Depth sentence example

depth
  • He understood the depth of her fear.
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  • It was difficult to describe the depth of her feelings.
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  • Tears began to spill down her face as she understood the depth of Gabriel.s pain.
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  • He wore light colors this day of tan, a shade that brought out the depth of honey in his skin.
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  • The water is so transparent that the bottom can easily be discerned at the depth of twenty-five or thirty feet.
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  • The mean depth is 189 ft., and the maximum 512 ft.
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  • She felt her own tears spill over at the depth of his pain.
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  • He was always hearing such words as: "With your remarkable kindness," or, "With your excellent heart," "You are yourself so honorable Count," or, "Were he as clever as you," and so on, till he began sincerely to believe in his own exceptional kindness and extraordinary intelligence, the more so as in the depth of his heart it had always seemed to him that he really was very kind and intelligent.
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  • He wanted her, and nothing had ever made her happier in her life than when she saw the depth of his emotion in his eyes and lived through the consuming intensity with which he made love to her.
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  • The dockyard, chiefly used for naval repairs, covers about 60 acres, and consists of three basins and large docks, the depth of water in the basins ranging down to 26 ft.
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  • There are two piers enclosing a harbour with a total area of 48 acres, having a depth of about 16 ft.
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  • Once, when he had touched on this topic with his mother, he discovered, to his surprise and somewhat to his satisfaction, that in the depth of her soul she too had doubts about this marriage.
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  • And from an unknown depth rose increasingly triumphant sounds.
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  • He was largely immune to the world, but he had some depth of emotion, if he respected his mother's memory by not killing women.
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  • It was only a slight brush, not enough to fully wake him from the depth of his stupor.
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  • Every once in a while, the half-demon surprised him with the depth of his observations and compassion.
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  • The first ledge rising from the ocean floor has depth averaging 8000 ft.
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  • His brother had no idea the depth of emotion even a half-demon could feel.
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  • For the scientific construction of a green, the whole ground must be excavated to a depth of 18 in.
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  • The basal plain of these terraces is the bed of the ocean, which on the Pacific side has an average depth of 15,000 ft.
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  • My spirit could not reach up to his, but he gave me a real sense of joy in life, and I never left him without carrying away a fine thought that grew in beauty and depth of meaning as I grew.
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  • This is a remarkable depth for so small an area; yet not an inch of it can be spared by the imagination.
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  • She still didn't understand the depth of her talents or how to control the visions, and being alone and away from her mate made some days unbearable.
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  • He had no idea of the depth of the gorge or the length of the rope, but he prayed it was sufficient.
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  • Perhaps the best natural harbour of the republic is that of Bahia Blanca, a large bay of good depth, sheltered by islands, and 534 m.
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  • Although petroleum wells in Russia have not the depth of many of those in the United States, the disturbed character of the strata, with consequent liability to caving, and the occurrence of hard concretions, render drilling a lengthy and expensive Drilling in operation.
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  • In all Heteronemertines there is on each side of the head a longitudinal slit of varying length but generally considerable depth, in the bottom of which the dark red brain is very plainly visible by transparency.
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  • The maximum depth recorded by the United States Lake Survey is 870 ft.; the mean level of the surface is 5813 ft.
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  • Its depth is 213 ft., and its height above sea-level 3z ft.; it has no natural outlet.
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  • The improvement of the river, by the removal of snags and the construction of dams and locks in order to give it a navigable depth of to ft.
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  • In his next work, Die Meistersinger, Wagner ingeniously made poetry and drama out of an explicit manifesto to musical critics, and proved the depth of his music by developing its everyday resources and so showing that its vitality does not depend on that extreme emotional force that makes Tristan and Isolde almost unbearably poignant.
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  • It issues from the south-west corner of Lake Ladoga in two channels, which are obstructed by sandstone reefs, so that the better of the two has a depth of only 7 to 16 ft.
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  • It extends inland at its greatest depth about 130 m.
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  • Ten steps lead down to a basin of sufficient depth for immersion, supplied by a spring.
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  • The depth of the wells is from 840 to 2150 ft.; two wells completed in 1907 had a daily capacity estimated at 35,000,000 to 50,000,000 ft.
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  • There is a depth of 1 4 ft.
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  • These fjords are very deep; the greatest depth found by Ryder in Scoresby Sound was 300 fathoms, but there are certainly still greater depths; like the Norwegian fjords they have, however, probably all of them, a threshold or sill, with shallow water, near their mouths.
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  • Deidre glanced at Darkyn in puzzlement, and Gabriel realized she didn't yet understand the depth of the Dark One's obligation to her.
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  • It was peaceful on the path, in spite of the snow and increased inconvenience of trudging in its depth.
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  • The Blackhall bore, put down at his advice from 1885 to 1888, reached a water-bearing layer at the depth of 1645 ft.
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  • The greatest development of quartz reefing is found in Victoria, some of the mines being of great depth.
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  • The west coast throughout its whole length is covered to a depth of some miles with mangrove swamps, with only a few isolated stretches of sandy beach, the dim foliage of the mangroves and the hideous mud flats presenting a depressing spectacle.
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  • These rocks form the greater part of the central range, and they are often - especially the granite - decomposed and rotten to a considerable depth.
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  • They consist of a number of circular or rectangular pits sunk from the cap of a hill, and going down to a depth of in some cases as much as 120 ft., until in fact the miners have been stopped by being unable to cope with the quantity of water made when the level of the valley was reached.
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  • The soil is for the most part glacial drift, composed of clay, sand and gravel, and varying greatly in depth.
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  • The depth at the entrance is 72 to 108 ft., and in port from 36 to 66 ft.
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  • It provides extensive quayage with a minimum depth of water of 28 ft.
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  • The mean depth over this ridge is about 250 fathoms, and the maximum depth nowhere reaches 500 fathoms. The main basin of the Atlantic is thus cut off from the Arctic basin, with which the area north of the ridge has complete deep-water communication.
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  • In these troughs the depth is seldom much less than 3000 fathoms, and this is exceeded in a series of patches to which Murray has given the name of "Deeps."
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  • Mean Karstens, 2047 fathoms. If we include the enclosed depth, and seas, the North Atlantic has a mean depth of 1800 bottom fathoms. The South Atlantic has a mean depth of deposits.
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  • The communication between the Atlantic and Arctic basins being cut off, as already described, at a depth of about 300 fathoms, the temperatures in the Norwegian Sea below that level are essentially Arctic, usually below the freezing-point of fresh water, except where the distribution is modified by the surface circulation.
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  • This distribution is most marked at about 300 fathoms, and disappears at soo fathoms, beyond which depth the lines tend to become parallel and to run east and west, the gradient slowly diminishing.
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  • The first passes northwards, most of it between the Faeroe and Shetland Islands, to the coast of Norway, and so on to the Arctic basin, which, as Nansen has shown, it fills to a great depth.
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  • The second part of the circulation in the depth is the slow " creep " of water of very low temperature along the bottom.
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  • The tidal wave of the Southern Ocean, which sweeps uninterruptedly round the globe from east to west, generates a secondary wave between Africa and South America, which travels north at a rate dependent only on the depth of the ocean.
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  • The genius of the modern pianoforte is to produce richness by depth and variety of tone; and players who cannot find scope for such genius in the real part-writing of the 18th century will not get any nearer to the 18th-century spirit by sacrificing the essentials of its art to an attempt to imitate its mechanical resources by a modern tour de force.
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  • The weight of the iron sheath varies greatly according to the depth of the water, the nature of the sea bottom, the prevalence of currents, and so on.
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  • The ordinates of the curve give the strain in cwts., and the abscissae the distance in miles measured from the Canso end; as the strain is proportional to the depth, 18 cwts.
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  • The grappling of the cable and raising it to the surface from a depth of 2000 fathoms seldom occupy less than twenty-four hours, and since any extra strain due to the pitching of the vessel must be avoided, it is clear that the state of the sea and weather is the predominating factor in the time necessary for effecting the long series of operations which, in the most favourable circumstances, are required for a repair.
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  • As to cost, one transatlantic cable repair cost 75,000; the repair of the Aden-Bombay cable, broken in a depth of 1900 fathoms, was effected with the expenditure of 176 miles of new cable, and after a lapse of 251 days, 103 being spent in actual work, which for the remainder of the time was interrupted by the monsoon; a repair of the Lisbon-Porthcurnow cable, broken in the Bay of Biscay in 2700 fathoms, eleven years after the cable was laid, took 215 days, with an expenditure of 300 miles of cable.
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  • Both Bell and Gray proposed to do this by introducing a column of liquid into the circuit, the length or the resistance of which could be varied by causing the vibrations of the diaphragm to vary the depth of immersion of a light rod fixed to it and dipping into the liquid.
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  • The size of the pitcher varies widely in the different species, from an inch to a foot or more in depth.
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  • The only part of the sea-bed the configuration of which is at all well known is the zone bordering the coasts where the depth is less than about loo fathoms or 200 metres, i.e.
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  • Thus the best approximation to the average depth of the ocean is little more than an expert guess; yet a fair approximation is probable for the features of sub-oceanic relief are so much more uniform than those of the land that a smaller number of fixed points is required to determine them.
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  • They are at a depth of about 12 ft., in slaty shale containing Llandeilo fossils and contemporaneous felspathic ash and scoriae.
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  • About half-way between `Ana and Hit, in the neighbourhood of Haditha, the river has a breadth of 300 yds., with a depth of r8 ft., and a flood speed of 4 knots.
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  • A new harbour was made in 1891-1896, having a depth of 264 ft., with a fore port l000 ft.
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  • There are several lakes of great depth and streams well fitted for the purposes of irrigation, of which full advantage is taken by the natives.
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  • Some of the sandbanks are dry; and no part of the shoal has a greater depth than 3 or 4 ft.
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  • The complicated plot is constructed with greater skill than is usual with this dramatist, and the pathos of particular situations, and of the entire character of Penthea - a woman doomed to hopeless misery, but capable of seeking to obtain for her brother a happiness which his cruelty has condemned her to forego - has an intensity and a depth which are all Ford's own.
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  • The shortness of the summer, the deficiency of drainage and the depth to which the soil freezes in winter, are the circumstances which determine the characteristic features of the vegetation of the tundras.
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  • Except in hard rock, the top width of a cutting, and therefore the amount of material to be excavated, increases rapidly with the depth; hence if a cutting exceeds a certain depth, which varies with the particular circumstances, it may be more economical, instead of forming the sides at the slope at which the material of which they are composed will stand, to make them nearly vertical and support the soil with a retaining wall, or to bore a tunnel.
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  • Its depth varies, according to the traffic which the line has to bear, from about 6 in.
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  • Typical dimensions for sleepers on important British railways are: - length 9 ft., breadth io in., and depth 5 in.
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  • A trench was first excavated to the proper depth, then the side walls and arched roof of brick were put in place, earth was filled in behind and over the arch, and the surface of the ground restored, either by paving where streets were followed, or by actually being built over with houses where the lines passed under private property.
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  • Where the depth to rail-level was too great for cut-and-cover methods, ordinary tunnelling processes were used; and where the trench was too shallow for the arched roof, heavy girders, sometimes of cast iron, bridged it between the side walls, longitudinal.
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  • (For the details of the shield and method of its operation, see Tunnel.) By means of the shield Greathead cut a circular hole at a depth ranging from 40 to 80 ft.
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  • Underground railways are of three general types: the one of extreme depth, built by tunnelling methods, usually with the shield and without regard to the surface topography, where the stations are put at such depth as to require lifts to carry the passengers from the station platform to the street level.
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  • During the summer time it has water of sufficient depth for steamers of light draft as far as Nan-ch'ang, and it is navigable by native craft for a considerable distance beyond that city.
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  • With reference to Automathes he is much more reserved in his praise, denying alike its originality, its depth and its elegance; but, he adds, " the book is not devoid of entertainment or instruction."
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  • These valleys are generally levelfloored, but at their borders gradually slope upward, and are filled, often to a depth of several thousand feet, with the detritus of gravel, sand and silt from the neighbouring hills.
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  • The maximum depth is 420 ft.
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  • The successive " Minoan " strata, which go well back into the fourth millennium B.C., reach down to a depth of about 17 ft.
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  • In the extreme north-east are found the oldest rocks in the state - lower Devonian (the New Scotland beds of New York) and, not so old, an extension of the Lower Carboniferous which underlies the Warrior coalfields of Alabama, and which consists of cherts, limestones, sandstones and shales, with a depth of 800 to 900 ft.
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  • Its minimum depth is 850 ft.
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  • It is mostly shallow and only close to Memel attains a depth of 23 ft.
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  • The depth of free mantle skirt is greatest in front, where the head and neck are covered in by it.
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  • The Neolithic stratum varies very much in depth, ranging from nearly 20 ft.
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  • Its variations may be due equally to natural denudation of a stratum once of uniform depth, or to the artificial heaping up of a mound by later builders.
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  • I long to take nature to my heart, that nature before whose depth the faint-hearted theologian shrinks back; and with nature man, man in his entire quality."
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  • The absence of preparations came to be felt more strongly with the rapid growth of the submarine menace, for the depth and number of the entrances made it a serious problem to establish adequate defences.
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  • The natural scour thus created has given a depth of 26 ft.
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  • It consists entirely of rich alluvial soil, annually inundated to a depth varying from 2 to 14 ft.
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  • These early schools, which consist chiefly of one-year and two-year-old fishes, yield sometimes enormous catches, whilst in other years they escape the drift-nets altogether, passing them, for some hitherto Unexplained reason, at a greater depth than that to which the nets reach, 1 The term "Spanish mackerel" is applied in America to Cybium maculatum.
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  • The depth of the middle portion of the lake has not yet been measured, but must exceed 500 fathoms. It was expected that an underground ridge would be found connecting Olkhon with Svyatoi Nos; but depths exceeding 622 fathoms have been sounded even along that line.
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  • 215 surround it, and most of its area has a depth exceeding 400 fathoms, the maximum depths along three lines of soundings taken across it being 491, 485, and 476 fathoms respectively.
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  • At a depth of 500 fathoms there is a nearly uniform temperature of 38°.
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  • In its long course it varies greatly both in depth and width, in some parts being only a few feet deep and spreading out to a width of more than a mile, while in other and mountainous portions of its course its channel is narrowed to 300 or 400 ft., and its depth is increased in inverse ratio.
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  • After drilling had been carried to a depth of 69 feet, on the 28th of August 1859, the tools suddenly dropped into a crevice, and on the following day the well was found to have " struck oil."
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  • Similarly there is a difference of opinion as to the conditions under which the organisms have been mineralized, some holding that the process has taken place at a high temperature and under great pressure; but the lack of practical evidence in nature in support of these views has led many to conclude that petroleum, like coal, has been formed at moderate temperatures, and under pressures varying with the depth of the containing rocks.
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  • Wells in Pennsylvania now range in depth from 300 ft.
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  • Contractors will often undertake to drill wells of moderate depth at 90 cents to $1 per foot, but the cost of a deep well may amount to as much as $7000.
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  • The entire area of the summit was now thoroughly explored, the excavations being carried down to the surface of the rock, which on the southern side was found to slope outwards to a depth of about 45 ft.
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  • Vessels load and discharge by means of lighters, the outer harbour having a depth at entrance of 24 ft.
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  • The inner harbour has a depth of 15 ft.
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  • The lake is saline and everywhere very shallow, its mean depth ranging from 3 to 5 ft.
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  • The silver grey is a uniform-coloured breed, the fur of which is a rich chinchilla grey, varying in depth in the different strains.
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  • In 1903 a beginning was made in the cultivation of cotton in the dry river beds, where water can always be obtained at a depth of 10 ft.
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  • The greatest depth is 1030 fathoms (1227 Russian fathoms) near the centre, there being only one basin.
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  • The depth of the harbour ranges from 21 to 26 ft.; and by improving this entrance, so as to make it 700 ft.
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  • Here we find less evidence of sedulous workmanship, yet not infrequently a piercing sweetness, a depth of emotion, a sincere and spontaneous lovableness, which are irresistibly touching and inspiring.
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  • In the eastern suburbs there is one of the largest grave-mounds in Spain, said to be of prehistoric date, and with subterranean chambers excavated to a depth of 65 ft.
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  • Finally, Glandiceps abyssicola (Spengelidae) was dredged during the "Challenger" expedition in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Africa at a depth of 2500 fathoms.
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  • The natural harbour, which, with a depth diminishing from 70 to 30 fathoms, strikes in from the northwest so as to cut the island into two fairly equal portions, with an isthmus not more than 14 m.
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  • On the inner surface of both valves several well-defined muscular, vascular and ovarian impressions are observable; they form either indentations of greater or less size and depth, or occur as variously shaped projections.
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  • This observatory, the foundations of which were fixed in the snow that appears to cover the summit to a depth of ten metres, was built in September 1893, and Janssen, in spite of his sixty-nine years, made the ascent and spent four days taking observations.
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  • The chief port is named Port Edward; it has good anchorage with a depth of 45 ft.
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  • The second and third, addressed respectively to a cardinal (Perraud) and a bishop (Le Camus), are polemical or ironical in tone; the others are all written to friends in a warm, expansive mood; the fourth letter especially, appropriated to Mgr Mignot, attains a grand elevation of thought and depth of mystical conviction.
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  • After a month or so the plates are converted to a more or less considerable depth into crusts of white lead.
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  • The harbour has a depth of over 20 ft.
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  • This was no isolated phenomenon; for in every progressive period of the history of religion we have on the one side the doctrine of God advancing in depth and fulness: on the other we have cosmological, eschatological and other survivals, which, however justifiable in earlier stages, are in unmistakable antagonism with the theistic beliefs of the time.
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  • The river when in flood, at which time it has a depth, of 40 ft., scours a channel through the bar, but the Orange is at all times inaccessible to sea-going vessels.
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  • The depth of the cutting is indicated by marks on the vertical wall at intervals of 10 Roman ft.
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  • Large beds of rock-salt also occur in the neighbourhood, in which shafts have been sunk to a depth of more than 1200 ft.
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  • The harbour, which is formed by a bay of the Baltic, has a depth throughout of 20 ft.
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  • Walking and skating, he proceeded in the depth of winter to Marseilles, and on by sea to Genoa.
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  • But the greater part of the coast region, which has an average depth of 15 m., is broken and rugged.
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  • Recognized as among the first mathematicians of his day, he was also widely known for the universality and depth of his philological and philosophical knowledge.
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  • The songs and elegies of the short-lived Paul Anyos, edited by Bacsanyi in 1798, show great depth of feeling.
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  • The shafts reached deposits of salt at a depth of 850 ft., but the finer and purer layers lie more than 1 roo ft.
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  • In many places the main reef lies at a great depth and some bore-holes are over 5500 ft.
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  • The stigmas and a part of the style are carefully picked out, and the wet saffron is then scattered on sheets of paper to a depth of 2 or 3 in.; over this a cloth is laid, and next a board with a heavy weight.
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  • As a result of these labours there is now in the Bohemian portion of the river a minimum depth of 2 ft.
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  • 8 in., whilst from the Bohemian frontier down to Magdeburg the minimum depth is 3 ft., and from Magdeburg to Hamburg, 3 ft.
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  • In 1896 and 1897 Prussia and Hamburg signed covenants whereby two channels are to be kept open to a depth of 9.
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  • Through these gorges dash magnificent cascades, others leaping the escarpments of the plateaus in waterfalls of great volume and depth.
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  • Between Basel and Strassburg the depth of water is sometimes not more than 3 ft.; between Strassburg and Mainz it varies from 5 to 25 ft.; while below Mainz it is never less than 9 or To ft.
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  • At present the Rhine in Holland has a depth of about 9 ft.
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  • Above Mannheim the depth of the stream is always less than 5 ft., and generally varies between that figure and 4 ft.
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  • The work of blasting out the rocks which at that spot projected in the bed of the river, begun in 1830, was continued down to the year 1887, so that now there are two navigable channels of sufficient depth for all vessels which ply up and down that part of the stream.
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  • The estimated cost was between three and four millions sterling, to be met by a toll, and it was urged that a uniform depth, independent of tides, would be ensured above the dam, that delay of large vessels wishing to proceed up river would thus be obviated, that the river would be relieved of pollution by the tides, and the necessity for constant dredging would be abolished.
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  • Its greatest depth is 738 ft., its average depth much in excess of that of Lake Erie, and it is as a general rule free from outlying shoals or dangers.
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  • As a result of its relatively great depth there are seldom any great fluctuations of level in this lake due to wind disturbance, but the lake follows the general rule of the Great Lakes (q.v.) of seasonal and annual variation.
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  • If the deposit shows great variations in thickness in its outcrop along the surface it is probable that a drift or a slope would show the same thing in depth.
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  • These conditions sometimes extend to a considerable depth.
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  • Below the oxidized outcrop the vein is often increased in value by secondary enrichment, sometimes to a depth of several hundred feet.
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  • The method to be adopted will vary with the thickness and character of the deposit, with its inclination, and to some extent with the character of the enclosing rocks, the depth below the surface, and other conditions.
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  • The depth to which open working can be pushed depends upon the size and value of the mineral deposit and upon the expense of removing the over-burden.
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  • Open excavations several hundred feet in depth are not uncommon.
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  • Moreover, the limit of vertical depth at which rope of even the best quality will support its own weight only, with a proper margin of safety, is, say, io,000 to 12,000 ft.; and with the load the safe working limit of depth would be reached at 7000 to 8000 ft.
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  • 1 Stage hoisting is applicable to any depth.
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  • There has been much speculation as to the depth to which it will be practicable to push the work of mining.
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  • 3 shaft of the Tamarack mine in Houghton county, Michigan, which has reached a vertical depth of about 5200 ft.
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  • The Quincy mine, also in Houghton county, has reached a vertical depth of nearly 4000 ft.
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  • The possibility of hoisting and pumping from great depths has been discussed, and it remains now to consider the other conditions which will tend to limit mining operations in depth - namely, increase of temperature and increase of rock pressure.
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  • Observations in different parts of the world have shown that the increase of temperature in depth varies: in most localities the rise being at the rate of one degree for 50 to 100 feet of depth; while in the deep mines of Michigan and the Rand, an increase as low as one degree for each 200 ft.
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  • But very heavy losses had been sustained by the 29th Division, large bodies of Turkish troops had arrived from Bulair and were being brought round from the Asiatic side of the Straits,' and after three days of strenuous combat the British and French had barely secured a depth of 2 m.
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  • The Allies now occupied many miles of front in the peninsula, but there was hardly a spot where the enemy had not the upper hand in respect to ground - what they required was not breadth but depth, and depth they had failed to secure.
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  • With the breadth and depth of the Saviour's sympathy, which are so fully exhibited in this Gospel, we may connect the clearness with which His true humanity is here portrayed.
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  • The river bar obstructs navigation, the depth not exceeding 14 ft., so that large vessels must lie outside.
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  • At first the Ghazal flows north with lagoon-like expansions having great breadth and little depth - nowhere more than 13 ft.
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  • The rise of the Ghazal river in flood time is barely 3 ft., a depth sufficient, however, to place an enormous area of country under water.
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  • They grew apparently throughout life, and were implanted to a great depth in the jaws, being 7 or 8 in.
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  • But as he was unacquainted with the law of the velocities of running water as depending upon the depth of the orifice, the want of precision which appears in his results is not surprising.
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  • In 1628 Castelli published a small work, Della misura dell' acque correnti, in which he satisfactorily explained several phenomena in the motion of fluids in rivers and canals; but he committed a great paralogism in supposing the velocity of the water proportional to the depth of the orifice below the surface of the vessel.
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  • - In a homogeneous liquid at rest under gravity the pressure increases uniformly with the depth.
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  • As the molten metal is run in, the upward thrust on the outside mould, when the level has reached PP', is the weight of metal in the volume generated by the revolution of APQ; and this, by a theorem of Archimedes, has the same volume as the cone ORR', or rya, where y is the depth of metal, the horizontal sections being equal so long as y is less than the radius of the outside FIG.
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  • Then dp/dz=kdp/dz = P, = Poe ik, p - po= kpo(ez Ik -1); (16) and if the liquid was incompressible, the depth at pressure p would be (p - po) 1po, so that the lowering of the surface due to compression is ke h I k -k -z= 1z 2 /k, when k is large.
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  • For a homogeneous liquid at rest under gravity, p is proportional to the depth below the surface, i.e.
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  • Thus the C.P. of a rectangle or parallelogram with a side in the surface is at a of the depth of the lower side; of a triangle with a vertex in the surface and base horizontal is 4 of the depth of the base; but if the base is in the surface, the C.P. is at half the depth of the vertex; as on the faces of a tetrahedron, with one edge in the surface.
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  • It is well after the borders are completed to remove the top soil, in which no roots are to be found, every two or three years, and to replace it with a mixture of good loam, rotten manure, lime rubbish and bone meal, to the depth of 6 or 7 in.
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  • The fire from the batteries on shore produced no impression until a hot shot set fire to the "bass junk with which, to the depth of 5 ft., the immensely thick parapet was lined."
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  • These complex organs have apparently arisen by the increase in depth and differentiation of an accessory sucker such as is borne on the phyllidia of the former group. Lastly, the scolex of the more familiar Taeniidae (Tetracotylea) carries a rostellum encircled with hooks and four cup-shaped suckers the margins of which do not project beyond the surface of the body.
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  • By this capillary action water may be transferred to the upper layers of the soil from a depth of several feet below the surface.
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  • A loose layer of earth spread over the surface of the soil acts in the same way, and a similarly effective mulch may be prepared by hoeing the soil, or stirring it to a depth of one or two inches with harrows or other implements.
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  • The operation consists of paring off the tough sward to a depth of I to 2 in.
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  • The turf is taken off either with the breast plough - a paring tool pushed forward from the breast or thighs by the workman - or with specially constructed paring ploughs or shims. The depth of the sod removed should not be too thick or burning is difficult and too much humus is destroyed unnecessarily, nor should it be too thin or the roots of the herbage are not effectually destroyed.
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  • The oxygen, however, decreases with the depth, while the carbon dioxide increases.
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  • Cultures of the typhoid organism planted at a depth of 18 in.
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  • By means of them the depth and width of the furrow are regulated, whereas in the case of "swing" or wheelless ploughs these points depend chiefly on the skill of the ploughman.
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  • Following in the furrow of an ordinary plough it breaks through the sub-soil to a depth of several inches, making it porous and penetrable by plant roots.
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  • One of the earliest of these poets, Muti' ibn Ayas, shows the new depth of personal feeling and refinement of expression.
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  • The extreme depth of the strait approaches 50 fathoms, and it contains two small islands known as the Diomede Islands.
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  • (2) The well of Jacob, about a mile and a half from Nablus on the way to Jerusalem, which is an excavation of great depth.
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  • The southern coast in particular is deeply indented; and there two bold peninsulas, extending for several miles into the sea, form two capacious natural harbours, namely, Deep Water Bay, with the village of Stanley to the east, and Tytam Bay, which has a safe, well-protected entrance showing a depth of 10 to 16 fathoms. An in-shore island on the west coast, called Aberdeen, or Taplishan, affords protection to the Shekpywan or Aberdeen harbour, an inlet provided with a granite graving dock, the caisson gate of which is 60 ft.
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  • There is good anchorage throughout the entire channel separating the island from the mainland, except in the Ly-ee-mun Pass, where the water is deep; the best anchorage is in Hong-Kong roads, in front of Victoria, where, over good holding ground, the depth is 5 to 9 fathoms. The inner anchorage of Victoria Bay, about a m.
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  • The reproduction of tsetse-flies is highly remarkable; instead of laying eggs or being ovovivi parous the females deposit at intervals of about a fortnight or three weeks a single full-grown larva, which forthwith buries itself in the ground to a depth of several centi metres, and assumes the pupal state.
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  • It had complete control over the Euxine grain-trade; the absence of tides and the depth of its harbour rendered its quays accessible to vessels of large burden; while the tunny and other fisheries were so lucrative that the curved inlet near which it stood became known as the Golden Horn.
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  • The state has a natural water outlet in the Providence river and Narragansett Bay, but there is lack of adequate dockage in Providence harbour, and insufficient depth of water for ocean traffic. The ports of entry are Providence (by far the largest, with imports valued at $ 1, 8 93,55 1, and exports valued at $12,517 in 1909), Newport and Bristol.
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  • The sea immediately east of the town has a considerable depth, but its navigation is impeded by sandbanks and a bar north and west of the town, which can be passed only by vessels drawing not more than 9 ft.
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  • In depth of water, too, the advantage is on the Pacific side.
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  • On the other hand, the average depth of the Japan Sea is only 1200 fathoms, and its maximum depth is 3200.
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  • Within the period of Japans written history several eruptions are recorded the last having been in 1707, when the whole summit burst into flame, rocks were shattered, ashes fell to a depth of several inches even in Yedo (TOkyO), 60 m.
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  • The present crater is remarkable for the absolute perpendicu larity of its walls, and has an immense depth from 600 to 800 ft.
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  • These schist ridges rich in quartz show, to a depth of 20 metres, considerable disintegration.
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  • In the district on the east of the main island the snowfall is insignificant, seldom attaining a depth of more than four or five inches and generally melting in a few days, while bright, sunny skies are usual.
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  • These last have not been found anywhere except at the entrance of the Bay of Tokyo at a depth of some 200 fathoms.
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  • The line of division along the spine, it wifi be observed, is not perfectly continuous or defined, but in part suggested; and each radiating stripe on either side is full of variety in size, direction, and to some extent in color and depth of shade.
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  • With regard to incised chiselling, the commonest form is kebori (hair-carving), which may be called engraving, the lines being of uniform thickness and depth.
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  • The charm of these methods is that certain parts of the decorative design seem to float, not on the surface of the metal, but actually within it, an admirable effect of depth and atmosphere being thus produced.
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  • This chisel is passed into an iron pencil having at the end guards, between which the point of the chisel projects, so that it is impossible for the user to cut beyond a certain depth.
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  • Tc such a depth of debasement had the ceramic art fallen in Owari, that before the happy renaissance of the past ten years, Nagoya discredited itself by employing porcelain as a base for cloisonn enamelling.
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  • They were generally crude, of impure tone, and without depth or brilliancy.
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  • Such porcelains, however, lack the velvet-like softness and depth of tone so justly prized in the genuine monochrome, where the glaze itself contains the coloring matter, pte and glaze being tired simultaneously at the same high temperature.
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  • The vaulting of the three portals is of exceptional depth owing to the projection of the lower storey of the facade.
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  • According to the latest calculations, the length of the main stream of the Ganges is 1540 m., or with its longest affluent, 1680; breadth at true entrance into the sea, 20 m.; breadth of channel in dry season, 14 to 21 m.; depth in dry season, 30 ft.;.
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  • The mean depth of the Zuider Zee is 11.48 ft.; depth in the southern basin of the former lake, 19 ft.; at Val van Urk (deep water to the west of the island of Urk), 142 ft.
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  • The first deals with mere party questions without sincerity and without depth; and the second, composed as an amusement in retirement without any serious preparation, in their attacks on metaphysics and theology and in their feeble deism present no originality and carry no conviction.
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  • Its average depth is 3 ft.
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  • The greatest depth is 70 ft.
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  • The diameter is generally 26 ft., but may be greater; the best depth is considered to be a quarter of the diameter.
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  • The harbour, though dry at low tides, has a depth of 14 ft.
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  • The bar at the entrance to Maracaibo channel does not admit vessels drawing more than 12 ft., but there is a depth of 30 ft.
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  • Considering its depth this fountain must be dated back to the 5th century, probably near the beginning.
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  • The finest of the Greek sculptures is the head of a youth found in the orchestra of the theatre at a depth of 23 ft.
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  • By good fortune the earth here was very deep. On the higher level of the agora and the Apollo temple, where the depth of earth is comparatively slight, there is little hope of important finds.
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  • The geological formations thus exposed show that the plateaus are composed of a base of eruptive material, overlaid by enormous deposits of reddish sandstones, conglomerates and quartzites, exposed in parts to a depth of 2000 feet.
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  • Dr Livingstone obtained a depth of 326 fathoms opposite Mount Kabogo, south of Ujiji.
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  • The evidence upon which these opinions were based had been gathered by such anthropologists as Schmerling, Boucher de Perthes and others, and it had to do chiefly with the finding of implements of human construction associated with the remains of extinct animals in the beds of caves, and with the recovery of similar antiquities from alluvial deposits the great age of which was demonstrated by their depth.
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  • - The Hindenburg line, which now faced the British armies, has been described in detail elsewhere; it will therefore suffice to say here that, together with the Ma.snieres-Beaurevoir line beyond it, it formed a fortified belt some four to six miles in depth, and was in all respects one of the most formidable defensive positions known to history.
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  • It has a depth of 6 to io fathoms, with a good bottom, and large ships can anchor at a cable's length from the shore.
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  • The port has a depth of 18 to 24 ft.
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  • Its lower course from Lubeck to the sea has been dredged to a depth of 25 ft., permitting sea-going vessels to lie alongside the wharves and quays.
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  • Another stimulus came from the biologists, Pacific. On the 1st of November 1876 a cyclone acting in this who began to realize the importance of a more detailed investigaway submerged a great area of the level plain of the Ganges tion of the life conditions of organisms at great depths in the delta to a depth of 46 ft.; here the influence of the difference sea.
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  • American scientific enterprise, mainly in very deep water, though in a few instances he overestimated under the guidance of Professor Alexander Agassiz, has been the depth by failing to detect the moment at which the lead active in the North Atlantic and especially in the Pacific Ocean, touched bottom.
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  • Instead of the expensive mile-long stout hemp lines used and since 1887 those of the prince of Monaco in his yachts, as by Ross, Maury introduced a ball of strong twine attached to a well as numerous Danish vessels in the sea between Iceland and cannon shot, which ran it out rapidly; when the bottom was Greenland, conspicuous amongst which were the expeditions reached the twine was cut and the depth deduced from the length in1896-1898on board the " Ingolf."
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  • The soundings are made by means of a special machine fitted with a brake so adjusted that the revolution of the drum is stopped automatically the instant the lead touches the bottom, and the depth can then be read directly from an indicator.
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  • All attempts to dispense with a lead and line and to measure the depth by determining the pressure at the bottom have hitherto failed when applied to depths greater than 200 fathoms; a new hydraulic manometer has been tried on board the German surveying ship " Planet."
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  • Siemens has pointed out that a profile of the sea-bed can be delineated by taking account of the varying strain on a submarine cable while it is being laid, and the average depth of a section can thus be ascertained with some accuracy.
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  • All deep-sea measurements are subject to uncertainty because the sounding machine merely measures the length of wire which runs out before the lead touches bottom, and this agrees with the depth only when the wire is perpendicular throughout its run.
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  • Kriimmel has calculated the mean depth to be 2010 fathoms (12,060 ft.), while the mean elevation of the surface of the continents above sea-level is only 2300 ft.
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  • In spite of the increase of deep-sea soundings in the last few decades, they are still very irregularly distributed in the open ocean, and the attempt to draw isobaths (lines of equal depth) on a chart of the world is burdened with many difficulties which can only be evaded by the widest generalizations.
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  • The continental shelf is the gentle slope which extends from the edge of the land to a depth usually about loo, though in some cases as much as 300 fathoms, and is there demarcated by an abrupt increase in the steepness of the slope to ocean depths.
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  • In particular Sir John Murray considers that only deeps exceeding 3000 fathoms in depth should be named, and in his charts he has named these deeps after persons whether the individuals thus honoured had themselves discovered or explored the deeps in question or not.
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  • Bruce, in the " Scotia," showed in 1904 that the real depth at that point is only 2660 fathoms.
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  • Between the Seychelles and Sokotra (0° - 9 ° N.) there are great stretches of the ocean floor forming an almost level expanse at a depth of 2800 fathoms. The Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Aden are also very uniform with depths of about 1900 fathoms, while the floor of the Bay of Bengal rises very gradually northwards and is 1000 fathoms deep close up to the Ganges Shelf.
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  • " Nero " in 1899 found 5269 fathoms in 12° 43' N., 1 45° 49' E., the greatest depth yet measured.
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  • The northern part of the Marianne Trench leads to a wave-like configuration of the ocean floor, the depth to the east of Saipan being over 4300 fathoms, followed by a rise to 1089 fathoms and then a descent to 3167 fathoms.
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  • The greatest of the intercontinental seas, the Arctic, comes nearest to oceanic conditions in the extent and depth of its depressions.
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  • The ridge across Denmark Strait west of Iceland nowhere exceeds 300 fathoms in depth, so that the deeper water of the North Polar Basin is effectively separated from that of the Atlantic. A third small basin occupies Baffin Bay and contains a maximum depth of 1050 fathoms. Depths of from loo to 300 fathoms are not uncommon amongst the channels of the Arctic Archipelago north of North America, and Bering Strait, through which the surface water of the Arctic Sea meets that of the Pacific, is only 28 fathoms deep.
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  • The Central American Sea communicates with the Atlantic through the channels between the Antilles, none of which is quite 1000 fathoms deep, and it sinks to a depth of 2843 fathoms in the Caribbean Basin, 3428 fathoms in the Cayman Trench and 2080 fathoms in the Gulf of Mexico.
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  • The China Sea on the north has a maximum depth of 2715 fathoms off the Philippines, the Sulu Basin reaches 2550 fathoms, and the Celebes Basin 2795 fathoms. Some of the channels between the islands are of very great depth, Macassar Strait exceeding 1000 fathoms, the Molucca Passage exceeding 2000 fathoms, and the Halmahera Trough sinking as deep as 2575 fathoms. The deepest of all is the Banda Basin, a large area of which lies below 2500 fathoms and reaches 3557 fathomsin the Kei Trench.
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  • A depth of 2789 fathoms also occurs north of Flores.
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  • The Mediterranean Sea, the best-known member of the intercontinental class, is separated from the Atlantic Ocean by a ridge running from Cape Spartel to Cape Trafalgar on which the greatest depth is only 175 fathoms. The depth increases so rapidly towards the east that soundings exceeding 500 fathoms occur off Gibraltar.
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  • The Adriatic Sea though very shallow in the north deepens southward to about 9 00 fathoms, and the Aegean Sea has a maximum depth of 1230 fathoms north of Crete.
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  • In the North Sea the depth of ioo fathoms is only exceeded to any extent in the Norwegian gully, which has a maximum depth of 383 fathoms in the Skagerrack.
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  • The Sea of Japan has a wide shelf only in the north, the central part forms a broad basin with depths of 1650 fathoms. The Laurentian Sea (Gulf of St Lawrence) has a narrow branching gully running between wide shelves, in which a depth of 312 fathoms is found south of Anticosti.
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  • The area, general depth and total volume of the oceans and principal seas have been recalculated by Krt mmel, and the accompanying table presents these figures.
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  • Oceanic Deposits.-It has long been known that the deposits which carpet the floor of the ocean differ in different places, and coasting sailors have been accustomed from time immemorial to use the lead not only to ascertain the depth of the water but also to obtain samples of the bottom, the appearance of which is often characteristic of the locality.
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  • Captain Phipps in 1773 secured samples of soft blue clay in this manner from a depth of 683 fathoms, but as a rule when sounding in great depths the sample is washed off the tallow before it can be brought on board.
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  • Larger quantities of deposit may be conveniently collected by means of the dredge, which can be worked in any depth and brings up large stones, concretionary nodules or fossils, of the existence of which a sounding-tube could give no indication.
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  • The classification adopted was a double one, taking account both of the origin and of the distribution in depth of the various deposits, thus: - II.
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  • It is a remarkable geographical fact that on the rises and in the basins of moderate depth of the open ocean the organic oozes preponderate, but in the abysmal depressions below 2500 or 3000 fathoms, whether these lie in the middle or near the edges of the great ocean spaces, there is found only the red clay, with a minimum of calcium carbonate, though sometimes with a considerable admixture of the siliceous remains of radiolarians.
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  • Red clay is the deposit peculiar to the abysmal area; 70 carefully investigated samples collected by the " Challenger " came from an average depth of 2730 fathoms, 97 specimens collected by the " Tuscarora " came from an average depth of 2860 fathoms, and 26 samples obtained by the " Albatross " in the Central Pacific came from an average depth of 2620 fathoms. Red clay has not yet been found in depths less than 2200 fathoms. The main ingredient of the deposit is a stiff clay which is plastic when fresh, but dries to a stony hardness.
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  • A very interesting feature is the small proportion of calcium carbonate, the amount present being usually less as the depth is greater; red clay from depths exceeding 3000 fathoms does not contain so much as 1% of calcareous matter.
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  • Murray and Renard recognize the progressive diminution of carbonate of lime with increase of depth as a characteristic of all eupelagic deposits.
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  • Buchanan, which has an arbitrary scale and can be varied in weight by placing small metal rings on the stem so as to depress the scale to any desired depth in sea-water of any salinity, the specific gravity being calculated for each reading by dividing the total weight by the immersed volume; (3) the total immersion areometer, which has no scale and the weight of which can be adjusted so that the instrument can be brought so exactly to the specific gravity of the water sample that it remains immersed, neither floating nor sinking; this has the advantage of 'eliminating the effects of surface tension and in Fridtjof Nansen's pattern is capable of great precision.
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  • The transparency of sea-water has frequently been measured at sea by the simple expedient of sinking white-painted disks and noting the depth at which they become invisible as the measure of the transparency of the water.
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  • In the North Sea north of the Dogger Bank, for instance, the disk is visible in calm weather to a depth of from io to 16 fathoms, but in rough weather only to 62 fathoms. Knipovitch occasionally observed great transparency in the cold waters of the Murman Sea, where he could see the disk in as much as 25 fathoms, and a similar phenomenon has often been reported from Icelandic waters.
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  • Mill has shown that in the North Sea off the Firth of Forth the average depth of visibility of a disk in the winter half-year was 4; fathoms and in the summer half-year 62 fathoms, and, although the greater frequency of rough weather in winter might tend to obscure the effect, individual observations made it plain that the angle of the sun was the main factor in increasing the depth to which the disk remained visible.
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  • Many experiments have also been made by the use of photographic plates in order to find the greatest depth to which light penetrates.
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  • Fol and Sarasin detected the last traces of sunlight in the western Mediterranean at a depth of 254 to 260 fathoms, and Luksch in the eastern Mediterranean at 328 fathoms and in the Red Sea at 273 fathoms. The chief cause of the different depths to which light penetrates in sea-water is the varying turbidity due to the presence of mineral particles in suspension or to plankton.
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  • The amount of carbonic acid in solution may also be increased by submarine exhalations in regions of volcanic disturbance, but it must be remembered that the critical pressure for this gas is 73 atmospheres, which is reached at a depth of 400 fathoms, so that carbonic acid produced at the bottom of the ocean must be in liquid form.
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  • Nansen perfected the instrument, adapting it not only for enclosing a portion of water at any desired depth, but by a series of concentric divisions insulating in the central compartment water at the temperature it had at the moment of collection.
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  • By means of a weight dropped along the line the water-bottle can be shut and a sample enclosed at any desired depth.
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  • In deep water the closing mechanism is usually actuated by a screw propeller which begins to work when the line is being hauled in and can be set so as to close the waterbottle in a very few fathoms. A small but heavy water-bottle has been devised by Martin Knudsen, provided with a pressure gauge or bathometer, by which samples may be collected from any moderate depth down to about roc fathoms, on board a vessel going at full speed.
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  • As yet it is only possible to speak with confidence of the vertical distribution of salinity in the seas surrounding Europe, where there is a general increase of salinity with depth.
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  • Buchanan pointed out in 1876, that the great contrasts in surface salinity between the tropical maxima and the equatorial minima give place at the moderate depth of 200 fathoms to a practically uniform salinity in all parts of the ocean.
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  • He covered the bulb of the thermometer with layers of non-conducting material and left it immersed at the desired depth for a very long time to enable it to take the temperature of its surroundings.
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  • Buchanan's large model they can be trusted to give a good account of the vertical distribution of temperature, provided the water grows cooler as the depth increases.
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  • They would act equally well if the water grew continually warmer as the depth increases, but they cannot give an exact account of a temperature inversion such as is produced when layers of warmer and colder water alternate.
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  • There are few obseryations available for ascertaining the depth to which warmth from the sun penetrates in the ocean.
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  • Aime showed that on a calm bright day in the Mediterranean the temperature rose o 1° C. between the early morning and noon at a depth of about 12 fathoms. Luksch deduced a much greater penetration of solar warmth from the comparison of observations at different hours at neighbouring stations in the eastern Mediterranean, but his methods were not exact enough to give confidence in the result.
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  • Conduction has practically no effect, for the coefficient of thermal conductivity in sea-water is so small that if a mass of sea-water were cooled to 0° C. and the surface kept at a temperature of 30° C., 6 months would elapse before a temperature of 15° C. was reached at the depth of 1 3 metres, 1 year at 1 85 metres, and io years at 5.8 metres.
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  • Great irregular variations in radiation and convection sometimes produce a remarkably abrupt change of temperature at a certain depth in calm water.
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  • Such a condition of things is only possible in very calm weather, the action of waves having the effect of mixing the water to a considerable depth.
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  • We are still ignorant of the depth to.which the annual temperature wave penetrates in the open ocean, but observations in the Mediterranean enable us to form some opinion on the matter.
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  • 1, which represents a sounding in the South Atlantic; and this arrangement of a rapid fall of temperature giving place gradually to an extremely slow but steady diminution as depth increases is termed anathermic (ava, back, and 8epµ6s, warm).
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  • The nature of the change of temperature with depth below 2500 fathoms is entirely dependent on the position of the sub-oceanic elevations, for the rises and ridges act as true submarine watersheds.
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  • In similar depths in the Pacific south of the equator temperatures of 33.8° to 34.5° are found, and north of the equator bottom temperatures at the same depth increase to 35.1° in the neighbourhood of the Aleutian Islands, again completely justifying the conclusion as to the Antarctic control of deep water temperature throughout the ocean.
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  • Thus in the Central American Sea below 93 o fathoms, the depth on the bar, no water is found at a temperature lower than that prevailing in the open ocean at that depth, viz.
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  • Such formations, termed toross by the Russians, may extend under water, according to Makaroff's investigations, to at least an equal depth.
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  • We must remember that the ocean is a continuous sheet of water of a certain depth, and the conditions of continuity which hold good for all fluids require that there should be no vacant space within it; hence if a single water particle is set in motion, the whole ocean must respond, as Varenius pointed out in 1650.
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  • When the wind acts on the surface of the sea it drives before it the particles of the surface layer of water, and, as these cannot be parted from those immediately beneath, the internal friction of the fluid causes the propelling impulse to act through a considerable depth, and if the wind continued long enough it would ultimately set the whole mass of the ocean in motion 'right down to the bottom.
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  • He showed that at a certain depth the direction of the current becomes exactly the opposite of that which has been imposed by deflection on the surface current, and the strength is reduced thereby to only one-twentieth of that at the surface.
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  • He called the depth at which the opposed direction is attained the driftcurrent depth, and he found it to be dependent on the velocity of the surface current and on the latitude.
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  • The existence of a layer of water of low salinity at a depth of 500 fathoms in the tropical oceans of the southern hemisphere is to be referred to this action of the melting ice of the Antarctic regions.
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  • The length of the opening is over 21 metres; its depth 14 metres, and the height of roof above the undisturbed ash deposit varied from 1 m.
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  • The minimum depth of water is 30 ft.
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  • It consists of two parts, an outer and tidal harbour 171 acres in extent, and an inner basin 15 acres in extent, with a depth on sill at ordinary spring tide of 25 ft.
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  • 3, where the seam B, according to the same system of arrangement, should have been found at or near the surface, another seam C is proved at a considerable depth, differing in character and thickness from either of the preceding.
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  • Of these methods one of the chief is the plan of tubbing, or lining the excavation with an impermeable casing of wood or iron, generally the latter, built up in segments forming rings, which are piled upon each other throughout the whole depth of the water-bearing strata.
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  • It has therefore been proposed, for greater depths, to put four columns of tubbings of smaller diameters, 82 and 52 ft., in the shaft, and fill up the remainder of the boring with concrete, so that with thinner and lighter castings a greater depth may be reached.
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  • In driving levels it is necessary to cut grooves vertically parallel to the walls, a process known as shearing; but the most important operation is that known as holing or kirving, which consists in cutting a notch or groove in the floor of the seam to a depth of about 3 ft., measured back from the face, so as to leave the overhanging part unsupported, which then either falls of its own accord within a few hours, or is brought down either by driving wedges along the top, or by blasting.
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  • In the Gartsherrie machine of Messrs Baird, the earliest of the flexible chain cutter type, the chain of cutters works round a fixed frame or jib projecting at right angles from the engine carriage, an arrangement which makes it necessary to cut from the end of the block of coal to the full depth, instead of holing into it from the face.
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  • When at work it is slowly turned until the carrier is at right angles to the frame, when the cut has attained the full depth.
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  • Water-pressure engines, driven by a column of water equal to the depth of the pit, have also been employed for hauling.
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  • This engine draws a net load of 52 tons of coal from a depth of 625 yds.
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  • In the United Kingdom the drawing of coal is generally confined to the day shift of eight hours, with an output of from 100 to 150 tons per hour, according to the depth, capacity of coal tubs, and facilities for landing and changing tubs.
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  • With the increased activity of working characteristic of modern coal mining, the depth of the mines has rapidly increased, and at the present time the level of 4000 ft., formerly assumed as the possible limit for working, has been nearly attained.
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  • Belgium 950 3117 The greatest depth attained in the Westphalian coal is at East Recklinghausen, where there are two shafts 841 metres (2759 ft.) deep.
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  • From the experience of such workings it is considered that 1 soo metres would be a possible workable depth, the rock temperature being 132°, and those of the intake and return galleries, 92° and 108° respectively.
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  • A good quality of oilbetter in fact than the Ohio product, but not as good as that of Pennsylvania-was accidentally found at Corsicana, Navarro county, about 1894, and in 1898 it was discovered at a depth of 1040 ft.
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  • Other important waterways which have been authorized by the United States government and on which work was proceeding in 1910 are canals from the Rio Grande river to the Mississippi river at Donaldsonville, Louisiana; and "a navigable channel depth of 5 ft.
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  • Its depth, together with its porous nature, makes the fertile soil of Iowa capable of withstanding the extremes of wet and dry remarkably well, and it is perhaps true that, taken as a whole, no other state in the Union has a superior soil for agriculture.
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  • Many persons cannot get rid of the opinion that all matter is extended in length, breadth and depth.
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  • Vessels of the deepest draught can enter into the Victoria basin, the depth of water at low tide ranging from 24 to 36 ft.
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  • Along the central ridge, the water-level lies at a great depth from the surface (228 ft.), but it rises gradually as the country declines towards the great rivers.
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  • In 1907 the construction of a new dock was undertaken, to cover 16 acres, with a depth of 40 ft.
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  • Beavers are sociable animals, living in streams, where, so as to render the water of sufficient depth, they build dams of mud and of the stems and boughs of trees felled by their powerful incisor teeth.
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  • The worst inundation in the history of the city occurred in 1629, when its streets were covered to a depth of 3 ft.
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  • It has a uniform depth of 211 ft., but its width within the lake is reduced to 98 ft.
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  • The greatest depth of the lake (75 ft.) lies to the east of this ridge.
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  • While, for instance, it may be difficult to realize the equality of area of two plots of ground of different shapes, it may be easy to realize the equality of the amounts of a given material that would be required to cover them to a particular depth.
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  • The soil is mostly glacial drift, but its depth and composition often vary greatly even within small areas.
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  • Each of the three canals is to have a minimum depth of 12 ft., a minimum bottom width in rivers and lakes of 200 ft., and in other sections a bottom width generally of 75 ft.
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  • In most rotations barley is grown after turnips, or some other " cleaning " crop, with or without the interposition of a wheat crop. The roots are fed off by sheep during autumn and early winter, after which the ground is ploughed to a depth of 3 or 4 in.
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  • As even distribution at a uniform depth is necessary, the drill is preferred to the broadcast-seeder for barley sowing.
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  • Grand Bassam is situated at the point where the lagoon and the river Komoe enter the sea and there is a minimum depth of 12 ft.
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  • The sea floor is here rent by a chasm, known as the "Bottomless Pit," the waters having a depth of 65 ft.
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  • Until 1894 the fairway up to Bremen had a minimum depth of little over 8 ft.; thereafter important works were undertaken, the minimum depth was made 18 ft., and the importance of Bremen as a port was greatly enhanced.
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  • Sound,, The, below; (3) to test or measure the depth of anything, particularly the depth of water in lakes or seas (see Sounding, below).
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  • Forward displacement is represented by height above the axis, backward displacement by depth below it.
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  • This experiment may be varied by holding the fork over a glass jar into which water is poured to such a depth that the air-column within reinforces the note of the fork when suitably placed, and then turning the fork round.
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  • But owing to the thaw and the subsequent break-up of the miserable Korean roads, six weeks passed before the columns of the army (Guard, and and 12th divisions), strung out along the " Mandarin road " to a total depth of six days' march, closed upon the head at Wiju, the frontier town on the Yalu.
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  • When piles were used they were the rough stems of trees of a length proportioned to the depth of the water, sharpened sometimes by fire and at other times chopped to a point by hatchets.
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  • Generally the line of pressure lies within the middle half of the depth of the arch ring.
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  • The general depth at which the foundations are laid is about 29 ft.
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  • For an elementary account of the theory of arches, hinged or not, reference may be made to a joint by more than one-eighteenth of its depth.
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  • At Rechtenstein a bridge of two concrete arches has been constructed, span 752 ft., with lead articulations: width of arch 11 ft.; depth of arch at crown and springing 2.1 and 2.96 ft.
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  • The proportion of depth to span in the Britannia bridge was '.
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  • It would be economical, therefore, to make the girder very deep. This, however, involves a much heavier web, and therefore for any type of girder there must be a ratio of depth to span which is most economical.
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  • 8 in.; depth 22 ft.
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  • The depth of the girder at the centre is about one-eighth of the span.
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  • The span between supports was 259 ft., the clear span 2402 ft.; depth between joint pins 16 ft.
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  • Eads, the engineer, determined to establish the piers and abutments on rock at a depth for the east pier and east abutment of 136 ft.
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  • Its depth at the crown is 33 ft., and its centre line?4?J???/.?IyII, 1 i i I I - - - - - - - FIG.
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  • The interior of the well is generally filled up with concrete or brick when the required depth has been reached.
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  • Formerly when bridge piers had to be placed where a firm bearing stratum could only be reached at a considerable depth, a timber cofferdam was used in which piles were driven down to the firm stratum.
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  • These can be sunk to almost any depth or brought up to any height, and are filled with Portland cement concrete.
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  • The value of H is equal to the maximum tension on the bottom flange, or compression on the top flange, of a girder of equal span, equally and similarly loaded, and having a depth equal to the dip of the suspension bridge.
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  • Rankine gives the approximate rule Working deflection =5= l a /t o,000h, where l is the span and h the depth of the beam, the stresses being those usual in bridgework, due to the total dead and live load.
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  • The principal waterway is the Missouri River, whose channel has an average depth at low water of about 2 ft.
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  • The anchorage is fairly protected from the sea, but the depth of water is only 3 to 4 fathoms. The channel between the island on Diu and the mainland is navigable only by fishing boats and small craft.
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  • Yet their very use of the same terms or ideas makes us the more aware of "a marked contrast to the depth and clearness of conception with which the several Apostolic writers place before us different aspects of the Gospel" (Lightfoot).
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  • There is a want of depth in Christian experience, in the power of realizing relative spiritual values in the light of the master principle involved in the distinctively Christian consciousness, such as could raise Clement above a verbal eclecticism, rather than comprehensiveness, in the use of Apostolic language.
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  • The average depth is 142 ft., the greatest depth being 495 ft.
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  • In 1890 coal was struck at a"depth of 1190 ft., and further seams were discovered later.
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  • The pillars composing it are close-fitting and for the most part somewhat irregular hexagons, made up of articulated portions varying from a few inches to some feet in depth, and concave or convex at the upper and lower surfaces.
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  • At Yarbatenda, a few miles below Barraconda, the river has a breadth, even at the dry season, of over Soo ft., with a depth of 13 to 20 ft.
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  • This view has been proved to be erroneous, and we know now that this fish lives throughout the year in the vicinity of our shores, but at a greater depth, and at a greater distance from the coast, than at the time when it approaches land for the purpose of spawning.
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  • Over the whole basin this deposit, to a depth of I or 2 ft., is coloured black by decayed vegetation, and constitutes one of the most fertile tracts on the continent.
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  • The principal cemeteries are Mount Pleasant, overlooking the Passaic in the northern part of the city, and Fairmount in the western part; about 1894 the remains of the early settlers were removed from the Old 1 The river channel before improvement had a navigable depth of 7 ft.
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