Its methyl derivatives yield the corresponding carboxylic acids when oxidized by potassium permanganate.
Paraffins are found in all crude oils, and olefines in varying proportions in the majority, while acetylene has been found in Baku oil; members of the benzene group and its derivatives, notably benzene and toluene, occur in all petroleums. Naphthenes are the chief components of some oils, as already indicated, and occur in varying quantities in many others.
The amino derivatives are stable bases which readily yield substitution derivatives when acted upon by the halogen elements.
The mono-amino derivatives or eurhodines are obtained when the arylmonamines are condensed with orthoamino zo compounds; by condensing quinone dichlorimide or para-nitrosodimethyl aniline with monamines containing a free para position, or by oxidizing ortho-hydroxydiaminodiphenylamines (R.
The metallic derivatives (phenolates, phenates or carbolates) of the alkali metals are obtained by dissolving phenol in a solution of a caustic alkali, in the absence of air.
The alkyl derivatives may be obtained by heating phenol with one molecular proportion of a caustic alkali and of an alkyl iodide.
By the reduction of nitro-phenols, the corresponding aminophenols are obtained, and of these, the metaand para-derivatives are the most important.
There are various haloid derivatives of sulphurous acid.
Art was still by no means extinct, and its forms and decorative elements are simply later derivatives of the great palace style.
Owing to their possession of this common property, these natural fatty bodies and various artificial derivatives of glycerin, which behave in the same way when treated with alkalis, are known as glycerides.
It is a most important synthetic reagent; with sodium or sodium ethylate it forms sodio-malonic ester, which reacts readily with alkyl halides, forming alkyl malonic esters, which are again capable of forming sodium derivatives, that by further treatment with alkyl halides yield the di-alkyl malonic esters.
His earlier work was mainly concerned with organic chemistry, and he published researches on picoline and its derivatives in 1876-78 and on quinine and its decomposition products in 1878-79.
Ously studied by Sir Edward Frankland, who from the investigation, not of simple inorganic compounds, but of the organo-metallic derivatives, determined the kernel of the theory of valency.
The doctrine of copulae was discarded, and in 1859 emphasis was given to the view that all organic compounds were derivatives of inorganic by simple substitution processes.
We now proceed to discuss the types of aliphatic compounds; then, the characteristic groupings having been established, an epitome of their derivatives will be given.
The existence of only one acetic acid, methyl chloride, and other monosubstitution derivatives - until the experimental proof by L.
This group may be considered as resulting from the fusion of a carbonyl (:CO) and a hydroxyl (HO-) group; and we may expect to meet with compounds bearing structural resemblances to the derivatives of alcohols and aldehydes (or ketones).
Considering derivatives primarily concerned with transformations of the hydroxyl group, we may regard our typical acid as a fusion of a radical R CO - (named acetyl, propionyl, butyl, &c., generally according to the name of the hydrocarbon containing the same number of carbon atoms) and a hydroxyl group. By replacing the hydroxyl group by a halogen, acid-haloids result; by the elimination of the elements of water between two molecules, acid-anhydrides, which may be oxidized to acid-peroxides; by replacing the hydroxyl group by the group. SH, thio-acids; by replacing it by the amino group, acid-amides (q.v.); by replacing it by the group - NH NH2, acid-hydrazides.
Here we meet with a great diversity of types: oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur and other elements may, in addition to carbon, combine together in a great number of arrangements to form cyclic nuclei, which exhibit characters closely resembling open-chain compounds in so far as they yield substitution derivatives, and behave as compound radicals.
A similar behaviour has since been noticed in other trimethylene derivatives, but the fact that bromine, which usually acts so much more readily than hydrobromic acid on unsaturated compounds,, should be so inert when hydrobromic acid acts readily is one still.
B aeyer has suggested that his hypothesis may also be applied to explain the instability of acetylene and its derivatives, and the still greater instability of the polyacetylene compounds.
From these nuclei an immense number of derivatives may be obtained, for the hydrogen atoms may be substituted by any of the radicals discussed in the preceding section on the classification of organic compounds.
It has already been stated that benzene derivatives may be regarded as formed by the replacement of hydrogen atoms by other elements or radicals in exactly the same manner as in the aliphatic series.
Important differences, however, are immediately met with when we consider the methods by which derivatives are obtained.
For example: nitric acid and sulphuric acid readily react with benzene and its homologues with the production of nitro derivatives and sulphonic acids, while in the aliphatic series these acids exert no substituting action (in the case of the olefines, the latter acid forms an addition product); another distinction is that the benzene complex is more stable towards oxidizing agents.
This compound is readily oxidized to benzoic acid, C 6 H 5 000H, the aromatic residue being unattacked; nitric and sulphuric acids produce nitro-toluenes, C6H4 CH3 N02j and toluene sulphonic acids, C 6 H 4 CH 3 SO 3 H; chlorination may result in the formation of derivatives substituted either in the aromatic nucleus or in the side chain; the former substitution occurs most readily, chlor-toluenes, C 6 H 4 CH 3 Cl, being formed, while the latter, which needs an elevation in temperature or other auxiliary, yields benzyl chloride, C 6 H 5 CH 2 C1, and benzal chloride, C 6 11 5 CHC1 2.
Therefore three di-derivatives are possible, viz.
Of the tri-substitution derivatives, 1.2.3.-compounds are known as " adjacent " or " vicinal " (v), the 1.2.4 as " asymmetrical " (as), the 1.3.5 as " symmetrical " (s), of the tetrasubstitution derivatives, 220.127.116.11-compounds are known as " adjacent," 18.104.22.168 as " asymmetrical," and 22.214.171.124 as " symmetrical."
Di-derivatives x x x p v as $ v as s Here we have assumed the substituent groups to be alike; when they are unlike, a greater number of isomers is possible.
Thus in the tri-substitution derivatives six isomers, and no more, are possible when two of the substituents are alike; for instance, six diaminobenzoic acids, C 6 H 3 (NH 2) 2 000H, are known; when all are unlike ten isomers are possible; thus, ten oxytoluic acids, C 6 H 3 -CH 3.
Generally if any group be replaced by another group, then the second group enters the nucleus in the position occupied by the displaced group; this means that if we can definitely orientate three di-derivatives of benzene, then any other compound, which can be obtained from or converted into one of our typical derivatives, may be definitely orientated.
The orientation of higher substitution derivatives is determined by considering the diand tri-substitution compounds into which they can be transformed.
Substitution of the Benzene Ring.-As a general rule, homologues and mono-derivatives of benzene react more readily with substituting agents than the parent hydrocarbon; for example, phenol is converted into tribromphenol by the action of bromine water, and into the nitrophenols by dilute nitric acid; similar activity characterizes aniline.
Experience has shown that such mono-derivatives as nitro compounds, sulphonic acids, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, and ketones yield as a general rule chiefly the meta-compounds, and this is independent of the nature of the second group introduced; on the other hand, benzene haloids, amino-, homologous-, and hydroxy-benzenes yield principally a mixture of the orthoand para-compounds.
Soc. 61, p. 367): If the hydrogen compound of the substituent already in the benzene nucleus can be directly oxidized to the' corresponding hydroxyl compound, then meta-derivatives predominate on further substitution, if not, then orthoand paraderivatives.
3 1 tri-derivatives, except in such cases as when both substituent groups are strongly acid, e.g.
M-dinitrobenzene, then [1.3.5]-derivatives are obtained.
Derivatives Tetra-derivatives x x x x x x ?
The trimolecular polymerization of numerous acetylene compounds-substances containing two trebly linked carbon atoms, -C: C -, to form derivatives of benzene is of considerable interest.
Of other syntheses of true benzene derivatives, mention may be made of the formation of orcinol or [3 s]-dioxytoluene from dehydracetic acid; and the formation of esters of oxytoluic acid (5-methyl3-oxy-benzoic acid), C6 H3 CH3.
For other syntheses of hexamethylene derivatives, see Polymethylenes.
If we accept Kekule's formula for the benzene nucleus, then we may expect the double linkages to be opened up partially, either by oxidation or reduction, with the formation of di-, tetra-, or hexa-hydro derivatives, or entirely, with the production of open chain compounds.
Decompositions of this nature were first discovered in the naphthalene series, where it was found that derivatives of indene (and of hydrindene and indone) and also of benzene resulted; Zincke then extended his methods to the disintegration of the oxybenzenes and obtained analogous results, R-pentene and aliphatic derivatives being formed (Rsymbolizing a ringed nucleus).
Hantzsch (Ber., 1889, 22, p. 1238) succeeded in ob R taining derivatives of o-diketo-R-hexene, which yield R-pentene and aliphatic compounds on decomposition.
The development of the " structure theory " in about 1860 brought in its train an appreciation of the chemical structure of the derivatives of benzene.
CH CH HC, N CH HC CH HC HC HC Hcch Hc Ch Ch Kekule t i Dewar Ladenburg One of the earliest and strongest objections urged against Kekule's formula was that it demanded two isomeric ortho-di-substitution derivatives; for if we number the carbon atoms in cyclical order from i to 6, then the derivatives 1.2 and 1.6 should be different.'
Therefore, according to Kekule, the double linkages are in a state of continual oscillation, and if his dynamical notion of valency, or a similar hypothesis, be correct, then the difference between the 1.2 and 1.6 di-derivatives rests on the insufficiency of his formula, which represents the configuration during one set of oscillations only.
Baeyer pointed out that although benzene derivatives were obtainable from hexamethylene compounds, yet it by no means follows that only hexamethylene compounds need result when benzene compounds are reduced.
The proof of this statement rests on the fact that if the hydrogen atoms were not co-planar, then substitution derivatives (the substituting groups not containing asymmetric carbon atoms) should exist in enantiomorphic forms, differing in crystal form and in their action on polarized light; such optical antipodes have, however, not yet been separated.
Ladenburg's prism formula would give two enantiomorphic ortho-di-substitution derivatives; while forms in which the hydrogen atoms are placed at the corners of a regular octahedron would yield enantiomorphic tri-substitution derivatives.