Der. sentence example

der.
  • From Strasburger's Lehrbuch der Bolanik, by permission of Gustav Fischer.
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  • His last publication, which appeared in 1878, was on spherical harmonics (Beitreige zur Theorie der Kugelf unctionen) .
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  • Keller, Memel, Pregel and Weichselstrom (2 vols., Berlin, 1900); and Schickert, Wasserwege and Deichwesen in der Memelniederung (Konigsberg, 1901).
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  • Bosscha, Het Leven van Willem den Tweede, Koning der Nederlanden, 1793-1849 (Amsterdam, 1852); P. Blok, Geschiedenis der Nederlandsche Volk (Leiden, 1908).
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  • Pertz, Geschichte der merowingischen Hausmeier (Hanover, 1819); H.
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  • Kayserling, Die Idee der Kausalitdt in den Lehren der Occasionalisten (1896); J.
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  • Muller, Der Begriff der sittlichen Unvollkommenheit bei Descartes and Spinoza (1890); J.
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  • Descartes' Prinzipien der Philos.
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  • Cantor, Vorlesungen itber die Geschichte der Mathematik (Leipzig, 1894-1901); Sir Michael Foster, Hist.
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  • Zeuthen, Geschichte der Mathematik im 16.
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  • Other philosophical works were: - Ueber den Ursprung der Sitten (1860 and 1867), Ueber die Ideen in der Geschichte (1865 and 1872); Zur Lehre von den Sinnestauschungen (1867); Ideale Fragen (1875 and 1885), Erziehung and Geschichte 0880; Unser Stand punkt (1881); Ueber die Reize des Spiels (1883).
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  • Brasch, "Der Begriinder de Volkerpsychologie," in Nord et Sud (September 1894).
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  • Touron, La Vie de St Thomas d'Aquin, avec un exposé de sa doctrine et de ses ouvrages (Paris, 1737); Karl Werner, Der Heilige Thomas von Aquino (1858); and R.
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  • For the philosophy of Aquinas, see Albert Stockl, Geschichte der Philosophic des Mittelalters, ii.; B.
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  • This did not last long with him, however, for the second edition (1857) of his most important work, on the origin of the old Catholic Church (Die Entstehung der alt-kathol.
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  • He wrote a large work on the Christian doctrine of justification and atonement, Die Christliche Lehre von der Rechtfertigung and Versohnung, published during the years 1870-74, and in 1880-86 a history of pietism (Die Geschichte des Pietismus).
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  • Ritschl, Die Christliche Lehre von der Rechtfertigung and VersOhnung (3rd ed., 1889); Unterricht in der Christlichen Lehre (very many editions); and Theologie and Metaphysik (2nd ed., 1887), give his main position.
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  • Ritschl's and die evangelische Kirche der Gegenwart (1897); James Orr, The Ritschlian Theology and the Evangelical Faith (London, 1898); and A.
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  • der Kriegskunst, vol.
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  • Grosse nach der Schlacht bei Issus, 1904).
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  • 2 Tomaschek, "Topographische Erlauterung der Kustenfahrt Nearchs" in the Sitzungsberichte der kaiserl.
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  • Heerwesen (1885), and Graf Yorck von Wartenburg, Kurze Ubersicht der Feldziege A.
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  • NOldeke, "Beitrage zur Geschichte des Alexanderromans" (Denkschriften der ksl.
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  • Rohde, Der griechische Roman (2nd ed.
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  • Granert's Studien, &c., Freiburg, 1901); Adolf Ausfeld, Der griechische Alexanderroman (Leipzig, 1907), edited after the author's death by W.
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  • See Eifert, Geschichte und Beschreibung der Stadt und Universitiit Tubingen (Tiibingen,1849); Maier, Die Musenstadt Tubingen (Tubingen, 1904); Tubingen und seine Umgebung (Tubingen, 1887-1889).
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  • His works include Evangelische Glaubenslehre (1759); Auszug der Kirchengeschichte (1743-1762); Primae lineae breviarii antiquitatum Christianarum (1747); Geschichte der Religionsparteien (1760); Nachricht von merkwiirdigen Biichern (1752-1757); Nachrichten von einer hallischen Bibliothek (1748-1751).
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  • Wiistenfeld's Geschichte der arabischen Aerzte and Naturforscher (Göttingen, 1840).
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  • Prantl, Geschichte der Logik, ii.
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  • Haneberg in the Abhandlungen der philos.-philolog: Class.
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  • der bayerischen Academie (1867); and Carra de Vaux, Avicenne (Paris, 1900).
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  • Lambros, 'H OvoaaroXoyta 'ATTnK'?S cal ij ELS T1]v xthpav E7roteno(s 'AX/3avwv in the 'EirsrnAis Tot Hapvaa iot (Athens, 1896); Theodore Ippen, "Beitrage zur inneren Geschichte der Turkei im 19.
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  • See Hinner, Wandelbilder aus der Geschichte Wiener-Neustadts (Wiener-Neustadt, 1892).
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  • von Giesebrecht, Geschichte der deutschen Kaiserzeit (Leipzig, 1885-1890); and Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopadie, Band iv.
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  • 140, 141) in Pauly-Wissowa's Realencyclopadie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, i.
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  • Gravelaar in Verhandelingen der Kon.
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  • Riezler, Zum Schutze der neuesten Edition von Aventins Annalen_(Munich, 1886); F.
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  • During this early period was known variously as Ferryhook, Ashley's Ferry and Van der Heyden's Ferry.
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  • After the close of the war there was an influx of settlers from Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Hampshire and Vermont; a town was laid out on the Van der Heyden farm, and in 1789 the name of Troy was selected in town meeting; and in 1791 the town of Troy was formed from part of Rensselaerwyck.
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  • In 1877 he undertook the editorship of the Annalen der Physik and Chemie in succession to J.
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  • Wallace, Geographical Distribution of Animals (New York, 1876); Theodor Wolf, Ein Besuch der Galapagos Inseln (Heidelberg, 1879); and paper in Geographical Journal, vi.
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  • Ostwald's Klassiker der exacters Wissenschaften, No.
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  • Furtwangler and others, Aegina, Heiligtum der Aphaia (Munich, 1906), where earlier authorities are collected and discussed.
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  • See P. von Kobbe, Geschichte and Landesbeschreibung des Herzogtums Lauenburg (Altona, 1836-1837); Duve, Mitteilungen zur Kunde der Staatsgeschichte Lauenburgs (Ratzeburg, 1852-1857), and the Archiv des Vereins far die Geschichte des Herzogtums Lauenburg (Ratzeburg, 1884 seq.).
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  • Noldeke, Geschichte der Perser ...
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  • Gabotto and Badini-Gonfalonieri (1894) with bibliography; for the quarrel with Politian see also C. Meiners Lebensbeschreibungen der beruhmten Manner (1796), ii.
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  • Vogelstein, Der Kampf zwischen Priestern u.
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  • (1866);Mommsen inA bhandlungen der sachsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, iii.
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  • der Psy.
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  • van Gelder, Geschichte der alten Rhodier (Hague, 1900); B.
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  • Ghysius, Oorsprong en voortgang der nederlandscher beroerten (1626); Hugo Grotius, Annales et histoire de rebus belgicis (1657); P. C. Hooft, Nederlandscher historien, 1555-1587 (1656); E.
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  • Nuyens, Geschiedenis der Nederlandsche berverten (2 vols., 1889); E.
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  • In 1529 he produced a free version (Klagbrief der armen Diirftigen in England) of the famous Supplycacyon of the Beggers, written abroad (1528 ?) by Simon Fish.
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  • Delitzsch, Die Sprache der Kossaer (1884), (A.
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  • He published in 1797 the important book Die Griechen and Romer, which was followed by the suggestive Geschichte der Poesie der Griechen and Romer (1798).
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  • He also delivered lectures, which were republished in his Philosophic des Lebens (1828) and in his Philosophie der Geschichte (1829).
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  • Joachimi, Die Weltanschauung der Romantik (1905); W.
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  • Kircher, Philosophic der Romantik (1906).
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  • Diebel, Dorothea Schlegel als Schriftsteller im Zusammenhang mit der romantischen Schule (1905).
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  • van der Haeghen, Geulincx.
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  • als Hauptvertreter der okkasionalistischen Metaphysik and Ethik (1882); G.
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  • Ireland (1905); Die Politik des Protectors Oliver Cromwell in der Auffassung and Tdtigkeit.
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  • Gelzer, Die Anfdnge der armenischen Kirche (Leipzig, 1895) (Sachs.
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  • der Wissensch.); and s.v.
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  • Gutschmid, Kleine Schriften (Leipzig, 1892); Himpel, Gregor der Erleuchter, Kl.
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  • Voter," in Nischl's Lehrbuch der Patrol.
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  • der Kirchengesch.
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  • (Hanover, 1827); Kihn, Die Bedeutung der antioch.
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  • in der christl.
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  • "To read Plautus is to be once for all disabused of the impression that Latin is a dry and uninteresting language" (Skutsch, in Die Cultur der Gegenwart; 1905).
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  • Phil.; 1906), (a work on cognate subjects is promised by Exon); Sudhaus, Der Aufbau der plautinischen Cantica (1909).
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  • der geog.
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  • Van der Aa, Biographisch woordenboek der Nederlanden (22 vols., Haarlem, 1852-1878).
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  • See Moller, Geschichte der vormaligen Grafschaft Linen (Lingen, 1874); Herrmann, Die Erwerbung der Stadt and Grafschaft Lingen durch die Krone Preussen (Lingen, 1902); and Schriever, Geschichte des Kreiges Lingen (Lingen, 1905).
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  • The most important of his comprehensive writings are: System der Ethik (1850-1853), Anthropologie (1856, 3rd ed.
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  • It is characteristic of Fichte's almost excessive receptiveness that in his latest published work, Der neuere Spiritualismus (1878), he supports his position by arguments of a somewhat occult or theosophical cast, not unlike those adopted by F.
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  • In Der Ring des Nibelungen Wagner specifies the proportions of the string-band as 16 first and 16 second violins, 12 violas, 12 violoncellos, 8 double basses.
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  • Schiller, Geschichte der romischen Kaiserzeit (Gotha, 1883-87), bk.
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  • Der alte Orient, iv.
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  • der Physik, 1904, 15, p. 193, and J.
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  • Zenneck, Leitfaden der drahtlosen Telegraphie (1909).
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  • Tomaschek, "Die alten Thraker" in Sitzungsberichte der k.
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  • der Wissenschaften, cxxviii.
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  • Schanz, Geschichte der romischen Litteratur, pt.
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  • der Stadt Rom, iii.
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  • Ruth, Geschichte des italienischen Volkes z0iter der napoleonzschen Herrschaft (Leipzig, 1859).
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  • Gregoroviuss Geschichte der Stadt Rom (Stuttgart, 1881), A.
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  • von Reumonts Geschichte der Stadt Rom (Berlin, 1867), L.
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  • Pastors Geschichte der Pdpste (Freiburg i.
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  • From the point of view of general culture, Jacob Burckhardts Cultur der Renaissance in Italien (Basel, i86o), E.
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  • Peter, Zur Kritik der Quellen der dlteren rOmischen Geschichte (1879); L.
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  • Stromberger, Bertold von Regensburg, der grässte Volksredner des deutschen Mittelalters (1877), K.
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  • Schonbach, Studien zur Geschichte der altdeutschen Predigt (Publications of the Vienna Academy, 1906).
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  • Troeltsch, Kultur der Gegenwart, Teil I.
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  • Schiller, Geschichte des riimischen Kaiserreichs unter der Regierung des Nero (1872); E.
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  • Maas, Die craspedoten Medusen der Plankton Expedition, by permission of Lipsius and Tischer.
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  • Maas, Craspedoten Medusen der SibogaExpedition, by permission of E.
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  • Maas, Craspedoten Medusen der Siboga- animals, but serving Expedition, by permission of E.
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  • Hertwig, Nervensystem and Sinnesorgane der Medusen, by permission of F.
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  • ) g organe der Medusen, by permission of F.
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  • Hertwig, Nervensystem and Sinnesorgane Other sense der Medusen, by permission of F.
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  • The next step is illustrated by the female gonophores of Cladocoryne, where the radial and ring-canals F G H Modified from Weismann, Entstehung der Sexualzellen bei den Hydromedusen.
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  • - Trophosome polyps After Haeckel, System der Medusen, by with capitate tentacles, simple or permission of Gustav Fischer.
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  • Thus the affinities of the hydranth are clearly, as Dendy points out, After Haeckel, System der Medusen, by permission of Gustav Fischer.
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  • - Trophosome unknown; gonosome, free medusae of deep form, with radial canals branched in a feathery manner, and After Haeckel, System der Medusen, by permission of Gustav Fischer.
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  • After Haeckel, System der Medusen, by permission of Gustav Fischer.
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  • Maas, Craspedoten Medusen der Siboga Expedition, by permission of E.
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  • C. Claus, " Ober die Struktur der Muskelzellen and fiber den Korperbau von Mnestra parasites Krohn," Verhandl.
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  • Goto, " Dendrocoryne Inaba, Vertreterin einer neuen Familie der Hydromedusen," Annot.
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  • Iwanzov, " Ober den Bau, die Wirkungsweise and die Entwickelung der Nesselkapseln von Coelenteraten," Bull.
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  • Jickeli, " Der Bau der Hydroidpolypen," (I) Morph.
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  • " Ober den Bau der Augen bei den Hydromedusen," Zapiski Imp. Akad.
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  • " Revision der Cannotiden Haeckels," SB.
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  • " Die craspedoten Medusen der Siboga-Expedition," Uitkomst.
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  • " Die arktischen Medusen (ausschliesslich der Polypomedusen)," Fauna arctica, iv.
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  • Metchinkoft, " Studien fiber die Entwickelung der Medusen and Siphonophoren," Zeitschr.
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  • Murbach, " Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Anatomie and Entwickelung der Nesselorgane der Hydroiden," Arch.
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  • Vanhoffen, " Versuch einer natiirlichen Gruppierung der Anthomedusen," Zool.
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  • Weismann, Die Entstehung der Sexualzellen bei den Hydromedusen (Jena, 1883); 59.
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  • See Worbs, Geschichte der Herrschaft Sorau and Triebel (Sorau, 1826) .
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  • Beissel, Geschichte der trierer Kirchen (Trier, 1888); "Gesta Treverorum" (ed.
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  • In his Ideen zur Philosophic der Geschichte, Herder adopts Leibnitz's idea of a graduated scale of beings, at the same time conceiving of the lower stages as the conditions, of the higher.
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  • 287, and Leibnitzsche Gedanken in der modernen Naturwissenschaft, p. 23 seq.).
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  • In the introduction to his work Von der Weltseele, however, he argues in favour of the possibility of a transmutation of species in periods incommensurable with ours.
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  • In his Entwickelungsgeschichte der Thiere (p. 264) he distinctly tells us that the law of growing individuality is " the fundamental thought which goes through all forms and degrees of animal development and all single relations.
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  • He remembered his connexion with Florence when he wrote Romische Briefe von einem Florentiner (Leipzig, 1840-44), and his residence in Rome was also responsible for his Geschichte der Stadt Rom (3 vols., 1867-70)..
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  • trans., 1854), and more general works on Italian history are: Beitrage zur italienischen Geschichte (6 vols., Berlin, 18 53-57), and Charakterbilder aus der neueren Geschichte Italiens (1886).
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  • His papers, over 200 in number, were collected by himself in Beitrdge zur chemischen Kenntniss der MineralkOrper (5 vols., 1 7951810) and Chemische Abhandlungen gemischten Inhalts (1815).
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  • C. Gren's Handbuch der Chemie (1806).
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  • P. Augerstein, Der Konflikt des polnischen Konigs Boleslaw II.
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  • Westergaard, Ober den altesten Zeitraum der indischen Geschichte, p. 87; Rhys Davids, Transactions of the Philological Society (1875), p. 70; Kuhn, Beitrage zur Pali Grammatik, 7-9.
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  • Franke in two articles in the Journal of the Pali Text Society for 1903, and in his Geschichte and Kritik der einheimischen Pali Grammatik.
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  • Neumann, Reden des Gotamo Buddho (3 vols.; Leipzig, 1896-1898); Lieder der Monche and Nonnen (Berlin, 1899); Max Mtiller and V_ Fausboll, Dhammapada and Sutta Nipata (Oxford, 1881).
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  • Franke, Geschichte and Kritik der einheimischen Pali-Grammatik and Lexicographic, and Pali and Sanskrit (Strassburg, 1902); D.
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  • Conwentz, Monographie der baltischen Bernsteinbeiume (Danzig, 1890); R.
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  • Schanz, Geschichte der romischen Literatur, pt.
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  • Schulze, "Uber die inneren Kiemen der Batrachierlarven," Abh.
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  • Schanz, Geschichte der ramischen Litt., i.
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  • Gruppe in Roscher's Lexikon der Mythologie and by P. Monceaux in Daremberg and Saglio's Dictionnaire des antiquites; " Orphia " in Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (3rd ed., 1891), by L.
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  • Niemann, Geschichte der Grafen von Mansfeld (Aschersleben, 1834).
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  • The bundles sometimes keep their arrangement s v in a ring corresponding with the stele, though the continuous cylin 0 der no longer exists (species of - Ranunculus).
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  • He was ably followed by Strasburger (Ueber den Bau und die Verrichtungen der Leitungsbahnen in den Pfianzen, Jena, 1891), Haberlandt and others.
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  • Solereders great work, Systematische Anatomic der Dicotyledoen (Stuttgart, 1898-I908; Eng.
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  • of tke Fungi, &c. (1887); Frank, Die Krankh-eiten der Fflanzen (1895-1896); Sorauer, Handbuch der Pflanzenkrankheiten (i9o6); Ward, Disease in Plants (1901).
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  • Frank, Krankheiten der Pflanzen, and papers in Zeitschr.
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  • Frost, Drought, &c.Hartig, Lehrbuch der Anat.
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  • der Pflanzen; Fischer, Forest Protection, iv.
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  • This, new system of Warmings, whilst probably too involved Cl ~er to come into general use, must be taken as superseding his der one;1 and perhaps the best course open to botanists is to dect such terms as appear to be helpful, and to use the selected I rrms in a general kind of way and without demanding any prese definitions of them: it must also be borne in mind that the g Ibid.
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  • xxiv.; Fischer, Fixirung, Fdrbung and Bau des Protoplasmas (Jena, 1899); Flemming, Morphologic der Zelle, Ergebnisse der Anatomic und Entwickelungsgeschichte (i 896); Gardiner, The 1-listology of the Cell-Wall, with Special Reference to the iVlode of Connection of Cells, Proc. Roy.
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  • (Japan, 1895); Ikeno, Untersuchungen uber die Entwickelting dec Geschlechtsorgane und den Vorgang der J3efruchtung bei Cycas revoluta, Jahr.
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  • Zur naheren Kenntniss der Stitrkekorner, Pringsh.
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  • This has been done with success and in great detail by Grisebach, whose Vegetation der Erde from this point of view is still unsurpassed.
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  • by P. de Tchihatchef (Paris, 1875); Engler, Versuch esner Entwicklungsgeschichte der Pflanzenwelt (Leipzig, 1879-1882); Oscar Drude, Manuel de giographie botanique, transi.
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  • der Wiener Akademie, phil.
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  • Grundriss der iranischen Philol.
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  • Wagner's Lehrbuch der Geographie, vol.
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  • He may be said to have set the pattern which was followed in succeeding ages by the compilers of " political geographies " Geschichte der wissenschaftlichen Erdkunde der Griechen (Leipzig, 1891), Abt.
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  • geography, but, following the model of Strabo, described the world according to its different political divisions, and entered with great zest into the question of the productions ' Bunbury's History of Ancient Geography (2 vols., London, 1879), Muller's Geographi Graeci minores (2 vols., Paris, 1855, 1861) and Berger's Geschichte der wissenschaftlichen Erdkunde der Griechen (4 vols., Leipzig, 1887-1893) are standard authorities on the Greek geographers.
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  • Gunther, Handbuch der mathematischen Geographie (Stuttgart, 1890).
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  • 4 One great series of crust waves from east to west is crossed by a ' " Areal and mittlere Erhebung der Landflachen sowie der Erdkruste " in Gerland's Beitriige zur Geophysik, ii.
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  • 2 Lehrbuch der Geographie (Hanover and Leipzig, 1900), Bd.
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  • Penck, Morphologie der Erdoberflache (2 vols., Stuttgart, 1894).
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  • Forel, Handbuch der Seenkunde: allgemeine Limnologie (Stuttgart, 1901); F.
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  • Lullies, " Studien tither Seen," Jubileiumsschrift der AlbertusUniversitcit (Konigsberg, 2894); and G.
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  • 7 Wagner, Lehrbuch der Geographie (1900), i.
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  • Drude, Handbuch der Pflanzengeographie; A.
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  • Engler, Entwickelungsgeschichte der Pflanzenwelt; also Beddard, Zoogeography (Cambridge, 1895); and Sclater, The Geography of Mammals (London, 1899).
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  • Wagner, Lehrbuch der Geographie, p. 658.
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  • See Quix, Geschichte der Stadt Aachen (1841); Pick, Aus Aachens Vergangenheit (Aachen, 1895); Bock, Karts des grossen Pfalzkapelle (Cologne, 1867); and Beissel, Aachen als Kurort (1889).
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  • Furbringer's enormous work Untersuchungen zur Morphologie and Systematik der Vogel, 4to., 2 vols.
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  • Dames, " Uber Brustbein Schulterand Beckengi.irtel der Archaeopteryx," Math.
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  • Kessler, " Osteologie der Vogelftisse," Bull.
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  • Mehnert, " Entwickelung des Ospelvis der Vogel," Morph.
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  • Carlsson, Beitrdge zur Kenntniss der Anatomie der Schwimmvogel; K.
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  • der Muskulatur des Beckens and der hinteren Gliedmasse der Ratiten, 4° (Jena, 1880); A.
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  • Meckel, "Anatomie des Gehirns der Vogel," in Meckel's Archiv f.
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  • Schulgin, " Lobi optici der Vogel," Zool.
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  • Furbringer, ' ` Zur Lehre von den Umbildungen der Nervenplexus," Morph.
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  • 16), extending between the fenestra ovalis and the tympanic membrane or drum, consists of (I) the long and slen der columella, a straight, ossified rod which fits with a disk into the fenestra r; t st ovalis; it is homologous with the stapes (m.st.), although not stirrupshaped; (2) the extra-columellar mass.
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  • See C. Gegenbaur, " Uber die Nasenmuscheln der Vogel," Jena Zeitschr.
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  • Anatomie des Herzens der Vogel and Reptilien," Arch.
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  • Strasser, " Luft sac ke der Vogel," Morph.
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  • Ballowitz, " Die Spermatozoen der Vogel," Arch.
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  • Zittel, Handbuch der Paldontologie, i.
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  • Schmarda, Die geographische Verbreitung der Thiere (Wien, 1853).
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  • This appointment he owed chiefly to his work, Ober den Ursprung der menschlichen Seelen (1854), in which he maintained that the human soul was not implanted by a special creative act in each case, but was the result of a secondary creative act on the part of the parents: that soul as well as body, therefore, was subject to the laws of heredity.
    0
    0
  • Undeterred by the offence which these works gave to his ecclesiastical superiors, he published in 1858 the Einleitung in die Philosophie and Grundriss der Metaphysik, in which he assailed the doctrine of Thomas Aquinas, that philosophy was the handmaid of theology.
    0
    0
  • In 1861 appeared Ober die Aufgabe der Naturphilosophie and ihr Verhdltnis zur Naturwissenschaft, which was, he declared, directed against the purely mechanical conception of the universe, and affirmed the necessity of a creative Power.
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    0
  • In the same year he published Ober die Freiheit der Wissenschaft, in which he maintained the independence of science, whose goal was truth, against authority, and reproached the excessive respect for the latter in the Roman Church with the insignificant part played by the German Catholics in literature and philosophy.
    0
    0
  • His later years were occupied with a series of philosophical works, of which the most important were: Die Phantasie als Grundprincip des Weltprocesses (1877), Uber die Genesis der Menschheit and deren geistige Entwicklung in Religion, Sittlichkeit and Sprache (1883), and Ober die Organisation and Cultur der menschlichen Gesellschaft (1885).
    0
    0
  • Frohschammer, der Philosoph der Weltphantasie (1894) and Briefe von and fiber J.
    0
    0
  • Friedrich, Jakob Frohschammer (1896) and Systematische and kritische Darstellung der Psychologie J.
    0
    0
  • Delbriick's writings are chiefly concerned with the history of the art of war, his most ambitious work being his Geschichte der Kriegskunst im Rahmen der politischen Geschichte (first section, Das Altertum, 1900; second, Reiner and Germanen, 1902; third, Das Mittelalter, 1907).
    0
    0
  • Schiller, Geschichte der romischen Kaiserzeit, i.
    0
    0
  • von der Goltz, Das Gebel in der eiltesten Christenheit (1901); id., Tischgebete and Abendmahlsgebete (1905); O.
    0
    0
  • See Ktitz, Geschichte der Stadt Schweiz seit 1772 (Marienwerder, 1904) .
    0
    0
  • 1038), a man of wide learning, wrote 1 For the history of the very extensive literature of this class, Zunz, Literaturgeschichte der synagogalen Poesie (Berlin, 1865), is indispensable.
    0
    0
  • For further study: Graetz, Geschichte der Juden (Leipzig, 1853, &c.) (the volumes are in various editions), with sp€cial reference to the notes; English translation by B.
    0
    0
  • Lowy (London, 1891-1892) (without the notes); Zunz, Gottesdienstliche Vortrage der Juden (new ed., Frankfort-on-Main, 1892); Zur Geschichte and Literatur (Berlin, 1845).
    0
    0
  • Steinschneider, Arabische Literatur der Juden (Frankfort-on-Main, 1902); Hebretische Zlbersetzungen des Mittelalters (Berlin, 1893).
    0
    0
  • Creuzer's first and most famous work was his Symbolik and Mythologie der alten V dlker, besonders der Griechen (1810-1812), in which he maintained that the mythology of Homer and Hesiod came from an Eastern source through the Pelasgians, and was the remains of the symbolism of an ancient revelation.
    0
    0
  • This work was vigorously attacked by Hermann in his Briefen fiber Homer and Hesiod, and in his letter, addressed to Creuzer, Ober das Wesen and die Behandlung der Mythologie; by J.
    0
    0
  • Of Creuzer's other works the principal are an edition of Plotinus; a partial edition of Cicero, in preparing which he was assisted by Moser; Die historische Kunst der Griechen (1803); Epochen der griech.
    0
    0
  • Forbiger, Handbuch der alten Geographie, vol.
    0
    0
  • der Normannen in Sicilien (Stuttgart, 1889); L.
    0
    0
  • der Normannen in Unteritalien and Sicilien (Leipzig, 1894); W.
    0
    0
  • Methode der Hegelschen Philosophie, a severe criticism of the Hegelian system.
    0
    0
  • This was continued in the Grundprincip der Philosophie (1845-1846), which also gives his speculative position.
    0
    0
  • die Natur (1862; 3rd ed., 1875), Gott and der Mensch (2 vols., 1866-1873; 2nd ed., 1874).
    0
    0
  • The Uruguay is navigable all the year by steamers from the island From Strasburger's Lehrbuch der Botanik, by permission of Gustav Fischer.
    0
    0
  • Bohn, Die Propylaeen der Akropolis sit Athen (Berlin, 1882); W.
    0
    0
  • des deutschen Adels (2nd ed., Waldenburg, 1851); von Maurer, Uber das Wesen des dltesten Adds der deutschen Stdmme (Munich, 1846); Rose, Der Adel Deutschlands and seine Stellung im deutschen Reich (Berlin, 1883); G.
    0
    0
  • der Wiener Akad.
    0
    0
  • der Wissenschaften (1902), pp. 15-36.
    0
    0
  • Cantor, Geschichte der Mathematik, i., Leipzig, 1894; G.
    0
    0
  • Sutterer, Der letzte Romer (Eichstddt, 1852); H.
    0
    0
  • Ebert, Allgemeine Geschichte der Litt.
    0
    0
  • See Frauenstddt, Der Materialismus (Leipzig, 1856); Janet, The Materialism of the Present Day: A Criticism of Dr Buchner's System, trans.
    0
    0
  • Ritschl's Entstehung der alt-hatholischen Kirche, and edition, 1857, was an especially telling reply.) The synoptic gospels are now treated with considerable respect.
    0
    0
  • Traube in the Sitzungsbericht der Miinchener Akad., phil.
    0
    0
  • - Gindely, Geschichte der Bohmischen-Bruder (1858); Goll, Quellen u.
    0
    0
  • Bohm.-Bruder (1882); Muller, Das Bischofstum der Bruder-Kirche (1888); Zinzendorf als Erneuerer der alien Bruder-Kirche (1900); Die deutschen Katechismen.
    0
    0
  • Schulze, Abrisz einer Geschichte der Bruder-Mission (1901); Seifferth, Church Constitution of the Bohemian and Moravian Brethren (1866); De Schweinitz, History of the Unitas Fratrum (1885); Wauer, Beginnings of the Brethren's Church in England (1901); Hamilton, History of the Moravian Church in the 28th and 19th Centuries (1900); Hutton, History of the Moravian Church (1909); Moravian Church Book (1902); Moravian Almanac (annual).
    0
    0
  • der Geissler" in Briegers Zeitschrift fiir Kirchengeschichte, i.
    0
    0
  • In 1879 he was appointed president of the Kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschaften (Academy of Sciences) at Vienna, and in 1896 succeeded von Sybel as chairman of the historical commission at Munich.
    0
    0
  • der Maria Theresa (to vols., ib.
    0
    0
  • and Leopold von Toskana, ihr Briefwechsel (2 vols., 1872); Briefe der Kaiserin Maria Theresa an ihre Kinder and Freunde (4 vols., 1881); Marie Antoinette: Correspondance secrete entre Marie-Therese et le comte de Mercy-Argenteau (3 vols., Paris, 1875), in collaboration with Auguste Geffroy; Graf Philipp Cobenzl and seine Memoiren (1885); Correspondance secrete du comte de Mercy-Argenteau avec l'empereur Joseph II.
    0
    0
  • Walter, Die Politik der Kurie enter Gregor X.
    0
    0
  • in Beitrdge zur Geschichte der Philosophic des Mittelalters, Bd.
    0
    0
  • Pfleiderer, Die Philosophie des Heraklitus von Ephesus im Lichte der Mysterienidee (Berlin, 1886); G.
    0
    0
  • (1904) 182-223, and "Heraklit der Dunkle" in Neue Jahrb.
    0
    0
  • von der Bruggen, Das heutige Russland (Eng.
    0
    0
  • Thun, Geschichte der revolutionaren Bewegungen in Russland (Leipzig, 1883); Konni Zilliacus, The Russian Revolutionary movement (London, 1905).
    0
    0
  • See Ktichen, Geschichte der Stadt Kammin (Kammin, 1885).
    0
    0
  • Haarmann before the Verein der Deutschen Eisenhuttenleute on Dec. 8, 1907, translated in the Railway Gazette (London) on April 3, 10 and 17, 1908.
    0
    0
  • Sach, Der Ursprung der Stadt Hadersleben (Hadersleben, 1892).
    0
    0
  • 1885); Kompendium der Dogmatik (1865; 9th ed., 1893), Geschichte der christlichen Ethik (2 vols., 1888-1893), Gnade and Wahrheit (1874), Das Wort des Lebens (1877) and Gnade and Frieden (1880).
    0
    0
  • Wattenbach, is given in the second volume of the Geschichtsschreiber der deutschen Vorzeit (1853).
    0
    0
  • der Gesellsch.
    0
    0
  • von der Goltz, Das Gebet in eiltesten Christianheit (Leipzig, 1901); F.
    0
    0
  • Ehlers, Samoa, die Perle der Siidsee (Berlin, 1900); F.
    0
    0
  • der israelit.
    0
    0
  • p. 157 foil.), as well as Wellhausen, and since then by Jacobs and Zapletal (Der Totemismus u.
    0
    0
  • On this subject of Babylonian influence over Israel see Jeremias, Monotheistische Stromungen innerhalb der babylonischen Religion, and E.
    0
    0
  • Sellin, Ertrag der Ausgrabungen im Orient.
    0
    0
  • Giesebrecht, Der Knecht Jahwes des Deuterojesaja.
    0
    0
  • (1906) and his Geschichte der israelitischen Religion, are clear, compact and most serviceable, and the former work presents the subject in fresh and suggestive aspects.
    0
    0
  • Duhm's Theologie der Propheten and Robertson Smith's Prophets of Israel should also be consulted.
    0
    0
  • Strongly to be recommended are Smend, Lehrbuch der alttestamentlichen Religionsgeschichte; Bennett, Theology of the Old Testament and Religion of the Post-Exilic Prophets; A.
    0
    0
  • Crusius in Roscher's Lexikon der Mythologie (article "Kadmos," 90, 91).
    0
    0
  • Kompendium der Physik für Mediziner (Vienna, 1863); Einleitung in die Helmholtz'sche Musiktheorie (Gratz, 1866); Die Gesch.
    0
    0
  • Froude (1891); "Der Ursprung der Ehescheidung Kbnig Heinrichs VIII."
    0
    0
  • and "Der Sturz des Cardinals Wolsey," by W.
    0
    0
  • der Wissensch.
    0
    0
  • Fraunhofer is especially known for the researches, published in the Denkschriften der Miinchener Akademie for 1814-1815, by which he laid the foundation of solar and stellar chemistry.
    0
    0
  • See von Utzschneider, Kurzer Umriss der Lebensgeschichte des Herrn Dr J.
    0
    0
  • I, 1887); P. Kretschmer, Einleitung in die Geschichte der griechischen Sprache, pp. 376-384 (1896).
    0
    0
  • Esselborn, Geschichte der Stadt Ludwigshafen (Ludwigshafen, 1888).
    0
    0
  • Forster, Der Raub and die Riickkehr der Persephone (1874), in which considerable space is devoted to the representations of the myth in art; W.
    0
    0
  • Bloch in Roscher's Lexikon der Mythologie; O.
    0
    0
  • 1700); Salig, Historie der Augsburg.
    0
    0
  • der Prot.
    0
    0
  • die Scholastik der letzten Jahrhunderte (Regensburg, 1861), and Stockl's Geschichte der Philosophic des Mittelalters, iii.
    0
    0
  • der Zoologie (Munich, 1872), p. 109 seq.; J.
    0
    0
  • 31 seq., i 15 seq., and in Verslagen en Mededeelingen der kon.
    0
    0
  • Peters, Der griechische Physiologus and seine orientalischen Ubersetzungen (Berlin, 1898).
    0
    0
  • See Dimitz, Geschichte Krains von der dltesten Zeit bis 1813 (4 vols., Laibach, 1874-1876).
    0
    0
  • van Laar, Lehrbuch der mathematischen Chemie (Leipzig, 1901).
    0
    0
  • der Stadt Rom., iii.
    0
    0
  • Bartsch, Beitrcige zur Geschichte and Kritik der Kudrun (1865); H.
    0
    0
  • Wilmanns, Die Entwickelung der Kudrundichtung (1873); A.
    0
    0
  • Benedict, Die Gudrunsage in der neueren Literatur (1902.) '[[Guebriant, Jean Baptiste Budes,' Comte De]] (1602-1643), marshal of France, was born at Plessis-Budes, near St Brieuc, of an old Breton family.
    0
    0
  • p. 212 seq.; also his " Der alte Orient and die Geschichtsforschung " in Mitteilungen der Vorderasiat.
    0
    0
  • Under the constitution of Caracalla (198-217) all inhabitants of the Roman empire enjoyed the civil rights of the Cives Romani (Scherer, Die Rechtsverhaltnisse der Juden, p. Io).
    0
    0
  • Graetz, Geschichte der Juden (ii vols., 18 531875; several subsequent editions of separate volumes; Eng.
    0
    0
  • of the Jewish Quarterly Review; Scherer, Rechtsverhdltnisse der Juden (1901); M.
    0
    0
  • Giidemann Geschichte des Erziehungswesens and der Cultur der Juden (1880, &c.); A.
    0
    0
  • Abbott, Israel in Europe (1905); G.Caro, Wirtschaftsgeschichte der Juden (1908); M.
    0
    0
  • Mailer's Handbuch der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft, iii.
    0
    0
  • Milchhdfer (Anfdnge der Kunst) had called attention to certain remarkable examples of archaic Greek bronze-work, and the subsequent discovery of the votive bronzes in the cave of Zeus on Mount Ida, and notably the shields with their fine embossed designs, shows that by the 8th century B.C. Cretan technique in metal not only held its own beside imported Cypro-Phoenician work, but was distinctly ahead of that of the rest of Greece (Halbherr, Bronzi del antro di Zeus Ideo).
    0
    0
  • He was the author of Institutiones Physiologicae (1787), and of a Handbuck der vergleichenden Anatomie (1804), both of which were very popular and went through many editions, but he is best known for his work in connexion with anthropology, of which science he has been justly called the founder.
    0
    0
  • Mtiller's Handbuch der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft.
    0
    0
  • (3rd ed., Leipzig, 1887); Herzog, Geschichte and System der rOmischen Staatsverfassung, i.
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    0
  • 23-40), left no issue.2 See Mahaffy, The Empire of the Ptolemies (1895) and Egypt under the Ptolemaic Dynasty (1899); Strack, Die Dynastie der Ptolemcier (1897); Bouche-Leclercq, Histoire des Lagides (1904, 1907); Meyer, Das Heerwesen der Ptolemder and Reimer (Leipzig, 1900).
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    0
  • He edited the Aramaic translation (known as the Targum) of the Prophets according to the Codex Reuchlinianus preserved at Carlsruhe, Prophetae chaldaice (1872), the Hagiographa chaldaice (1874), an Arabic translation of the Gospels, Die vier Evangelien, arabisch aus der Wiener Handschrift herausgegeben (1864), a Syriac translation of the Old Testament Apocrypha, Libri V.
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    0
  • apocryphi syriace (1861), a Coptic translation of the Pentateuch, Der Pentateuch koptisch (1867), and a part of the Lucianic text of the Septuagint, which he was able to reconstruct from manuscripts for nearly half the Old Testament.
    0
    0
  • He devoted himself ardently to oriental scholarship, and published Zur Urgeschichte der Armenier (1854) and Armenische Studien (1877).
    0
    0
  • der Griechen, iii.
    0
    0
  • Laymen also belonged to it, like Hermann of Fritzlar and Rulman Merswin, the rich banker of Strassburg (author of a mystical work, Buck der neon Felsen, on the nine rocks or upwards steps of contemplation).
    0
    0
  • - Besides the sections on mysticism in the general histories of philosophy by Erdmann, Ueberweg and Windelband, and in works on church history and the history of dogma, reference may be made for the medieval period to Heinrich Schmid, Der Mysticismus in seiner Entstehungsperiode (1824); Charles Schmidt, Essai sur les mystiques du 14me siecle (1836) Ad.
    0
    0
  • Preger's Geschichte der deutschen Mystik (vol.
    0
    0
  • Wasmann (Kritisches Verzeichniss der myrmecophilen and termitophilen Arthropoden, Berlin, 1894, and 3,rze Congres Intern.
    0
    0
  • (1898); Wasmann, Die psychischen Fahigkeiten der Ameisen (Stuttgart, 1899); C. Ll.
    0
    0
  • and die deutschen Protestanten (Dusseldorf, 1865); Studien and Skizzen zur Geschichte der Reformationszeit (Leipzig, 1874); and the incomplete Geschichte der Katholischen Reformation (Nordlingen, 1880).
    0
    0
  • He also wrote Don Karlos (Berlin, 1876); Gri ndung des deutschen Reiches 1859-1871 (Leipzig, 1892, and again 1902); and Geschichte der deutschen Kiinigswahlen (Leipzig, 1889).
    0
    0
  • Suess, Das Antlitz der Erde (see, especially, vol.
    0
    0
  • Richthofen, " Ueber Gestalt and Gliederung einer Grundlinie in der Morphologie Ost-Asiens," Sitz.
    0
    0
  • Ka.stner, Geschichte der Mathematik, i.
    0
    0
  • Apelt, Die Reformation der Sternkunde, p. 34; M.
    0
    0
  • Cantor, Vorlesungen i ber Geschichte der Math., ii.
    0
    0
  • der Math., i.
    0
    0
  • Wolf, Geschichte der Astronomie, p. 87; S.
    0
    0
  • von Sommerfeld, Geschichte der Germanisierung des Herzogtums Pommern (Leipzig, 1896); F.
    0
    0
  • Chretien's poem has been published by Professor Wendelin Foerster, in his edition of the works of that poet, Der Karrenritter (1899).
    0
    0
  • Hofer's exhaustive article in Roscher's Lexikon der Mytho.
    0
    0
  • Novakovitch, "Die Oedipussage in der siidslavischen Volksdichtung," in Archiv fiir slavische Philologie x1.°.(1888).
    0
    0
  • After a short period of study in Paris on the French Revolution, he spent some time working in the archives of Baden and Bavaria, and published in 1845 Die Geschichte der rheinischen Pfalz, which won for him a professorship extraordinarius at Heidelberg.
    0
    0
  • Oncken in the Geschichte des Zeitalters der Reformation (1869, 2nd ed.
    0
    0
  • 1880), and Geschichte der franzosischen Revolution (1869, 2nd ed.
    0
    0
  • Bezzenberger, Die Kurische Nehrung and ihre Bewohner (Stuttgart, 1889); and Lindner, Die Preussische Wiiste einst and jetzt, Bilder von der Kurischen Nehrung (Osterwieck, 1898).
    0
    0
  • Niese, Geschichte der griechischen and makedonischen Staaten, ii.
    0
    0
  • See James Sully, Pessimism: A History and a Criticism (1877); Caro, Le Pessimisme au xix e siecle (1878); Saltus, The Anatomy of Negation (1886); Tulloch, Modern Theories on Philosophy and Religion (1884); William James, The Will to Believe; Duhring, Der Werth des Lebens (1865); Meyer, Weltelend and Weltschmerz (1872); E.
    0
    0
  • Pfleiderer, Der moderne Pessimismus (1875); Agnes Taubert (Hartmann), Der Pessimismus and seine Gegner (1873); Gass, Optimismus and Pessimismus (1876); Rehmke, Die Philos.
    0
    0
  • des Weltschmerzes (1876); Huber, Der Pessimismus (1876); von Golther, Der moderne P. (1878); Paulsen, Schopenhauer, Hamlet, Mephistopheles (1900); Kowalewski, Studien zur Psychologie des P. (1904).
    0
    0
  • See Wagner and Grobe, Chronik der Stadt Saalfeld (Saalfeld, 1865-1867), and Thiimmel, Kriegstage aus Saalfelds Vergangenheit (Berlin, 1882).
    0
    0
  • The German pamphlet: Pansalim Fiirst der Finsterniss and seine Geliebte, published in 1794, is a fair specimen of the opinion of those who regarded him as the evil genius of Catherine and of Russia.
    0
    0
  • (Munich, 1861); Ebert's Geschichte der Christlich-Lateinischen Literatur (Leipsic, 1874); Wattenbach's Deutschlands Geschichtsquellen im Mittelalter (Berlin, 1877); and the introduction of Mommsen to his edition.
    0
    0
  • THE TEUTONIC ORDER, or Teutonic Knights of St Mary's Hospital at Jerusalem (Der deutsche Orden, Deutsche Ritter) was one of the three great military and religious orders which sprang from the Crusades.
    0
    0
  • Cantor's histories of mathematics, and more elaborate analyses are those of Nesselmann (Die Algebra der Griechen, Berlin, 1842) and G.
    0
    0
  • Kosegarten, Geschichte der Universitdt Greifswald (1856); C. Gesterding, Beitrag zur Geschichte der Stadt Greifswald (3 vols., 1827-1829); and I.
    0
    0
  • Ziegler, Geschichte der Stadt Greifswald (Greifswald, 1897).
    0
    0
  • See generally, Oncken, Geschichte der Nationalokonomie, vol.
    0
    0
  • von Mohl, Geschichte and Literatur der Staatswissenschaften, bk.
    0
    0
  • Eremites (Constantinople, 1883); see also C. Krumbacher, Geschichte der byzantinischen Litteratur (1897); Gass-Kruger in Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopcidie fiir protestantische Theologie, Bd.
    0
    0
  • Schmidt, Volksleben der Neugriechen, 1871, p. 228).
    0
    0
  • Bastian, Der Mensch in der Geschichte, 1860, ii.
    0
    0
  • Foerster, Der Raub and die Riickkehr der Persephone (1874); A.
    0
    0
  • Waitz, Jahrbiicher der deutschen Geschichte unter Heinrich I.
    0
    0
  • The writer of this article is much indebted to the works of Schmoller, particularly his Grundris der allgemeinen Volkswirtschaftslehre (1900), and Adolph Wagner, particularly his Grundlegung der politischen Okonomie.
    0
    0
  • See Haupt, Soden am Taunus (Wurzburg, 1902); and Kohler, Der Kurort Soden am Taunus and seine Umgebungen (Frankfort, 1873)
    0
    0
  • See Besler, Geschichte des Schlosses, der Herrschaft and der Stadt Forbach (1895).
    0
    0
  • Geiger's Grundriss der iranischen Philologie, ii.
    0
    0
  • by Lasswitz, 1901); Ober die physikalische and philosophische Atomenlehre (1853, 2nd ed., 1864); Elemente der Psychophysik (1860, 2nd ed., 1889); Vorschule der Asthetik (1876, 2nd ed., 1898); Die Tagesansicht gegeniiber der Nachtansicht (1879).
    0
    0
  • A different but essential side of his character is seen in his poems and humorous pieces, such as the Vergleichende Anatomie der Engel (1825), written under the pseudonym of "Dr Mises."
    0
    0
  • Fechner's epoch-making work was his Elemente der Psychophysik (1860).
    0
    0
  • Lang, " Versuch einer Erklarung der Asymmetric der Gastropoder," Vierteljahrsschr.
    0
    0
  • 2 See Reuss, Geschichte der heil.
    0
    0
  • In recent times the doctrine of Origen has been expounded in the great works on church history by Baur, Dorner, Bohringer, Neander, Miller (Geschichte der Kosmologie in der griechischen Kirche) and Kahnis (Die Lehre vom h.
    0
    0
  • Lehre von der Auferstehung des Fleisches (1851); Knittel, "Orig.
    0
    0
  • Lehre von der Menschwerdung," in the Theol.
    0
    0
  • (1875); Mehlhorn, "Die Lehre von der menschlichen Freiheit nach Orig.," in Zeitschr.
    0
    0
  • Fournier, Napoleon der erste (3 vols., Prague and Vienna, 1889); W.
    0
    0
  • Oncken, Das Zeitalter der Revolution, des Kaiserreichs, and der Befreiungskriege (2 vols., Berlin, 1880); A.
    0
    0
  • Fournier, Der Congress von Chatillon (Vienna and Prague, 1900); P. Gruyer, Napoleon, roi de l'he d'Elbe (Paris, 1906); *H.
    0
    0
  • bis zum Untergang der Arsaciden (1888).
    0
    0
  • Ellissen in Analekten der mitteland neugriechischen Literatur, iv.); and the N6uot (ed.
    0
    0
  • Schultze, Geschichte der Philosophie der Renaissance, i.
    0
    0
  • Schanz, Geschichte der rOmischenLitteratur, iv.
    0
    0
  • After some years of struggling, during which he published his Geschichte der neueren Philosophic (2 vols., 1833-1837, 2nd ed.
    0
    0
  • (1853), highly commended by C. Krumbacher, whose Geschichte der byzantinischen Litteratur (1897) should also be consulted.
    0
    0
  • Here he supported the Consensus-Union, and afterwards defended himself in the pamphlets Die erste Generalsynode der evang.
    0
    0
  • His chief work, however, was Die christliche Lehre der Siinde (2 vols., 1839; 5th ed., 1867; Eng.
    0
    0
  • Palmen, Uber paarige Ausfiihrungsgange der Geschlechtsorgane bei Insekten (Helsingfors, 1884); H.
    0
    0
  • Leuckart, Zur Kenntnis des Generationswechsels and der Parthogenesis bei den Insekten (Frankfurt, 1858); N.
    0
    0
  • Handlirsch, Die fossilen Insekten and die Phylogenie der rezenten Formen (Leipzig, 1906).
    0
    0
  • Frisch began the long series of works on the birds of Germany with which the literature of ornithology is enriched, by his Vorstellung der Vogel Teutschlands, which was only completed in 1763, and, its coloured plates proving very attractive, was again issued at Berlin in 1817.
    0
    0
  • Fischer's Versuch einer Naturgeschichte von Livland appeared at Konigsberg, next year Beseke brought out at Mitau his Beytrag zur Naturgeschichte der Vogel Kurlands, and in 1794 Siemssen's Handbuch of the birds of Mecklenburg was published at Rostock.
    0
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  • This Naturgeschichte der Vogel Deutschlands, being almost wholly rewritten by his son J.
    0
    0
  • In 1832 Kittlitz began to publish some Kup- fertafeln zur Naturgeschichte der Vogel, in which many new species are figured; but the work came to an end with its thirty-sixth plate in the following year.
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  • In 1845 Reichenbach commenced with his Praktische Naturgeschichte der Vogel the extraordinary series of illustrated publications which, under titles far too numerous here to repeat, ended in or about 1855, and are commonly known collectively as his Vollsteindigste Naturgeschichte der Vogel.
    0
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  • The arrangement he subsequently adopted for them and for other groups is to be found in his Natiirliches System der Amphibien (pp. 77-128), published in 1830, and is too fanciful to require any further attention.
    0
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  • tion of " Faunae "; 1 but these are so numerous that it Faber's Prodromus der islandischen Ornithologie (8vo, 1822), though the island has since been visited by several good ornithologistsProctor, Kruper and Wolley among them.
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    0
  • Tiedemann's carefully-wrought Anatomic and N aturgeschichte der V gel - which shows a remarkable advance upon the work which Cuvier did in 1805, and in some respects is superior to his later production of 1817.
    0
    0
  • More germane to our present subject are the Osteographische Beitrage zur Naturgeschichte der Vogel of C. L.
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  • der Berlin.
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    0
  • Gloger brought out at Breslau the first (and unfortunately the only) part of a Vollstandiges Handbuch der Natur- In th e Introduction to r t his?
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    0
  • In the year last mentioned the greater part of these was separately issued under the title of Beitrrige zur Kenntniss der Naturgeschichte der Vogel.
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  • Muller, Stimmorganen der Passerinen, p. 65).
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  • The division seems to have been instituted by this author a couple of years earlier in the second edition of his Handbuch der Naturgeschichte (a work not seen by the present writer), but not then to have received a scientific name.
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  • Reichenow in Die Vogel der zoologischen Garten published a classification of birds with a phylogenetic tree.
    0
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  • In 1888 there was published the huge monograph by Max Fiirbringer entitled Untersuchungen zur Morphologie and Systematik der Vogel.
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    0
  • Konig, "Der Nordfuss des Daghestan," in Petermanns Mitteil., Erganzungsheft, No.
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    0
  • See articles in Pauly-Wissowa's Realencyclopadie and Roscher's Lexikon der Mythologie.
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    0
  • Franke, Beitrage aus chinesischen Quellen zur Kenntnis der Tiirkvolker and Skythen (1904); Ujfalvy, Memoire sur les Huns Blancs (1898); Drouin, Memoire sur les Huns Ephthalites (1895); and various articles by Vincent Smith, Specht, Drouin, and E.
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  • " Amice"; Diez, W orterbuch der rom.
    0
    0
  • Full information about Justin's history and views may be had from the following monographs: C. Semisch, Justin der Martyrer (2 vols., 1840-1842); J.
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    0
  • Gaul, Die Abfassungsverhdltnisse der pseudojustinischen Cohortatio ad Graecos (1902); Adolf Harnack, Diodor von Tarsus.
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  • Der Traum vom Standpunkt des transcendentalen Idealismus).
    0
    0
  • In Der Kampf urns Dasein am Himmel von Prel endeavoured to apply the Darwinian doctrine of organic evolution not only to the sphere of consciousness but also even more widely as the philosophical principle of the world.
    0
    0
  • Thomas, Urkunden zur dlteren Handelsand Staatsgeschichte der Republik Venedig (Vienna, 1856); V.
    0
    0
  • Among his works on Greek literature the chief are Die schyleische Trilogie (1824, 6), Der epische Zyklus oder die Homerischen Gedichte (2 vols.
    0
    0
  • His editions and biography of Zoega, his Zeitschrift fiir Geschichte and Auslegung der alten Kunst (Göttingen, 1817, 8) and his Alte Denkmdler (5 vols., 1849-1864) contain his views on ancient art.
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  • der Logik, iii.
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  • der Ostrakismos, who arrives at the conclusion that ostracism could not have been introduced till after 496 B.C.) to suspect the unanimous evidence of antiquity that Cleisthenes was the inventor of ostracism.
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    0
  • Geschichte der deutschen Philosophie seit Leibnitz (1873).
    0
    0
  • See Lagarde, Bildung der Nomina, p. 125 n.
    0
    0
  • Strongly in agreement with the Hegelian tradition, he defended and amplified it in Die gegenweirtige Aufgabe der Philosophie (1852) and Verstehen and Beurteilen (1877).
    0
    0
  • He published Aristoteles fiber die Farben (1849), Aristoteles' acht Blcher der Physik (1857), and numerous minor articles on smaller points, such as the authenticity of the thirty-eight books of the Problems. The work by which he is best known is the Geschichte der Logik im Abendland (Leipzig, 1855-1870).
    0
    0
  • See Ritz, Die iiltere Geschichte des Veste and der Stadt Recklinghausen (Erzen, 1904).
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    0
  • "Aphrodite" in Roscher's Lexicon der gr.
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    0
  • Sudenhorst's principal writings are Dorfleben im 18 Jahrhundert (Vienna, 1877); Hans Ulrich, Fiirst von Eggenberg (Vienna, 1880); Die Politik der Republic Venedig wdhrend des dreissigjdhrigen Krieges (Stuttgart, 1882-85); Venedig als Weltmacht and Weltstadt (Bielefeld, 1899 and 1906); Kriegsbilder aus der Zeit der Landsknechte (Stuttgart, 1883); Die bfentliche Meinung in Deutschland im Zeitalter Ludwigs XIV.
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  • He edited the Bibliothek deutscher Geschichte, writing for this series, Deutsche Geschichte im Zeitalter der Griindung des preussischen Konigtums (Stuttgart, 1887-94); and Deutsche Geschichte von der Auflosung des alten bis zur Griindung des neuen Reiches (Stuttgart, 1897-1905).
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  • Systematical, including Grundprobleme der Erkenntnistheorie; Kategorienlehre; Das sittliche Bewusstsein; Die Philosophie des Schonen; Die Religion des Geistes; Die Philosophie des Unbewussten (3 vols., which now include his, originally anonymous, self-criticism, Das Unbewusste vom Standpunkte der Physiologie and Descendenztheorie, and its refutation, Eng.
    0
    0
  • C. Coupland, 1884); System der Philosophie im Grundriss, Grundriss der Erkenntnislehre.
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    0
  • Historical and critical - Das religiose Bewusstsein der Menschheit; Geschichte der Metaphysik (2 vols.); Kant's Erkenntnistheorie; Kritische Grundlegung des transcendentalen Realismus; Ober die dialektische Methode; studies of Schelling, Lotze, von Kirchmann; Zur Geschichte des Pessimismus; Neukantianismus, Schopenhauerismus, Hegelianismus; Geschichte der deutschen Asthetik seit Kant; Die Krisis des Christentums in der modernen Theologie; Philosophische Fragen der Gegenwart; Ethische Studien; Moderne Psychologie; Das Christentum des neuen Testaments; Die Weltanschauung der modernen Physik.
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  • C. Popular - Soziale Kernfragen; Moderne Probleme; Tagesfragen; Zwei Jahrzehnte deutscher Politik; Das Judentum in Gegenwart and Zukunft; Die Selbstzersetzung des Christentums; Gesammelte Studien; Der Spiritismus and Die Geisterhypothese des Spiritismus; Zur Zeitgeschichte.
    0
    0
  • Plumacher, Der Kampf urns Unbewusste (2nd ed., 1890), with a chronological table of the Hartmann literature from 1868 to 1890; A.
    0
    0
  • von Hartmanns Philosophie and der Materialismus in der modernen Kultur (1890) and E.
    0
    0
  • See Strauss, Geschichte der Stadt Munchen-Gladbach (1895); and G.
    0
    0
  • Eckertz, Das Verbriiderungsand Todtenbuch der Abtei Gladbach (1881).
    0
    0
  • Burmeister (Handbuch der Entomologie, 1832) in Germany.
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    0
  • Baur, Urkunden zur hessischen Landes-, Ortsand Familiengeschichte (Darmstadt, 1846-1873); Steiner, Geschichte des Grossherzogtums Hessen (Darmstadt, 18 3318 34); Klein, Das Grossherzogtum Hessen (Mainz, 1861); Ewald, Historische Ubersicht der Territorialverdnderungen der Landgrafschaft Hessen and des Grossherzogtums Hessen (Darmstadt, 1872); F.
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    0
  • Zeller, Handbuch der Verfassung and Verwaltung im Grossherzogtum Hessen (Darmstadt, 1885-1893).
    0
    0
  • See Thom,,' Geschichte der Stadt and Herrschaft Schwedt (Berlin, 1873).
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    0
  • From Strasburger's Lehrbuch der Botanik, by permission of Gustav Fischer.
    0
    0
  • In the year following his appointment he published a second monograph Der Heilige Bernhard and sein Zeitalter (Berlin, 1813), and then in 1818 his work on Gnosticism (Genetische Entwickelung der vornehmsten gnostischen Systeme).
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  • A still more extended an elaborate monograph than either of the preceding followed in 1822, Der Heilige Johannes Chrysostomus and die Kirche, besonders des Orients in dessen Zeitalter, and again, in 1824, another on Tertullian (Antignostikus).
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  • The first volume of his Allgemeine Geschichte der christlichen Religion and Kirche embracing the history of the first three centuries, made its appearance in 1825.
    0
    0
  • Besides this great work he published in 1832 his Geschichte der Pflanzung and Leitung der christlichen Kirche, and in 1837 his Das Leben Jesu Christi, in seinem geschichtlichen Zusammenhang and seiner geschichtlichen Entwickelung, called forth by the famous Life of David Strauss.
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  • In addition to all these he published Denkwiirdigkeiten aus der Geschichte des Christentums (1823-1824, 2 vols., 1825, 3 vols., 1846); Das Eine and Mannichf altige des christlichen Lebens (1840); papers on Plotinus, Thomas Aquinas, Theobald Thamer, Blaise Pascal, J.
    0
    0
  • His Church History (Allgemeine Geschichte der christlichen Religion and Kirche) remains the greatest monument of his genius.
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    0
  • In 1869-1870 he published his book on the religion of Israel, De godsdienst van Israel tot den ondergang van der Joodschen Staat (Eng.
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    0
  • Here, too, he composed his first work, which deals with the period to which most of his life was to be devoted, Geschichte der romanischen and germanischen Volker 1494-1514 (Berlin, 1824).
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  • Before it was completed he had already begun the researches on which was based the second of his masterpieces, his Deutsche Geschichte im Zeitalter der Reformation (Berlin, 1839-47), a necessary pendant to his book on the popes, and the most popular of his works in his own country.
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  • mit Bunsen (Leipzig, 1873); Die deutschen Mackie and der Fiirstenbund.
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  • P. Migne, Patrologia graeca, clvi; see also C. Krumbacher, Geschichte der byzantinischen Litteratur (1897).
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    0
  • There he collaborated with Oscar Leopold von Gebhardt in Texte and Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der altchristlichen Litteratur (1882 sqq.), an irregular periodical, containing only essays in New Testament and patristic fields.
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    0
  • In 1885 he published the first volume of his epoch-making work, Lehrbuch der Dogmengeschichte (3rd ed.
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    0
  • An abridgment of this appeared in 1889 with the title Grundriss der Dogmengeschichte (3rd ed., 1898).
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  • In 1893 he published a history of early Christian literature down to Eusebius, Geschichte der altchristl.
    0
    0
  • Partly by contact with the Byzantines, partly by conflict with the Mahommedans, the Franks learned new methods 1 Authors like Heeren (Versuch einer Entwickelung der Folgen der Kreuzziige) and Michaud (in the last volume of his Histoire des croisades) fall into the error of assigning all things to the Crusades.
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  • The spirit of Nathan der Weise may not have been exactly the spirit engendered by the Crusades; and yet it is not without reason that Lessing stages the fable which teaches toleration in the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem.
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  • 2 See Pigonneau, Le Cycle de la croisade, &c. (Paris, 1877); and Hagenmeyer, Peter der Eremite (Leipzig, 1879).
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  • 1898) and a Geschichte der Kreuzziige in Umris (ibid.
    0
    0
  • Kugler's Geschichte der Kreuzziige (in Oncken's series) still remains a suggestive and valuable work; and L.
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    0
  • Rey's Les Colonies franques en Syrie contains many interesting details; and Prutz's Kulturgeschichte der Kreuzziige contains both an account of the Latin East and an attempt to sketch the effects of the Crusades on the progress of civilization.
    0
    0
  • Blanckenhorn, Beitrcige zur Geologie Syriens (Cassel, 1890, &c.), and Grundzi ge der Geologie and physikalischen Geographie von Nord-Syrien (Berlin, 1891).
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    0
  • Gilbert, the editor of Gilberts Annalen der Physik, in 1824.
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    0
  • Poggendorff immediately put himself in communication with the publisher, Barth of Leipzig, with the result that he was installed as editor of a scientific journal, Annalen der Physik and Cheinie, which was to be a continuation of Gilberts Annalen on a somewhat extended plan.
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  • This knowledge, joined to what he had gathered by historical reading of equally unusual extent, he carefully digested and gave to the world in his Biographisch-literarisches Handworterbuch zur Geschichte der exacten Wissenschaften, containing notices of the lives and labours of mathematicians, astronomers, physicists, and chemists, of all peoples and all ages.
    0
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  • von Graff, Monographie der Turbellarien (1882); A.
    0
    0
  • von Kennel, " Beitrge zur Kenntniss der Nemertinen," Arbeiten a.
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    0
  • Metschnikoff, " Studien fiber die Entwickelung der Echinodermen and Nemertinen," Mem.
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    0
  • (1869); Max Schultze, Beitriige zur Naturgeschichte der Turbellarien (Greifswald, 1851) and Zeitschr.
    0
    0
  • Kahlbaum's Monographien aus der Geschichte der Chemie, vols.
    0
    0
  • Stoll in Roscher's Lexikon der Mythologie; and P. Decharme in Daremberg and Saglio's Dictionnaire des antiquites.
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    0
  • Schanz, Geschichte der riimischen Literatur, iii.
    0
    0
  • Kornemann, Kaiser Hadrian and der letzte grosse Historiker von Rom (1905); W.
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    0
  • Hitzig, Die Stellung Kaiser Hadrians in der romischen Rechtsgeschichte (1892); C. Schultess, Bauten des Kaisers Hadrian (1898); G.
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    0
  • Renan, L'Ecclesiaste (1882); Bickell, Der Prediger (1884) and Kohel.- Untersuchungen (1886; Engl.
    0
    0
  • Euringer, Der Masorahtext d.
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    0
  • de Hollander); whereas others have maintained, with greater show of probability, that the Malays were in possession of an ancient alphabet, and that it was the same as the Rechang (Marsden, Friederich), as the Kawi (Van der Tuuk), or most like the Lampong (Kern) - all of which alphabets, with the Battak, Bugi and Macassar, are ultimately traceable to the ancient Cambojan characters.
    0
    0
  • von Dewall, De vormveranderingen der Maleische taal (Batavia, 1864) and J.
    0
    0
  • van der Tuuk, Maleisch-Nederlandisch Woordenboek (Batavia, 1877-1880); Malay Dictionary (Singapore, 1903), Wilkinson.
    0
    0
  • Schanz, Geschichte der rOm.
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    0
  • Wissowa, Religion and Kultus der Romer (1902), according to whom Spes was originally not a garden goddess, but simply the divinity to whom one prayed for the fulfilment of one's desires.
    0
    0
  • Kuhlmann, Der heilige Bonifatius, Apostel der Deutschen (Paderborn, 1895), and of G.
    0
    0
  • Boehmer's Die Fdlschungen Erzbischof Lanfranks von Canterbury (Leipzig, 1902), and the same author's Kirche and Staat in England and in der Normandie (Leipzig, 1899) are useful.
    0
    0
  • Holland in Roscher's Lexikon der mythologie.
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    0
  • Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenlandischen Gesellschaft.
    0
    0
  • von Mtiller's Handbuch der klass.
    0
    0
  • Michaelis, Der Parthenon (texts and plates, Leipzig, 1871); L.
    0
    0
  • Durm, Der Zustand der antiken athenischen Bauwerken (Berlin, 18 95); F.
    0
    0
  • Milchhofer, Untersuchungen fiber die Demenordnung des Kleisthenes (in transactions of Berlin Academy, Berlin, 1892); Pauly-Wissowa, Realencyclopddie der class.
    0
    0
  • Dorpfeld, passim in Athenische Mittheilungen; C. Wachsmuth, " Neue Beitrage zur Topographie von Athen," in Abhandlungen der scichsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften (Leipzig, 1897).
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    0
  • Gregorovius, Geschichte der Stadt Athen im Mittelalter (2 vols., Stuttgart, 1889).
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    0
  • Wertheimer, Die Heirath der Erzherzogin Marie Louise mit Napoleon I.
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    0
  • See Ludewig, Geschichte des Schlosses and der Stadt Harburg (Harburg, 1845); and Hoffmeyer, Harburg and die ndchste Urngegend (1885).
    0
    0
  • His book on Die modernen Theorien der Chemie, which was first published in Breslau in 1864, contains a discussion of relations between the atomic weights and the properties of the elements.
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    0
  • His other works include Das Leben Jesu (3 vols., 1844-1847), Das apostolische Zeitalter (2 vols., 1853-1854), Grundriss der theologischen Enzyklopadie (1877), Grundriss der christlichen Ethik (1878), and Grundriss der Bibelkunde (1881).
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    0
  • His tractate, written in concert with Myconius, controverting Der Wiedertaufer Lehre and Geheimniss (1530) was also prefaced by Luther.
    0
    0
  • Schmidt, Justus Menius, der Reformator Thilringens (1867); Wagenmann, in Allgemeine deutsche Biog.
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    0
  • Rait (1902); Briefe der Elizabeth Stuart.
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    0
  • den Kurfiirsten Carl Ludwig von der Pfalz, by A.
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    0
  • der Phonizier (1889).
    0
    0
  • The bases upon which Gerhardt and Laurent founded their views were not sufficiently well grounded to lead to the acceptance of their results; Gerhardt himself returned to Gmelin's equivalents in his Lehrbuch der Chemie (1853) as they were in such general use.
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    0
  • The growth of chemical literature since the publication of Lavoisier's famous Traite de chimie in 1789, and of Berzelius' Lehrbuch der Chemie in 1808-1818, has been enormous.
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    0
  • These two works, and especially the latter, were the models followed by Thenard, Liebig, Strecker, Wohler and many others, including Thomas Graham, upon whose Elements of Chemistry was founded Otto's famous Lehrbuch der Chemie, to which H.
    0
    0
  • Organic chemistry was especially developed by the publication of Gerhardt's Traite de chimie organique in 1853-1856, and of Kekule's Lehrbuch der organischen Chemie in 1861-1882.
    0
    0
  • Ostwald in his Lehrbuch der allgem.
    0
    0
  • Moissan, and the Handbuch der anorganischen Chemie, edited by Abegg, are of the same type.
    0
    0
  • Dammer's Handbuch der anorganischen Chemie and F.
    0
    0
  • Beilstein's Handbuch der organischen Chemie are invaluable works of reference.
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    0
  • The Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft, published by the Berlin Chemical Society, the Chemisches Centralblatt, which is confined to abstracts of papers appearing in other journals, the Zeitschrift fur Chemie, and Liebig's Annalen der Chemie are the most important of the general magazines.
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  • Mention may also be made of the invaluable Jahresberichte and the Jahrbuch der Chemie.
    0
    0
  • The classical investigation of Liebig and Friedrich Wihler on the radical of benzoic acid (" Uber das Radikal der Benzoesaure," Ann.
    0
    0
  • Claus (Theoretische Betrachtungen and deren Anwendung zur Systematik der organischen Chemie) proposed his diagonal formula (III), and two years later, A.
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    0
  • His views are presented in his pamphlet: Theorie der aromatischen Verbindungen, 1876.
    0
    0
  • Rose, Ausfiihrliches Handbuch der analytischen Chemie (1851).
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    0
  • der allg.
    0
    0
  • Van der Waal's equation (p-I- a/v 2) (v - b) = RT contains two constants a and b determined by each particular substance.
    0
    0
  • Hoefer, Histoire de la chimie (2nd ed., 1866-1869); Hermann Kopp, Geschichte der Chemie (1869), Entwickelung der Chemie in d.
    0
    0
  • von Meyer, Geschichte der Chemie (3rd ed., 1905, Eng.
    0
    0
  • Ladenburg, Entwickelungsgeschichte der Chemie (4th ed., 1907); A.
    0
    0
  • Stange, Die Zeitalter der Chemie (1908).
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    0
  • ed., 1908), Outlines of General Chemistry, Lehrbuch der allgemeinen Chemie; W.
    0
    0
  • Abegg, Handbuch der anorganischen Chemie; Gmelin-Kraut, Handbuch der anorganischen Chemie; O.
    0
    0
  • Dammer, Handbuch der anorganischen Chemie; H.
    0
    0
  • Beilstein, Handbuch der organischen Chemie; M.
    0
    0
  • Richter, Lexikon der Kohlenstoffverbindungen (these are primarily works of reference); V.
    0
    0
  • Jacobson, Lehrbuch der organischen Chemie; Richter-Anschutz, Organische Chemie (I I th ed., K 2 S04 K2 S04 (NH 4) 2 SO 4 =o% SO 4 = coo FIG.
    0
    0
  • Schmidt, Kurzes Lehrbuch der organischen Chemie; A.
    0
    0
  • P. Treadwell, Kurzes Lehrbuch der analytischen Chemie (1905); F.
    0
    0
  • Classen, Ausgewdhlte Methoden der analytischen Chemie (1901-1903); W.
    0
    0
  • Mohr, Lehrbuch der chemisch-analytischen Titrirmethode (1896).
    0
    0
  • Organic Analysis: Hans Meyer, Analyse and Konstitutionsermittlung organischer Verbindungen (1909); Wilhelm Vaubel, Die physikalischen and chemischen Methoden der quantitativen Bestimmung organischer Verbindungen.
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    0
  • Dennstedt, Die Entwickelung der organischen Elementaranalyse (1899).
    0
    0
  • Ladenburg, Handworterbuch der Chemie, A.
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    0