullian (Antignostikus).
An excellent article in Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopcidie (3rd ed.), "Briider des gemeinsamen Lebens," supplies copious information with references to all the literature; see also Max Heimbucher, Orden and Kongregationen (1897), ii.
One of his more recent historical works is Die Mission and Ausbreitung des Christentums in den ersten drei Jahrhunderten (1902; English translation in two volumes, 1904-1905).
But the strength of the kingdom lay less perhaps in the army than in the magnificent fortresses which the nobility, and especially the two orders, had built; and the most visible relic of the crusades to-day is the towering ruins of a fortress like Krak (Kerak) des Chevaliers, the fortress of the Knights of St John in the principality of Tripoli.
Partly by contact with the Byzantines, partly by conflict with the Mahommedans, the Franks learned new methods 1 Authors like Heeren (Versuch einer Entwickelung der Folgen der Kreuzziige) and Michaud (in the last volume of his Histoire des croisades) fall into the error of assigning all things to the Crusades.
The authorities for the Crusades have been collected in Bongars, Gesta Dei per Francos (Hanover, 1611) (incomplete); Michaud, Bibliotheque des croisades (Paris, 1829) (containing translations of select passages in the authorities); the Recueil des historiens des croisades, published by the Academie des Inscriptions (Paris, 1841 onwards) (the best general collection, containing many of the Latin, Greek, Arabic and Armenian authorities, and also the text of the assizes; but sometimes poorly edited and still .incomplete); and the publications of the Societe de l'Orient Latin (founded in 1875), especially the Archives, of which two volumes were published in 1881 and 1884, and the volumes of the Revue, published yearly from 1893 to 1902, and containing not only new texts, but articles and reviews of books which are of great service.
But about 5840 Ranke suggested, and von Sybel in his Geschichte des ersten Kreuzzuges proved, that Albert of Aix was not a good authority, and that consequently William of Tyre must be set aside for the history of the First Crusade, and other and more contemporary authorities used.
His work is usefully supplemented by the narrative (La Prise de Constantinople) of On the bibliography of the Second Crusade see Kugler, Studien zur Geschichte des zweiten Kreuzzuges (Stuttgart, 1866).
Under the head of laws come the assizes of the Kingdom, edited by Beugnot in the Recueil des historiens des croisades; and the assizes of Antioch, printed at Venice in 1876.
The genealogy of the Levant is given in Le Livre des lignages d'outre-mer (published along with the assizes).
Von Sybel's Geschichte des ersten Kreuzzuges contains a full study of the authorities for the First Crusade; while the prefaces to Hagenmeyer's editions of the Gesta and of Ekkehard are also valuable.
On the constitutional and 1 The bibliography of the Fourth Crusade is discussed in Klimke, Die Quellen zur Geschichte des vierten Kreuzzuges (Breslau, 1875).
In 1833 Moshesh invited the missionaries of the Societe des Missions Evangeliques of Paris to settle in his country, and from that day until his death proved their firm friend.
For his position in the history of the revival, see Voigt's Wiederbelebung des classischen Alterthums, and Symonds's Renaissance in Italy.
During 1822 and the succeeding years he travelled about Europe on the search for materials for his Collection des chroniques rationales fran4aises ecrites en langue vulgaire cat XIII e au X VI' siècle (47 vols., 1824-1829).
After the revolution of 1830 he founded the Pantheon litteraire, in which he published a Choix d'ouvrages mystiques (1843), a Choix de monuments primitifs de l'eglise chretienne (1837), a Choix des historiens grecs (1837), a collection of Chroniques etrangeres relatives aux expeditions francaises pendant XIII' siècle (1840), and, most important of all, a Choix de chroniques et memoires sur l'histoire de France (1836-1841).
This is the last of the buildings and rubbish which encumbered the temple before the expropriation and clearances by the Service des Antiquites began in 1885.
Dolet, &c. For a time her influence with her brother, to whom she was entirely devoted, and whom she visited when he was imprisoned in Spain, was effectual, but latterly political rather than religious considerations made him discourage Lutheranism, and a fierce persecution was begun against both Protestants and freethinkers, a persecution which drove Des Periers to suicide and brought Dolet to the stake.
Her literary work consists of the Heptameron, of poems entitled Les Marguerites de la marguerite des princesses, and of Letters.
The French Ecole d'Athenes, founded in 1846, is under the scientific direction of the Academie des Inscriptions et Belleslettres.
Milchhofer, Untersuchungen fiber die Demenordnung des Kleisthenes (in transactions of Berlin Academy, Berlin, 1892); Pauly-Wissowa, Realencyclopddie der class.
Instituts (Athens, from 1876); Bulletin de correspondence hellenique (Athens, from 1877); Papers of the American School (New York, 1882-1897); Annual of the British School (London, from 1894); Journal of Hellenic Studies (London, from 1880); American Journal of Archaeology (New York, from 1885); Jahrbuch des kais.
Ignatio (Rome, 1650, 1659) Genelli wrote Das Leben des heiligen Ignatius von Loyola (Innsbruck, 1848); Nicolas Orlandinus gives a life in the first volume of the Historiae Societatis Jesu (Rome, 1615).
Especially worthy of notice is P. Watrigant's La Genese des exercices de Saint Ignace de Loyola, republished from Les Etudes (loth May, 20th July, 10th October 1897).
In the struggle against the Jansenists he used all the influence he had with the clergy to secure the passage of the apostolic constitution of the 31st of March 16 J3 (Relation de ce qui s'est fait depuis 1653 Bans les assemblies des iveques au sujet des cinq propositions, 1657); but in the rebellion raised by Retz, archbishop of Paris, against the king, he took the part of the king against the pope.
He maintained his liberal and independent attitude in the Conseil des Anciens, the Senate and the Chamber of Peers, being president of the upper house during the Hundred Days.
Cougny, Dictionnaire des parlementaires, vol.
In this capacity he did very useful work, and after the Restoration continued in this post at the request of the duc de Richelieu, his work being recognized by his election as a member of the Academie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres in 1820.
In 1863 he published the libretto of Der Ring des Nibelungen.
Meantime Der Ring des Nibelungen was rapidly approaching completion, and on the 13th of August 1876 the introductory portion, Das Rheingold, was performed at Bayreuth for the first time as part of the great whole, followed on the 14th by Die Walkiire, on the 16th by Siegfried and on the 17th by Geitterdiimmerung.
Wagner had hardly finished the score of Lohengrin before he was at work upon the poem of Der Ring des Nibelungen.
But with Der Ring des Nibelungen Wagner devoted himself to a story which any ordinary dramatist would find as unwieldy as, for instance, most of Shakespeare's subjects; a story in which ordinary canons of taste and probability were violated as they are in real life and in great art.
Das Rheingold, prologue in 4 scenes to Der Ring des Nibelungen; ein Buhnenfestspiel (poem written last of the series, which was begun in 1848 and finished in 1851-1852; music, 1853 - 1854).
Meanwhile he had been appointed secretary to the relief committee (comite des subsistances) of the commune of Paris.
In February 1795 he was again arrested, and the Tribun du peuple was solemnly burnt in the Theatre des Bergeres by the jeunesse doree, the young men whose mission it was to bludgeon Jacobinism out of the streets and cafes.
He gathered round him a small circle of his immediate followers known as the Societe des Egaux, soon merged with the rump of the Jacobins, who met at the Pantheon; and in November 1795 he was reported by the police to be openly preaching "insurrection, revolt and the constitution of 1793."
In the case of these minor works the attribution to Chastellain is in some cases erroneous, notably in the case of the Livre des faits de Jacques de Lalain, which is the work of Lefebvre de Saint-Remi, herald of the Golden Fleece.
Molinier, Les Sources de l'histoire de France; as well as notices by Kervyn de Lettenhove prefixed to the Ouvres and in the Biographie nation* de Belgique; and an article (three parts) by Vallet de Viriville in the Journal des savants (1867).
A chart, in French, is called carte hydrographique, marine or des cotes; in Spanish or Portuguese carta de marear, in Italian carta da navigare, in German Seekarte (to distinguish it from Landkarte), in Dutch Zeekaart or Paskaart.
Capital des ind.
Maps of the French Africa Colonies have been published by the service geographique de l'Afrique occidental and the service geographique des colonies.
Briggs, The Messiah of the Apostles, p. 284 seq.; Sabatier, Les Origines litteraires et la composition de l'Apocalypse de St Jean (1887); Spitta, Die Offenbarung des Johannes untersucht (1889).
See articles in Roscher's Lexikon der Mythologie and Daremberg and Saglio's Dictionnaire des antiquites.
His Son, Alexandre Edmond Becquerel (1820-1891), was born in Paris on the 24th of March 1820, and was in turn his pupil, assistant and successor at the Musee d'Histoire Naturelle; he was also appointed professor at the short-lived Agronomic Institute at Versailles in 1849, and in 1853 received the chair of physics at the Conservatoire des Arts et Métiers.
Antoine Henri Becquerel (1852-1908), son of the lastnamed, who succeeded to his chair at the Musee d'Histoire Naturelle in 1892, was born in Paris on the 15th of December 1852, studied at the Ecole Polytechnique, where he was appointed a professor in 1895, and in 1875 entered the department des posts et chaussees, of which in 1894 he became chef.
French Somaliland French Somaliland (Cote francaise des Somalis) lies at the entrance to the Red Sea.
The best edition is by Paul Marquard, with German translation and full commentary, Die harmonischen Fragmente des Ari stoxenus (Berlin, 1868).
The works of this period are Les Philosophes Salaries, Machiavel juge des revolutions de notre temps (1849), La Federazione repubblicana (1851), La Filosofia della rivoluzione (1851), L' Italia dopo it colpo di Stato (1852), Histoire des revolutions, ou Guelfes et Gibelins (1858; Italian trans., 1871-1873).
Philosophie des 19.
A " Societe des Amis des Noirs " was formed in Paris in 1788 for the abolition, not only of the slave trade, but of slavery itself.
Meyer, therefore, conjecturally puts the date of Zoroaster at 1000 B.C., as had already been done by Duncker (Geschichte des Altertums, 4 4, 78).
The collections of Antoine Laurent de Jussieu, his son Adrien, and of Auguste de St Hilaire, are included in the large herbarium of the Jardin des Plantes at Paris, and in the same city is the extensive private collection of Dr Ernest Cosson.
Astrales im Weltbilde des Thalmud u.
Philosophie des Mittelalters, ii.
In the administration of the ancien regime the term "prefect" was not employed; practically the only case in which it occurs was in the organization of the establishment of institutions opened by the religious orders, in which there was generally a "prefect of the studies" (prefet des etudes).
Lassalle's Die Philosophie Herakleitos des Dunklen von Ephesos (Berlin, 1858), and the System der erworbenen Rechte (Leipzig, 1861) are both marked by great learning and intellectual power.
Educated at the Ecole des Chartes, he became professor in the faculty of letters at Grenoble in 1844, and in 1849 at Lyons, where he remained nearly thirty years.
In 1684 Bayle began the publication of his Nouvelles de la republique des lettres, a kind of journal of literary criticism.
In 1836 he published, in two volumes, the letters he wrote from America to the Journal des debats.
These attracted so much attention that he was sent in the same year on an economic mission to England, which resulted in his publication (in 1838) of Des interets materiels de la France.
In the south the western fork of the Des Moines River, flowing for 125 m.
Belot, Histoire des chevaliers romains, i.
He wrote Die siebzig Jahre des Jeremias u.
See also d'Ohsson, Histoire des Mongols, ii.
They came principally from the provincial intendants, or from the tours des aides, which were animated by a liberal spirit.
At the same time he assisted in editing the Journal des Luxus and der Moden, the Deutsche Merkur, and the London and Paris.
The court-yard was surrounded on the ground-floor by storehouses, kitchens, &c., above which on the west and north sides were the great halls known as the Salle des preux and the Salle des preuses.
Eminent as a philosopher, Ravaisson was also an archaeologist, and contributed articles on ancient sculpture to the Revue Archeologique and the Memoires de l'Academie des Inscriptions.
The publication of a monumental edition of the letters and works of Huygens was undertaken at the Hague by the Societe Hollandaise des Sciences, with the heading ¦uvres de Christian Huygens (1888), &c. Ten quarto volumes, comprising the whole of his correspondence, had already been issued in 1905.
In 1878 he went to Des Moines and ten years later was a member of the Iowa House of Representatives.
Farther south it includes the Gerbier des Joncs (5089 ft.), the Mont de Mezenc (5755 ft.), the culminating point of the entire range, and the Tanargue group. South of the Mont Lozere, where the Pic Finiels reaches 55 8 4 ft., lies that portion of the range"to which the name Cevennes is most strictly applied.
The opening of this poem furnished, though indirectly, the matter of the Aymerillot of Victor Hugo's Legende des siecles.
A little later General Faidherbe published his Collection complete des inscriptions numidiques (1870).
His earliest poem is the Livre des quatre dames, written after the battle of Agincourt.
Jean de Masles, who annotated a portion of his verse, has recorded how the pages and young gentlemen of that epoch were required daily to learn by heart passages of his Breviaire des nobles.
Denkwiirdigkeiten des Ministers Otto Frhr.
Scharer', Geschichte des jiid.
Adambuch des Morgenlandes, 1853), and the Ethiopic book first edited by Trump (Abh.
In 1823 he was selected along with Dufrenoy by Brochant de Villiers, the professor of geology in the Ecole des Mines, to accompany him on a scientific tour to England and Scotland, in order to inspect the mining and metallurgical establishments of the country, and to study the principles on which Greenough's geological map of England (1820) had been prepared, with a view to the construction of a similar map of France.
In 1835 he was appointed professor of geology at the Ecole des Mines, in succession to Brochant de Villiers, whose assistant he had been in the duties of the chair since 1827.
He held the office of engineer-inchief of mines in France from 1833 until 1847, when he was appointed inspector-general; and in 1861 he became vicepresident of the Conseil-General des Mines and a grand officer of the Legion of Honour.
Elie de Beaumont's name is widely known to geologists in connexion with his theory of the origin of mountain ranges, first propounded in a paper read to the Academy of Sciences in 1829, and afterwards elaborated in his Notice sur le systeme des montagnes (3 vols., 1852).
After his superannuation at the Ecole des Mines he continued to superintend the issue of the detailed maps almost until his death, which occurred at Canon on the 21st of September 1874.
His treatise, Des Grandeurs de Jesus, was a favourite book with the Jansenists.
His archaeological and mythological Memoire sur Venus (1775),(1775), which has been ranked with similar works of Heyne and Winckelmann, gained him admission to the Academie des Inscriptions (1778).
He seemed, not a professor amongst students, but a learner amongst learners; pauses for thought alternated with luminous exposition; invention accompanied demonstration; and thus originated his Theorie des fonctions analytiques (Paris, 1797).
On the establishment of the Institute, Lagrange was placed at the head of the section of geometry; he was one of the first members of the Bureau des Longitudes; and his name appeared in 1791 on the list of foreign members of the Royal Society.
Bonaparte, who styled him "la haute pyramide des sciences mathematiques," loaded him with personal favours and official distinctions.
Besides the separate works already named are Resolution des equations numeriques (1798, 2nd ed., 1808, 3rd ed., 1826), and Lecons sur le calcul des fonctions (1805, 2nd ed., 1806), designed as a commentary and supplement to the first part of the Theorie des fonctions.
A third edition, in 2 vols., 4to, was issued in 1853-1855, and a second of the Theorie des fonctions in 1813.
The chapel of Notre-Dame des Dunes possesses a small image, which is the object of a well-known pilgrimage.
Having attended at the Ecole des Mines in Paris, he assisted Elie de Beaumont in the chair of geology at the College de France from 1855 until he succeeded him in 1874.
Luchaire, Manuel des instituticns francaises (Paris, 1892); P. Guilhiermoz, Essai sur l'origine de la noblesse en France au moyen age (Paris, 1902); Brunner, Deutsche Rechtsgeschichte, Band ii.
More 1 Brongniart's Essai d'une classification naturelle des reptiles was not published in full till 1803.
His correspondence with President Bouhier was published in 1885 by Ernest Petit; his other letters have been edited by the Societe des sciences historiqueset naturelles de l'Yonne (2 vols., 1866-1867).
He also wrote numerous articles, and, after his election as a member of the Academie des Inscriptions et BellesLettres (1740), a number of Memoires which appeared in the Recueil of this society.
The bibliography of Lebeuf's writings is, partly, in various numbers of the Bibliotheque des ecrivains de Bourgogne (1716-1741).
This proposal was at once recognized by public opinion - to use the language of the Journal des Debats (May 21, 1909) - as " an instrument of domination " rather than as an attempt to carry out the spirit of the compact under which the Coalition goyernment had been summoned to power.
Legendre, in 1783, extended Maclaurin's theorem concerning ellipsoids of revolution to the case of any spheroid of revolution where the attracted point, instead of being limited to the axis or equator, occupied any position in space; and Laplace, in his treatise Theorie du mouvement et de la figure elliptique des planetes (published in 1784), effected a still further generalization by proving, what had been suspected by Legendre, that the theorem was equally true for any confocal ellipsoids.
Finally, in a celebrated memoir, Theorie des attractions des spheroides et de la figure des planetes, published in 1785 among the Paris Memoirs for the year 1782, although written after the treatise of 1784, Laplace treated exhaustively the general problem of the attraction of any spheroid upon a particle situated outside or upon its surface.
Laplace's first separate work, Theorie du mouvement et de la figure elliptique des planetes (1784), was published at the expense of President Bochard de Saron.
Arago, Annuaire du Bureau des Long.
Its manufactures include cardboard, glue, oils, colours, fertilizers, chemical products, perfumery, &c. During the middle ages and till modern times Aubervilliers was the resort of numerous pilgrims, who came to pay honour to Notre Dame des Vertus.
Fahri des al Karhi, who flourished about the beginning of the i 1 th century, is the author of the most important Arabian work on algebra.
It is limited towards the north-east by the canal from the Marne to the Rhine, on the south-west by a small arm of the Ornain, called the Canal des Usines, on the left bank of which the upper town (Ville Haute) is situated.
On Banat, see Radonic, Histoire des Serbes de Hongrie (1919, with documents).
When sixteen years old he began to attend the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris, and from 1837 to 1839 studied at the Ecole des Mines.
He was the third son, and according to Tallemant des Reaux was made a knight of Malta on the very day of his birth.
In 1789 he published his chief work, the Versuch einer neuen Theorie des menschlichen Vorstellungsvermägens, in which he attempted to simplify the Kantian theory and make it more of a unity.
The development of the Kantian standpoint contained in the "New Theory of Human Understanding" (1789), and in the Fundament des philosophischen Wissens (1791), was called by its author Elementarphilosophie.
But it was by his Nouveaux Dialogues des morts (1683) that Fontenelle established a genuine claim to high literary rank; and that claim was enhanced three years later by the appearance of the Entretiens sur la pluralite des mondes (1686), a work which was among the very first to illustrate the possibility of being scientific without being either uninteresting or unintelligible to the ordinary reader.
Hitherto Fontenelle had made his home in Rouen, but in 1687 he removed to Paris; and in the same year he published his Histoire des oracles, a book which made a considerable stir in theological and philosophical circles.
To the following year (1688) belongs his Digression sur les anciens et les modernes, in which he took the modern side in the controversy then raging; his Doutes sur le systeme physique des causes occasionnelles (against Malebranche) appeared shortly afterwards.
This office he actually held for the long period of forty-two years; and it was in this official capacity that he wrote the Histoire du renouvellement del' Academie des Sciences (Paris, 3 vols., 1708, 1717, 1722) containing extracts and analyses of the proceedings, and also the -loges of the members, written with great simplicity and delicacy.
This was first printed in the Nouvelles de la republique des lettres (January 1685) and, as Vie de Corneille, was included in all the editions of Fontenelle's OEuvres.
The other important works of Fontenelle are his Elements de la geometrie de l'infini (1727) and his Apologie des tourbillons (1752).
He has no claim to be regarded as a genius; but, as SainteBeuve has said, he well deserves a place "da p s la classe des esprits infiniment distingues" - distinguished, however, it ought to be added by intelligence rather than by intellect, and less by the power of saying much than by the power of saying a little well.
The Pluralite des mondes was translated into modern Greek in 1794.
His services at length procured him the post of president of the chambre des monnaies, and thus enabled him to resume his literary studies.
Its streets are narrow and uninteresting, with the exception of one which contains, among other old houses, that known as the Maison des Consuls, a Gothic building of the 16th century, decorated with sculptured stone-work.
Moliere made large use of the Phormio in Les Fourberies de scapin, and the subject of l'Ecole des marts is taken from the Adelphoe.
In 1547 appeared Martin's French translation of Vitruvius, the illustrations of which were due, the translator tells us in his "Dedication to the King," to Goujon, "nagueres architecte de Monseigneur le Connetable, et maintenant un des votres."
Lescot's edifice was reconstructed at the end of the 18th century by Bernard Poyet into the Fontaine des Innocents, this being a considerable variation of the original design.
At the Louvre, Goujon, under the direction of Lescot, executed the carvings of the south-west angle of the court, the reliefs of the Escalier Henri II., and the Tribune des Cariatides, for which he received 737 livres on the 5th of September 1550.
Magdeburg is one of the most important railway centres in northern Germany; and the Elbe, besides being bridged - it divides there into three arms - several times for vehicular traffic, ' See Der Bau des Elbe-Trave Canals and seine Vorgeschichte (Lubeck, 1900).
Hozier, The Seven Weeks' War (1867; new edition, London, 1906); Antheil des k.
Verdy du Vernois, Im Hauptquartiere des II.
He now settled at Paris, was elected to the Academie des Sciences in 1816, but in consequence of the opposition of Louis XVIII.
The theory of heat engaged his attention quite early, and in 1812 he obtained a prize offered by the Academie des Sciences with a memoir in two parts, Theorie des mouvements de la chaleur dans les corps solides.
After his death Navier completed and published Fourier's unfinished work, Analyse des equations indeterminees (1831), which contains much original matter.
He set about his greatest prose work, the Histoire des Girondins, which at first appeared periodically, and was published as a whole in 1847.
Des Cloizeaux (1817-1897) at the Ecole Normale, and in 1876 he became professor of mineralogy at the Sorbonne, but on the death of Wurtz in 1884 he exchanged that position for the chair of organic chemistry.
The lectures at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes, which he attended from its foundation in 1868, revealed his true bent; and henceforth he devoted himself almost entirely to scholarship. He began modestly by the study of the municipal charters of St Omer.
Having been appointed assistant lecturer and afterwards full lecturer at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes, it was to the town of St Omer that he devoted his first lectures and his first important work, Histoire de la vile de Saint-Omer et de ses institutions jusqu'au XI V e siecle (1877).
About this time personal considerations induced Giry to devote the greater part of his activity to the study of diplomatic, which had been much neglected at the Ecole des Chartes, but had made great strides in Germany.
The preliminary work on the Carolingian diplomas involved such lengthy and costly researches that the Academie des Inscriptions et BellesLettres took over the expenses after Giry's death.
He prepared a new edition of the monk Theophilus's celebrated treatise, Diversarum artium schedula, and for several years devoted his Saturday mornings to laboratory research with the chemist Aline Girard at the Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers, the results of which were utilized by Marcellin Berthelot in the first volume (1894) of his Chimie au moyen dge.
In collaboration with his pupil Andre Reville, he wrote the chapters on "L'Emancipation des villes, les communes et les bourgeoisies" and "Le Commerce et l'industrie au moyen age" for the Histoire generate of Lavisse and Rambaud.
For details of Giry's life and works see the funeral orations published in the Bibliothbque de l'Ecole des Charles, and afterwards in a pamphlet (1899).
It was not entirely a bed of roses, for the "respectable Emily's" temper was violent, and after a time she sought lovers who were not so much des cerebraux as Voltaire.
In 1815 the marquis endeavoured to bring about another Vendean rising for the king, and was shot in a skirmish with the Imperialist forces at the Pont des Marthes on the 4th of June 1815.
In 1631 he published his Traite des religions, a book that still lives; and from this year onward he was a foremost man in the church.
For the purpose of training such men special schools of mining engineering (ecoles des mines, Bergakademie) have been established in most mining countries.
These miners' schools (Bergschule, ecoles des mineurs) give elementary instruction in chemistry, physics, mechanics, mineralogy, geology and mathematics and drawing, as well as in such details of the art of mining as will best supplement the practical information already acquired in underground work.
Weiss, Die Quellen des Lukas-evangeliums (1907); also books on the Four Gospels, or the Synoptic Gospels, mentioned at end of article Gospel.
The Manufactoire Royale des Glaces was removed in 1693 to the Chateau de St Gobain.
In his Principes de la theorie des richesses (1863) he abandoned the mathematical method, though advocating the use of mathematical symbols in economic discussions, as being of service in facilitating exposition.
In the hands of Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) hydrostatics assumed the dignity of a science, and in a treatise on the equilibrium of liquids (Sur l'equilibre des liqueurs), found among his manuscripts after his death and published in 1663, the laws of the equilibrium of liquids were demonstrated in the most simple manner, and amply confirmed by experiments.
The theorem of Torricelli was employed by many succeeding writers, but particularly by Edme Mariotte (1620-1684), whose Traite du mouvement des eaux, published after his death in the year 1686, is founded on a great variety of well-conducted experiments on the motion of fluids, performed at Versailles and Chantilly.
It was more fully developed in his Traite des fluides, published in 1744, in which he gave simple and elegant solutions of problems relating to the equilibrium and motion of fluids.
These equations were found by d'Alembert from two principles - that a rectangular canal, taken in a mass of fluid in equilibrium, is itself in equilibrium, and that a portion of the fluid, in passing from one place to another, preserves the same volume when the fluid is incompressible, or dilates itself according to a given law when the fluid is elastic. His ingenious method, published in 1752, in his Essai sur la resistance des fluides, was brought to perfection in his Opuscules mathematiques, and was adopted by Leonhard Euler.
Following in the steps of the Abbe Charles Bossut (Nouvelles Experiences sur la resistance des fluides, 1777), he published, in 1786, a revised edition of his Principes d'hydraulique, which contains a satisfactory theory of the motion of fluids, founded solely upon experiments.
P. P. Boileau (1811-1891) discussed their results and added experiments of his own (Traite de la mesure des eaux courantes, Paris, 1854).
Stern, Zur Biographie des Papstes Urbans II.
A Christian revision of it is probably preserved in the two dialects of Coptic. Of these the Akhmim text is the original of the Sahidic. These texts and their translations have been edited by Steindorff, Die Apokalypse des Elias, eine unbekannte Apokalypse and Bruchstiicke der Sophonias-Apokalypse (1899).
Among the chief editions are those of Zahn, Der Hirt des Hermas (1868); Gebhardt and Harnack, Patres Apostolici (1877, with full bibliographical material); Funk, Patres Apost.
Dulaurier published from a Parisian Sahidic MS., subjoining a French translation, what is termed a fragment of the apocryphal revelations of St Bartholomew (Fragment des revelations apocryphes de Saint Barthelemy, &c., Paris, 1835), and of the history of the religious communities founded by St Pachomius.
Notices in Greek authors are collected by P. Paulitschke, Die geographische Erforschung des afrikanischen Continents (Vienna, 1880); the inscriptions were edited and interpreted by G, Maspero, Revue archeol.
In 1781 he was stationed permanently at Paris, but on the outbreak of the Revolution in 1789 he resigned his appointment as intendant des eaux et fontaines, and retired to a small estate which he possessed at Blois.
In 1779 he published an important investigation of the laws of friction (Theorie des machines simples, en ayant regard au frottement de leurs parties et a la roideur des cordages), which was followed twenty years later by a memoir on fluid resistance.
In 1785 appeared his Recherches theoriques et experimentales sur la force de torsion et sur l'elasticite des fils de metal, &c. This memoir contained a description of different forms of his torsion balance, an instrument used by him with great success for the experimental investigation of the distribution of electricity on surfaces and of the laws of electrical and magnetic action, of the mathematical theory of which he may also be regarded as the founder.
On the eucharistic controversy see the article on Radbertus by Steitz in Herzog-Hauck's Real-Encyklopadie; Bach, Dogmengeschichte des Mittelalters, i.
Braune's Neudrucke deutscher Literaturwerke des 16.
Examples of his attempted historical writing are Histoire du siecle d'Alexandre le Grand (Amsterdam, 1762), and Histoire impartiale des Jesuites (Madrid, 1768), the latter condemned to be burned.
His opposition to 'the philosophes had its strongest expressions in Fanatisme des philosophes (Geneva and Paris, 1764) and Histoire des revolutions de l'empire romain (Paris, 1766-1768).
His Theorie des lois civiles (London, 1767) is a vigorous defence of absolutism and attack on the politics of Montesquieu.
He was a member of the Institute from its foundation, and in 1816, at the reorganization, became a member of the Academie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres.
Chevalier, Repertoire des sources hist.
A few short Pisidian inscriptions have been published by Ramsay in Revue des etudes anciennes (18 95, pp. 353-3 62).
The ordinary tobacco and cigarette trade is controlled by the Regie Compagnie interessee des tabacs de l'empire Ottoman, and Narquileh tobacco (called " tumbeki " and used in " hubble-bubbles ") is in the hands of a similar organization.
As modern standard works there may also be quoted Tiedemann's Geschichte des Tabaks (1856) and Wagner's Tabakcultur, Tabakand CigarrenFabrication (1884).
In his childhood Gaston Paris learned to appreciate the Old French romances as poems and stories, and this early impulse to the study of Romance literature was placed on a solid basis by courses of study at Bonn (1856-1857) under Friedrich Diez, at GÃ¶ttingen (1857-1858) and finally at the Ecole des Chartes (1858-1861).
In France itself he trained at the Ecole des Chartes and the College de France a band of disciples who continued the traditions of exact research that he established.
Lucke's Journal(1819-18 20, 182 2), one on the origin and composition of the Sibylline Oracles "- Ober die Entstehung and Zusammensetzung der Sibyllinischen Orakel," and another on the authorship and design of the Book of Daniel, "Uber Verfasser and Zweck des Buches Daniel."
While thus employed he conceived the idea of the journal-afiche, and after the arrest of the king at Varennes in June 1791 he placarded a large printed sheet on all the walls of Paris twice a week, under the title of the Ami des Citoyens, journal fraternel.
The effect of pardon, whether actual or constructive, is to put the person pardoned in the position of an innocent man, so that he may have 1 See further, on the ethical aspect, Montesquieu, Esprit des lois, bk.
Hansische Geschichte von der zweiten Halfte des XIV.
The violent tone of some of his printed manifestoes about this time, especially of his Lob des Konigs u.
His Geschichte des Volkes Israel, the result of thirty years' labour, was epoch-making in that branch of research.
At the Ecole des Chartes, where his career was remarkably brilliant, his valedictory thesis was an Essai sur les revenus publics en Normandie au XII' siècle (1849), and it was to the history of his native province that he devoted his early works.
He was elected member of the Academie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres in 1859, and became a member of the staff of the Recueil des historiens de la France, collaborating in vols.
Of his purely historical works special mention must be made of his Memoire sur les actes d'Innocent III (1857), and his Memoire sur les operations financieres des Templiers (1889), a collection of documents of the highest value for economic history.
The Bibliographie des travaux de L.Delisle (1902), by Paul Lacombe, may be consulted for a full list of his numerous works.
The first cedars in Scotland were planted at Hopetoun House in 1740; and the first one said to have been introduced into France was brought from England by Bernard de Jussieu in 1734, and placed in the Jardin des Plantes.
The best edition is that by C. Thurot, which appears in the Recueil des historiens des croisades, tome iv.
Boudard's Etudes sur l'alphabet iberien (Paris, 1852), and Numismatique iberienne (Beziers, 1859); Aloiss Heiss, Notes sur les monnaies celtiberiennes (Paris, 1865), and Descriptionenerale des monnaies antiques de l'Espagne (Paris, 1870); Phillips, O Ober das iberische Alphabet (Vienna, 1870), Die Einwanderung der Iberer in die pyren.
In reply, Graslin (De l'Iberie, Paris, 1839), maintained that the name Iberia was nothing but a Greek misnomer of Spain, and that there was no proof that the Basque people had ever occupied a wider area than at present; and Blade (Origine des Basques, Paris, 1869) took the same line of argument, holding that Iberia is a purely geographical term, that there was no.
An earlier work, Geschichte des engl.
In 1892 he was a member of the Bureau Internationale des Poids et Mesures and in 1897 of the International Committee of Weights and Measures.
It contains numerous illustrations; maps of the routes of the ancient aqueducts and the city of Rome in the time of Frontinus; a photographic reproduction of the only MS. (the Monte Cassino); several explanatory chapters, and a concise bibliography, in which special reference is made to P. d Tissot, E tude sur la condition des agrimensores (1879).
In Turner's days (1544) it was worth three times as much as a snipe, and at the same peroid Belon said of it - " C'est vn Oyseau es delices des Francoys."
Comte der Begriinder des Positivismus.
This accurate and finely-illustrated work, one of the publications of the Service des monuments historiques de l'Alge'rie, cites the principal works dealing with Tlemcen, and gives a critical estimate of their value.
For the general reader the most useful text is that of Bartsch in Deutsche Classiker des Mittelalters, as it includes notes and a glossary.
It is in a picturesque farming country, and there are good limestone quarries in the valley of the Des Plaines river.
He governed in the midst of a group of favourites, who formed the conseil des affaires.
The leading results were given in his Reisen durch verschiedene Provinzen des riissischen Reichs (3 vols., St Petersburg, 17 7 1-1776), richly illustrated with coloured plates.
His vigorous and idiomatic version of Plutarch, Vies des hommes illustres, was translated into English by Sir Thomas North, and supplied Shakespeare with materials for his Roman plays.
Although England can show nothing like the Journal des savants, which has flourished almost without a break for two and a half centuries, a nearly complete series of reviews of English literature may be made up from 1681 to the present day.
The first number of the Journal des savants appeared on the 5th of January 1665, under the assumed name of the sieur d'Hedouville.
Since 1909, however, the various sections have left to the Academie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres the entire direction of the Journal, while still paying the annual subsidy.
Louis Auguste de Bourbon, sovereign prince of Dombes, having transferred his parliament to Trevoux, set up a printing press, and was persuaded by two Jesuits, Michel le Tellier and Philippe Lalleman, to establish the Me-moires pour servir d l'histoire des sciences et des arts (1701-1767), more familiarly known as the Journal des Trevoux, long the best-informed and best-written journal in France.
It was continued in a more popular style as Journal des sciences et des beaux-arts (1768-1775) by the abbe Aubert and by the brothers Castilhon (1776-1778), and as Journal de litterature, des sciences, et des arts (1779-1782) by the abbe Grosier.
The prototype of the historico-literary periodical may be discovered in La Clef du cabinet des princes de l'Europe (1704-1706), familiarly known as Journal de Verdun, and carried on under various titles down to 1794.
From its commencement the Journal des savants was pirated in Holland, and for ten years a kind of joint issue made up with the Journal des Trevoux appeared at Amsterdam.
Bayle, a born journalist and the most able critic of the day, conceived the plan of the Nouvelles de la republique des lettres (1684-1718), which at once became entirely successful and obtained for him during the three years of his control the dictatorship of the world of letters.
The Jesuits retaliated with the Supplement des nouvelles ecclesiastiques (1734-1748).
The promising title may have had something to do with the temporary success of the Memoires secrets de la republique des lettres (1744-1748) of the marquis d'Argens.
The first, treating of agriculture and domestic economy, was the Journal economique (1751-1772); a Journal de commerce was founded in 1759; periodical biography may be first seen in the Necrologe des hommes celebres de France (1764-1782); the political economists established the Ephemerides du citoyen in 1765; the first Journal d'education was founded in 1768, and the Courrier de la mode in the same year; the theatre had its first organ in the Journal des theatres (1770); in the same year were produced a Journal de musique and the Encyclopedia militaire; the sister service was supplied with a Journal de marine in 1778.
The Memoires secrets pour servir a l'histoire de la republique des lettres (1762-1787), better known as Memoires de Bachaumont, from the name of their founder, furnish a minute account of the social and literary history for a period of twenty-six years.
L'Esprit des Journaux (1772-1818) forms an important literary and historical collection, which is rarely to be found complete.
The Revue politique et litteraire, successor to the Revue des tours litteraires (1863) and known as the Revue bleue, also appears weekly.
Germany The earliest trace of the literary journal in Germany is to be found in the Erbauliche Monatsunterredungen (1663) of the poet Johann Rist and in the Miscellanea curiosa medico-physica (1670-1704) of the Academia naturae curiosorum Leopoldina-Carolina, the first scientific annual, uniting the features of the Journal des savants and of the Philosophical Transactions.
Ricci, Francesco Nazzari, the future cardinal, established in 1668 the Giornale de' letterati upon the plan of the French Journal des savants.
In the same city was also first established L'Esprit des journaux (1772-1818), styled by Sainte-Beuve " cette considerable et excellente collection," but " journal voleur et compilateur."
The Messager des sciences historiques (1833), at Ghent, was in repute on account of its historical and antiquarian character.
The Annales des travaux publics (1843), the Bulletin de l'industrie (1842), the Journal des beaux-arts (1858), and the Catholic Precis historiques (1852), the Protestant Chretien belge (1850), are other examples.
Annales des mines belgiques appears quarterly, and L' Art moderne weekly at Brussels.
In 1787 he issued an important political tract, Zur Darstellung des Furstenbundes.
In his principal work, Die geschichtlichen Bucher des Allen Testaments (1866), he sought to show that the priestly legislation of Exodus, Leviticus and Numbers is of later origin than the book of Deuteronomy.
The performance was the occasion of a split among the actors of the Comedie Frangaise, and the new theatre in the Palais Royal, established by the dissidents, was inaugurated with Henri VIII (1791), generally recognized as Chenier's masterpiece; Jean Calas, ou l'ecole des juges followed in the same year.
It was nevertheless proscribed in the next year at the instance of the Montagnard deputy Albitte, for an anti-anarchical hemistich (Des lois et non du sang!); Fenelon (1793) was suspended after a few representations; and in 1794 his Timoleon, set to Etienne Mehul's music, was also proscribed.
C. Roberts-Austen's six Reports (1891 to 2904) to the Alloys Research Committee of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, London, the last report being concluded by William Gowland; the Cantor Lectures on Alloys delivered at the Society of Arts and the Contribution a l'etude des alliages (2902), published by the Societe d'encouragement pour l'industrie nationale under the direction of the Commission des alliages (2896-2900), should be consulted.
The theoretical aspect is discussed in Leon Guillet's Etude theorique des alliages metalliques (2904).
Bretschneider (Ober die Lage des Christenthums in unserer Zeit, 1832) having attracted the notice of Friedrich Wilhelm III., he was called to Breslau as theological professor and consistorial councillor, and in 1843 became "general superintendent" of the province of Silesia.
The first edition of his Lehrbuch des christlichen Glaubens (1828) was freely characterized as lacking in consistency and as detracting from the strength of the old positions in many important points.