Derivatives Sentence Examples
Its methyl derivatives yield the corresponding carboxylic acids when oxidized by potassium permanganate.
Paraffins are found in all crude oils, and olefines in varying proportions in the majority, while acetylene has been found in Baku oil; members of the benzene group and its derivatives, notably benzene and toluene, occur in all petroleums. Naphthenes are the chief components of some oils, as already indicated, and occur in varying quantities in many others.
There are various haloid derivatives of sulphurous acid.
The amino derivatives are stable bases which readily yield substitution derivatives when acted upon by the halogen elements.
Hydriodic acid and phosphorus at high temperature give a dihydro-compound, whilst sodium and alcohol give hexaand octo-hydro derivatives.Advertisement
The metallic derivatives (phenolates, phenates or carbolates) of the alkali metals are obtained by dissolving phenol in a solution of a caustic alkali, in the absence of air.
The alkyl derivatives may be obtained by heating phenol with one molecular proportion of a caustic alkali and of an alkyl iodide.
Owing to their possession of this common property, these natural fatty bodies and various artificial derivatives of glycerin, which behave in the same way when treated with alkalis, are known as glycerides.
It is a most important synthetic reagent; with sodium or sodium ethylate it forms sodio-malonic ester, which reacts readily with alkyl halides, forming alkyl malonic esters, which are again capable of forming sodium derivatives, that by further treatment with alkyl halides yield the di-alkyl malonic esters.
His earlier work was mainly concerned with organic chemistry, and he published researches on picoline and its derivatives in 1876-78 and on quinine and its decomposition products in 1878-79.Advertisement
The doctrine of copulae was discarded, and in 1859 emphasis was given to the view that all organic compounds were derivatives of inorganic by simple substitution processes.
An apt definition of organic chemistry is that it is "the study of the hydrocarbons and their derivatives."
We now proceed to discuss the types of aliphatic compounds; then, the characteristic groupings having been established, an epitome of their derivatives will be given.
In fact, the analogy between the alkyl groups and metallic elements forms a convenient basis from which to consider many derivatives.
Considering derivatives primarily concerned with transformations of the hydroxyl group, we may regard our typical acid as a fusion of a radical R CO - (named acetyl, propionyl, butyl, &c., generally according to the name of the hydrocarbon containing the same number of carbon atoms) and a hydroxyl group. By replacing the hydroxyl group by a halogen, acid-haloids result; by the elimination of the elements of water between two molecules, acid-anhydrides, which may be oxidized to acid-peroxides; by replacing the hydroxyl group by the group. SH, thio-acids; by replacing it by the amino group, acid-amides (q.v.); by replacing it by the group - NH NH2, acid-hydrazides.Advertisement
A similar behaviour has since been noticed in other trimethylene derivatives, but the fact that bromine, which usually acts so much more readily than hydrobromic acid on unsaturated compounds,, should be so inert when hydrobromic acid acts readily is one still.
B aeyer has suggested that his hypothesis may also be applied to explain the instability of acetylene and its derivatives, and the still greater instability of the polyacetylene compounds.
From these nuclei an immense number of derivatives may be obtained, for the hydrogen atoms may be substituted by any of the radicals discussed in the preceding section on the classification of organic compounds.
It has already been stated that benzene derivatives may be regarded as formed by the replacement of hydrogen atoms by other elements or radicals in exactly the same manner as in the aliphatic series.
Important differences, however, are immediately met with when we consider the methods by which derivatives are obtained.Advertisement
This compound is readily oxidized to benzoic acid, C 6 H 5 000H, the aromatic residue being unattacked; nitric and sulphuric acids produce nitro-toluenes, C6H4 CH3 N02j and toluene sulphonic acids, C 6 H 4 CH 3 SO 3 H; chlorination may result in the formation of derivatives substituted either in the aromatic nucleus or in the side chain; the former substitution occurs most readily, chlor-toluenes, C 6 H 4 CH 3 Cl, being formed, while the latter, which needs an elevation in temperature or other auxiliary, yields benzyl chloride, C 6 H 5 CH 2 C1, and benzal chloride, C 6 11 5 CHC1 2.
Of the tri-substitution derivatives, 1.2.3.-compounds are known as " adjacent " or " vicinal " (v), the 1.2.4 as " asymmetrical " (as), the 1.3.5 as " symmetrical " (s), of the tetrasubstitution derivatives, 220.127.116.11-compounds are known as " adjacent," 18.104.22.168 as " asymmetrical," and 22.214.171.124 as " symmetrical."
Thus in the tri-substitution derivatives six isomers, and no more, are possible when two of the substituents are alike; for instance, six diaminobenzoic acids, C 6 H 3 (NH 2) 2 000H, are known; when all are unlike ten isomers are possible; thus, ten oxytoluic acids, C 6 H 3 -CH 3.
Generally if any group be replaced by another group, then the second group enters the nucleus in the position occupied by the displaced group; this means that if we can definitely orientate three di-derivatives of benzene, then any other compound, which can be obtained from or converted into one of our typical derivatives, may be definitely orientated.
The orientation of higher substitution derivatives is determined by considering the diand tri-substitution compounds into which they can be transformed.Advertisement
Of other syntheses of true benzene derivatives, mention may be made of the formation of orcinol or [3 s]-dioxytoluene from dehydracetic acid; and the formation of esters of oxytoluic acid (5-methyl3-oxy-benzoic acid), C6 H3 CH3.
For other syntheses of hexamethylene derivatives, see Polymethylenes.
If we accept Kekule's formula for the benzene nucleus, then we may expect the double linkages to be opened up partially, either by oxidation or reduction, with the formation of di-, tetra-, or hexa-hydro derivatives, or entirely, with the production of open chain compounds.
Decompositions of this nature were first discovered in the naphthalene series, where it was found that derivatives of indene (and of hydrindene and indone) and also of benzene resulted; Zincke then extended his methods to the disintegration of the oxybenzenes and obtained analogous results, R-pentene and aliphatic derivatives being formed (Rsymbolizing a ringed nucleus).
Hantzsch (Ber., 1889, 22, p. 1238) succeeded in ob R taining derivatives of o-diketo-R-hexene, which yield R-pentene and aliphatic compounds on decomposition.
The development of the " structure theory " in about 1860 brought in its train an appreciation of the chemical structure of the derivatives of benzene.
Baeyer pointed out that although benzene derivatives were obtainable from hexamethylene compounds, yet it by no means follows that only hexamethylene compounds need result when benzene compounds are reduced.
To follow Baeyer's results we must explain his nomenclature of the reduced benzene derivatives.
The proof of this statement rests on the fact that if the hydrogen atoms were not co-planar, then substitution derivatives (the substituting groups not containing asymmetric carbon atoms) should exist in enantiomorphic forms, differing in crystal form and in their action on polarized light; such optical antipodes have, however, not yet been separated.
Ladenburg's prism formula would give two enantiomorphic ortho-di-substitution derivatives; while forms in which the hydrogen atoms are placed at the corners of a regular octahedron would yield enantiomorphic tri-substitution derivatives.
Bamberger's observations on reduced quinoline derivatives point to the same conclusion, that condensed nuclei are not benzenoid, but possess an individual character, which breaks down, however, when the molecule is reduced.
During recent years an immense number of ringed or cyclic compounds have been discovered, which exhibit individual characters more closely resembling benzene, naphthalene, &c. than purely aliphatic substances, inasmuch as in general they contain double linkages, yet withstand oxidation, and behave as nuclei, forming derivatives in much the same way as benzene.
Thus benzene, (CH) gives thiophene, (CH) S, from which it is difficultly distinguished; pyridine, (CH) N, gives thiazole, (CH) N S, which is a very similar substance; naphthalene gives thionaphthen, C 11 S, with which it shows great analogies, especially in the derivatives.
The second method possesses greater advantages, for rings of approximate stability come in one group, and, consequently, their derivatives may be expected to exhibit considerable analogies.
The fifth compound, on the other hand, does not behave as an unsaturated aliphatic compound, but its deportment is that of a nucleus, many substitution derivatives being capable of synthesis.
Derivatives of osotriazol also exist in two forms - azimides and pseudo-azimides.
The first class includes those substances which require no preliminary treatment, and comprises the amides and ammonium compounds, pyridines, quinolines, alkaloids, albumens and related bodies; the second class requires preliminary treatment and comprises, with few exceptions, the nitro-, nitroso-, azo-, diazoand amidoazo-compounds, hydrazines, derivatives of nitric and nitrous acids, and probably cyanogen compounds.
The quinonoid structure of many coloured compounds has been proved experimentally, as, for example, by Hewitt for the benzene-azo-phenols, and Hantzsch for triaminotriphenyl methane and acridine derivatives; but, at the same time, many substances cannot be so explained.
On the chromophoreauxochrome theory (the nitro group being the chromophore, and the hydroxyl the auxochrome) it is necessary in order to explain the high colour of the metallic salts and the colourless alkyl and aryl derivatives to assume that the auxochromic action of the hydroxyl group is only brought strongly into evidence by salt formation.
Meyer formulated these compounds as nitroximes or nitro-isnitroso derivatives, viz.
Pyrrol is readily converted into pyridine derivatives by acting with bromoform, chloroform, or methylene iodide on its potassium salt, t3-brom-and O-chlorpyridine being obtained with the first two compounds, and pyridine itself with the last.
Staghounds are close derivatives of the bloodhound, and formerly occurred in England in two strains, known respectively as the northern and southern hounds.
Acetyland benzoyl-formaldoxime are derivatives of the threefold polymeric form.
Numerous derivatives of acetophenone have been prepared, one of the most important being orthoaminoacetophenone, NH2.C6H4.CO.CH3, which is obtained by boiling orthoaminophenylpropiolic acid with water.
Paal has also obtained pyrrol derivatives by condensing acetophenone-acetoacetic-ester with substances of the type NH2R.
Other derivatives are haemin, haemochromogen and the haematinic acids.
Amino derivatives similarly result from thio-ureas and a-haloid ketones; the oxy derivatives from a-sulphocyanoketones by the action of caustic alkali; and the carboxylic acids from chloro-aceto-acetic ester, &c. and thioamides.
Derivatives of this group are important as substantive cotton dyestuffs.
Clarke (1889-1893) supposes them to be substitution derivatives of normal aluminium orthosilicate A14(S104)3, in which part of the aluminium is replaced by alkalis, magnesium, iron and the univalent groups (MgF), (A1F2),(AlO), (MgOH); an excess of silica is explained by the isomorphous replacement of H 4 SiO 4 by the acid H4S130s.
For dioxybenzaldehydes and their derivatives see Piperonal and Vanillin.
But there is a wealth of verbal derivatives, the vocabulary is copious, and the intonation harmonious.
Logical in its derivatives and in its grammatical structure, the Magyar language is, moreover, copious in idiomatic expressions, rich in its store of words, and almost musical in its harmonious intonation.
The diketotetrahydrotriazoles, or urazoles, are formed by condensing urea derivatives with hydrazine salts, urazole itself resulting by the action of urea or biuret on hydrazine or its salts.
Kolbe had an important share in the great development of chemical theory that occurred about the middle of the 19th century, especially in regard to the constitution of organic compounds, which he viewed as derivatives of inorganic ones, formed from the latter - in some cases directly - by simple processes of substitution.
Many synthetic processes are known for the production of acridine and its derivatives.
Numerous derivatives of acridine are known and may be prepared by methods analogous to those used for the formation of the parent base.
The organic derivatives of silicon resemble the corresponding carbon compounds except in so far that the silicon atom is not capable of combining with itself to form a complex chain in the same manner as the carbon atom, the limit at present being a chain of three silicon atoms. Many of the earlier-known silicon alkyl compounds were isolated by Friedel and Crafts and by Ladenburg, the method adopted consisting in the interaction of the zinc alkyl compounds with silicon halides or esters of silicic acids.
The constitution of the benzene ring, the isomerism of its derivatives, and their syntheses from aliphatic or openchain compounds, are treated in the article Chemistry.
Styrolene gives origin to three series of derivatives, two of which contain the substituents in the side chain, e.g.
It resembles acetylene in yielding metallic derivatives with ammoniacal copper and silver solutions.
Many derivatives are known, some of which exist in two structural forms, exhibiting geometrical isomerism after the mode of fumaric and maleic acids.
Further work on cyanogen and connected substances yielded a great number of interesting derivatives, and he described an improved method for the manufacture of potassium cyanide, an agent which has since proved of enormous value in metallurgy and the arts.
About 1832 he began his investigations into the constitution of ether and alcohol and their derivatives.
Many synthetical processes for the preparation of anthracene and its derivatives are known.
Braun (Ber., 1904, 37, p. 35 8 3) has prepared pentamethylene derivatives from piperidine by the action of phosphorus pentachloride.
Concentrated nitric acid attacks them violently, producing various oxidation products, but if the amino group be "protected" by being previously acetylated, then nitro derivatives are obtained.
The root kol is common to all the Teutonic nations, while in French and other Romance languages derivatives of the Latin carbo are used, e.g.
This second method of production has the great drawback that, unless proper precautions are taken to purify the gas obtained from the copper acetylide, it is always contaminated with certain chlorine derivatives of acetylene.
The earlier papers deal chiefly with the properties and modes of synthesis of cloud chain hydrocarbons and their derivatives.
Details of his work, especially in connexion with benzene derivatives, are given in 6.53, 55 and 942; 11.21 5; 20.430; 25.892 and 21.635.
In the Old Testament, " atonement," " make an atonement " represent the Hebrew kippur and its derivatives.
The diand tri-methyl derivatives are found in the fusel oil obtained by fermentation of beetroot sugar.
Their alkyl derivatives readily oxidize to pyrazine carboxylic acids.
The 2.3 derivatives are somewhat unstable compounds, since on heating they readily give up two hydrogen atoms. Tetrahydropyrazines of the 1.2.
The great standard of Babylonia became the parent of several other systems; and itself and its derivatives became more widely spread than any other standard.
Moreover, the last stages of individual life are prophetic not only of future rising and progressing derivatives, but in the case of senile individuals of future declining and degradational series.
From these acyl derivatives the elements of water are removed, either by simple heating or by boiling their aqueous solution; this elimination is accompanied by the formation of the azoxime ring.
Konigs, expressed the opinion that the alkaloids were derivatives of pyridine or quinoline.
Oxyhalogen derivatives of chromium are known, the oxychloride, CrO 2 C1 21 resulting on heating potassium bichromate and common salt with concentrated sulphuric acid.
N 2 COOH, may also be considered as mixed azo derivatives.
The fact that benzene and its derivatives are remarkable for their powerful absorption of the most refrangible rays, and for some characteristic absorption bands appearing on dilution, led Hartley to a more extended examination of some of the more complicated organic substances.
This compound condenses in alkaline solution with compounds containing the grouping - CH 2 - CO - to form quinoline or its derivatives; thus, with acetaldehyde it forms quinoline, and with acetone, a-methyl quinoline.
A large number of these acids, which are mostly benzene derivatives, have been isolated and more or less closely investigated.
Fischer showed that these compounds were derivatives of triphenylmethane and tolyldiphenylmethane respectively.
The -y-diketones are characterized by the readiness with which they yield furfurane, pyrrol and thiophene derivatives, the furfurane derivatives being formed by heating the ketones with a dehydrating agent, the thiophenes, by heating with phosphorus pentasulphide, and the pyrrols by the action of alcoholic ammonia or amines.
The 1 5 diketones of this type, when heated with aqueous ammonia, form pyridine derivatives.
On the other hand, the cost of iron ore is likely to rise much faster than that of the potential aluminium ores, clay and its derivatives, because of the vast extent and richness of the deposits of this latter class.
Hantzsch, Ber., This assumption also shows the relationship of the diazonium hydroxides to other quaternary ammonium compounds, for most of the quaternary ammonium hydroxides (except such as have the nitrogen atom attached to four saturated hydrocarbon radicals) are unstable, and readily pass over into compounds in which the hydroxyl group is no longer attached to the amine nitrogen; thus the syn-diazo hydroxides are to be regarded as pseudo-diazonium derivatives.
Weith (1844-1881), professor of chemistry at Zurich University, he undertook to continue the lectures on benzene derivatives, and this led him to the discovery of thiophen.
Whereas carbon renders isomerism possible in organic compounds, cobalt and platinum are the determining elements in inorganic chemistry, the phenomena being exhibited especially by complex ammoniacal derivatives.
Three others - "Valladolid" of about 1035, "Madrid" of 1047, and "London" of 1109 - are derivatives of the "Valcavado-Ashburnham" of 970; the eighth, "Paris II," is connected, though not very intimately, with "St Sever," otherwise "Paris I"; the ninth and tenth, "Gerona" and "Paris III," belong to the Turin group of Beatus maps.
He investigated the relation of benzene to benzoic acid and to other derivatives.
In Champia and allied genera, the cylindrical axis is due not to the derivatives of one axial filament, but of several, the growth of which is co-ordinated to form a septated tube.
Diazomethane converts it into the methyl derivatives of isocyanic acid, and nitramide, NH2N02.
The tetra-alkyl derivatives are liquids, the remainder being solids.
The symmetrically substituted ureas are generally tasteless, while the asymmetrical derivatives are sweet.
The derivatives of urea containing acid radicles are known as ureides.
We also treat of the utilization of hydrochloric acid for the manufacture of chlorine and its derivatives, which are usually comprised within the meaning of the term " alkali manufacture."
Numerous derivatives of alizarin are known.
His most important contribution to organic chemistry was a series of researches, begun in 1835, on the haloid and other derivatives of unsaturated hydrocarbons.
The Latin term " tractatus," and its derivatives, though of occasional occurrence in this sense from the 13th century onwards, only began to be commonly so employed, in lieu of the older technical terms " conventio publica," or " foedus," from the end of the r7th century.
Many derivatives of indole are known.
One of the most important derivatives of hypochlorous acid is bleaching powder.
Among these are papers on The Recurrence of Solar Eclipses, A Transformation of Hansen's Lunar Theory, Development of the Perturbative Function and its Derivatives.
These substances, which may be collectively termed "cocaines," are all derivatives of ecgonine.
Tregear's Maori-Polynesian Comparative Dictionary shows how the word and its derivatives are used to express thought, memory, emotion, desire, will - in short, psychic energy of all kinds.
By the condensation of ortho-aminophenols with phosgene or thiophosgene, oxy and thio-derivatives are obtained, the (OH) and (SH) groups being situated in the t t position, and these compounds on treatment with amines yield amino derivatives.
It is a very stable compound, chromic and nitric acids being without action upon it, whilst the halogens only yield substitution derivatives with difficulty.
The Benzidine and Semidine Change.-Aromatic hydrazo compounds which contain free para positions are readily converted by the action of acids, acid chlorides and anhydrides into diphenyl derivatives; thus, as mentioned above, hydrazobenzene is converted into benzidine, a small quantity of diphenylin being formed at the same time.
The orthoand parasemidines can be readily distinguished by their behaviour with different reagents; thus with nitrous acid the ortho-semidines give azimido compounds, whilst the para-semidines give complex diazo derivatives; with formic or acetic acids the ortho-semidines give anhydro compounds of a basic character, the para-semidines give acyl products possessing no basic character.
Many other pyrocatechin derivatives have been suggested for therapeutic application.
It combines with the halide derivatives of boron and silicon to form, e.g.
The tertiary phosphines are characterized by their readiness to pass into derivatives containing pentavalent phosphorus, and consequently they form addition compounds with sulphur, carbon bisulphide, chlorine, bromine, the halogen acids and the alkyl halides with great readiness.
Numerous derivatives of isoquinoline are obtained in the decomposition of various vegetable alkaloids.
It also acts in an opposite manner in certain cases, adding the elements of water to compounds; thus, nitriles are converted into acid-amides, and various acetylene derivatives may be caused to yield ketonic derivatives.
The truxillic acids, C,8H1504, which result by the hydrolytic splitting of truxilline, C38H46N208, are phenyl derivatives of cyclo-butane.
Derivatives of the cyclo-pentane group are met with in the breaking-down products of the terpenes.
Quinite (cyclo-hexanediol-i 4) is prepared by reducing the corresponding ketone with sodium amalgam, cis-, and trans-modifications being obtained which may be separated by their acetyl derivatives.
From the chemical point of view the hydrocarbons are of fundamental importance, and, on account of their great number, and still greater number of derivatives, they are studied as a separate branch of the science, namely, organic chemistry.
We have in like manner, as derivatives of a given curve, the caustic, catacaustic or diacaustic as the case may be, and the secondary caustic, or curve cutting at right angles the reflected or refracted rays.
These and certain other facts referred to by the same author point to the conclusion that not only are the Sirenia and the Proboscidea derived from a single ancestral stock, but that the Hyracoidea - and so Arsinoitherium - are also derivatives from the same stock, which must necessarily have been Ethiopian.
The chief sources of the terpenes and their derivatives are the essential oils obtained by the distillation or extraction by pressure of various plants, chiefly of the Coniferae and different species of Citrus.
In order to prepare the individual members pure, advantage is taken of the different physical properties of their derivatives.
Its derivatives and its relation to benzene had been previously studied by the above and other experimenters, its relation to benzene being first proved experimentally by Cannizzaro and its constitution settled by Fittig and Tollens's synthesis from sodium and a mixture of methyl iodide and brombenzene.
The fighting bulls of Spain, the black Pembroke cattle of Wales, with their derivatives the white park-cattle of Chillingham in Northumberland, are undoubtedly the direct descendants of the aurochs.
The haloid esters of the paraffin alcohols formed by heating the alcohols with the halogen acids are the monohaloid derivatives of the paraffins, and are more conveniently prepared by the action of the phosphorous haloid on the alcohol.
Many complex derivatives are known, such, for example, as phosphor-vanadates, arsenio-vanadates, tungsto-vanadates, molybdovanadates, &c. For the use of this oxide in the electrolytic oxidation and reduction of organic compounds, see German Patents 172654 (1903) and 183022 (1905).
The result of the integration is that the co-ordinates x and y and their derivatives as to the time, which express the position, direction of motion and speed of the planet at any moment, are found as functions of the four constants and of the time.
Of these salts several series are known, namely the ortho-arsenites, which are derivatives of the acid H3AsO3, the metaarsenites, derivatives of HAsO2, and the pyro-arsenites, derivatives of H4As2O5.
Many organic arsenic compounds are known, analogous to those of nitrogen and phosphorus, but apparently the primary and secondary arsines, AsH2CH3 and AsH(CH3)2, do not exist, although the corresponding chlorine derivatives, AsCl2CH3, methyl arsine chloride, and AsCl(CH3)2, dimethyl arsine chloride, are known.
A recent method of using the drug is in the form of sodium cacodylate by subcutaneous injection, and this preparation is said to be free from the cumulative effects sometimes arising after the prolonged use of the other forms. Other organic derivatives employed are sodium metharsenite and sodium anilarsenate or atoxyl; hypodermic injections of the latter have been used in the treatment of sleeping sickness.
Such words as frubo, reto, dude are modern derivatives from the learned forms fructo.
The name is derived from mercurium captans, in allusion to the fact that these compounds react readily with mercuric oxide to form crystalline mercury derivatives.
One of the most important derivatives of diphenyl, from the theoretical point of view, is diphenic acid or diorthodiphenyl carboxylic acid, which can be obtained from diparadiaminodiphenyldiorthocarboxylic acid, H2N NH 2, or from phenanthrene, the consti Hooc Cooh tution of which it determines.
The various camphors, such as laurel camphor, Borneo camphor, menthol and cumarin, are oxidized derivatives of essential oils, and differ only superficially from them in their action.
Ethyl alcohol is taken as a type of the action of methyl alcohol, amyl alcohol, propyl alcohol, ether, acetic ether, paraldehyde, sulphonal, chloroform, methyl chloride, ethyl chloride, chloral hydrate, butylchloral hydrate, and almost any number of derivatives from these.
Aconitine, delphinine and many of their derivatives have a very widespread depressing action on muscle and nerve.
These derivatives of the derivative are called the second derivative of f.
Such embedded derivatives are brought within the derivative contracts rules.
The chain rule enables you to calculate higher derivatives for these parametrically described curves.
What requirements are there for dealing warrants and securitised derivatives?
Carboxylic acid derivatives - difference in reaction type due to presence of a good leaving group.
I would normally use either golden ratio or simplex optimization for functions where analytic derivatives are not available.
Warfarin and other coumarin derivatives Co-administration of fluvastatin with warfarin may commonly cause significant increases in prothrombin time.
The market for clearing services for freight derivatives has had something of a boom recently.
Additional research was conducted at Aushwitz, using a range of chemicals including various barbiturates and morphine derivatives.
There is a great reluctance by the government to allow cannabis derivatives to be used therapeutically.
The boswellic acids and their O-acetyl derivatives are the major constituens of the fresh aromatic gum resins from Boswellia trees.
The company's extensive range of health care ingredients includes essential fatty acids, high purity lipids, drug delivery systems and protein derivatives.
Some sensitivity coefficients can be calculated by taking partial derivatives of the equation defining the hardness value.
Newton strategies additionally require the second partial derivatives, thus building a quadratic internal model.
Glimepiride may either potentiate or weaken the effects of coumarin derivatives.
The Chicago Mercantile Exchange has agreed to buy CBOT Holdings for $ 8 billion to create a global derivatives powerhouse.
No right to create modifications or derivatives is granted pursuant to this license.
This class ranges from sporty vehicles such as the MX-5 to derivatives of true racing thoroughbreds such as the Lotus Elise.
Mike's PhD is on the synthesis of conjugated thiophene derivatives for use in field-effect transistors.
The purins themselves may be considered as a combination of the pyrimidine and glyoxaline ring systems. For formulae see below; the numbers about the first ring explain the orientation of pyrimidine derivatives.
Acetyl and benzoyl derivatives of nicotine on hydrolysis do not yield nicotine, but an isomeric, inactive oily liquid (metanicotine).
We proceed to consider various simple derivatives of the alcohols, which we may here regard as hydroxy hydrocarbons, R OH, where R is an alkyl radical, either aliphatic or cyclic in nature.
Perkin has himself contributed largely to our knowledge of such compounds; pentaand hexa-methylene derivatives have also received considerable attention (see P Olymethylenes) .
Many diketo compounds suffer condensation between two molecules to form hydrobenzene derivatives; thus a, 7 -di-acetoglutaric ester, C 2 H S O 2 C(CH 3 CO) CH CH 2 CH(CO CH 3)CO 2 C 2 H 5, yields a methylketohexamethylene,whiles-acetobutyric ester,CH 3 CO (CH2)2C02C2N5, is converted into dihydroresorcinol or m-diketohexamethylene by sodium ethylate; this last reaction is reversed by baryta (see Decompositions of Benzene Ring).
He admitted the possibility of the formulae of Kekule, Claus, Dewar and Ladenburg, although as to the last di-trimethylene derivatives should be possible reduction products, being formed by severing two of the prism edges; and he attempted to solve the problem by a systematic investigation of the reduced phthalic acids.
This assumed that all coloured substances were derivatives of orthoor para-quinone (see Quinones), and although at the time of its promotion little practical proof was given, yet the theory found wide acceptance on account of the researches of many other chemists.
While nonna has remained as the generic name of a female religious, nonnus has been replaced by monachus and its various derivatives (see Monk).
Many derivatives of pararosaniline and rosaniline are known, in which the hydrogen atoms of the amino groups are replaced by alkyl groups; this has the effect of producing a blue or violet shade, which becomes deeper as the number of groups increases (see Dyeing).
If, however, one of the para positions in the hydrazo compound is substituted, then either diphenyl derivatives or azo compounds are formed, or what is known as the semidine change takes place (P. Jacobson, Berichte, 1892, 2 5, p. 99 2; 1893, 26, p. 681; 1896, 29, p. 2680; Annalen, 1895, 287, p. 97; 1898, 3 0 3, p. 290) A para mono substituted hydrazo compound in the presence of a hydrochloric acid solution of stannous chloride gives either a para diphenyl derivative (the substituent group being eliminated), an ortho-semidine, a para-semidine, or a diphenyl base, whilst a decomposition with the formation of amines may also take place.
Papaverine on fusion with alkalis yields a dimethoxyisoquinoline, whilst hydrohydrastinine, hydrocotarnine and the salts of cotarnine may be considered as derivatives of reduced isoquinoliaes (see Opium).
Contact dermatitis from castor oil and vitamin B was attributed to pyridine derivatives (Kadlec & Hanslian 1965).
Patients are being randomized to receive either active derivatives of cannabis, or a placebo.
In other pathological states from diabetes to dementia, saccharide derivatives are being researched as possible therapeutics.
Many of these used heavily processed bovine by-products such as collagen, elastin, gelatine and tallow derivatives.
Mike 's PhD is on the synthesis of conjugated thiophene derivatives for use in field-effect transistors.
Particular caution is advised in severe asthma, as this effect may be potentiated by concomitant treatment with xanthine derivatives, steroids and diuretics.
Also called black drawing salve, ichthammol salve contains derivatives of sulfur-rich shale, mixed into a paraffin or beeswax base, to create a skin preparation.
Labels must be checked to ensure that the product doesn't contain dairy or animal products or derivatives.
Watson also stated that veganism applies "to the exclusion of flesh, fish, fowl, eggs, honey, animal milk and its derivatives, and encourages the use of alternatives for all commodities derived wholly or in part from animals."
A class of drugs called fibric acid derivatives is sometimes recommended to lower triglycerides and raise HDL.
In severe cases, opium derivatives such as codeine can be prescribed.
Some tetracycline derivatives have been useful in cancer therapy.
Inorganic-Pertaining to chemical compounds that are not hydrocarbons or their derivatives.
Of greater concern is the widespread use of corticosteroids or steroid derivatives used to treat allergies, autoimmune diseases, and inflammatory conditions.
However, derivatives fashioned from the gluten containing grains are used as additives in many foods.
Gluten is added to many products as a thickening agent and many derivatives find their way into sauces and seasonings.
Soy sauce is a very common carrier of wheat derivatives.
For this reason, even rice and corn cereals should be examined thoroughly for wheat derivatives.
Since barely, rye, oats, and their derivatives are all natural foods, they can sometimes be listed under fairly innocuous sounding names.
If you eat vegetables away from home, ask questions to determine whether wheat, rye, barley, oats or any of their derivatives have been used.
However, they tend to stimulate the nervous system more with caffeine and herbal derivatives.
Phytopharm, a pharmaceutical company, has begun adding Hoodia derivatives to its diet foods, including shakes and bars.
Any food containing sugar, natural sugars and sugar derivatives are extremely high in carbohydrates and cause an immediate and large spike in blood sugar.
Tea leaves, medicinal extracts, flowers, plants, fruit extracts, oat and grain derivatives, and herbs may be used to create unique soaps of different textures and scents.
Art was still by no means extinct, and its forms and decorative elements are simply later derivatives of the great palace style.