Der. Sentence Examples
Zeuthen, Geschichte der Mathematik im 16.
His last publication, which appeared in 1878, was on spherical harmonics (Beitreige zur Theorie der Kugelf unctionen) .
He wrote a large work on the Christian doctrine of justification and atonement, Die Christliche Lehre von der Rechtfertigung and Versohnung, published during the years 1870-74, and in 1880-86 a history of pietism (Die Geschichte des Pietismus).
During this early period was known variously as Ferryhook, Ashley's Ferry and Van der Heyden's Ferry.
After the close of the war there was an influx of settlers from Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Hampshire and Vermont; a town was laid out on the Van der Heyden farm, and in 1789 the name of Troy was selected in town meeting; and in 1791 the town of Troy was formed from part of Rensselaerwyck.Advertisement
Furtwangler and others, Aegina, Heiligtum der Aphaia (Munich, 1906), where earlier authorities are collected and discussed.
In 1529 he produced a free version (Klagbrief der armen Diirftigen in England) of the famous Supplycacyon of the Beggers, written abroad (1528 ?) by Simon Fish.
He published in 1797 the important book Die Griechen and Romer, which was followed by the suggestive Geschichte der Poesie der Griechen and Romer (1798).
He also delivered lectures, which were republished in his Philosophic des Lebens (1828) and in his Philosophie der Geschichte (1829).
In Der Ring des Nibelungen Wagner specifies the proportions of the string-band as 16 first and 16 second violins, 12 violas, 12 violoncellos, 8 double basses.Advertisement
Maas, Die craspedoten Medusen der Plankton Expedition, by permission of Lipsius and Tischer.
The next step is illustrated by the female gonophores of Cladocoryne, where the radial and ring-canals F G H Modified from Weismann, Entstehung der Sexualzellen bei den Hydromedusen.
Thus the affinities of the hydranth are clearly, as Dendy points out, After Haeckel, System der Medusen, by permission of Gustav Fischer.
In his Ideen zur Philosophic der Geschichte, Herder adopts Leibnitz's idea of a graduated scale of beings, at the same time conceiving of the lower stages as the conditions, of the higher.
In the introduction to his work Von der Weltseele, however, he argues in favour of the possibility of a transmutation of species in periods incommensurable with ours.Advertisement
In his Entwickelungsgeschichte der Thiere (p. 264) he distinctly tells us that the law of growing individuality is " the fundamental thought which goes through all forms and degrees of animal development and all single relations.
He remembered his connexion with Florence when he wrote Romische Briefe von einem Florentiner (Leipzig, 1840-44), and his residence in Rome was also responsible for his Geschichte der Stadt Rom (3 vols., 1867-70)..
Franke in two articles in the Journal of the Pali Text Society for 1903, and in his Geschichte and Kritik der einheimischen Pali Grammatik.
The bundles sometimes keep their arrangement s v in a ring corresponding with the stele, though the continuous cylin 0 der no longer exists (species of - Ranunculus).
This has been done with success and in great detail by Grisebach, whose Vegetation der Erde from this point of view is still unsurpassed.Advertisement
He may be said to have set the pattern which was followed in succeeding ages by the compilers of " political geographies " Geschichte der wissenschaftlichen Erdkunde der Griechen (Leipzig, 1891), Abt.
Wagner, Lehrbuch der Geographie, p. 658.
Undeterred by the offence which these works gave to his ecclesiastical superiors, he published in 1858 the Einleitung in die Philosophie and Grundriss der Metaphysik, in which he assailed the doctrine of Thomas Aquinas, that philosophy was the handmaid of theology.
In 1861 appeared Ober die Aufgabe der Naturphilosophie and ihr Verhdltnis zur Naturwissenschaft, which was, he declared, directed against the purely mechanical conception of the universe, and affirmed the necessity of a creative Power.
In the same year he published Ober die Freiheit der Wissenschaft, in which he maintained the independence of science, whose goal was truth, against authority, and reproached the excessive respect for the latter in the Roman Church with the insignificant part played by the German Catholics in literature and philosophy.Advertisement
Delbriick's writings are chiefly concerned with the history of the art of war, his most ambitious work being his Geschichte der Kriegskunst im Rahmen der politischen Geschichte (first section, Das Altertum, 1900; second, Reiner and Germanen, 1902; third, Das Mittelalter, 1907).
Creuzer's first and most famous work was his Symbolik and Mythologie der alten V dlker, besonders der Griechen (1810-1812), in which he maintained that the mythology of Homer and Hesiod came from an Eastern source through the Pelasgians, and was the remains of the symbolism of an ancient revelation.
Of Creuzer's other works the principal are an edition of Plotinus; a partial edition of Cicero, in preparing which he was assisted by Moser; Die historische Kunst der Griechen (1803); Epochen der griech.
This was continued in the Grundprincip der Philosophie (1845-1846), which also gives his speculative position.
The Uruguay is navigable all the year by steamers from the island From Strasburger's Lehrbuch der Botanik, by permission of Gustav Fischer.
In 1879 he was appointed president of the Kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschaften (Academy of Sciences) at Vienna, and in 1896 succeeded von Sybel as chairman of the historical commission at Munich.
Haarmann before the Verein der Deutschen Eisenhuttenleute on Dec. 8, 1907, translated in the Railway Gazette (London) on April 3, 10 and 17, 1908.
Giesebrecht, Der Knecht Jahwes des Deuterojesaja.
Duhm's Theologie der Propheten and Robertson Smith's Prophets of Israel should also be consulted.
Fraunhofer is especially known for the researches, published in the Denkschriften der Miinchener Akademie for 1814-1815, by which he laid the foundation of solar and stellar chemistry.
Benedict, Die Gudrunsage in der neueren Literatur (1902.) '[[Guebriant, Jean Baptiste Budes,' Comte De]] (1602-1643), marshal of France, was born at Plessis-Budes, near St Brieuc, of an old Breton family.
Under the constitution of Caracalla (198-217) all inhabitants of the Roman empire enjoyed the civil rights of the Cives Romani (Scherer, Die Rechtsverhaltnisse der Juden, p. Io).
Milchhdfer (Anfdnge der Kunst) had called attention to certain remarkable examples of archaic Greek bronze-work, and the subsequent discovery of the votive bronzes in the cave of Zeus on Mount Ida, and notably the shields with their fine embossed designs, shows that by the 8th century B.C. Cretan technique in metal not only held its own beside imported Cypro-Phoenician work, but was distinctly ahead of that of the rest of Greece (Halbherr, Bronzi del antro di Zeus Ideo).
He was the author of Institutiones Physiologicae (1787), and of a Handbuck der vergleichenden Anatomie (1804), both of which were very popular and went through many editions, but he is best known for his work in connexion with anthropology, of which science he has been justly called the founder.
He devoted himself ardently to oriental scholarship, and published Zur Urgeschichte der Armenier (1854) and Armenische Studien (1877).
Laymen also belonged to it, like Hermann of Fritzlar and Rulman Merswin, the rich banker of Strassburg (author of a mystical work, Buck der neon Felsen, on the nine rocks or upwards steps of contemplation).
Chretien's poem has been published by Professor Wendelin Foerster, in his edition of the works of that poet, Der Karrenritter (1899).
After a short period of study in Paris on the French Revolution, he spent some time working in the archives of Baden and Bavaria, and published in 1845 Die Geschichte der rheinischen Pfalz, which won for him a professorship extraordinarius at Heidelberg.
The writer of this article is much indebted to the works of Schmoller, particularly his Grundris der allgemeinen Volkswirtschaftslehre (1900), and Adolph Wagner, particularly his Grundlegung der politischen Okonomie.
A different but essential side of his character is seen in his poems and humorous pieces, such as the Vergleichende Anatomie der Engel (1825), written under the pseudonym of "Dr Mises."
Fechner's epoch-making work was his Elemente der Psychophysik (1860).
Here he supported the Consensus-Union, and afterwards defended himself in the pamphlets Die erste Generalsynode der evang.
Frisch began the long series of works on the birds of Germany with which the literature of ornithology is enriched, by his Vorstellung der Vogel Teutschlands, which was only completed in 1763, and, its coloured plates proving very attractive, was again issued at Berlin in 1817.
Fischer's Versuch einer Naturgeschichte von Livland appeared at Konigsberg, next year Beseke brought out at Mitau his Beytrag zur Naturgeschichte der Vogel Kurlands, and in 1794 Siemssen's Handbuch of the birds of Mecklenburg was published at Rostock.
In 1832 Kittlitz began to publish some Kup- fertafeln zur Naturgeschichte der Vogel, in which many new species are figured; but the work came to an end with its thirty-sixth plate in the following year.
In 1845 Reichenbach commenced with his Praktische Naturgeschichte der Vogel the extraordinary series of illustrated publications which, under titles far too numerous here to repeat, ended in or about 1855, and are commonly known collectively as his Vollsteindigste Naturgeschichte der Vogel.
The arrangement he subsequently adopted for them and for other groups is to be found in his Natiirliches System der Amphibien (pp. 77-128), published in 1830, and is too fanciful to require any further attention.
Tiedemann's carefully-wrought Anatomic and N aturgeschichte der V gel - which shows a remarkable advance upon the work which Cuvier did in 1805, and in some respects is superior to his later production of 1817.
Gloger brought out at Breslau the first (and unfortunately the only) part of a Vollstandiges Handbuch der Natur- In th e Introduction to r t his?
In the year last mentioned the greater part of these was separately issued under the title of Beitrrige zur Kenntniss der Naturgeschichte der Vogel.
The division seems to have been instituted by this author a couple of years earlier in the second edition of his Handbuch der Naturgeschichte (a work not seen by the present writer), but not then to have received a scientific name.
Reichenow in Die Vogel der zoologischen Garten published a classification of birds with a phylogenetic tree.
In 1888 there was published the huge monograph by Max Fiirbringer entitled Untersuchungen zur Morphologie and Systematik der Vogel.
See articles in Pauly-Wissowa's Realencyclopadie and Roscher's Lexikon der Mythologie.
In Der Kampf urns Dasein am Himmel von Prel endeavoured to apply the Darwinian doctrine of organic evolution not only to the sphere of consciousness but also even more widely as the philosophical principle of the world.
His editions and biography of Zoega, his Zeitschrift fiir Geschichte and Auslegung der alten Kunst (GÃ¶ttingen, 1817, 8) and his Alte Denkmdler (5 vols., 1849-1864) contain his views on ancient art.
Strongly in agreement with the Hegelian tradition, he defended and amplified it in Die gegenweirtige Aufgabe der Philosophie (1852) and Verstehen and Beurteilen (1877).
He published Aristoteles fiber die Farben (1849), Aristoteles' acht Blcher der Physik (1857), and numerous minor articles on smaller points, such as the authenticity of the thirty-eight books of the Problems. The work by which he is best known is the Geschichte der Logik im Abendland (Leipzig, 1855-1870).
In the year following his appointment he published a second monograph Der Heilige Bernhard and sein Zeitalter (Berlin, 1813), and then in 1818 his work on Gnosticism (Genetische Entwickelung der vornehmsten gnostischen Systeme).
A still more extended an elaborate monograph than either of the preceding followed in 1822, Der Heilige Johannes Chrysostomus and die Kirche, besonders des Orients in dessen Zeitalter, and again, in 1824, another on Tertullian (Antignostikus).
The first volume of his Allgemeine Geschichte der christlichen Religion and Kirche embracing the history of the first three centuries, made its appearance in 1825.
Here, too, he composed his first work, which deals with the period to which most of his life was to be devoted, Geschichte der romanischen and germanischen Volker 1494-1514 (Berlin, 1824).
Before it was completed he had already begun the researches on which was based the second of his masterpieces, his Deutsche Geschichte im Zeitalter der Reformation (Berlin, 1839-47), a necessary pendant to his book on the popes, and the most popular of his works in his own country.
There he collaborated with Oscar Leopold von Gebhardt in Texte and Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der altchristlichen Litteratur (1882 sqq.), an irregular periodical, containing only essays in New Testament and patristic fields.
An abridgment of this appeared in 1889 with the title Grundriss der Dogmengeschichte (3rd ed., 1898).
In 1893 he published a history of early Christian literature down to Eusebius, Geschichte der altchristl.
Partly by contact with the Byzantines, partly by conflict with the Mahommedans, the Franks learned new methods 1 Authors like Heeren (Versuch einer Entwickelung der Folgen der Kreuzziige) and Michaud (in the last volume of his Histoire des croisades) fall into the error of assigning all things to the Crusades.
The spirit of Nathan der Weise may not have been exactly the spirit engendered by the Crusades; and yet it is not without reason that Lessing stages the fable which teaches toleration in the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem.
Rey's Les Colonies franques en Syrie contains many interesting details; and Prutz's Kulturgeschichte der Kreuzziige contains both an account of the Latin East and an attempt to sketch the effects of the Crusades on the progress of civilization.
Poggendorff immediately put himself in communication with the publisher, Barth of Leipzig, with the result that he was installed as editor of a scientific journal, Annalen der Physik and Cheinie, which was to be a continuation of Gilberts Annalen on a somewhat extended plan.
This knowledge, joined to what he had gathered by historical reading of equally unusual extent, he carefully digested and gave to the world in his Biographisch-literarisches Handworterbuch zur Geschichte der exacten Wissenschaften, containing notices of the lives and labours of mathematicians, astronomers, physicists, and chemists, of all peoples and all ages.
Wissowa, Religion and Kultus der Romer (1902), according to whom Spes was originally not a garden goddess, but simply the divinity to whom one prayed for the fulfilment of one's desires.
Milchhofer, Untersuchungen fiber die Demenordnung des Kleisthenes (in transactions of Berlin Academy, Berlin, 1892); Pauly-Wissowa, Realencyclopddie der class.
His book on Die modernen Theorien der Chemie, which was first published in Breslau in 1864, contains a discussion of relations between the atomic weights and the properties of the elements.
His tractate, written in concert with Myconius, controverting Der Wiedertaufer Lehre and Geheimniss (1530) was also prefaced by Luther.
The bases upon which Gerhardt and Laurent founded their views were not sufficiently well grounded to lead to the acceptance of their results; Gerhardt himself returned to Gmelin's equivalents in his Lehrbuch der Chemie (1853) as they were in such general use.
The growth of chemical literature since the publication of Lavoisier's famous Traite de chimie in 1789, and of Berzelius' Lehrbuch der Chemie in 1808-1818, has been enormous.
Organic chemistry was especially developed by the publication of Gerhardt's Traite de chimie organique in 1853-1856, and of Kekule's Lehrbuch der organischen Chemie in 1861-1882.
Moissan, and the Handbuch der anorganischen Chemie, edited by Abegg, are of the same type.
Beilstein's Handbuch der organischen Chemie are invaluable works of reference.
The Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft, published by the Berlin Chemical Society, the Chemisches Centralblatt, which is confined to abstracts of papers appearing in other journals, the Zeitschrift fur Chemie, and Liebig's Annalen der Chemie are the most important of the general magazines.
Mention may also be made of the invaluable Jahresberichte and the Jahrbuch der Chemie.
Van der Waal's equation (p-I- a/v 2) (v - b) = RT contains two constants a and b determined by each particular substance.
This he now endeavoured to embody in Der fliegende Hollander, for which he designed a libretto quite independent of any other treatment of the legend.
He chose the legend of Tannhauser, collecting his materials from the ancient Tannhauser-Lied, the Volksbuch, Tieck's poetical Erzahlung, Hoffmann's story of Der Sangerkrieg, and the medieval poem on Der Wartburgkrieg.
During this period most of his prose works - including Oper and Drama, Ober das Dirigieren, Das Judentum in der Musik - were given to the world.
In 1863 he published the libretto of Der Ring des Nibelungen.
Meantime Der Ring des Nibelungen was rapidly approaching completion, and on the 13th of August 1876 the introductory portion, Das Rheingold, was performed at Bayreuth for the first time as part of the great whole, followed on the 14th by Die Walkiire, on the 16th by Siegfried and on the 17th by Geitterdiimmerung.
The step from Rienzi to Der fliegende Hollander is without parallel in the history of music, and would be inexplicable if Rienzi contained nothing good and if Der fliegende Hollander did not contain many reminiscences of the decline of Italian opera; but it is noticeable that in this case the lapses into vulgar music have a distinct dramatic value.
Moreover, the work was intended to be in one act, and is now so performed at Bayreuth; and, although it is very long for a one-act opera, this is certainly the only form which does justice to Wagner's conception.1 Spohr's appreciation of Der fliegende Hollander is a remarkable point in musical history; and his criticism that Wagner's style (in Tannhauser) " lacked rounded periods " shows the best effect of that style on a well-disposed contemporary mind.
When we listen to the free declamation of the singers at the outset of Der fliegende Hollander - a declamation which is accompanied by 1 The subsequent division into three acts, as given in all the published editions, has been effected in the crudest way by inserting a full close in the orchestral interludes at the changes of scene, and then beginning the next scene by taking up the interludes again.
With all its defects, Der fliegende Hollander is the most masterly and the least unequal of Wagner's early works.
The weakest passages in Der fliegende Hollander are not so helpless as the original recitatives of Venus in the first act; or Tannhauser's song, which was too far involved in the whole scheme to be ousted by the mature " New Venusberg music " with which Wagner fifteen years later got rid both of the end of the overture and what he called his " Palais-Royal " Venus.
The crowning complication in the effect of Der fliegende Hollander, Tannhauser and Lohengrin on the musical thought of the 10th century was that the unprecedented fusion of their musical with their dramatic contents revealed some of the meaning of serious music to ears that had been deaf to the classics.
Wagner had hardly finished the score of Lohengrin before he was at work upon the poem of Der Ring des Nibelungen.
Wagner's choice of subjects had from the outset shown an imagination far above that of any earlier librettist; yet he had begun with stories which could attract ordinary minds, as he dismally realized when the libretto of Der fliegende Hollander so pleased the Parisian wire-pullers that it was promptly set to music by one of their friends.
But with Der Ring des Nibelungen Wagner devoted himself to a story which any ordinary dramatist would find as unwieldy as, for instance, most of Shakespeare's subjects; a story in which ordinary canons of taste and probability were violated as they are in real life and in great art.
The disturbing life already appears in Der fliegende Hollander, at the point where Senta's father enters with the Dutchman, and Senta (who is already in an advanced state of Schwarmerei over the legend of the Flying Dutchman) stands rooted to the spot, comparing the living Dutchman with his portrait which hangs over the door.
Das Rheingold, prologue in 4 scenes to Der Ring des Nibelungen; ein Buhnenfestspiel (poem written last of the series, which was begun in 1848 and finished in 1851-1852; music, 1853 - 1854).
The influence of Schleiermacher, whose pupil Leonhard Usteri in his Entwickelung der paulinischen Lehrbegriffs (1824) expressed strong doubts as to Ephesians, carried weight.
Lehmann, who directed a survey of Saxony, 1780-1806, and published his Theorie der Bergzeichnung in 1799.
Lucas Janszon Waghenaer (Aurigarius) of Enkhuizen published the first edition of his Spiegel der Zeevaart (Mariners' Mirror) at Leiden in 1585.
Willem Janszon, the father of Hondius's partner, published a collection of charts (1608), to which he gave the title of Het Licht der Zeevaart (the seaman's light).
See articles in Roscher's Lexikon der Mythologie and Daremberg and Saglio's Dictionnaire des antiquites.
In his Urgeschichte der germanischen and romanischen Volker (Berlin, 1881-1890), Dahn went a step farther back still, but here as in his Geschichte der deutschen Urzeit (Gotha, 1883-1888), a wealth of picturesque detail has been worked over and resolved into history with such imagiRative insight and critical skill as to make real and present the indistinct beginnings of German society.
Meanwhile his lectures and publications (among the latter a Grundriss der Neutestamentlichen Hermeneutik, 1816) had brought him into considerable repute, and he was appointed professor extraordinarius in the new university of Bonn in the spring of 1818; in the following autumn he became professor ordinarius.
In 1861 he published a great work in two volumes, System der erworbenen Rechte (System of Acquired Rights).
Lassalle's Die Philosophie Herakleitos des Dunklen von Ephesos (Berlin, 1858), and the System der erworbenen Rechte (Leipzig, 1861) are both marked by great learning and intellectual power.
As to the discovery of Greenland by the Norsemen and its early history see Konrad Maurer's excellent paper, " Geschichte der Entdeckung Ostgronlands " in the report of Die zweite 1 Cf.
In 1657 he advised his father not to accept the office of king, although in 1654 he had supported a motion to this effect; 8 See Hugo Goldschmidt, "Das Orchester der italienischen Oper im 17.
Schlozer's son Christian (1774-1831) was a professor at Bonn, and published Anfangsgriinde der Staatswirthschaft (1804-1806) and his father's Offentliches and Privat-Leben aus Originalurkunden (1828).
Figures 2-5 are from Strasburger's Lehrbuch der Betanik, by permission of Gustav Fischer.
Engler's Versuch einer Entwickelungsgeschichte der Pflanzenwelt (Leipzig, 1879-1882), we should have in Siberia (a) the arctic region; (b) the sub-arctic or coniferous region - north Siberian province; (c) the Central-Asian domain - Altai and Daurian mountainous regions; and (d) the east Chinese, intruding into the basin of the Amur.
To commemorate the efforts of Escher, the Swiss diet in 1823 (after his death) decided that his male descendants should bear the name of "Escher von der Linth."
There is much keen analysis and original investigation in his two essays Der jiidische Stamm (1869) and Der jiidische Stamm in nicht jiidischen Spriich-wortern (1881-1882).
The subject of transformation in general has been treated by Sophus Lie in the classical work Theorie der Transformationsgruppen.
At the same time he assisted in editing the Journal des Luxus and der Moden, the Deutsche Merkur, and the London and Paris.
Rossing, Geschichte der Metalle (1901).
Hansjakob, Herimann der Lahme (Mainz, 1875); Potthast„ Bibliotheca med.
Of the rest the uncanonical sayings have been collected by Preuschen (Reste der ausserkanonischen Evangelien, 1901, pp. 44-47) A different collection will be found in Hennecke, NTliche Apok.
The discovery of the Coptic translation of these Acts in 1897, and its publication by C. Schmidt (Acta Pauli aus der Heidelberger koptischen Papyrushandschrift herausgegeben, Leipzig, 1894), have confirmed what had been previously only a hypothesis that the Acts of Thecla had formed a part of the larger Acts of Paul.
See Peter Scriver, Beschryvinge der Stad Harlem (Haarlem, 1628); Scheltema, Levensschets van Laurens d.
See Ktientzle, Ober die Sternsagen der Griechen (1897), and his article in Roscher's Lexikon; he shows that in the oldest legend Orion the constellation and Orion the hero are quite distinct, without deciding which was the earlier conception.
In 1685 Simon van, der Stell, then governor of the Cape, led an expedition into Little Namaqualand and discovered the Koper Berg.
System der vergleichenden Anatomie (1821).
Extended bibliography in Roscher's Lexicon der Mythologie.
The first of his original pieces performed was Der y politiske Kandestober (The Pewterer turned Politician); he wrote other comedies with miraculous rapidity, and before 1722 was closed, there had been performed in succession, and with immense success, Den Vaegelsindede (The Waverer), Jean de France, Jeppe paa Bjerget, and Gert the Westphalian.
This fact and their reports of the immense herds of elephants which roamed the bush led Simon van der Stell, then governor at Cape Town, to despatch (1689) the ship " Noord " to Port Natal, with instructions to her commander to open up a trade in ivory and to acquire possession of the bay.
A critical survey of recent literature on Scholasticism is given by Baeumker in the Archiv far Geschichte der Philosophie, vols.
Hoffer, a German professor of history at Prague, edited the historical authorities for the period in a similar sense in his Geschichte der hussitischen Bewegung in Bohmen.
Worthy of special notice also are Photometria (Augsburg, 1760), Insigniores orbitae cometarum proprietates (Augsburg, 1761), and Beitrcige zum Gebrauche der Mathematik and deren Anwendung (4 vols., Berlin, 1765-1772).
After 1872, in addition to its regular organs, it issued Hungarian translations of several popular scientific English works, as, for instance, Darwin's Origin of Species; Huxley's Lessons in Physiology; Lubbock's Prehistoric Times; Proctor's Other Worlds than Ours; Tyndall's Heat as a Mode of Motion, &c. Versions were also made of Cotta's Geologie der Gegenwart and Helmholtz's Populcire Vorlesungen.
For a fuller bibliography, see Encyclopadie der math.
Cantor's Vorlesungen fiber Geschichte der Mathematik is the standard authority.
In Germany the work of Martin Ohm (System der Mathematik, 1822) marks a step forward.
See Ritter, Geschichte der Philosophie, iv.
A third hypothesis is that advanced by Karl Rieder (Der Gottesfreund von Oberland, Innsbruck, 1905), who thinks that not even Merswin himself wrote any of the literature, but that his secretary and associate Nicholas of Lowen, head of the House of St John at Griinenworth, the retreat founded by Merswin for the circle, worked over all the writings which emanated from different members of the group but bore no author's names, and to glorify the founder of the house attached Merswin's name to some of them and out of his imagination created "the Friend of God from the Oberland," whom he named as the writer of the others.
Of his 150 Arabic treatises a few at least survive; see Brockelmann, Geschichte der arabischen Litteratur, i.
Ephraemi Syri, &c., opera selecta, pp. 2 5 1 -33 6; and these have since been supplemented by Zettersteen's edition of a large number of his religious poems or metrical prayers (Beitrdge zur Kenntniss der religiosen Dichtung Balais, Leipzig, 1902).
See Marquardt-Mau, Privatleben der Romer, pp. 550 seq.
For a conspectus of Terentian studies see Teuffel-Schwabe-Warr, History of Roman Literature, and Schanz's Geschichte der romischen Litteratur (3rd ed., 1907).
Magdeburg is one of the most important railway centres in northern Germany; and the Elbe, besides being bridged - it divides there into three arms - several times for vehicular traffic, ' See Der Bau des Elbe-Trave Canals and seine Vorgeschichte (Lubeck, 1900).
The name Rhine, which is apparently of Celtic origin, is of uncertain etymology, the most favoured derivations being either from der Rinnende (the flowing), or from Rein (the clear), the latter being now the more generally accepted.
For the description of these forms see Winkelmann, Handbuch der Physik (1906), i.
In his last work, Zur Kritik der neuesten Sprachforschung (1885), he attacks the views of the "new" school of philology.
He published a Lehrbuch der organischen Chemie in 1854, smaller textbooks of organic and inorganic chemistry in 1877-1883, and Zur Entwickelungsgeschichte der theoretischen Chemie in 1881.
Eine Prophetenstimme aus der Gegenwart, in which, starting from texts in the Old Testament and assuming the tone of a prophet, he discussed topics of every kind.
His next work, Geheimniss der gottlichen Sophia, published in 1700, seemed to indicate that he had developed a form of mysticism.
Schmid, Gesetze der Angelsachsen (2nd ed., Leipzig, 1858) is still valuable on account of its handiness and the fulness of its glossary.
Abu-Habba lies south-west of Bagdad, midway between the Euphrates and Tigris, on the south side of a canal, which may once have represented the main stream of the Euphrates, Sippara of the goddess Anunit, now Der, being on its opposite bank.
See Mitteilungen der deutschen Orientgesellschaft, Nos.
For further details regarding the formation of Sumerian and Babylonian-Assyrian proper names, as well as for an indication of the problems involved and the difficulties still existing, especially in the case of Sumerian names,' see the three excellent works now at our disposal for the Sumerian, the old Babylonian, and the neoBabylonian period respectively, by Huber, Die Personennamen den Keilschrifturkunden aus der Zeit der Konige von Ur and Nisin (Leipzig, 1907); Ranke, Early Babylonian Proper Names (Philadelphia, 1905); and Tallqvist, Neu-Babylonisches Namenbuch (Helsingfors, 1905).
The former was translated by Bonwetsch in 1896, in the Nachrichten von der kOnigl.
A Christian revision of it is probably preserved in the two dialects of Coptic. Of these the Akhmim text is the original of the Sahidic. These texts and their translations have been edited by Steindorff, Die Apokalypse des Elias, eine unbekannte Apokalypse and Bruchstiicke der Sophonias-Apokalypse (1899).
Among the chief editions are those of Zahn, Der Hirt des Hermas (1868); Gebhardt and Harnack, Patres Apostolici (1877, with full bibliographical material); Funk, Patres Apost.
Davidsohn's Geschichte der Stadt Florenz (Berlin, 1896); P. Villari's Savonarola (English ed., London, 1896) is invaluable for the period during which the friar's personality dominated Florence, and his Machiavelli (English ed., London, 1892) must be also consulted, especially for the development of political theories.
The fungus is most conspicuous on the grapes, but the leaves and stems From Hartig's Lehrbuch der Pfanzenkrankheiten, by permission of Julius Springer.
Shortly afterwards he visited the emperor at Vienna to plead the case of Van der Noot and the rebels of Brabant.
The first volume of his well-known commentary on Isaiah (Der Prophet Jesaja), with a translation, appeared in 1821; but the work was not completed until 1829.
In 1832 he founded the Annalen der Pharmazie, which became the Annalen der Chemie and Pharmazie in 1840 when Wailer became joint-editor with himself, and in 1837 with W6hler and Poggendorff he established the Handworterbuch der reinen and angewandten Chemie.
It hides by day under stones or From Strasburger's Lehrbuch der Botanik, by permission of Gustav Fischer.
Lucke's Journal(1819-18 20, 182 2), one on the origin and composition of the Sibylline Oracles "- Ober die Entstehung and Zusammensetzung der Sibyllinischen Orakel," and another on the authorship and design of the Book of Daniel, "Uber Verfasser and Zweck des Buches Daniel."
On the other hand, some interpolations took place, one in the 1 For details see the introduction to Noldeke's translation of Tabari's Geschichte der Perser and Araber zur Zeit der Sasaniden (aeiden, 1879).
Hansische Geschichte von der zweiten Halfte des XIV.
Sprache (1827) - this afterwards became the Ausfiihrliches Lehrbuch der hebr.
The Jahrbiicher der biblischen Wissenschaft (1849-1865) were edited, and for the most part written, by him.
Jahrhundert (Wien, 1903); Wien, 1848-88, published by the Vienna corporation; Statistisches Jahrbuch der Stadt Wien, annually since 1883; Geschichte der Stadt Wien, published by the Vienna Alterthumsverein since 1897.
Krauss, "Zur Geschichte der Chazaren," in Revue orientale pour les etudes Ourals-altaiques (1900).
Humboldt (Priifung der Untersuchungen ilber die Urbewohner Hispaniens vermittelst der waskischen Sprache, Berlin, 1821), ' For the prehistoric civilization of the peninsula as a whole see Spain.
Boudard's Etudes sur l'alphabet iberien (Paris, 1852), and Numismatique iberienne (Beziers, 1859); Aloiss Heiss, Notes sur les monnaies celtiberiennes (Paris, 1865), and Descriptionenerale des monnaies antiques de l'Espagne (Paris, 1870); Phillips, O Ober das iberische Alphabet (Vienna, 1870), Die Einwanderung der Iberer in die pyren.
The work which in his own opinion was his greatest, Johann von Wiclif and die Vorgeschichte der Reformation (2 vols., 1873), appeared in English with the title John Wiclif and his English Precursors (1878, new ed., 1884).
For the wide literature of the subject, see the two former editions, also Harnack's Chronologie der altchr.
In addition he wrote (1863) on theoretical and physical chemistry for the Graham-Otto Lehrbuch der Chemie, and for many years assisted Liebig in editing the Annalen der Chemie and the Jahresbericht.
Comte der Begriinder des Positivismus.
While much that Herder produced after settling in Weimar has little value, he wrote also some of his best works, among others his collection of popular poetry on which he had been engaged for many years, Stimmen der Volker in Liedern (1778-1779); his translation of the Spanish romances of the Cid (1805); his celebrated work on Hebrew poetry, Vom Geist der hebrdischen Poesie (1782-1783); and his opus magnum, the Ideen zur Philosophie der Geschichte der Menschheit (1784-1791).
By his work on language Uber den Ursprung der Sprache (1772), Herder may be said to have laid the first rude foundations of the science of comparative philology and that deeper science of the ultimate nature and origin of language.
Herder's masterpiece, the Ideen zur Philosophic der Geschichte, has the ambitious aim of explaining the whole of human development in close connexion with the nature of man's physical environment.
With this may be compared a passage in the Ursprung der Sprache, where there is a curious adumbration of Spencer's idea that intelligence, as distinguished from instinct, arises from a growing complexity of action, or, to use Herder's words, from the substitution of a more for a less contracted sphere.
Herder's Spinozism, which is set forth in his little work, Vom Erkennen and Empfinden der menschlichen Seele (1778), is much less logically conceived than Lessing's.
In the Kalligone (1800), work directed against Kant's Kritik der Urteilskraft, Herder argues for the close connexion of the beautiful and the good.
He undertook to write the Geschichte Frankreichs von der Thronbesteigung Ludwig Philipps bis zum Fall Napoleons III., but only two volumes were completed (to 1848) (2nd ed., 1881-1882).
The more open and level district on the north is spoken of as the "open country" (das Land) in contrast to the wooded hills of the "forest" (der Wald).
Historical journalism was first represented by Electa juris publici (1709), philology by Neue acerra philologica (1715-1723), philosophy by the Ada philosophorum (1715-1727), medicine by Der patriotische Medikus (1725), music by Der musikalische Patriot (1725), and education by Die Matrone (1728).
Influenced by a close study of English writers, the two Swiss, Bodmer and Breitinger, established Die Discurse der Maler (1721), and by paying more attention to the matter of works reviewed than to their manner, commenced a critical method new to Germany.
Der deutsche Merkur (1773-1789, revived 1790-1810) of Wieland was the solitary representative of the French school of criticism.
At the beginning of the 19th century we find the Erlanger Literaturzeitung (1799-1810), which had replaced a Gelehrte Zeitung (1746); the Leipziger Literaturzeitung (1800-1834); the Heidelbergische Jahrbucher der Literatur (1808-1872); and the Wiener Literaturzeitung (1813-1816), followed by the Wiener Jahrbucher der Literatur (1818-1848), both of which received government support and resembled the English Quarterly Review in their conservative politics and high literary tone.
Full details of these serials are supplied by a special class of periodical with which every department of science, art and literature in German Austria The most notable periodicals of a general character have been the Wiener Jahrbucher der Literatur (1818-1848) and the Oesterreichische Revue (1863-1867).
Dieterich, which has appeared annually since 1896, describes about 1300 periodicals (mostly scientific) by subjects and titles; from 1900 it has been supplemented by Bibliographic der deutschen Recensionen, which indexes notices and reviews in over moo serials each year, chiefly scientific and technical.
The next of any note was the Republijk der Geleerden (1710-1748).
See also Bismarck, Reflections and Reminiscences; Rennell Rodd, Frederick, Crown Prince and Emperor (1888); Gustav Freytag, Der Kronprinz and die deutsche Kaiserkrone (1889; English translation, 1890); Otto Richter, Kaiser Friedrich III.
He stayed at Cassel till 1783, publishing in 1782 his Reisen der Papste, a book wherein certain leanings towards Romanism are visible.
The work referred to begins by 1 See especially Waitz-Gerland, Anthropologie der Naturvolker, vi.
Graf also wrote, Der Segen Moses Deut.
According to Roscher (in his Lexikon der Mythologie), who identifies the ciris with the heron, the story of Nisus and Scylla (like these of Acdon, Procne, Philomela and Tereus) was invented to give an aetiological explanation of the characteristics of certain birds.
In his addresses on the future of the Protestant Church (Reden fiber die Zukunft der evangelischen Kirche, 1849), he finds the essence of Christianity in Jesus's conceptions of the heavenly Father, the Son of Man and the kingdom of Heaven.
Other favourite types' of equation for approximate work are (I) p=RO/v±f(v), which makes p a linear function of 0 at constant volume, as in van der Waal's equation; (2) v=RO/p+f(p), which makes v a linear function of 0 at constant pressure.
Ordinary scryers of fancy pictures are common enough, but scryers capable of apparently supra-normal successes 1 "Philosophie der Geistes," Hegel's Werke, vii.
The publication of the Allgemeine and General-Reformation der ganzen weiten Welt (Cassel, 1614), and the Fama Fraternitatis (Cassel, 1615) by the theologian Johann Valentin Andrea (1586-1654), caused immense excitement throughout Europe, and they not only led to many re-issues, but were followed by numerous pamphlets, favourable and otherwise, whose authors generally knew little, if anything, of the real aims of the original author, and doubtless in not a few cases amused themselves at the expense of the public. It is probable that the first work was circulated in MS. about 1610, for it is said that a reply was written in 1612 (according to Herder), but if so, there was no mention of the cult before that decade.
Among his later historical works the most important is the Geschichte der ostu.
Werth der Decretalen des falschen Isidorus, 1848), on the primitive history of mankind (Urgeschichte des menschlichen schlechts, 1855), on Hildebrand (Papst Gregorius VII.
It then proceeds to fix the point of difference in the fact that no agreement had been reached on the question "whether the true body and blood of Christ are corporeally present in the bread and wine" ("Nit vergleicht haben wir uns, ob der war leib and plut Christi leiblich im brot and wein sey").
These preparations being observed, the German outposts got under arms. General von der Goltz, in command of the VII.
The ridge was captured with little resistance, but the sound of the firing at once set all the neighbouring troops in motion, and fortunately so, for the French had immediately retaliated on von der Goltz's audacious attack.
Corps standing to arms, reported to von der Goltz that the corps was standing to arms and about to attack.
Von der Goltz thereupon decided to go forward and discover what was actually going on, and this action unchained the whole battle power of all the troops within call.
When, on the following morning, Steinmetz reported von der Goltz and the commander of the I.
Hull; some months earlier Lebedew had published in the Annalen der Physik a verification for metallic vanes so thin as to avoid the gasaction, by preventing the production of sensible difference of temperature between the two faces by the incident radiation.
Reinhard, author of the System der christlichen Moral (1788-1815), then court-preacher at Dresden, who became his warm friend and patron during the remainder of his life.
See Vincent Smith, Early History of India (1908); Hoernle and Stark, History of India (1905); Rapson, Indian Coins (1898); Gardner, Coins of Greek and Scythian Kings in India (1886); Franke, Beitrage aus Chinesischen Quellen zur Kenntnis der Tiirkvolker und.
He wrote Memoiren (Leipzig, 1850); Der Nationalkrieg in Ungarn, &c. (Leipzig, 1851); a history of the Crimean War, Der Krieg im Orient.
Among the best known are "Liitzow's wilde verwegene Jagd," "Gebet wahrend der Schlacht" (set to music by Weber) and "Das Schwertlied."
Crusius's chief theological works are Hypomnemata ad theologiam propheticam (1764-1778), and Kurzer Entwurf der Moraltheologie (1772-1773).
Melber, Ueber die Quellen and Werth der Strategemensammlung Polycins (1885); Knott, De fide et fontibus Polyaeni (1883), who largely reduces the number of the authorities consulted by Polyaenus.
Roscher (Nektar and Ambrosia, 1883; see also his article in Roscher's Lexikon der Mythologic) nectar and ambrosia were originally only different forms of the same substance - honey, regarded as a dew, like manna, fallen from heaven, which was used both as food and drink.
Schiller (Geschichte der romischen Kaiserzeit, Gotha, 1883) is more on a level with recent inquiries.
Klopp is best known as the author of Der Fall des Hauses Stuart (Vienna, 1875-1888), the fullest existing account of the later Stuarts.
In the same year his pupil Volter (Die Entstehung der Apok., 1882, 1885) put forward the bold theory that the original Apocalypse consisted of 1.4-6, iv.
Makaroff, The Yermak in the Ice (in Russian) (St Petersburg, 1901); The Norwegian North Atlantic Expedition (on the " Voringen "), 1876-1878 (Christiania, 1880-1900); Expeditions scientifiques du " Travailleur " et du " Talisman," 1880-1883 (Paris, 1891 et seq.); Die Ergebnisse der Plankton-Expedition, 1889 (Kiel, 1892 et seq.); Resultats des campagnes scientifiques accomplies sur son yacht par Albert I e ' Prince Souverain de Monaco (Monaco, from 1889); The Danish " Ingolf " Expedition, 1806 (Copenhagen, 1900); Prof. Luksch, Expeditionen S.M.
Reports of many minor expeditions and researches have appeared in the Reports of the Fishery Board for Scotland; the Marine Biological Association at Plymouth; the Kiel Commission for the Investigation of the Baltic; the Berlin Institut fur Meereskunde; the bluebooks of the Hydrographic Department; the various official reports to the British, German, Russian, Finnish, Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, Belgian and Dutch governments on the respective work of these countries in connexion with the international cooperation in the North Sea; the Bulletin du musee oceanographique de Monaco (1903 seq.); the Scottish Geographical Magazine; the Geographical Journal; Petermanns Mitteilungen; Wagner's Geogi'aphisches Jahrbuch; the Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Societies of London and Edinburgh; the Annalen der Hydrographie; and the publications of the Swedish Academy of Sciences.
The Rhenish-Westphalian coalfield was fully described in all details, geological, technical and economic, in a work called Die Entwickelung des niederrheinisch-westfcilischen Steinkohlen Bergbaues in der zweiten Hcilfte des 19 ten Jahrhunderts (also known by the short title of Sammelwerk) in twelve quarto volumes, issued under the auspices of the Westphalian Coal Trade Syndicate (Berlin, 1902-1905).
An abridgment of the Kritik der Urtheilskraft was begun, but was left unfinished.
During this period he published anonymously two remarkable political works, Zuriickforderung der Denkfreiheit von den Fiirsten Europas and Beitrdge zur Berichtigung der Urtheile des Publicums fiber die franzOsische Revolution.
A general introduction to the system is given in the tractate Ober den Begriff der Wissenschaftslehre (On the Notion of the Theory of Science), 1794, and the theoretical portion is worked out in the Grundlage der gesammten Wissenschaftslehre (Foundation of the whole Theory of Science, 1794) and Grundriss des Eigenthiimlichen d.
The practical philosophy was given in the Grundlage des Naturrechts (1796) and System der Sittenlehre (1798).
The most remarkable of the works from this period are - (I) the Bestimmung des Menschen (Vocation of Man, 1800), a book which, for beauty of style, richness of content, and elevation of thought, may be ranked with the Meditations of Descartes; (2) Der geschlossene Handelsstaat, 1800 (The Exclusive or Isolated Commercial State), a very remarkable treatise, intensely socialist in tone, and inculcating organized protection; (3) Sonnenklarer Bericht an das grossere Publicum iiber die neueste Philosophie, 1801.
In 1801 was also written the Darstellung der Wissenschaftslehre, which was not published till after his death.
On only one point, the position assigned in the Wissenschaftslehre to the absolute ego, is there any obscurity; but the relative passages are far from decisive, and from the early work, Neue Darstellung der Wissenchaftslehre, unquestionably to be ins uded in the Jena period, one can see that from the outset the doctrine of the absolute ego was held in a form differing only in statement from the later theory.
Fichte and der neuere Socialismus (1900).
Thus the pressure is given by the equation (p+a/v 2) (v - b) =RNT, which is known as Van der Waals's equation.
Among his works are Wegweisen far rationelle Forschungen in den biblischen Schriften (1853); and translations of Nathan der Weise (1869); Sepher Jezirah (1877); and Munz's History of Philosophy among the Jews (1881).
From 1838 to 1863 he lived in Breslau, where he organized the reform movement in Judaism and wrote some of his most important works, including Lehrand Lesebuch zur Sprache der Mischna (1845), Studien from Maimonides (1850), translation into German of the poems of Juda ha-Levi (1851), and Urschrift and Obersetzungen der Bibel in ihrer Abhangigkeit von der innern Entwickelung des Judentums (1857).
Geiger also contributed frequently on Hebrew, Samaritan and Syriac subjects to the Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenldndischen Gesellschaft, and from 1862 until his death (on the 23rd of October 1874) he was editor of a periodical entitled Ji dische Zeitschrift fiir Wissenschaft and Leben.
Unfortunately this crude solution of the problem proved too much; for conditions were no worse immediately before the revolt than they had been for centuries, and German complaints of papal tyranny go back to Hildegard of Bingen and Walther von der Vogeiweide, who antedated Luther by more than three centuries.
Many of his works will be found in Migne, Patrologia Graeca, cix., cxii., cxiii.; for editions of the rest, C. Krumbacher, Geschichte der byzantinischen Literatur (1897), and the article by Cohn in Pauly-Wissowa's Realencyclopadie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft (1900) should be consulted.
In 1772 appeared the most popular of his books, IV orterbuch des Neuen Testamentes zur Erkldrung der christlichen Lehre (6th ed., 1805).
He was not, however, to be moved by such means, and (1792) issued his work Die Religion der Vollkommeneren, an exposition of his theological position, in which he advocated at length the idea, subsequently often urged, of "the perfectibility of Christianity," - that is, of the ultimate transformation of Christianity into a scheme of simple morality, with a complete rejection of all specifically Christian ideas and methods.
Also Zeller, Socrates and the Socratic Schools; Dyeck, De Megaricorum doctrines (Bonn, 1827); Mallet, Histoire de l'ecole de Megare (Paris, 1845); Ritter, Ober die Philosophie der r meg.
To the period of his political activity belong Zur Geschichte der deutschen Reichsversammlung in Frankfurt (1849); Heinrich von Gagern (1850), in the series of Manner der Gegenwart; and the anonymous Vier Monate auswartiger Politik (1851).
His other works include Origines Germanicae (1840); the lectures Die Krisis der Reformation (1845) and Feudalitat and Aristokratie (1858); Aus der Zeit Friedrichs des Grossen and Friedrich Wilhelms III.
Of modern books may be mentioned Schmidt, Histoire des Cathares; Hahn, Geschichte der neumanichaischen Ketzer; Dieckhoff, Die Waldenser im Mittelalter; Preger, Beitrage zur Geschichte der Waldensier; Cantu, Gli Eretici in Italia; Comba, Storia della Riforma in Italia, and Histoire des Vaudois d'Italie; Tocco, L'Eresia nel medio evo; Montet, Histoire litteraire des Vaudois; Lea, History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages.
Sorn's Der Sprachgebrauch des Historikers Eutropius (1892) contains a systematic account of the grammar and style of the author.
During the years that followed all political activity was impossible, but he was fully occupied with his great work Geschichte der Revolutionszeit 1879-1800, for which he had made prolonged studies in the archives of Paris and other countries.
The latter is a beautiful Renaissance structure, with a magnificent facade and a delicate spire, and contains a grand hall, the Kaisersaal, in which every Whit Monday a play, Der Meistertrunk, which commemorates the capture of the town by Tilly in 1631, is performed.
Crawford, was engaged to reorganize the customs; a number of German officers, selected by General von der Goltz, were brought in to reform the army; and the work of restoring the navy to efficiency was entrusted to a British adviser, Rear-Admiral Gamble, and a small British staff.
In 1896 Herzl published his famous pamphlet "Der Judenstaat."
His subsequent works were dissertations on the origin of alphabetical writing (Die Erfindung der Buchstabenschrift, 1801), on the antiquity of the Codex Vaticanus (1810), and on ancient mythology (Ober den Mythos der alten Volker, 1812); a new interpretation of the Song of Solomon (Das hohe Lied in einer noch unversuchten Deutung, 1813), to the effect that the lover represents King Hezekiah, while by his beloved is intended the remnant left in Israel after the deportation of the ten tribes; and treatises on the indissoluble character of the matrimonial bond (De conjugii christiani vinculo indissolubili commentatio exegetica, 1816) and on the Alexandrian version of the Pentateuch (1818).
The first fruits of his work were a comic opera, Der neue krumme Teufel, and a Mass in F major (both written in 1751), the former of which was produced with success.
Returning to Heidelberg he became Privatdozent in theology in 1829, and in 1831 published his Begriff der Kritik am Allen Testamente praktisch erartert, a study of Old Testament criticism in which he explained the critical principles of the grammatico-historical school, and his Des Propheten Jonas Orakel uber Moab, an exposition of the 1 5th and 16th chapters of the book of Isaiah attributed by him to the prophet Jonah mentioned in 2 Kings xiv.
Gierke, in his book Johannes Althusius and die Entwickelung der naturrechtlichen Staatstheorie, shows (p. 76) that the conception of a treaty or agreement as the basis of the state was in the middle ages a dogma which passed almost unchallenged, and that this theory was maintained up to a late period.
The distinction between real and nominal sovereignty was familiar to medieval writers, who recognized a double sovereignty, and distinguished between (1) the real or practical sovereignty resident in the people, and (2) the personal sovereignty of the ruler (Adolf Dock, Der Souveranitaitsbegrif, &c., p. 13).
Influence lines were described by Frankel, Der Civilingenieur, 1876.
The most important of his numerous works are the Wissenschaftslehre, oder Versuch einer neuen Darstellung der Logik, advocating a scientific method in the study of logic (4 vols., Sulzbach, 1837); the Lehrbuch der Religionswissenschaft (4 vols., Sulzbach, 1834), a philosophic representation of all the dogmas of Roman Catholic theology; and Athanasia, oder Gri nde fiir die Unsterblichkeit der Seele (2nd ed., Mainz, 1838).
Kleinwachter, Untergang der oesterreich-ungarischen Monarchie (1920); Seton-Watson, The Future of Austria (1907); The Southern Slav Question; Absolutism in Croatia; Zd.
He published Entwicklungsgeschichte der Chemie von Lavoisier bis zur Gegenwart (1868) and other works on chemistry, collaborated in a Handworterbuch der Chemie (13 vols., 1882-96), and wrote a volume of reminiscences, Lebenserinnerungen (1912).
Van der Weyer, the Belgian minister, that the prince should come to England and press his suit.
In 1851 he brought out a life of Count Yorck von Wartenburg (Berlin, 1851-1852, and many later editions), one of the best biographies in the German language, and then began his great work on the Geschichte der preussischen Politik (Berlin, 1855-1886).
His last great book was his Literaturgeschichte der synagogalen Poesie (1865).
Recent investigations are described in the Reports of the Fishery Board for Scotland, and in the reports of the German Kommission zur Untersuchung der Deutschen Meere (published at Kiel).
His papers, which were republished in a single volume with the title Die Mechanik der Wdrme (3rd ed., 1893), are of unequal merit.
A new era was opened by the publication in 1857 of the second edition of Ritschl's Entstehung der altkatholischen Kirche, in which he broke away from the Tubingen school and introduced new points of view that have revolutionized the interpretation of the early church.
Of modern critical editions, besides those containing the works of one or another individual, the best are the Berlin edition of the early Greek Fathers (Die griechischen christlichen Schriftsteller der ersten drei Jahrhunderte, 1897 ff.), and the Vienna edition of the Latin Fathers (Corpus scriptorum ecclesiasticorum Latinorum, 1867 ff.), both of first-rate importance.
On early Christian literature, in addition to the works on Church history, see especially the monumental Geschichte der altchristlichen Litteratur bis Eusebius, by Harnack (1893 ff.).
His first work was Der Montanismus u.
In 1843 he founded the Jahrbilcher der Gegenwart, and became Privatdozent of philosophy and classical philology in Tubingen university.
Schwegler published also an edition of the Clementine Homilies (1847), and of Eusebius's Ecclesiastical History (1852); in philosophy Ubersetzung and Erlciuterung der aristot.
It is well built, and boasts of a fine old Gothic parish church, dating from the 14th and 15th centuries, opposite which a statue was erected in 1889 to the memory of the famous Minnesinger, Walther von der Vogelweide, who, according to some accounts, was born (c. 1170) at a farm above Waidbruck, to the north of Botzen.
Hartig, Die Familien der Blattwespen and Holzwespen (Berlin, 1860); Walsh, " On the Insects, Coleopterous, Hymenopterous and Dipterous, inhabiting the Galls of certain species of Willow," Proc. Ent.
Ancient scepticism is fully treated in the relative parts of Zeller's Philosophie der Griechen.
A full account of all the Claudii will be found in Pauly-Wissowa's Realencyclopadie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, iii.
Perhaps the best of all is Walery Jan Kalinka's great work in four volumes, Der vierjahrige polnische Reichstag (Berlin, 1896-1898).
According to Nitschmann in his Geschichte der polnischen - Litteratur - a work which has been of service in the preparation of this article - the books were transported to Russia very carelessly, and many of them injured by the way.
Bruckner (Leipzig, 1901; also written in Polish); Chmielowski, History of Polish Literature (in Polish, 3 vols.); Stanislaus Tarnowski, History of Polish Literature (in Polish); Grabowski, Poezya Polska po roku 1863 (Cracow, 1903); Heinrich Nitschmann, Geschichte der polnischen Literatur (Leipzig; sine anno).
This result having been attained, he passed the rest of his days in retirement, emerging sometimes from his retreat to give addresses on theological questions, and also writing, in conjunction with his friend Reusch, his last book, Geschichte der Moralstreitigkeiten in der romisch-katholischen Kirche seit dem sechzehnten Jahrhundert mit Beitragen zur Geschichte and Charakteristik des Jesuitenordens (Nordlingen, 188 9), in which he deals with the moral theology of St Alfonso de' Liguori.
Several of the works of "Carmen Sylva" were written in collaboration with Mite Kremnitz, one of her maids of honour, who was born at Greifswald in 1857, and married Dr Kremnitz of Bucharest; these were published between 1881 and 1888, in some cases under the pseudonyms Dito et Idem, and includes the novel Aus zwei Welten (Leipzig, 1884), Anna Boleyn (Bonn, 1886), a tragedy, In der Irre (Bonn, 1888), a collection of short stories, &c. Edleen Vaughan, or Paths of Peril, a novel (London, 1894), and Sweet Hours, poems (London, 1904), were written in English.
He was followed by Christian Konrad Sprengel, whose work Das entdeckte Geheimniss der Natur im Bau and in der Befruchtung der Blumen (Berlin, 1793), contains a description of floral adaptations to.
Wolf, Geschichte der Astronomie, p. 517.
Matthews, Treatise on Bessel's Functions (1895); Encyclopddie der math.
White at Oxford under the title Versio Philoxenia; for the marginal notes see esp. Westcott and Hort, Introduction, and for Acts, Pott's Abendldndische Text der Apostelgesch.
Students of Tallquist's Maklu series of incantation or of the surpu series edited by Zimmern (in his Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Babylonischen Religion) will recollect the images over which the priest sorcerer recites his formulae.
On the theology of the prophets there is a separate work by Duhm (Bonn, 1875), and Knobel's Prophetismus der Hebraer (1837), is a separate introduction to the prophetical books.
He studied theology at the university of Halle, and became tutor to the eldest son of the baron von der Horst, to whose family he attached himself for a number of years.
On the south side of the town pleasant gardens extend along the old Singel, or outer canal, and there is a large open space, the Van der Werf Park, named after the burgomaster, Pieter Andriaanszoon van der Werf, who defended the town against the Spaniards in 1574 This open space was formed by the accidental explosion of a powdership in 1807, hundreds of houses being demolished, including that of the Elzevir family of printers.
Of the numerous churches the chief are the Hooglandsche Kerk, or the church of St Pancras, built in the 15th century and restored in 18851 9 02, containing the monument of Pieter Andriaanszoon van der Werf, and the Pieterskerk (1315) with monuments to Scaliger, Boerhaave and other famous scholars.
In 1749 he published Einleitung in die Harmonie der Walafrid also edited Thetmar's Life of Louis the Pious, prefixing a preface and making a few additions, and divided Einhard's Vita Caroli into chapters, adding an introduction.
He also published a periodical Der Naturforscher (1774-1778), and during the years1749-1756took an active part in editing the Zeitungen von gelehrten Sachen.
His most important works were Introductio in controversies juris civilis recentioris (Jena, 1771) and Geschichte der in Deutschland geltenden Rechte (Jena, 1780).
On the relation of Neoplatonism to Christianity, and the historical importance of Neoplatonism generally, see the leading church histories, and the Histories of Dogma by Baur, Nitzsch, Harnack, &c. Compare also Loffler, Der Platonismus der Kirchenvater (1782); Huber, Die Philosophie der Kirchenvdter (1859); Tzchirner, Fall des Heidenthums (1829), pp. 574618; Burckhardt, Die Zeit Constantin's des Grossen (1853); Chastel, Hist.
The claims of Byrgius are discussed in Kastner's Geschichte der Mathematik, ii.
The largest hyperbolic table as regards range was published by Zacharias Dase at Vienna in 1850 under the title Tafel der natiirlichen Logarithmen der Zahlen.
See Ehrenfeuchter, Geschichte des Katechismus (187); P. Schaff, History of the Creeds of Christendom (3 vols., 1876-1877); Mitchell, Catechisms of the Second Reformation (1887); C. Achelis, Lehrbuch der prakt.
In Kowalevsky's Versuch einer natiirlichen Classification der Fossilen Hufthiere (1873) we find a model union of detailed inductive study with theory and working hypothesis.
The succession of life from the earliest times as it was known at the close of the last century was treated by the same author in his Handbuch der Palciontologie (5 vols., Munich and Leipzig, 1876-1893).
Cholevius, in his Geschichte der deutschen Poesie nach ihren antiken Elementen (1854), pointed out the connexion of the legend with the Oedipus story.
For other and older Coptic-Gnostic texts, in one of which is contained the source of Irenaeus's treatises on the Barbelognostics, but which have unfortunately not yet been made completely accessible, see C. Schmidt in Sitzungsberichte der Berl.
Krabe of Prummern near Aachen, the most scientific and practical of German cultivators, the results of whose experiments have been published in his admirable Lehrbuch der rationellen Weidenkultur (Aix-la-Chapelle, 1886, et seq.) went so far as to assert that willows prefer a dry to a wet soil.
In 1793 he contributed to Paulus's Memorabilien a paper "Ãœber Mythus, historische Sagen, and Philosopheme der altesten Welt"; and in 1795 his thesis for his theological degree was DeMarcione Paullinarum epistolarum emendatore.
With characteristic zeal and impetuosity Schelling had no sooner grasped the leading ideas of Fichte's amended form of the critical philosophy than he put together his impressions of it in his Ãœber die MÃ¶glichkeit einer Form der Philosophie Ã¼berhaupt (1794).
Without resigning his official position he lectured for a short time at Stuttgart, and 1 The reviews of current philosophical literature were afterwards collected, and edited under the title "Abhandlungen zur Erlauterung des Idealismus der Wissenschaftslehre" in 'Schelling's Philos.
The "Aphorisms on Naturphilosophie" contained in the Jahrbiicher der Medicin als Wissenschaft (1806-1808) are for the most part extracts from the Wiirzburg lectures; and the Denkmal der Schrift von den gottlichen Dingen des Herrn Jacobi wasdrawn forth by the special incident of Jacobi's work.
Franke, Beitrage aus chinesischen Quellen zur Kenntnis der Tiirkvolker and Skythen (1904); P. Gardner, Coins of Greek and Scythian Kings in India (1886); and various articles by Vincent Smith, Fleet, Cunningham, A Stein, Sylvain Levi and others in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Journal asiatique, Indian Antiquary, Zeitsch.
See Wissowa, Religion der Reimer (1902), p. 304, and his article in Pauly-Wissowa's Realencyclopadie, iii.
He wrote numerous papers on photometry and spectrum analysis in Poggendorff's Annalen and Berichte der k.
Beside the three volumes of the Erlduternder Auszug, he published the Grundriss der krit.
See Ueberweg, Grundriss der Gesch.
The accounts of Mosheim, Lardner, Walch and Schrockh, as well as the monograph by Trechsel, Ueber Kanon, Kritik and Exegese der Manichder (1832), may also be mentioned as still useful.
In Kant's Analogien der Erfahrung (1876) he keenly criticized Kant's transcendentalism, and in his chief work Idealismus and Positivismus (3 vols., 1879-1884), he drew a clear contrast between Platonism, from which he derived transcendentalism, and positivism, of which he considered Protagoras the founder.
Bredow's principal works are Handbuch der alten Geschichte, Geographic and Chronologie (Eutin, 1799; English trans., London, 1827); Chronik des 19.
Kurtz was a prolific writer, and many of his books, especially the Lehrbuch der heiligen Geschichte (1843), became very popular.
In 1481 the holy Nicholas von der Flue composed at Stans by his advice the strife between the Confederates, while in 1798 many persons were massacred here by the French.
The bark of the common birch is much more durable, and industrially of greater From Strasburger, Lehrbuch der Botanik.
His great work Die Landand Siisswasser-Conchylien der Vorwelt was published in 1870-1875.
We must look for ethics to supply the corner-stone of metaphysics, and psychology is a necessary propaedeutic. The System der Philosophie (1899; 3rd ed., 1907) contained the results of Wundt's work up to that date, both in the domain of science and in the more strictly philosophic field.
Guppy, The Solomon Islands (London, 1887), where full references to earlier works are given; C. Ribbe, Zwei Jahre unter den Kannibalen der Salomon-Inseln (Dresden, 1903).
Schelling's adherent Oken by his Lehrbuch der Naturphilosophie conveyed to his mind the life-long impression that God is the universe and Nature God's appearance.
In 1860 appeared Fechner's Elemente der Psychophysik, a work which deeply affected subsequent psychology, and almost revolutionized metaphysics of body and soul, and of physical and psychical relations generally.
Fechner first confused physics and metaphysics in psychophysics, and next proceeded to confuse them again in his work on evolution (Einige Ideen zur SchOpfungs and Entwicklungs-geschichte der Organismen, 1873).
This is the subject of his last metaphysical work, Die Tagesansicht gegeniiber der Nachtansicht (1879).
Cohen his more important Kants Theorie der Erfahrung, which led Lange to modify his interpretation of Kant in the second edition of his own book.
Riehl, who in Der philosophische Kriti .cis- mus (1876, &c.) proposes the non-Kantian hypothesis that, though things in themselves are unknowable through reason alone, they are knowable by empirical intuition, and therefore also by empirical thought starting from intuition.
Schuppe, who, in his Erkenntnistheoretische Logik (1878), and in his shorter Grundriss der Erkenntnistheorie and Logik (1894), gives the view a wider scope by the contention that the real world is the common content or object of common consciousness, which, according to him, as according to Fichte, is one and the same in all individual men.
In his first philosophical treatise, Philosophie als Denken der Welt gemdss dem Princip des kleinsten Kraftmaasses, Prolegomena zu einer Kritik der reinen Erfahrung (1876), he based his views on the principle of least action, contending that, as in Nature the force which produces a change is the least that can be, so in mind belief tends in the easiest direction.
Afterwards, in his Kritik der reinen Erfahrung (1888-1890), Avenarius aimed at giving a description of pure experience which he identified with the natural view of the world held by all unprejudiced persons.
If judgment is an analysis of an aggregate idea into subject and predicate, it follows, as he says, that " as judgment is an immediate, so is inference a mediate, reference of the members of any aggregate of ideas to one another " (System der Philosophie, 66, first ed.).