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Derivatives sentence examples

  • Its methyl derivatives yield the corresponding carboxylic acids when oxidized by potassium permanganate.

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  • Paraffins are found in all crude oils, and olefines in varying proportions in the majority, while acetylene has been found in Baku oil; members of the benzene group and its derivatives, notably benzene and toluene, occur in all petroleums. Naphthenes are the chief components of some oils, as already indicated, and occur in varying quantities in many others.

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  • Art was still by no means extinct, and its forms and decorative elements are simply later derivatives of the great palace style.

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  • The amino derivatives are stable bases which readily yield substitution derivatives when acted upon by the halogen elements.

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  • The mono-amino derivatives or eurhodines are obtained when the arylmonamines are condensed with orthoamino zo compounds; by condensing quinone dichlorimide or para-nitrosodimethyl aniline with monamines containing a free para position, or by oxidizing ortho-hydroxydiaminodiphenylamines (R.

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  • Hydriodic acid and phosphorus at high temperature give a dihydro-compound, whilst sodium and alcohol give hexaand octo-hydro derivatives.

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  • The metallic derivatives (phenolates, phenates or carbolates) of the alkali metals are obtained by dissolving phenol in a solution of a caustic alkali, in the absence of air.

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  • The alkyl derivatives may be obtained by heating phenol with one molecular proportion of a caustic alkali and of an alkyl iodide.

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  • It is frequently used as a reducing agent: in acid solutions it reduces ferric to ferrous salts, arsenates to arsenites, permanganates to manganous salts, &c., whilst in alkaline solution it converts many organic nitro compounds into the corresponding amino derivatives.

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  • There are various haloid derivatives of sulphurous acid.

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  • Owing to their possession of this common property, these natural fatty bodies and various artificial derivatives of glycerin, which behave in the same way when treated with alkalis, are known as glycerides.

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  • It is a most important synthetic reagent; with sodium or sodium ethylate it forms sodio-malonic ester, which reacts readily with alkyl halides, forming alkyl malonic esters, which are again capable of forming sodium derivatives, that by further treatment with alkyl halides yield the di-alkyl malonic esters.

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  • His earlier work was mainly concerned with organic chemistry, and he published researches on picoline and its derivatives in 1876-78 and on quinine and its decomposition products in 1878-79.

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  • ously studied by Sir Edward Frankland, who from the investigation, not of simple inorganic compounds, but of the organo-metallic derivatives, determined the kernel of the theory of valency.

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  • The doctrine of copulae was discarded, and in 1859 emphasis was given to the view that all organic compounds were derivatives of inorganic by simple substitution processes.

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  • An apt definition of organic chemistry is that it is "the study of the hydrocarbons and their derivatives."

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  • We now proceed to discuss the types of aliphatic compounds; then, the characteristic groupings having been established, an epitome of their derivatives will be given.

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  • the existence of only one acetic acid, methyl chloride, and other monosubstitution derivatives - until the experimental proof by L.

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  • In fact, the analogy between the alkyl groups and metallic elements forms a convenient basis from which to consider many derivatives.

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  • This group may be considered as resulting from the fusion of a carbonyl (:CO) and a hydroxyl (HO-) group; and we may expect to meet with compounds bearing structural resemblances to the derivatives of alcohols and aldehydes (or ketones).

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  • Considering derivatives primarily concerned with transformations of the hydroxyl group, we may regard our typical acid as a fusion of a radical R CO - (named acetyl, propionyl, butyl, &c., generally according to the name of the hydrocarbon containing the same number of carbon atoms) and a hydroxyl group. By replacing the hydroxyl group by a halogen, acid-haloids result; by the elimination of the elements of water between two molecules, acid-anhydrides, which may be oxidized to acid-peroxides; by replacing the hydroxyl group by the group. SH, thio-acids; by replacing it by the amino group, acid-amides (q.v.); by replacing it by the group - NH NH2, acid-hydrazides.

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  • Here we meet with a great diversity of types: oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur and other elements may, in addition to carbon, combine together in a great number of arrangements to form cyclic nuclei, which exhibit characters closely resembling open-chain compounds in so far as they yield substitution derivatives, and behave as compound radicals.

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  • A similar behaviour has since been noticed in other trimethylene derivatives, but the fact that bromine, which usually acts so much more readily than hydrobromic acid on unsaturated compounds,, should be so inert when hydrobromic acid acts readily is one still.

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  • B aeyer has suggested that his hypothesis may also be applied to explain the instability of acetylene and its derivatives, and the still greater instability of the polyacetylene compounds.

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  • From these nuclei an immense number of derivatives may be obtained, for the hydrogen atoms may be substituted by any of the radicals discussed in the preceding section on the classification of organic compounds.

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  • It has already been stated that benzene derivatives may be regarded as formed by the replacement of hydrogen atoms by other elements or radicals in exactly the same manner as in the aliphatic series.

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  • Important differences, however, are immediately met with when we consider the methods by which derivatives are obtained.

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  • For example: nitric acid and sulphuric acid readily react with benzene and its homologues with the production of nitro derivatives and sulphonic acids, while in the aliphatic series these acids exert no substituting action (in the case of the olefines, the latter acid forms an addition product); another distinction is that the benzene complex is more stable towards oxidizing agents.

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  • This compound is readily oxidized to benzoic acid, C 6 H 5 000H, the aromatic residue being unattacked; nitric and sulphuric acids produce nitro-toluenes, C6H4 CH3 N02j and toluene sulphonic acids, C 6 H 4 CH 3 SO 3 H; chlorination may result in the formation of derivatives substituted either in the aromatic nucleus or in the side chain; the former substitution occurs most readily, chlor-toluenes, C 6 H 4 CH 3 Cl, being formed, while the latter, which needs an elevation in temperature or other auxiliary, yields benzyl chloride, C 6 H 5 CH 2 C1, and benzal chloride, C 6 11 5 CHC1 2.

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  • These results may be graphically represented as follows: numbering the hydrogen atoms in cyclical order from i to 6, then the first thesis demands that whichever atom is substituted the same compound results, while the second thesis points out that the pairs 2 and 6, and 3 and 5 are symmetrical with respect to 1, or in other words, the di-substitution derivatives 1.2 and 1.6, and also 1.3 and 1.5 are identical.

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  • Of the tri-substitution derivatives, 1.2.3.-compounds are known as " adjacent " or " vicinal " (v), the 1.2.4 as " asymmetrical " (as), the 1.3.5 as " symmetrical " (s), of the tetrasubstitution derivatives, 1.2.3.4-compounds are known as " adjacent," 1.2.3.5 as " asymmetrical," and 1.2.4.5 as " symmetrical."

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  • Thus in the tri-substitution derivatives six isomers, and no more, are possible when two of the substituents are alike; for instance, six diaminobenzoic acids, C 6 H 3 (NH 2) 2 000H, are known; when all are unlike ten isomers are possible; thus, ten oxytoluic acids, C 6 H 3 -CH 3.

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  • Generally if any group be replaced by another group, then the second group enters the nucleus in the position occupied by the displaced group; this means that if we can definitely orientate three di-derivatives of benzene, then any other compound, which can be obtained from or converted into one of our typical derivatives, may be definitely orientated.

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  • The orientation of higher substitution derivatives is determined by considering the diand tri-substitution compounds into which they can be transformed.

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  • derivatives Tetra-derivatives x x x x x x ?

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  • The trimolecular polymerization of numerous acetylene compounds-substances containing two trebly linked carbon atoms, -C: C -, to form derivatives of benzene is of considerable interest.

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  • Certain a-diketones condense to form benzenoid quinones, two molecules of the diketone taking part in the reaction; thus diacetyl, CH 3 CO CO CH 3, yields p-xyloquinone, C 6 H 2 (CH 3) 2 0 2 (Ber., 1888, 21, p. 1411), and acetylpropionyl, CH 3 CO CO C 2 H 5, yields duroquinone, or tetramethylquinone, C 6 (CH 3) 4 0 2, Oxymethylene compounds, characterized by the grouping > C:CH(OH), also give benzene derivatives by hydrolytic condensation between three molecules; thus oxymethylene acetone, or formyl acetone, CH 3 CO.

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  • Of other syntheses of true benzene derivatives, mention may be made of the formation of orcinol or [3 s]-dioxytoluene from dehydracetic acid; and the formation of esters of oxytoluic acid (5-methyl3-oxy-benzoic acid), C6 H3 CH3.

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  • For other syntheses of hexamethylene derivatives, see Polymethylenes.

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  • If we accept Kekule's formula for the benzene nucleus, then we may expect the double linkages to be opened up partially, either by oxidation or reduction, with the formation of di-, tetra-, or hexa-hydro derivatives, or entirely, with the production of open chain compounds.

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  • Decompositions of this nature were first discovered in the naphthalene series, where it was found that derivatives of indene (and of hydrindene and indone) and also of benzene resulted; Zincke then extended his methods to the disintegration of the oxybenzenes and obtained analogous results, R-pentene and aliphatic derivatives being formed (Rsymbolizing a ringed nucleus).

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  • Hantzsch (Ber., 1889, 22, p. 1238) succeeded in ob R taining derivatives of o-diketo-R-hexene, which yield R-pentene and aliphatic compounds on decomposition.

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  • The development of the " structure theory " in about 1860 brought in its train an appreciation of the chemical structure of the derivatives of benzene.

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  • CH CH HC, N CH HC CH HC HC HC Hcch Hc Ch Ch Kekule t i Dewar Ladenburg One of the earliest and strongest objections urged against Kekule's formula was that it demanded two isomeric ortho-di-substitution derivatives; for if we number the carbon atoms in cyclical order from i to 6, then the derivatives 1.2 and 1.6 should be different.'

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  • Baeyer pointed out that although benzene derivatives were obtainable from hexamethylene compounds, yet it by no means follows that only hexamethylene compounds need result when benzene compounds are reduced.

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  • To follow Baeyer's results we must explain his nomenclature of the reduced benzene derivatives.

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  • The proof of this statement rests on the fact that if the hydrogen atoms were not co-planar, then substitution derivatives (the substituting groups not containing asymmetric carbon atoms) should exist in enantiomorphic forms, differing in crystal form and in their action on polarized light; such optical antipodes have, however, not yet been separated.

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  • Ladenburg's prism formula would give two enantiomorphic ortho-di-substitution derivatives; while forms in which the hydrogen atoms are placed at the corners of a regular octahedron would yield enantiomorphic tri-substitution derivatives.

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  • Bamberger opposed Claus' formula on the following grounds: - The molecule of naphthalene is symmetrical, since 2.7 dioxynaphthalene is readily esterified by methyl iodide and sulphuric acid to a dimethyl ether; and no more than two mono-substitution derivatives are known.

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  • Bamberger's observations on reduced quinoline derivatives point to the same conclusion, that condensed nuclei are not benzenoid, but possess an individual character, which breaks down, however, when the molecule is reduced.

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  • During recent years an immense number of ringed or cyclic compounds have been discovered, which exhibit individual characters more closely resembling benzene, naphthalene, &c. than purely aliphatic substances, inasmuch as in general they contain double linkages, yet withstand oxidation, and behave as nuclei, forming derivatives in much the same way as benzene.

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  • Thus benzene, (CH) gives thiophene, (CH) S, from which it is difficultly distinguished; pyridine, (CH) N, gives thiazole, (CH) N S, which is a very similar substance; naphthalene gives thionaphthen, C 11 S, with which it shows great analogies, especially in the derivatives.

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  • The second method possesses greater advantages, for rings of approximate stability come in one group, and, consequently, their derivatives may be expected to exhibit considerable analogies.

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  • As a useful preliminary it is convenient to divide heterocyclic ring systems into two leading groups: (I) systems resulting from simple internal dehydration (or similar condensations) of saturated aliphatic compounds - such compounds are: the internal anhydrides or cyclic ethers of the glycols and thioglycols (ethylene oxide, &c.); the cyclic alkyleneimides resulting from the splitting off of ammonia between the amino groups of diaminoparaffins (pyrrolidine, piperazine, &c.); the cyclic esters of oxycarboxylic acids (lactones, lactides); the internal anhydrides of aminocarboxylic acids (lactams, betaines); cyclic derivatives of dicarboxylic acids (anhydrides, imides, alkylen-esters, alkylenamides, &c.).

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  • The fifth compound, on the other hand, does not behave as an unsaturated aliphatic compound, but its deportment is that of a nucleus, many substitution derivatives being capable of synthesis.

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  • Derivatives of osotriazol also exist in two forms - azimides and pseudo-azimides.

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  • a-pyrone condenses with the benzene ring to form coumarin and isocoumarin; benzo-'y-pyrone constitutes the nucleus of several vegetable colouring matters (chrysin, fisetin, quercetin, &c., which are derivatives of flavone or phenyl benzo-y-pyrone); dibenzo--ypyrone is known as xanthone; related to this substance are fluorane (and fluorescein), fluorone, fluorime, pyronine, &c. The pyridine ring condenses with the benzene ring to form quinoline and isoquinoline; acridine and phenanthridine are dibenzo-pyridines; naphthalene gives rise to a-and /3-naphthoquinolines and the anthrapyridines; anthracene gives anthraquinoline; while two pyridine nuclei connected by an intermediate benzene nucleus give the phenanthrolines.

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  • The first class includes those substances which require no preliminary treatment, and comprises the amides and ammonium compounds, pyridines, quinolines, alkaloids, albumens and related bodies; the second class requires preliminary treatment and comprises, with few exceptions, the nitro-, nitroso-, azo-, diazoand amidoazo-compounds, hydrazines, derivatives of nitric and nitrous acids, and probably cyanogen compounds.

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  • In the aromatic compounds there is no regularity between the increments due to the introduction of methyl groups into the benzene nucleus or side chains; the normal value of 20 0 -21° is exhibited, however, by pyridine and its derivatives.

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  • A similar depression is presented by methyl alcohol (67°) and methyl ether (-23 °) Among the aromatic di-substitution derivatives the ortho compounds have the highest boiling-point, and the meta boil at a higher, or about the same temperature as the para compounds.

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  • As a general rule, hydrocarbons are colourless; the exceptions include the golden yellow acenaphthylene, the red bidiphenylene-ethylene, and the derivatives of fulvene CH: CH >CH 2, which have been discussed by CH: CH J.

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  • The quinonoid structure of many coloured compounds has been proved experimentally, as, for example, by Hewitt for the benzene-azo-phenols, and Hantzsch for triaminotriphenyl methane and acridine derivatives; but, at the same time, many substances cannot be so explained.

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  • On the chromophoreauxochrome theory (the nitro group being the chromophore, and the hydroxyl the auxochrome) it is necessary in order to explain the high colour of the metallic salts and the colourless alkyl and aryl derivatives to assume that the auxochromic action of the hydroxyl group is only brought strongly into evidence by salt formation.

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  • Meyer formulated these compounds as nitroximes or nitro-isnitroso derivatives, viz.

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  • von Liebig (Ann., 1908, 360, p. 128), from a very complete discussion of triphenyl methane derivatives, concluded that the group i ng A A A was the only true organic chromophore, colour production, however, requiring another condition, usually the closing of a ring.

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  • Chemie, 24, p. 468) submitted the view that fluorescence was due to the presence of certain " fluorophore " groups; such groupings are the pyrone ring and its congeners, the central rings in anthracene and acridine derivatives, and the paradiazine ring in safranines.

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  • Pyrrol is readily converted into pyridine derivatives by acting with bromoform, chloroform, or methylene iodide on its potassium salt, t3-brom-and O-chlorpyridine being obtained with the first two compounds, and pyridine itself with the last.

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  • An a-pyrrolidine carboxylic acid and its hydroxy derivatives have been detected by E.

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  • CH2 CH2Br CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 Numerous substitution derivatives of pyrrol are known.

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  • He also found that diaceto succinic ester reacts with compounds of the type NH 2 R(R = H, CH 3, OH, NHC 6 H 5, &c.) to form pyrrol derivatives CH3 CO CH CO 2 R, C(CH3) :C C02R A NH 2 R -?- - RN(CH 3 CO CH CO 2 R C(CH3) :C C02R By using compounds of the type NH 2 R and acetophenone acetoacetic ester C 6 H 5 CO CH 2.

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  • Staghounds are close derivatives of the bloodhound, and formerly occurred in England in two strains, known respectively as the northern and southern hounds.

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  • Acetyland benzoyl-formaldoxime are derivatives of the threefold polymeric form.

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  • Numerous derivatives of acetophenone have been prepared, one of the most important being orthoaminoacetophenone, NH2.C6H4.CO.CH3, which is obtained by boiling orthoaminophenylpropiolic acid with water.

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  • Paal has also obtained pyrrol derivatives by condensing acetophenone-acetoacetic-ester with substances of the type NH2R.

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  • Other derivatives are haemin, haemochromogen and the haematinic acids.

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  • Amino derivatives similarly result from thio-ureas and a-haloid ketones; the oxy derivatives from a-sulphocyanoketones by the action of caustic alkali; and the carboxylic acids from chloro-aceto-acetic ester, &c. and thioamides.

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  • Derivatives of this group are important as substantive cotton dyestuffs.

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  • Clarke (1889-1893) supposes them to be substitution derivatives of normal aluminium orthosilicate A14(S104)3, in which part of the aluminium is replaced by alkalis, magnesium, iron and the univalent groups (MgF), (A1F2),(AlO), (MgOH); an excess of silica is explained by the isomorphous replacement of H 4 SiO 4 by the acid H4S130s.

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  • Phenanthrene-quinone, [C 6 H 4] 2 [CO] 21 crystallizes in orange needles which melt at 198° C. It possesses the characteristic properties of a diketone, forming crystalline derivatives with sodium bisulphite and a dioxime with hydroxylamine.

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  • The garden pansies or heartseases are derivatives from V.

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  • For dioxybenzaldehydes and their derivatives see Piperonal and Vanillin.

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  • those containing the groupings CH 2 NO 2 and >CH NO 2) form metallic derivatives; for example, sodium salts, which according to A.

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  • Hantzsch (Ber., 18 99, 3 2, pp. 577 et seq.) are probably derived from the isomeric iso-nitro compounds R: NO(OH), and thus the nitro derivatives are to be looked upon as pseudo-acids.

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  • It combines with aromatic aldehydes in the presence of alcoholic potash to form addition products which are converted by acids into styrol derivatives (J.

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  • But there is a wealth of verbal derivatives, the vocabulary is copious, and the intonation harmonious.

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  • Logical in its derivatives and in its grammatical structure, the Magyar language is, moreover, copious in idiomatic expressions, rich in its store of words, and almost musical in its harmonious intonation.

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  • Derivatives of triazines are formed by the action of nitrous acid on ortho-aminobenzylamines (M.

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  • Derivatives were obtained by J.

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  • The diketotetrahydrotriazoles, or urazoles, are formed by condensing urea derivatives with hydrazine salts, urazole itself resulting by the action of urea or biuret on hydrazine or its salts.

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  • Kolbe had an important share in the great development of chemical theory that occurred about the middle of the 19th century, especially in regard to the constitution of organic compounds, which he viewed as derivatives of inorganic ones, formed from the latter - in some cases directly - by simple processes of substitution.

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  • Many synthetic processes are known for the production of acridine and its derivatives.

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  • Formic acid yields acridine, and the higher homologues give derivatives substituted at the meso carbon atom, N N +[[Hcooh-C 6 H 5 /Inc6h5->C6h4 C6h4 Cho Ch N N +Ch 3 000h->C 6 H 5 /IC 6 H 5 --C 6 H 4 C6h4 Coch 3 C]](CH3) Acridine may also 1:e obtained by passing the vapour of phenylortho-toluidine through a red-hot tube (C. Graebe, Ber., 1884, 17, p. 1 37 0); by condensing diphenylamine with chloroform, in presence of aluminium chloride (0.

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  • Numerous derivatives of acridine are known and may be prepared by methods analogous to those used for the formation of the parent base.

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  • 6NH 31 and it also serves as the starting point for the preparation of numerous organic derivatives of silicon.

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  • Organic Derivatives of Silicon.

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  • The organic derivatives of silicon resemble the corresponding carbon compounds except in so far that the silicon atom is not capable of combining with itself to form a complex chain in the same manner as the carbon atom, the limit at present being a chain of three silicon atoms. Many of the earlier-known silicon alkyl compounds were isolated by Friedel and Crafts and by Ladenburg, the method adopted consisting in the interaction of the zinc alkyl compounds with silicon halides or esters of silicic acids.

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  • It is a colourless solid which melts at 92° C. For silicon derivatives of the amines see Michaelis, Ber., 1896, 29, p. 710; on asymmetric silicon and the resolution of dl-benzyl-ethyl-propyl-silicol see F.

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  • The constitution of the benzene ring, the isomerism of its derivatives, and their syntheses from aliphatic or openchain compounds, are treated in the article Chemistry.

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  • Phenylhydrazine Derivatives.

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  • Similarly the 1 acid yields the laevo derivatives.

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  • Styrolene gives origin to three series of derivatives, two of which contain the substituents in the side chain, e.g.

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  • It resembles acetylene in yielding metallic derivatives with ammoniacal copper and silver solutions.

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  • Many derivatives are known, some of which exist in two structural forms, exhibiting geometrical isomerism after the mode of fumaric and maleic acids.

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  • Further work on cyanogen and connected substances yielded a great number of interesting derivatives, and he described an improved method for the manufacture of potassium cyanide, an agent which has since proved of enormous value in metallurgy and the arts.

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  • About 1832 he began his investigations into the constitution of ether and alcohol and their derivatives.

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  • Many synthetical processes for the preparation of anthracene and its derivatives are known.

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  • AMINES, in chemistry, derivatives of ammonia in which one or more of the hydrogen atoms are replaced by alkyl or aryl groups.

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  • Braun (Ber., 1904, 37, p. 35 8 3) has prepared pentamethylene derivatives from piperidine by the action of phosphorus pentachloride.

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  • Concentrated nitric acid attacks them violently, producing various oxidation products, but if the amino group be "protected" by being previously acetylated, then nitro derivatives are obtained.

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  • The root kol is common to all the Teutonic nations, while in French and other Romance languages derivatives of the Latin carbo are used, e.g.

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  • This second method of production has the great drawback that, unless proper precautions are taken to purify the gas obtained from the copper acetylide, it is always contaminated with certain chlorine derivatives of acetylene.

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  • For the medieval versions of Phaedrus and their derivatives see L.

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  • The earlier papers deal chiefly with the properties and modes of synthesis of cloud chain hydrocarbons and their derivatives.

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  • Details of his work, especially in connexion with benzene derivatives, are given in 6.53, 55 and 942; 11.21 5; 20.430; 25.892 and 21.635.

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  • In the Old Testament, " atonement," " make an atonement " represent the Hebrew kippur and its derivatives.

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  • Bedier among the derivatives from Thomas.

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  • The diand tri-methyl derivatives are found in the fusel oil obtained by fermentation of beetroot sugar.

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  • Their alkyl derivatives readily oxidize to pyrazine carboxylic acids.

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  • The 2.3 derivatives are somewhat unstable compounds, since on heating they readily give up two hydrogen atoms. Tetrahydropyrazines of the 1.2.

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  • Zeit., 1906, 30, p. 37) has shown that on passing the monohalogen derivatives of the paraffins through a glass tube containing reduced nickel, copper or cobalt at 250° C., olefines are produced, together with the halogen acids, and recombination is prevented by passing the gases through a solution of potash.

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  • The reaction probably proceeds thus: MC1 2 +C 0 H 2, ,, C1-HC1+ Cl M CnH 2 nC1-MC12+CnH 2, 2, since the haloid derivatives of the monovalent metals do not act similarly.

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  • As unsaturated compounds they can combine with two monovalent atoms. Hydrogen is absorbed readily at ordinary temperature in the presence of platinum black, and paraffins are formed; the halogens (chlorine and bromine) combine directly with them, giving dihalogen substituted compounds; the halogen halides to form monohalogen derivatives (hydriodic acid reacts most readily, hydrochloric acid, least); and it is to be noted that the haloid acids attach themselves in such a manner that the halogen atom unites itself to the carbon atom which is in combination with the fewest hydrogen atoms (W.

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  • The great standard of Babylonia became the parent of several other systems; and itself and its derivatives became more widely spread than any other standard.

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  • Moreover, the last stages of individual life are prophetic not only of future rising and progressing derivatives, but in the case of senile individuals of future declining and degradational series.

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  • From these acyl derivatives the elements of water are removed, either by simple heating or by boiling their aqueous solution; this elimination is accompanied by the formation of the azoxime ring.

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  • - Hydrocyanic acid forms two series of derivatives by the exchange of its hydrogen atom for alkyl or aryl groups; namely the nitriles, of type R CN, and the isonitriles, of type R NC. The latter compounds may be considered as derivatives of the as yet unknown isohydrocyanic acid HNC.

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  • Konigs, expressed the opinion that the alkaloids were derivatives of pyridine or quinoline.

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  • Oxyhalogen derivatives of chromium are known, the oxychloride, CrO 2 C1 21 resulting on heating potassium bichromate and common salt with concentrated sulphuric acid.

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  • Bamberger (Ber., 1898, 31, p. 455) has shown that the nitro-alkyl derivatives behave as though they possess the constitution of hydrazones, for on heating with dilute alkalies they split more or less readily into an alkaline nitrite and an acid hydrazide: C 6 H 5 NH N: C(N02)CH3+NaOH=NaN02+C6H5NH NH CO CH3.

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  • N 2 COOH, may also be considered as mixed azo derivatives.

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  • The fact that benzene and its derivatives are remarkable for their powerful absorption of the most refrangible rays, and for some characteristic absorption bands appearing on dilution, led Hartley to a more extended examination of some of the more complicated organic substances.

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  • It can also be used for the synthesis of pyridine derivatives, since A.

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  • This compound condenses in alkaline solution with compounds containing the grouping - CH 2 - CO - to form quinoline or its derivatives; thus, with acetaldehyde it forms quinoline, and with acetone, a-methyl quinoline.

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  • With urea it gives " /CH NN quinazolone I, and with mandelic nitrile and its H /C0 homologues it forms oxazole derivatives (S.

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  • A large number of these acids, which are mostly benzene derivatives, have been isolated and more or less closely investigated.

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  • Fischer showed that these compounds were derivatives of triphenylmethane and tolyldiphenylmethane respectively.

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  • The -y-diketones are characterized by the readiness with which they yield furfurane, pyrrol and thiophene derivatives, the furfurane derivatives being formed by heating the ketones with a dehydrating agent, the thiophenes, by heating with phosphorus pentasulphide, and the pyrrols by the action of alcoholic ammonia or amines.

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  • The 1 5 diketones of this type, when heated with aqueous ammonia, form pyridine derivatives.

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  • Those in which the keto groups are in combination with phenyl residues give pyridine derivatives on treatment with hydroxylamine, thus benzamarone, C 6 H 5 CH[CH(C 6 H 5) CO.

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  • On the other hand, the cost of iron ore is likely to rise much faster than that of the potential aluminium ores, clay and its derivatives, because of the vast extent and richness of the deposits of this latter class.

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  • The same oxygen ether is formed by the methylation of the silver salt of the normal diazo hydroxide; this points to the conclusion that the isomeric hydroxides, corresponding with the silver derivatives, have the same structural formulae, namely, R N: N OH.

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  • On such a hypothesis, the relatively unstable normal diazo hydroxides would be the syn-compounds, since here the nitrogen atoms would be more easily eliminated, whilst the stable iso-diazo derivatives would be the anti-compounds, thus: R N R N HO-N N OH Normal hydroxide Iso hydroxide (Syn-compound) (Anti-compound) In support of this theory, Hantzsch has succeeded in isolating a series of syn - and anti-diazo-cyanides and -sulphonates (Ber.,1895,28, p.666; 1900, 33, P. 2161; 1901, 34, p. 4166).

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  • Hantzsch, Ber., This assumption also shows the relationship of the diazonium hydroxides to other quaternary ammonium compounds, for most of the quaternary ammonium hydroxides (except such as have the nitrogen atom attached to four saturated hydrocarbon radicals) are unstable, and readily pass over into compounds in which the hydroxyl group is no longer attached to the amine nitrogen; thus the syn-diazo hydroxides are to be regarded as pseudo-diazonium derivatives.

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  • Diazoimino compounds, R N3, may be regarded as derivatives of azoimide; they are formed by the action of ammonia on the diazoperbromides,or by the action of hydroxylamine on the diazonium sulphates (J.

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  • It is prepared by the action of aqueous or alcoholic solutions of the caustic alkalis on the nitroso-acidyl derivatives of methylamine (such, for example, as nitrosomethyl urethane, NO.

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  • Weith (1844-1881), professor of chemistry at Zurich University, he undertook to continue the lectures on benzene derivatives, and this led him to the discovery of thiophen.

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  • Whereas carbon renders isomerism possible in organic compounds, cobalt and platinum are the determining elements in inorganic chemistry, the phenomena being exhibited especially by complex ammoniacal derivatives.

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  • CH 3 CO CHX CO 2 C 2 H 5, derivatives of acetoacetic ester.

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  • ESTERS, in organic chemistry, compounds formed by the condensation of an alcohol and an acid, with elimination of water; they may also be considered as derivatives of alcohols, in which the hydroxylic hydrogen has been replaced by an acid radical, or as acids in which the hydrogen of the carboxyl group has been replaced by an alkyl or aryl group. In the case of the polybasic acids, all the hydrogen atoms can be replaced in this way, and the compounds formed are known as "neutral esters."

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  • Three others - "Valladolid" of about 1035, "Madrid" of 1047, and "London" of 1109 - are derivatives of the "Valcavado-Ashburnham" of 970; the eighth, "Paris II," is connected, though not very intimately, with "St Sever," otherwise "Paris I"; the ninth and tenth, "Gerona" and "Paris III," belong to the Turin group of Beatus maps.

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  • The secondary value expresses the consonantal root of the name or other primary value, and any, or almost any, derivative from that root: as when ~ a mat with a cake upon it, is not only litp, an offering-mat, but also hip in the sense of conciliation, peace, rest, setting (of the sun), with many derivatives.

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  • He investigated the relation of benzene to benzoic acid and to other derivatives.

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  • In Champia and allied genera, the cylindrical axis is due not to the derivatives of one axial filament, but of several, the growth of which is co-ordinated to form a septated tube.

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  • Diazomethane converts it into the methyl derivatives of isocyanic acid, and nitramide, NH2N02.

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  • The tetra-alkyl derivatives are liquids, the remainder being solids.

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  • The symmetrically substituted ureas are generally tasteless, while the asymmetrical derivatives are sweet.

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  • The derivatives of urea containing acid radicles are known as ureides.

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  • Thiourea and many of its unsymmetrical derivatives have marked physiological action; thiourea causes a slowing of the pulse and respiration, cardiac failure, and death in convulsions; phenyl-, ethyland acetyl-thiourea are actively toxic. The most important derivative pharmacologically is allyl-thiourea, also known as thiosinamine or rhodallin, NH2 CS NH CH2 CH:CH2.

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  • Many derivatives of guanidine were obtained by J.

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  • We also treat of the utilization of hydrochloric acid for the manufacture of chlorine and its derivatives, which are usually comprised within the meaning of the term " alkali manufacture."

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  • Numerous derivatives of alizarin are known.

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  • His most important contribution to organic chemistry was a series of researches, begun in 1835, on the haloid and other derivatives of unsaturated hydrocarbons.

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  • With aromatic hydrocarbons in the presence of anhydrous aluminium chloride, in the cold, there is a large evolution of hydrochloric acid gas, and an aldehyde is formed; at 100° C., on the other hand, anthracene derivatives are produced.

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  • The Latin term " tractatus," and its derivatives, though of occasional occurrence in this sense from the 13th century onwards, only began to be commonly so employed, in lieu of the older technical terms " conventio publica," or " foedus," from the end of the r7th century.

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  • Many derivatives of indole are known.

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  • One of the most important derivatives of hypochlorous acid is bleaching powder.

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  • Among these are papers on The Recurrence of Solar Eclipses, A Transformation of Hansen's Lunar Theory, Development of the Perturbative Function and its Derivatives.

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  • These substances, which may be collectively termed "cocaines," are all derivatives of ecgonine.

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  • Tregear's Maori-Polynesian Comparative Dictionary shows how the word and its derivatives are used to express thought, memory, emotion, desire, will - in short, psychic energy of all kinds.

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  • They are obtained by condensing a halogen derivatives of ketones with acid-amides (M.

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  • By the condensation of ortho-aminophenols with phosgene or thiophosgene, oxy and thio-derivatives are obtained, the (OH) and (SH) groups being situated in the t t position, and these compounds on treatment with amines yield amino derivatives.

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  • KETENES, in chemistry, a group of organic compounds which may be considered as internal anhydrides of acetic acid and its substitution derivatives.

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  • Two classes may be distinguished: the aldo-ketenes, including ketene itself, together with its monoalkyl derivatives and carbon suboxide, and the keto-ketenes which comprise the dialkyl ketenes.

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  • Many derivatives are known, thus ortho-amino-benzophenone, melting at 106° C., can be obtained by reduction of the corresponding nitro compound; it condenses under the influence of heated lead monoxide to an acridine derivative and with acetone in presence of caustic soda it gives a quinoline.

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  • The alkaloids fall into two chemical groups: (i) derivatives of isoquinoline, including papaverine, narcotine, gnoscopine (racemic narcotine), narceine, laudanosine, laudanine, cotarnine, hydrocotarnine (the last two do not occur in opium), and (2) derivatives of phenanthrene, including morphine, codeine, thebaine.

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  • It is a very stable compound, chromic and nitric acids being without action upon it, whilst the halogens only yield substitution derivatives with difficulty.

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  • 5 diketones of the type inset, when heated with ammonia, also yield pyridine derivatives.

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  • It is oxidized to pyridine by heating with concentrated sulphuric acid to 300° C., or with nitrobenzene to 250° C., or with silver acetate to 180° C. Being an imide it readily yields a nitroso derivative, and N-alkyl and acidyl derivatives.

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  • The Benzidine and Semidine Change.-Aromatic hydrazo compounds which contain free para positions are readily converted by the action of acids, acid chlorides and anhydrides into diphenyl derivatives; thus, as mentioned above, hydrazobenzene is converted into benzidine, a small quantity of diphenylin being formed at the same time.

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  • The orthoand parasemidines can be readily distinguished by their behaviour with different reagents; thus with nitrous acid the ortho-semidines give azimido compounds, whilst the para-semidines give complex diazo derivatives; with formic or acetic acids the ortho-semidines give anhydro compounds of a basic character, the para-semidines give acyl products possessing no basic character.

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  • Various methyl derivatives of adenine have been described by E.

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  • Many other pyrocatechin derivatives have been suggested for therapeutic application.

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  • It combines with the halide derivatives of boron and silicon to form, e.g.

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  • The tertiary phosphines are characterized by their readiness to pass into derivatives containing pentavalent phosphorus, and consequently they form addition compounds with sulphur, carbon bisulphide, chlorine, bromine, the halogen acids and the alkyl halides with great readiness.

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  • The oxy derivatives of the quinoline homologues are best obtained from the aniline derivatives of (3-ketonic acids.

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  • Numerous derivatives of isoquinoline are obtained in the decomposition of various vegetable alkaloids.

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  • It also acts in an opposite manner in certain cases, adding the elements of water to compounds; thus, nitriles are converted into acid-amides, and various acetylene derivatives may be caused to yield ketonic derivatives.

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  • - No isomerism can occur in the monosubstitution derivatives but ordinary position isomerism exists in the dian .d poly-substitution compounds.

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  • The esters of the acids may also be obtained by condensing sodio-malonic ester with a-halogen derivatives of unsaturated acids: CH H?

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  • The truxillic acids, C,8H1504, which result by the hydrolytic splitting of truxilline, C38H46N208, are phenyl derivatives of cyclo-butane.

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  • Cyclo-pentane Group. Derivatives may be prepared in many cases by the breaking down of the benzene ring when it contains an accumulation of negative atoms (T.

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  • Derivatives of the cyclo-pentane group are met with in the breaking-down products of the terpenes.

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  • For phenyl derivatives of the cyclo- pentane group see F.

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  • Quinite (cyclo-hexanediol-i 4) is prepared by reducing the corresponding ketone with sodium amalgam, cis-, and trans-modifications being obtained which may be separated by their acetyl derivatives.

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  • From the chemical point of view the hydrocarbons are of fundamental importance, and, on account of their great number, and still greater number of derivatives, they are studied as a separate branch of the science, namely, organic chemistry.

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  • We have in like manner, as derivatives of a given curve, the caustic, catacaustic or diacaustic as the case may be, and the secondary caustic, or curve cutting at right angles the reflected or refracted rays.

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  • These and certain other facts referred to by the same author point to the conclusion that not only are the Sirenia and the Proboscidea derived from a single ancestral stock, but that the Hyracoidea - and so Arsinoitherium - are also derivatives from the same stock, which must necessarily have been Ethiopian.

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  • TERPENES, in organic chemistry, the generic name of a group of hydrocarbons of the general formula (C 5 H 8) n, and the more important oxygen derivatives, mainly alcohols, aldehydes and ketones, derived from them.

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  • The chief sources of the terpenes and their derivatives are the essential oils obtained by the distillation or extraction by pressure of various plants, chiefly of the Coniferae and different species of Citrus.

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  • In order to prepare the individual members pure, advantage is taken of the different physical properties of their derivatives.

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  • Derivatives of the type R 2 N OH result in the action of the Grignard reagent on amyl nitrite.

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  • Its derivatives and its relation to benzene had been previously studied by the above and other experimenters, its relation to benzene being first proved experimentally by Cannizzaro and its constitution settled by Fittig and Tollens's synthesis from sodium and a mixture of methyl iodide and brombenzene.

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  • cases in which the variation is most extreme some botanists would prefer to consider as forming distinct species; but others, as De Vilmorin, having regard to the general facts of the case and to the numerous intermediate gradations, look upon all the forms as derivatives from one.

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  • The fighting bulls of Spain, the black Pembroke cattle of Wales, with their derivatives the white park-cattle of Chillingham in Northumberland, are undoubtedly the direct descendants of the aurochs.

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  • The haloid esters of the paraffin alcohols formed by heating the alcohols with the halogen acids are the monohaloid derivatives of the paraffins, and are more conveniently prepared by the action of the phosphorous haloid on the alcohol.

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  • Many complex derivatives are known, such, for example, as phosphor-vanadates, arsenio-vanadates, tungsto-vanadates, molybdovanadates, &c. For the use of this oxide in the electrolytic oxidation and reduction of organic compounds, see German Patents 172654 (1903) and 183022 (1905).

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  • The result of the integration is that the co-ordinates x and y and their derivatives as to the time, which express the position, direction of motion and speed of the planet at any moment, are found as functions of the four constants and of the time.

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  • .2 and their derivatives as to time are given.

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  • Of these salts several series are known, namely the ortho-arsenites, which are derivatives of the acid H3AsO3, the metaarsenites, derivatives of HAsO2, and the pyro-arsenites, derivatives of H4As2O5.

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  • Many organic arsenic compounds are known, analogous to those of nitrogen and phosphorus, but apparently the primary and secondary arsines, AsH2CH3 and AsH(CH3)2, do not exist, although the corresponding chlorine derivatives, AsCl2CH3, methyl arsine chloride, and AsCl(CH3)2, dimethyl arsine chloride, are known.

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  • A recent method of using the drug is in the form of sodium cacodylate by subcutaneous injection, and this preparation is said to be free from the cumulative effects sometimes arising after the prolonged use of the other forms. Other organic derivatives employed are sodium metharsenite and sodium anilarsenate or atoxyl; hypodermic injections of the latter have been used in the treatment of sleeping sickness.

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  • Such words as frubo, reto, dude are modern derivatives from the learned forms fructo.

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  • The name is derived from mercurium captans, in allusion to the fact that these compounds react readily with mercuric oxide to form crystalline mercury derivatives.

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  • Many substitution derivatives are known: the monosubstitution derivatives being capable of existing in three isomeric forms. Of the disubstitution derivatives the most important are those derived from diparadiaminodiphenyl or benzidine.

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  • One of the most important derivatives of diphenyl, from the theoretical point of view, is diphenic acid or diorthodiphenyl carboxylic acid, which can be obtained from diparadiaminodiphenyldiorthocarboxylic acid, H2N NH 2, or from phenanthrene, the consti Hooc Cooh tution of which it determines.

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  • The various camphors, such as laurel camphor, Borneo camphor, menthol and cumarin, are oxidized derivatives of essential oils, and differ only superficially from them in their action.

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  • Ethyl alcohol is taken as a type of the action of methyl alcohol, amyl alcohol, propyl alcohol, ether, acetic ether, paraldehyde, sulphonal, chloroform, methyl chloride, ethyl chloride, chloral hydrate, butylchloral hydrate, and almost any number of derivatives from these.

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  • Aconitine, delphinine and many of their derivatives have a very widespread depressing action on muscle and nerve.

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  • anthraquinone derivatives, resembling the important group of vat dyes.

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  • benzyl salicylate and cinnamic acid derivatives may be mutually responsible.

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  • At present these taxes are applied to: hydrocarbons, alcohol and derivatives, wine and fermented beverages, beer, tobacco... ).

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  • coumarin derivatives, which may account for the interaction noted above.

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  • Free From including all derivatives of: gluten crustaceans Eggs Fish Peanuts Tree Nuts Celery Milk Mustard Sesame Seeds Sulfur Dioxide Sulfites.

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  • These derivatives of the derivative are called the second derivative of f.

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  • Such embedded derivatives are brought within the derivative contracts rules.

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  • The chain rule enables you to calculate higher derivatives for these parametrically described curves.

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  • What requirements are there for dealing warrants and securitised derivatives?

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  • Carboxylic acid derivatives - difference in reaction type due to presence of a good leaving group.

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  • Derivatives of scalar fields: Gradient, directional derivatives of scalar fields: Gradient, directional derivative; applications including classification of max, min and saddle using Hessian.

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  • I would normally use either golden ratio or simplex optimization for functions where analytic derivatives are not available.

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  • derivatives trading, I find both sections particularly useful for real world trading.

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  • An in-depth review of the research on purine derivatives in ruminants up to the present date.

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  • Warfarin and other coumarin derivatives Co-administration of fluvastatin with warfarin may commonly cause significant increases in prothrombin time.

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  • The market for clearing services for freight derivatives has had something of a boom recently.

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  • Additional research was conducted at Aushwitz, using a range of chemicals including various barbiturates and morphine derivatives.

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  • There is a great reluctance by the government to allow cannabis derivatives to be used therapeutically.

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  • diamine derivatives with antifungal and antimalarial activities are being synthesized as potential anticancer agents.

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  • embedded derivatives are brought within the derivative contracts rules.

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  • ergot derivatives is probably related to their 5-HT agonist effects.

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  • ergotamine derivatives which are available in oral form, lisuride and methysergide, are not well studies for their tolerability during pregnancy.

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  • excretion of purine derivatives - an overview of the technical details.

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  • extremum problems in more than one variable, second partial derivatives.

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  • The boswellic acids and their O-acetyl derivatives are the major constituens of the fresh aromatic gum resins from Boswellia trees.

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  • ibogaine derivatives.

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  • imidazole derivatives are also useful building blocks for more complex natural product analogs.

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  • lanolin derivatives.

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  • IV Effect of folic acid derivatives on transplanted mouse leukemia.

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  • The company's extensive range of health care ingredients includes essential fatty acids, high purity lipids, drug delivery systems and protein derivatives.

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  • opium derivatives market was conducted pursuant to that duty.

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  • partial derivatives of the equation defining the hardness value.

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  • partial derivatives of f are equal. i.e. = .

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  • Some sensitivity coefficients can be calculated by taking partial derivatives of the equation defining the hardness value.

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  • Newton strategies additionally require the second partial derivatives, thus building a quadratic internal model.

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  • Glimepiride may either potentiate or weaken the effects of coumarin derivatives.

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  • The Chicago Mercantile Exchange has agreed to buy CBOT Holdings for $ 8 billion to create a global derivatives powerhouse.

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  • purity lipids, drug delivery systems and protein derivatives.

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  • No right to create modifications or derivatives is granted pursuant to this license.

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  • pyridine derivatives (Kadlec & Hanslian 1965 ).

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  • randomized to receive either active derivatives of cannabis, or a placebo.

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  • BR derivatives were also effective in inhibiting replication of the measles virus [9] .

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  • saccharide derivatives are being researched as possible therapeutics.

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  • sensitivity coefficients can be calculated by taking partial derivatives of the equation defining the hardness value.

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  • tallow derivatives.

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  • thiophene derivatives for use in field-effect transistors.

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  • This class ranges from sporty vehicles such as the MX-5 to derivatives of true racing thoroughbreds such as the Lotus Elise.

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  • Mike's PhD is on the synthesis of conjugated thiophene derivatives for use in field-effect transistors.

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  • tryptamine derivatives, one of which is 5-hydroxytryptamine (Bhargava et al.

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  • xanthine derivatives, steroids and diuretics.

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  • Iridium forms many ammine derivatives, which are analogous to the corresponding platinum compounds (see M.

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  • The purins themselves may be considered as a combination of the pyrimidine and glyoxaline ring systems. For formulae see below; the numbers about the first ring explain the orientation of pyrimidine derivatives.

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  • 6), melts at 180-181°C. The simple oxypyrimidines are obtained by the action of nitrous acid on the amino derivatives, or by heating these latter with concentrated hydrochloric acid to 180° C. They show both basic and phenolic properties and are indifferent to the action of reducing agents.

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  • The dihydro derivatives are most probably those compounds which are formed in the condensation of acidyl derivatives of acetone, with urea, guanidine, &c. Tetrahydropyrimidines are obtained by the action of amidines on trimethylene bromide: Br(CH 2) 3 Br+C 6 H 5 C (:NH) NH 2 = 2HBr+C 4 H 7 N 2 (C 6 H 5) [2].

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  • Acetyl and benzoyl derivatives of nicotine on hydrolysis do not yield nicotine, but an isomeric, inactive oily liquid (metanicotine).

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  • We proceed to consider various simple derivatives of the alcohols, which we may here regard as hydroxy hydrocarbons, R OH, where R is an alkyl radical, either aliphatic or cyclic in nature.

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  • Thus from ethyl alcohol there can be prepared compounds, termed esters, or ethereal salts, exactly comparable in structure with corresponding salts of, say, potassium; by the action of the phosphorus haloids, the hydroxyl group is replaced by a halogen atom with the formation of derivatives of the type R Cl(Br,I); nitric acid forms nitrates, R O NO 2; nitrous acid, nitrites, R O NO; sulphuric acid gives normal sulphates R 2 SO 4, or acid sulphates, R SO 4 H.

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  • A great impetus was given to the study of polymethylene derivatives by the important and unexpected observation made by W.

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  • Perkin has himself contributed largely to our knowledge of such compounds; pentaand hexa-methylene derivatives have also received considerable attention (see P Olymethylenes) .

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  • 18, p. 499) in 1885, who showed that it yielded hexaoxybenzene, C 6 (OH) 6, when acted upon with dilute hydrochloric acid further investigation of this compound brought to light a considerable number of highly interesting derivatives (see Quinones).

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  • Many diketo compounds suffer condensation between two molecules to form hydrobenzene derivatives; thus a, 7 -di-acetoglutaric ester, C 2 H S O 2 C(CH 3 CO) CH CH 2 CH(CO CH 3)CO 2 C 2 H 5, yields a methylketohexamethylene,whiles-acetobutyric ester,CH 3 CO (CH2)2C02C2N5, is converted into dihydroresorcinol or m-diketohexamethylene by sodium ethylate; this last reaction is reversed by baryta (see Decompositions of Benzene Ring).

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  • He admitted the possibility of the formulae of Kekule, Claus, Dewar and Ladenburg, although as to the last di-trimethylene derivatives should be possible reduction products, being formed by severing two of the prism edges; and he attempted to solve the problem by a systematic investigation of the reduced phthalic acids.

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  • Furthermore, it is in accordance with certain simple syntheses of benzene derivatives (e.g.

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  • In the aromatic compounds there is no regularity between the increments due to the introduction of methyl groups into the benzene nucleus or side chains; the normal value of 20 0 -21° is exhibited, however, by pyridine and its derivatives.

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  • A similar depression is presented by methyl alcohol (67°) and methyl ether (-23 °) Among the aromatic di-substitution derivatives the ortho compounds have the highest boiling-point, and the meta boil at a higher, or about the same temperature as the para compounds.

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  • This assumed that all coloured substances were derivatives of orthoor para-quinone (see Quinones), and although at the time of its promotion little practical proof was given, yet the theory found wide acceptance on account of the researches of many other chemists.

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  • Phenanthrene-quinone, [C 6 H 4] 2 [CO] 21 crystallizes in orange needles which melt at 198° C. It possesses the characteristic properties of a diketone, forming crystalline derivatives with sodium bisulphite and a dioxime with hydroxylamine.

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  • Few simple derivatives of the a-series are known, those which have been prepared result by such reactions as the condensation of aminoguanidine or a similar type of compound (e.g.

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  • NO 2 C 6 H 4 NH NH CHO); or in the form of dihydro derivatives by the condensation of aldehydes with ortho-aminoazo compounds (H.

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  • The osotriazoles are obtained by heating the osazones of orthodiketones with mineral acids; by the action of acetic anhydride on the hydrazoximes of orthodiketones, or by condensing diazo-methane with cyanogen derivatives (A.

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  • It is a colourless solid which melts at 92° C. For silicon derivatives of the amines see Michaelis, Ber., 1896, 29, p. 710; on asymmetric silicon and the resolution of dl-benzyl-ethyl-propyl-silicol see F.

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  • It may be obtained by distilling benzyl sulphide !or disulphide, by the action of sodium on benzaldehyde or benzal chloride, by distilling fumaric and cinnamic phenyl esters: C6H50.OC CH:CH CO.OC6H5 - >C02+C6H5.CH:CH CO.006H5 - >2C02 -{-C 6 H 5 CH: CH C 6 H 5 (Ber., 18, p.1945), and fromchlorasymmetrical diphenylethane derivatives which undergo a rearrangement when heated (Ber., 7.

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  • CON 3 --> R�NH�CO 2 C 2 H 5 - R.NH2 azide urethane The secondary amines are prepared, together with the primary and tertiary, by the action of ammonia on the alkyl iodides (see below), or by the hydrolysis of para-nitroso derivatives ` of tertiary aromatic amines, such as para-nitrosodimethylaniline, thus: NO�C 6 H 4 �N(CH 3) 2 � H 2 O = NO�C 6 H 4.

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  • Zeit., 1906, 30, p. 37) has shown that on passing the monohalogen derivatives of the paraffins through a glass tube containing reduced nickel, copper or cobalt at 250° C., olefines are produced, together with the halogen acids, and recombination is prevented by passing the gases through a solution of potash.

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  • While nonna has remained as the generic name of a female religious, nonnus has been replaced by monachus and its various derivatives (see Monk).

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  • They combine with phenyl isocyanate to form urea derivatives (H.

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  • Many derivatives of pararosaniline and rosaniline are known, in which the hydrogen atoms of the amino groups are replaced by alkyl groups; this has the effect of producing a blue or violet shade, which becomes deeper as the number of groups increases (see Dyeing).

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  • They may also be prepared by the decomposition of ketone chlorides with water; by the oxidation of the tertiary hydroxyacids; by the hydrolysis of the ketonic acids or their esters with dilute alkalis or baryta water (see Aceto-Acetic Ester); by the hydrolysis of alkyl derivatives of acetone dicarboxylic acid, HO 2 C CH 2 CO CHR CO 2 H; and by the action of the Grignard reagent on nitriles (E.

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  • The alkyl derivatives of thiourea are obtained by the action of ammonia and of primary and secondary amines on the mustard oils (A.

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  • The monoalkyl derivatives are desulphurized by lead hydroxide in the presence of sodium carbonate, the aß dialkyl and trialkyl derivatives being unaffected (A.

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  • With aromatic hydrocarbons in the presence of anhydrous aluminium chloride, in the cold, there is a large evolution of hydrochloric acid gas, and an aldehyde is formed; at 100° C., on the other hand, anthracene derivatives are produced.

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  • Many derivatives are known, thus ortho-amino-benzophenone, melting at 106° C., can be obtained by reduction of the corresponding nitro compound; it condenses under the influence of heated lead monoxide to an acridine derivative and with acetone in presence of caustic soda it gives a quinoline.

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  • The /3 compound is hydroxylic in character, whilst the a and -y derivatives behave frequently as if they possess the tautomeric ketostructure, yielding according to the conditions of the experiment either N- or 0-ethers (H.

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  • It is oxidized to pyridine by heating with concentrated sulphuric acid to 300° C., or with nitrobenzene to 250° C., or with silver acetate to 180° C. Being an imide it readily yields a nitroso derivative, and N-alkyl and acidyl derivatives.

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  • If, however, one of the para positions in the hydrazo compound is substituted, then either diphenyl derivatives or azo compounds are formed, or what is known as the semidine change takes place (P. Jacobson, Berichte, 1892, 2 5, p. 99 2; 1893, 26, p. 681; 1896, 29, p. 2680; Annalen, 1895, 287, p. 97; 1898, 3 0 3, p. 290) A para mono substituted hydrazo compound in the presence of a hydrochloric acid solution of stannous chloride gives either a para diphenyl derivative (the substituent group being eliminated), an ortho-semidine, a para-semidine, or a diphenyl base, whilst a decomposition with the formation of amines may also take place.

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  • Papaverine on fusion with alkalis yields a dimethoxyisoquinoline, whilst hydrohydrastinine, hydrocotarnine and the salts of cotarnine may be considered as derivatives of reduced isoquinoliaes (see Opium).

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  • As to the stability of these compounds, most trimethylene derivatives are comparatively unstable, the ring being broken fairly readily; the tetramethylene derivatives are rather more stable and the pentaand hexa-methylene compounds are very stable, showing little tendency to form open chain compounds under ordinary conditions (see Chemistry: Organic).

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  • Contact dermatitis from castor oil and vitamin B was attributed to pyridine derivatives (Kadlec & Hanslian 1965).

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  • Patients are being randomized to receive either active derivatives of cannabis, or a placebo.

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  • BR derivatives were also effective in inhibiting replication of the measles virus [9 ].

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  • In other pathological states from diabetes to dementia, saccharide derivatives are being researched as possible therapeutics.

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  • Many of these used heavily processed bovine by-products such as collagen, elastin, gelatine and tallow derivatives.

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  • Mike 's PhD is on the synthesis of conjugated thiophene derivatives for use in field-effect transistors.

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  • The leaves and stem of fresh plants yield seven tryptamine derivatives, one of which is 5-hydroxytryptamine (Bhargava et al.

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  • Particular caution is advised in severe asthma, as this effect may be potentiated by concomitant treatment with xanthine derivatives, steroids and diuretics.

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  • Also called black drawing salve, ichthammol salve contains derivatives of sulfur-rich shale, mixed into a paraffin or beeswax base, to create a skin preparation.

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  • Labels must be checked to ensure that the product doesn't contain dairy or animal products or derivatives.

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  • Watson also stated that veganism applies "to the exclusion of flesh, fish, fowl, eggs, honey, animal milk and its derivatives, and encourages the use of alternatives for all commodities derived wholly or in part from animals."

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  • A class of drugs called fibric acid derivatives is sometimes recommended to lower triglycerides and raise HDL.

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  • Natural derivatives of opium: Narcotics in this group include morphine itself and codeine.

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  • In severe cases, opium derivatives such as codeine can be prescribed.

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  • Some tetracycline derivatives have been useful in cancer therapy.

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  • Inorganic-Pertaining to chemical compounds that are not hydrocarbons or their derivatives.

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  • Of greater concern is the widespread use of corticosteroids or steroid derivatives used to treat allergies, autoimmune diseases, and inflammatory conditions.

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  • However, derivatives fashioned from the gluten containing grains are used as additives in many foods.

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  • Gluten is added to many products as a thickening agent and many derivatives find their way into sauces and seasonings.

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  • Soy sauce is a very common carrier of wheat derivatives.

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  • For this reason, even rice and corn cereals should be examined thoroughly for wheat derivatives.

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  • Since barely, rye, oats, and their derivatives are all natural foods, they can sometimes be listed under fairly innocuous sounding names.

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  • If you eat vegetables away from home, ask questions to determine whether wheat, rye, barley, oats or any of their derivatives have been used.

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  • However, they tend to stimulate the nervous system more with caffeine and herbal derivatives.

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  • Phytopharm, a pharmaceutical company, has begun adding Hoodia derivatives to its diet foods, including shakes and bars.

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  • Any food containing sugar, natural sugars and sugar derivatives are extremely high in carbohydrates and cause an immediate and large spike in blood sugar.

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  • Tea leaves, medicinal extracts, flowers, plants, fruit extracts, oat and grain derivatives, and herbs may be used to create unique soaps of different textures and scents.

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