He understood the depth of her fear.
It was difficult to describe the depth of her feelings.
Tears began to spill down her face as she understood the depth of Gabriel.s pain.
The water is so transparent that the bottom can easily be discerned at the depth of twenty-five or thirty feet.
He wore light colors this day of tan, a shade that brought out the depth of honey in his skin.
She felt her own tears spill over at the depth of his pain.
I knew from my in depth research, the number and location of all payphones bearing the area code and first two numbers dear Brenda provided me.
The mean depth is 189 ft., and the maximum 512 ft.
He was always hearing such words as: "With your remarkable kindness," or, "With your excellent heart," "You are yourself so honorable Count," or, "Were he as clever as you," and so on, till he began sincerely to believe in his own exceptional kindness and extraordinary intelligence, the more so as in the depth of his heart it had always seemed to him that he really was very kind and intelligent.
Once, when he had touched on this topic with his mother, he discovered, to his surprise and somewhat to his satisfaction, that in the depth of her soul she too had doubts about this marriage.
He wanted her, and nothing had ever made her happier in her life than when she saw the depth of his emotion in his eyes and lived through the consuming intensity with which he made love to her.
Horror descended upon her as she realized the depth of Claire's betrayal.
She still didn't understand the depth of her talents or how to control the visions, and being alone and away from her mate made some days unbearable.
And from an unknown depth rose increasingly triumphant sounds.
He was largely immune to the world, but he had some depth of emotion, if he respected his mother's memory by not killing women.
To mitigate a steep ascent, a central carriage-way, 200 yds, long, is cut along the main street to a depth of 15 ft., the opposite terraces being connected by a bridge.
It was only a slight brush, not enough to fully wake him from the depth of his stupor.
Every once in a while, the half-demon surprised him with the depth of his observations and compassion.
His brother had no idea the depth of emotion even a half-demon could feel.
It's normal to feel overwhelmed sometimes by the depth of your love.
The dockyard, chiefly used for naval repairs, covers about 60 acres, and consists of three basins and large docks, the depth of water in the basins ranging down to 26 ft.
She's not comprehended the depth of my intelligence to see through her guise.
He had no idea of the depth of the gorge or the length of the rope, but he prayed it was sufficient.
There are two piers enclosing a harbour with a total area of 48 acres, having a depth of about 16 ft.
The first ledge rising from the ocean floor has depth averaging 8000 ft.
My spirit could not reach up to his, but he gave me a real sense of joy in life, and I never left him without carrying away a fine thought that grew in beauty and depth of meaning as I grew.
By now, more than two feet was packed against the door, though the exact depth was difficult to determine in the wind-driven drifts.
Brady watched them, sensing the depth of their friendship.
Many scholars forget, it seems to me, that our enjoyment of the great works of literature depends more upon the depth of our sympathy than upon our understanding.
'Course I haven't had time to do any really in depth searching, at least yet.
The greatest depth was exactly one hundred and two feet; to which may be added the five feet which it has risen since, making one hundred and seven.
He'd spoken to his sisters in depth and learned quickly just how different she was, their tales ranging from those that ought to anger him to those that amused him.
For the scientific construction of a green, the whole ground must be excavated to a depth of 18 in.
Perhaps the best natural harbour of the republic is that of Bahia Blanca, a large bay of good depth, sheltered by islands, and 534 m.
You seem to have depth, but this place is like a hospital.
Nor are they afraid to venture out of their depth, being excellent swimmers, and able, by means of their trunks, to breathe without difficulty when the entire body is submerged.
In winter the varying depth of snow may exert an appreciable effect.
The depth of Claire's betrayal made him wish he could kill her again a thousand times over!
She'd never guessed the depth of Gabriel's friendship with Rhyn.
Jackson held her without speaking, understanding the depth of her emotion.
The basal plain of these terraces is the bed of the ocean, which on the Pacific side has an average depth of 15,000 ft.
On this ground Joseph Alexeevich condemned my speech and my whole activity, and in the depth of my soul I agreed with him.
I try to be reserved because in the depth of my soul I feel too near to him already, but then he cannot know what I think of him and may imagine that I do not like him.
This is a remarkable depth for so small an area; yet not an inch of it can be spared by the imagination.
Both valleys fall rapidly as they approach the point of junction, which lies at a depth of more than 600 ft.
So, probably, the depth of the ocean will be found to be very inconsiderable compared with its breadth.
Another bank i ioo fathoms from the surface runs south from the east end of Crete, separating the Pola Deep from the depths of the Levant basin, in which a depth of 1960 fathoms was recorded near Makri on the coast of Asia Minor.
in depth, and well protected by forts Monroe and Wool.
The terrace closest to the land, known as the continental shelf, has an average depth of 600 ft., and connects Australia, New Guinea, and Tasmania in one unbroken sweep. Compared with other continents, the Australian continental shelf is extremely narrow, and there are points on the eastern coast where the land plunges down to oceanic depths with an abruptness rarely paralleled.
He recalled none of this, nor his damaged body being placed on a litter at the narrow edge of the cascading water and lifted upward from the depth of the inaccessible gorge to the penstock path above.
thick is first deposited, and covered with a light dryish earth to the depth of 2 in.; and two similar layers with similar coverings are added, the whole being made narrower as it advances in height.
Such a rule of the two diameters not only guides us toward the sun in the system and the heart in man, but draws lines through the length and breadth of the aggregate of a man's particular daily behaviors and waves of life into his coves and inlets, and where they intersect will be the height or depth of his character.
In our bodies, a bold projecting brow falls off to and indicates a corresponding depth of thought.
As it flows it takes the forms of sappy leaves or vines, making heaps of pulpy sprays a foot or more in depth, and resembling, as you look down on them, the laciniated, lobed, and imbricated thalluses of some lichens; or you are reminded of coral, of leopard's paws or birds' feet, of brains or lungs or bowels, and excrements of all kinds.
Everywhere were receptions, which though they embarrassed Pierre awakened a joyful feeling in the depth of his heart.
Some of these are on the south-west coast, in the Landes, as Carcans, Lacanau, Biscarosse, Cazau, Sanguinet; but more are to be found in the south and south-east, in Languedoc and Provence, as Leucate, Sigean, Thau, Vaccars, Berre, &c. Their want of depth prevents them from serving as roadsteads for shipping, and they are useful chiefly for fishing or for the manufacture of bay-salt.
A factory-owner, hearing what depth I had found, thought that it could not be true, for, judging from his acquaintance with dams, sand would not lie at so steep an angle.
The others looked at him, surprised at the depth of his reaction.
Paris mushrooms are cultivated in enormous quantities in dark underground cellars at a depth of from 60 to 160 ft.
The lake is nowhere of great depth, and about midway numerous mud-banks, marshes, islands and dense growths of aqueous plants stretch across its surface.
Those of the first class, which comprise rather less than half the entire system, have a minimum depth of 64 ft., with locks 126 ft.
The Sicilian-Ionian basin has a mean depth of 885 fathoms, and the Levant basin, 793 fathoms. Deep water is found close up to the coast of Sicily, Greece, Crete and the edge of the African plateau.
In Lombardy it has a breadth of 200 yds., and a depth of 10 to 16 ft., but the strength of the current renders its navigation very difficult, and lessens its value as a means of transit between Germany and Italy.
It is earth's eye; looking into which the beholder measures the depth of his own nature.
She knew it was a proof that in the depth of his soul he was glad she was remaining at home and had not gone away.
In men Rostov could not bear to see the expression of a higher spiritual life (that was why he did not like Prince Andrew) and he referred to it contemptuously as philosophy and dreaminess, but in Princess Mary that very sorrow which revealed the depth of a whole spiritual world foreign to him was an irresistible attraction.
Although petroleum wells in Russia have not the depth of many of those in the United States, the disturbed character of the strata, with consequent liability to caving, and the occurrence of hard concretions, render drilling a lengthy and expensive Drilling in operation.
in depth, and lining the sides of this with wood or brick.
in depth, connected by means of three vertical pipes with a vapour-chest furnished with a large number, frequently as many as forty, of 3-in.
In all Heteronemertines there is on each side of the head a longitudinal slit of varying length but generally considerable depth, in the bottom of which the dark red brain is very plainly visible by transparency.
in area and almost uniformly shallow, its depth seldom being greater than 15 ft.
depth of water, and floating and graving docks.
The maximum depth recorded by the United States Lake Survey is 870 ft.; the mean level of the surface is 5813 ft.
Its depth is 213 ft., and its height above sea-level 3z ft.; it has no natural outlet.
The improvement of the river, by the removal of snags and the construction of dams and locks in order to give it a navigable depth of to ft.
The depth of water on the dock sills varies from 172 ft.
In his next work, Die Meistersinger, Wagner ingeniously made poetry and drama out of an explicit manifesto to musical critics, and proved the depth of his music by developing its everyday resources and so showing that its vitality does not depend on that extreme emotional force that makes Tristan and Isolde almost unbearably poignant.
depth) and Crummock Water (144 ft.), drained by the Cocker.
depth), which is fed by the Liza and drained by the Ehen.
depth), east of which a lower, wellwooded tract, containing two beautiful lesser lakes, Tarn Hows and Esthwaite Water, extends to Windermere (q.v.).
It issues from the south-west corner of Lake Ladoga in two channels, which are obstructed by sandstone reefs, so that the better of the two has a depth of only 7 to 16 ft.
green to brown, in ascending order for the land; blue, indigo and violet for the sea, increasing in intensity with the height or the depth.
It extends inland at its greatest depth about 130 m.
led some of the cardinals to vote for Pecci, since his age (within a few days of sixty-eight) and health warranted the expectation that his reign would be comparatively brief; but he had for years been known as one of the few "papable" cardinals; and although his long seclusion at Perugia had caused his name to be little known outside Italy, there was a general belief that the conclave had selected a man who was a prudent statesman as well as a devout churchman; and Newman (whom he created a cardinal in the year following) is reported to have said, "In the successor of Pius I recognize a depth of thought, a tenderness of heart, a winning simplicity, and a power answering to the name of Leo, which prevent me from lamenting that Pius is no longer here."
Ten steps lead down to a basin of sufficient depth for immersion, supplied by a spring.
The depth of the wells is from 840 to 2150 ft.; two wells completed in 1907 had a daily capacity estimated at 35,000,000 to 50,000,000 ft.
There is a depth of 1 4 ft.
to a depth of 21 ft.
These fjords are very deep; the greatest depth found by Ryder in Scoresby Sound was 300 fathoms, but there are certainly still greater depths; like the Norwegian fjords they have, however, probably all of them, a threshold or sill, with shallow water, near their mouths.
along the coast south of Pelican Point and with a depth inland from ro to 15 m.
of rough materials, such as broken bricks or mortar rubbish, over which should be placed a layer of rough turf with the grassy side downwards, and then the good loamy soil to form the border, which should have a depth of about 2 ft.
per hour, the drift-current depth in latitude 5° would be approximately 104 fathoms, in latitude 15°, 55 fathoms, and in latitude 45° only from 33 to 38 fathoms. A strong wind of 38 m.
The western Mediterranean is cut off by a bank crossing the narrow strait between Sicily and Cape Bon, usually known as the Adventure Bank, on which the depth is nowhere 200 fathoms. The mean depth of the western basin is estimated at 881 fathoms, and the deepest sounding recorded is 2040 fathoms. In the eastern Mediterranean the mean depth is nearly the same as in the western basin.
Deidre glanced at Darkyn in puzzlement, and Gabriel realized she didn't yet understand the depth of the Dark One's obligation to her.
It was peaceful on the path, in spite of the snow and increased inconvenience of trudging in its depth.
The Blackhall bore, put down at his advice from 1885 to 1888, reached a water-bearing layer at the depth of 1645 ft.
The greatest development of quartz reefing is found in Victoria, some of the mines being of great depth.
deep. In the Victoria mine a depth of 3750 ft.
In the Ballarat district a depth of 2520 ft.
The west coast throughout its whole length is covered to a depth of some miles with mangrove swamps, with only a few isolated stretches of sandy beach, the dim foliage of the mangroves and the hideous mud flats presenting a depressing spectacle.
These rocks form the greater part of the central range, and they are often - especially the granite - decomposed and rotten to a considerable depth.
the soil to the depth of many feet, and from it springs the most marvellous tangle of huge trees, shrubs, bushes, underwood, creepers, climbing plants and trailing vines, the whole hung with ferns, mosses, and parasitic growths, and bound together by rattans and huge rope-like trailers.
They consist of a number of circular or rectangular pits sunk from the cap of a hill, and going down to a depth of in some cases as much as 120 ft., until in fact the miners have been stopped by being unable to cope with the quantity of water made when the level of the valley was reached.
The soil is for the most part glacial drift, composed of clay, sand and gravel, and varying greatly in depth.
to Vergennes, with a depth to this point of 8 ft.
The depth at the entrance is 72 to 108 ft., and in port from 36 to 66 ft.
It provides extensive quayage with a minimum depth of water of 28 ft.
The mean depth over this ridge is about 250 fathoms, and the maximum depth nowhere reaches 500 fathoms. The main basin of the Atlantic is thus cut off from the Arctic basin, with which the area north of the ridge has complete deep-water communication.
In these troughs the depth is seldom much less than 3000 fathoms, and this is exceeded in a series of patches to which Murray has given the name of "Deeps."
long., in which he recorded a depth exceeding 4000 fathoms. The Scottish Antarctic expedition has shown this sounding to be erroneous; the " Scotia " obtained samples of bottom, in almost the same spot, from a depth of 2660 fathoms. Combining the results of recent soundings, Dr W.
The mean depth of the North Atlantic is, according to G.
Mean Karstens, 2047 fathoms. If we include the enclosed depth, and seas, the North Atlantic has a mean depth of 1800 bottom fathoms. The South Atlantic has a mean depth of deposits.
The communication between the Atlantic and Arctic basins being cut off, as already described, at a depth of about 300 fathoms, the temperatures in the Norwegian Sea below that level are essentially Arctic, usually below the freezing-point of fresh water, except where the distribution is modified by the surface circulation.
This distribution is most marked at about 300 fathoms, and disappears at soo fathoms, beyond which depth the lines tend to become parallel and to run east and west, the gradient slowly diminishing.
The first passes northwards, most of it between the Faeroe and Shetland Islands, to the coast of Norway, and so on to the Arctic basin, which, as Nansen has shown, it fills to a great depth.
The second part of the circulation in the depth is the slow " creep " of water of very low temperature along the bottom.
The tidal wave of the Southern Ocean, which sweeps uninterruptedly round the globe from east to west, generates a secondary wave between Africa and South America, which travels north at a rate dependent only on the depth of the ocean.
The genius of the modern pianoforte is to produce richness by depth and variety of tone; and players who cannot find scope for such genius in the real part-writing of the 18th century will not get any nearer to the 18th-century spirit by sacrificing the essentials of its art to an attempt to imitate its mechanical resources by a modern tour de force.
of line; they are planted to a depth of from 2 to 4 ft.
The weight of the iron sheath varies greatly according to the depth of the water, the nature of the sea bottom, the prevalence of currents, and so on.
The ordinates of the curve give the strain in cwts., and the abscissae the distance in miles measured from the Canso end; as the strain is proportional to the depth, 18 cwts.
The grappling of the cable and raising it to the surface from a depth of 2000 fathoms seldom occupy less than twenty-four hours, and since any extra strain due to the pitching of the vessel must be avoided, it is clear that the state of the sea and weather is the predominating factor in the time necessary for effecting the long series of operations which, in the most favourable circumstances, are required for a repair.
As to cost, one transatlantic cable repair cost 75,000; the repair of the Aden-Bombay cable, broken in a depth of 1900 fathoms, was effected with the expenditure of 176 miles of new cable, and after a lapse of 251 days, 103 being spent in actual work, which for the remainder of the time was interrupted by the monsoon; a repair of the Lisbon-Porthcurnow cable, broken in the Bay of Biscay in 2700 fathoms, eleven years after the cable was laid, took 215 days, with an expenditure of 300 miles of cable.
Both Bell and Gray proposed to do this by introducing a column of liquid into the circuit, the length or the resistance of which could be varied by causing the vibrations of the diaphragm to vary the depth of immersion of a light rod fixed to it and dipping into the liquid.
The size of the pitcher varies widely in the different species, from an inch to a foot or more in depth.
in width, and somewhat greater depth, which receives a number of streams from the central mass of the Apennines.
The only part of the sea-bed the configuration of which is at all well known is the zone bordering the coasts where the depth is less than about loo fathoms or 200 metres, i.e.
Thus the best approximation to the average depth of the ocean is little more than an expert guess; yet a fair approximation is probable for the features of sub-oceanic relief are so much more uniform than those of the land that a smaller number of fixed points is required to determine them.
above sea-level, and the mean depth of the oceans as 2080 fathoms or 12,480 ft.
area containing all dry land, the transitional area including the submarine slopes down to 1000 fathoms, and the abysmal area consisting of the floor of the ocean beyond that depth; and Mill proposed to take the line of mean-sphere level, instead of the empirical depth of moo fathoms, as the boundary between the transitional and abysmal areas.
above sea-level, the mean depth Areas or of the sea 11,500 ft.
been estimated that the whole mass of living substance in existence at one time would cover the surface of the earth to a depth of one-fifth of an inch. ?
They are at a depth of about 12 ft., in slaty shale containing Llandeilo fossils and contemporaneous felspathic ash and scoriae.
and the depth reaches 980 ft.
About half-way between `Ana and Hit, in the neighbourhood of Haditha, the river has a breadth of 300 yds., with a depth of r8 ft., and a flood speed of 4 knots.
in depth, with a breadth of 250 yds., and a current of 4 m.
A new harbour was made in 1891-1896, having a depth of 264 ft., with a fore port l000 ft.
m., and the greatest depth 630 ft.
There are several lakes of great depth and streams well fitted for the purposes of irrigation, of which full advantage is taken by the natives.
Some of the sandbanks are dry; and no part of the shoal has a greater depth than 3 or 4 ft.
at high water, except three tortuous and intricate channels which have recently been dredged to a sufficient depth to admit the passage of vessels, so as to obviate the long journey round the island of Ceylon which was previously necessary.
The complicated plot is constructed with greater skill than is usual with this dramatist, and the pathos of particular situations, and of the entire character of Penthea - a woman doomed to hopeless misery, but capable of seeking to obtain for her brother a happiness which his cruelty has condemned her to forego - has an intensity and a depth which are all Ford's own.
The shortness of the summer, the deficiency of drainage and the depth to which the soil freezes in winter, are the circumstances which determine the characteristic features of the vegetation of the tundras.
Except in hard rock, the top width of a cutting, and therefore the amount of material to be excavated, increases rapidly with the depth; hence if a cutting exceeds a certain depth, which varies with the particular circumstances, it may be more economical, instead of forming the sides at the slope at which the material of which they are composed will stand, to make them nearly vertical and support the soil with a retaining wall, or to bore a tunnel.
across, and it varied in depth from ro to 30 ft.
Its depth varies, according to the traffic which the line has to bear, from about 6 in.
Typical dimensions for sleepers on important British railways are: - length 9 ft., breadth io in., and depth 5 in.
is the most common length, the breadth being 8 in., and the depth 6 or 7 in.
A trench was first excavated to the proper depth, then the side walls and arched roof of brick were put in place, earth was filled in behind and over the arch, and the surface of the ground restored, either by paving where streets were followed, or by actually being built over with houses where the lines passed under private property.
Where the depth to rail-level was too great for cut-and-cover methods, ordinary tunnelling processes were used; and where the trench was too shallow for the arched roof, heavy girders, sometimes of cast iron, bridged it between the side walls, longitudinal.
(For the details of the shield and method of its operation, see Tunnel.) By means of the shield Greathead cut a circular hole at a depth ranging from 40 to 80 ft.
Underground railways are of three general types: the one of extreme depth, built by tunnelling methods, usually with the shield and without regard to the surface topography, where the stations are put at such depth as to require lifts to carry the passengers from the station platform to the street level.
beneath the surface of the street - a depth not sufficient to warrant the introduction of lifts, but enough to be inconvenient.
10.7 in.); depth of ballast under sleepers, o mo m.
m., a depth of 270 ft., and is upwards of 200 ft.
During the summer time it has water of sufficient depth for steamers of light draft as far as Nan-ch'ang, and it is navigable by native craft for a considerable distance beyond that city.
With reference to Automathes he is much more reserved in his praise, denying alike its originality, its depth and its elegance; but, he adds, " the book is not devoid of entertainment or instruction."
These valleys are generally levelfloored, but at their borders gradually slope upward, and are filled, often to a depth of several thousand feet, with the detritus of gravel, sand and silt from the neighbouring hills.
The maximum depth is 420 ft.
with a mean depth of 812 ft.
long at its maximum, with a maximum depth of 55 ft., and covers an area of 142 acres.
The successive " Minoan " strata, which go well back into the fourth millennium B.C., reach down to a depth of about 17 ft.
In the extreme north-east are found the oldest rocks in the state - lower Devonian (the New Scotland beds of New York) and, not so old, an extension of the Lower Carboniferous which underlies the Warrior coalfields of Alabama, and which consists of cherts, limestones, sandstones and shales, with a depth of 800 to 900 ft.
wide with a maximum depth of 300 ft.
Its minimum depth is 850 ft.
Its depth varies from a few feet to over 200 ft.
It is mostly shallow and only close to Memel attains a depth of 23 ft.
The depth of free mantle skirt is greatest in front, where the head and neck are covered in by it.
The Neolithic stratum varies very much in depth, ranging from nearly 20 ft.
Its variations may be due equally to natural denudation of a stratum once of uniform depth, or to the artificial heaping up of a mound by later builders.
I long to take nature to my heart, that nature before whose depth the faint-hearted theologian shrinks back; and with nature man, man in his entire quality."
The absence of preparations came to be felt more strongly with the rapid growth of the submarine menace, for the depth and number of the entrances made it a serious problem to establish adequate defences.
The natural scour thus created has given a depth of 26 ft.
m., an average depth of 46 ft., and a capacity of 63,068,000,000 gallons of water.
having a depth of more than 40 ft.
It consists entirely of rich alluvial soil, annually inundated to a depth varying from 2 to 14 ft.
These early schools, which consist chiefly of one-year and two-year-old fishes, yield sometimes enormous catches, whilst in other years they escape the drift-nets altogether, passing them, for some hitherto Unexplained reason, at a greater depth than that to which the nets reach, 1 The term "Spanish mackerel" is applied in America to Cybium maculatum.
long, reaches there a depth of over 600 fathoms, with a maximum depth of 880 fathoms, i.e.
The depth of the middle portion of the lake has not yet been measured, but must exceed 500 fathoms. It was expected that an underground ridge would be found connecting Olkhon with Svyatoi Nos; but depths exceeding 622 fathoms have been sounded even along that line.
215 surround it, and most of its area has a depth exceeding 400 fathoms, the maximum depths along three lines of soundings taken across it being 491, 485, and 476 fathoms respectively.
is generally found at a depth of 20 fathoms, as also on the surface in the middle of the lake.
At a depth of 500 fathoms there is a nearly uniform temperature of 38°.
In its long course it varies greatly both in depth and width, in some parts being only a few feet deep and spreading out to a width of more than a mile, while in other and mountainous portions of its course its channel is narrowed to 300 or 400 ft., and its depth is increased in inverse ratio.
After drilling had been carried to a depth of 69 feet, on the 28th of August 1859, the tools suddenly dropped into a crevice, and on the following day the well was found to have " struck oil."
Similarly there is a difference of opinion as to the conditions under which the organisms have been mineralized, some holding that the process has taken place at a high temperature and under great pressure; but the lack of practical evidence in nature in support of these views has led many to conclude that petroleum, like coal, has been formed at moderate temperatures, and under pressures varying with the depth of the containing rocks.
Wells in Pennsylvania now range in depth from 300 ft.
Contractors will often undertake to drill wells of moderate depth at 90 cents to $1 per foot, but the cost of a deep well may amount to as much as $7000.
On account of the small Drilling in depth of the wells, and the tenacious nature of the Canada.
The entire area of the summit was now thoroughly explored, the excavations being carried down to the surface of the rock, which on the southern side was found to slope outwards to a depth of about 45 ft.
Vessels load and discharge by means of lighters, the outer harbour having a depth at entrance of 24 ft.
The inner harbour has a depth of 15 ft.
The lake is saline and everywhere very shallow, its mean depth ranging from 3 to 5 ft.
The silver grey is a uniform-coloured breed, the fur of which is a rich chinchilla grey, varying in depth in the different strains.
In 1903 a beginning was made in the cultivation of cotton in the dry river beds, where water can always be obtained at a depth of 10 ft.
The greatest depth is 1030 fathoms (1227 Russian fathoms) near the centre, there being only one basin.
deep, was completed in 1889, and the project of 1889 provided for an increase in depth to 20 ft.
The depth of the harbour ranges from 21 to 26 ft.; and by improving this entrance, so as to make it 700 ft.
m., and its depth falls from 45-48 ft.
Here we find less evidence of sedulous workmanship, yet not infrequently a piercing sweetness, a depth of emotion, a sincere and spontaneous lovableness, which are irresistibly touching and inspiring.
In the eastern suburbs there is one of the largest grave-mounds in Spain, said to be of prehistoric date, and with subterranean chambers excavated to a depth of 65 ft.
This main scheme is complicated in various ways: (r) by the rotation of the earth, which continually deflects currents of water or air to the right in the northern or to the left in the southern hemisphere; (2) by the conformation of the land masses (as in the case of the equatorial stream which is banked up in the Gulf of Mexico and flows out through the Straits of Florida); (3) by the varying depth of the ocean, for currents tend to flow more readily through deep than in shallow waters (as in the case of the main Atlantic drift, which flows most strongly through the deep channel between Shetland and the Faroe Is.); and (4) by the driving force of the winds acting on the surface of the sea (thus the drift of water from the equator is not N.E., as one might expect, but from E.
Finally, Glandiceps abyssicola (Spengelidae) was dredged during the "Challenger" expedition in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Africa at a depth of 2500 fathoms.
The natural harbour, which, with a depth diminishing from 70 to 30 fathoms, strikes in from the northwest so as to cut the island into two fairly equal portions, with an isthmus not more than 14 m.
m., two-thirds of its waters having a depth of 30 to 40 ft.
On the inner surface of both valves several well-defined muscular, vascular and ovarian impressions are observable; they form either indentations of greater or less size and depth, or occur as variously shaped projections.
This observatory, the foundations of which were fixed in the snow that appears to cover the summit to a depth of ten metres, was built in September 1893, and Janssen, in spite of his sixty-nine years, made the ascent and spent four days taking observations.
The chief port is named Port Edward; it has good anchorage with a depth of 45 ft.
The second and third, addressed respectively to a cardinal (Perraud) and a bishop (Le Camus), are polemical or ironical in tone; the others are all written to friends in a warm, expansive mood; the fourth letter especially, appropriated to Mgr Mignot, attains a grand elevation of thought and depth of mystical conviction.
After a month or so the plates are converted to a more or less considerable depth into crusts of white lead.
The harbour has a depth of over 20 ft.
This was no isolated phenomenon; for in every progressive period of the history of religion we have on the one side the doctrine of God advancing in depth and fulness: on the other we have cosmological, eschatological and other survivals, which, however justifiable in earlier stages, are in unmistakable antagonism with the theistic beliefs of the time.
high, the depth of the platform from which it rises being about 14,000 ft., and its height above the sea being upwards of l000 ft.
in depth, which renders it scarcely possible that they were deposited in a continuous area, for such an enormous depression of the sea-floor could hardly have occurred since Miocene times without involving also Christmas Island.
of quayage, served by a railway, and with a depth alongside of 25 ft.
The river when in flood, at which time it has a depth, of 40 ft., scours a channel through the bar, but the Orange is at all times inaccessible to sea-going vessels.
m., have all been built up out of the shallow waters of the lagoon round about the entrance of the harbour, with high sea-walls composed of the same huge basaltic prisms. In some places the walls of this "Pacific Venice" are now submerged to some depth, as if the land had subsided since the construction of these extensive works.
The depth of the cutting is indicated by marks on the vertical wall at intervals of 10 Roman ft.
Large beds of rock-salt also occur in the neighbourhood, in which shafts have been sunk to a depth of more than 1200 ft.
The harbour, which is formed by a bay of the Baltic, has a depth throughout of 20 ft.
Walking and skating, he proceeded in the depth of winter to Marseilles, and on by sea to Genoa.
But the greater part of the coast region, which has an average depth of 15 m., is broken and rugged.
Recognized as among the first mathematicians of his day, he was also widely known for the universality and depth of his philological and philosophical knowledge.
The songs and elegies of the short-lived Paul Anyos, edited by Bacsanyi in 1798, show great depth of feeling.
ANTE-CHOIR, the term given to the space enclosed in a church between the outer gate or railing of the rood screen and the door of the screen; sometimes there is only one rail, gate or door, but in Westminster Abbey it is equal in depth to one bay of the nave.
The shafts reached deposits of salt at a depth of 850 ft., but the finer and purer layers lie more than 1 roo ft.
In many places the main reef lies at a great depth and some bore-holes are over 5500 ft.
The stigmas and a part of the style are carefully picked out, and the wet saffron is then scattered on sheets of paper to a depth of 2 or 3 in.; over this a cloth is laid, and next a board with a heavy weight.
As a result of these labours there is now in the Bohemian portion of the river a minimum depth of 2 ft.
8 in., whilst from the Bohemian frontier down to Magdeburg the minimum depth is 3 ft., and from Magdeburg to Hamburg, 3 ft.
In 1896 and 1897 Prussia and Hamburg signed covenants whereby two channels are to be kept open to a depth of 9.
wide at the top, has a minimum depth of 86 ft., and is equipped with seven locks, each 2622 ft.
Through these gorges dash magnificent cascades, others leaping the escarpments of the plateaus in waterfalls of great volume and depth.
deep. The deepest soundings give only 50 to 55 ft., the average depth being 30 to 40 ft.
Between Basel and Strassburg the depth of water is sometimes not more than 3 ft.; between Strassburg and Mainz it varies from 5 to 25 ft.; while below Mainz it is never less than 9 or To ft.
in depth; at Dusseldorf the depth is about 50 ft.
At present the Rhine in Holland has a depth of about 9 ft.
and a width of 1200 to 1300 ft., though the Merwede branch exceeds this depth by 8 in.
Above Mannheim the depth of the stream is always less than 5 ft., and generally varies between that figure and 4 ft.
The work of blasting out the rocks which at that spot projected in the bed of the river, begun in 1830, was continued down to the year 1887, so that now there are two navigable channels of sufficient depth for all vessels which ply up and down that part of the stream.
The estimated cost was between three and four millions sterling, to be met by a toll, and it was urged that a uniform depth, independent of tides, would be ensured above the dam, that delay of large vessels wishing to proceed up river would thus be obviated, that the river would be relieved of pollution by the tides, and the necessity for constant dredging would be abolished.
Its greatest depth is 738 ft., its average depth much in excess of that of Lake Erie, and it is as a general rule free from outlying shoals or dangers.
As a result of its relatively great depth there are seldom any great fluctuations of level in this lake due to wind disturbance, but the lake follows the general rule of the Great Lakes (q.v.) of seasonal and annual variation.
broad with a depth of 9 to 10 ft.
If the deposit shows great variations in thickness in its outcrop along the surface it is probable that a drift or a slope would show the same thing in depth.
These conditions sometimes extend to a considerable depth.
Below the oxidized outcrop the vein is often increased in value by secondary enrichment, sometimes to a depth of several hundred feet.
The method to be adopted will vary with the thickness and character of the deposit, with its inclination, and to some extent with the character of the enclosing rocks, the depth below the surface, and other conditions.
The depth to which open working can be pushed depends upon the size and value of the mineral deposit and upon the expense of removing the over-burden.
Open excavations several hundred feet in depth are not uncommon.
of the drum depend on the hoisting speed desired and the depth of shaft or length of rope to be wound.
Moreover, the limit of vertical depth at which rope of even the best quality will support its own weight only, with a proper margin of safety, is, say, io,000 to 12,000 ft.; and with the load the safe working limit of depth would be reached at 7000 to 8000 ft.
1 Stage hoisting is applicable to any depth.
There has been much speculation as to the depth to which it will be practicable to push the work of mining.
3 shaft of the Tamarack mine in Houghton county, Michigan, which has reached a vertical depth of about 5200 ft.
The Quincy mine, also in Houghton county, has reached a vertical depth of nearly 4000 ft.
deep. In Austria three shafts in the silver mines at Prizbram have reached the depth of over 1000 metres.
The possibility of hoisting and pumping from great depths has been discussed, and it remains now to consider the other conditions which will tend to limit mining operations in depth - namely, increase of temperature and increase of rock pressure.
Observations in different parts of the world have shown that the increase of temperature in depth varies: in most localities the rise being at the rate of one degree for 50 to 100 feet of depth; while in the deep mines of Michigan and the Rand, an increase as low as one degree for each 200 ft.
But very heavy losses had been sustained by the 29th Division, large bodies of Turkish troops had arrived from Bulair and were being brought round from the Asiatic side of the Straits,' and after three days of strenuous combat the British and French had barely secured a depth of 2 m.
The Allies now occupied many miles of front in the peninsula, but there was hardly a spot where the enemy had not the upper hand in respect to ground - what they required was not breadth but depth, and depth they had failed to secure.
With the breadth and depth of the Saviour's sympathy, which are so fully exhibited in this Gospel, we may connect the clearness with which His true humanity is here portrayed.
The river bar obstructs navigation, the depth not exceeding 14 ft., so that large vessels must lie outside.
in depth and 6 in.
At first the Ghazal flows north with lagoon-like expansions having great breadth and little depth - nowhere more than 13 ft.
The rise of the Ghazal river in flood time is barely 3 ft., a depth sufficient, however, to place an enormous area of country under water.
They grew apparently throughout life, and were implanted to a great depth in the jaws, being 7 or 8 in.
But as he was unacquainted with the law of the velocities of running water as depending upon the depth of the orifice, the want of precision which appears in his results is not surprising.
In 1628 Castelli published a small work, Della misura dell' acque correnti, in which he satisfactorily explained several phenomena in the motion of fluids in rivers and canals; but he committed a great paralogism in supposing the velocity of the water proportional to the depth of the orifice below the surface of the vessel.
- In a homogeneous liquid at rest under gravity the pressure increases uniformly with the depth.
2 for every additional foot of depth.
- The pressure ah at a depth h ft.
As the molten metal is run in, the upward thrust on the outside mould, when the level has reached PP', is the weight of metal in the volume generated by the revolution of APQ; and this, by a theorem of Archimedes, has the same volume as the cone ORR', or rya, where y is the depth of metal, the horizontal sections being equal so long as y is less than the radius of the outside FIG.
Then dp/dz=kdp/dz = P, = Poe ik, p - po= kpo(ez Ik -1); (16) and if the liquid was incompressible, the depth at pressure p would be (p - po) 1po, so that the lowering of the surface due to compression is ke h I k -k -z= 1z 2 /k, when k is large.
(2) (3) Suppose the density p varies as some nth power of the depth below 0, then (7) and the lowering of the surface is 2 ° - z=klog po - z= - k log(1 - k) - zt12 k (20) Po as before in 17).
For a homogeneous liquid at rest under gravity, p is proportional to the depth below the surface, i.e.
Thus the C.P. of a rectangle or parallelogram with a side in the surface is at a of the depth of the lower side; of a triangle with a vertex in the surface and base horizontal is 4 of the depth of the base; but if the base is in the surface, the C.P. is at half the depth of the vertex; as on the faces of a tetrahedron, with one edge in the surface.
It is well after the borders are completed to remove the top soil, in which no roots are to be found, every two or three years, and to replace it with a mixture of good loam, rotten manure, lime rubbish and bone meal, to the depth of 6 or 7 in.
The fire from the batteries on shore produced no impression until a hot shot set fire to the "bass junk with which, to the depth of 5 ft., the immensely thick parapet was lined."
deep, fitted with a conical bottom of about the same depth.
These complex organs have apparently arisen by the increase in depth and differentiation of an accessory sucker such as is borne on the phyllidia of the former group. Lastly, the scolex of the more familiar Taeniidae (Tetracotylea) carries a rostellum encircled with hooks and four cup-shaped suckers the margins of which do not project beyond the surface of the body.
and has an average depth of 30 ft., is Winona (formerly Spring Fountain) Park (incorporated 1895 largely by Presbyterians), which primarily aims to combine the advantages of Northfield, Massachusetts, and Chautauqua, New York.
By this capillary action water may be transferred to the upper layers of the soil from a depth of several feet below the surface.
A loose layer of earth spread over the surface of the soil acts in the same way, and a similarly effective mulch may be prepared by hoeing the soil, or stirring it to a depth of one or two inches with harrows or other implements.
decrease, few being met with at a depth of 5 or 6 ft.
The operation consists of paring off the tough sward to a depth of I to 2 in.
The turf is taken off either with the breast plough - a paring tool pushed forward from the breast or thighs by the workman - or with specially constructed paring ploughs or shims. The depth of the sod removed should not be too thick or burning is difficult and too much humus is destroyed unnecessarily, nor should it be too thin or the roots of the herbage are not effectually destroyed.
The oxygen, however, decreases with the depth, while the carbon dioxide increases.
Cultures of the typhoid organism planted at a depth of 18 in.
By means of them the depth and width of the furrow are regulated, whereas in the case of "swing" or wheelless ploughs these points depend chiefly on the skill of the ploughman.
Following in the furrow of an ordinary plough it breaks through the sub-soil to a depth of several inches, making it porous and penetrable by plant roots.
One of the earliest of these poets, Muti' ibn Ayas, shows the new depth of personal feeling and refinement of expression.
and a depth of 10 ft.
The extreme depth of the strait approaches 50 fathoms, and it contains two small islands known as the Diomede Islands.
long, with its port, Nuevitas (pop. in 1907, 4386), which is on the north side of the island and has a spacious land-locked bay of good depth, approached through a break in the off-lying coral keys and a narrow canyon entrance.
(2) The well of Jacob, about a mile and a half from Nablus on the way to Jerusalem, which is an excavation of great depth.
The southern coast in particular is deeply indented; and there two bold peninsulas, extending for several miles into the sea, form two capacious natural harbours, namely, Deep Water Bay, with the village of Stanley to the east, and Tytam Bay, which has a safe, well-protected entrance showing a depth of 10 to 16 fathoms. An in-shore island on the west coast, called Aberdeen, or Taplishan, affords protection to the Shekpywan or Aberdeen harbour, an inlet provided with a granite graving dock, the caisson gate of which is 60 ft.
and a depth of 24 ft.
There is good anchorage throughout the entire channel separating the island from the mainland, except in the Ly-ee-mun Pass, where the water is deep; the best anchorage is in Hong-Kong roads, in front of Victoria, where, over good holding ground, the depth is 5 to 9 fathoms. The inner anchorage of Victoria Bay, about a m.
and a depth of 20 ft.
the Federal government during 1902-1905 increased its minimum depth at low water from 251 ft.
across and has a maximum depth of 50 ft.
in a direct line, and is accomplished in an open boat, or (since 1892), depth of water permitting, in a small steamboat to Pir-i-Bazar and thence 6 m.
The reproduction of tsetse-flies is highly remarkable; instead of laying eggs or being ovovivi parous the females deposit at intervals of about a fortnight or three weeks a single full-grown larva, which forthwith buries itself in the ground to a depth of several centi metres, and assumes the pupal state.
It had complete control over the Euxine grain-trade; the absence of tides and the depth of its harbour rendered its quays accessible to vessels of large burden; while the tunny and other fisheries were so lucrative that the curved inlet near which it stood became known as the Golden Horn.
The state has a natural water outlet in the Providence river and Narragansett Bay, but there is lack of adequate dockage in Providence harbour, and insufficient depth of water for ocean traffic. The ports of entry are Providence (by far the largest, with imports valued at $ 1, 8 93,55 1, and exports valued at $12,517 in 1909), Newport and Bristol.
The sea immediately east of the town has a considerable depth, but its navigation is impeded by sandbanks and a bar north and west of the town, which can be passed only by vessels drawing not more than 9 ft.
in length, 490 in width and to in depth), was apparently made for naval exhibitions.
A socalled "paletta" (a bronze plate with a handle - possibly a bell or a votive axe or a simple pendant) with a figure of a horse on one side and a votive inscription on the other, belonging to the 5th or 4th century B.C., was found in 1899 at a great depth close to the church of S.
In depth of water, too, the advantage is on the Pacific side.
On the other hand, the average depth of the Japan Sea is only 1200 fathoms, and its maximum depth is 3200.
is supposed to be the depth of the crater.
Within the period of Japans written history several eruptions are recorded the last having been in 1707, when the whole summit burst into flame, rocks were shattered, ashes fell to a depth of several inches even in Yedo (TOkyO), 60 m.
several times since I893, the last explosion having been in 1900, when 82 sulphurdiggers were killed or injured; ashes were thrown to a distance of5m.,accumulatingin places to a depth of 5 ft.; and a crater 300 ft.
in diameter, and as many in depth, was formed on the E.
The present crater is remarkable for the absolute perpendicu larity of its walls, and has an immense depth from 600 to 800 ft.
above sea-level, has a maximum depth of 93 fathoms, and empties itself at one end over a fall (Kegon) 250 ft.
These schist ridges rich in quartz show, to a depth of 20 metres, considerable disintegration.
In the district on the east of the main island the snowfall is insignificant, seldom attaining a depth of more than four or five inches and generally melting in a few days, while bright, sunny skies are usual.
These last have not been found anywhere except at the entrance of the Bay of Tokyo at a depth of some 200 fathoms.
The line of division along the spine, it wifi be observed, is not perfectly continuous or defined, but in part suggested; and each radiating stripe on either side is full of variety in size, direction, and to some extent in color and depth of shade.
With regard to incised chiselling, the commonest form is kebori (hair-carving), which may be called engraving, the lines being of uniform thickness and depth.
The charm of these methods is that certain parts of the decorative design seem to float, not on the surface of the metal, but actually within it, an admirable effect of depth and atmosphere being thus produced.
This chisel is passed into an iron pencil having at the end guards, between which the point of the chisel projects, so that it is impossible for the user to cut beyond a certain depth.
Tc such a depth of debasement had the ceramic art fallen in Owari, that before the happy renaissance of the past ten years, Nagoya discredited itself by employing porcelain as a base for cloisonn enamelling.
They were generally crude, of impure tone, and without depth or brilliancy.
Such porcelains, however, lack the velvet-like softness and depth of tone so justly prized in the genuine monochrome, where the glaze itself contains the coloring matter, pte and glaze being tired simultaneously at the same high temperature.
of quayage; the depth, ranging from 303 5 ft., is sufficient for practically any vessel afloat.
in greatest depth, is just over 1,000 ac. with a river frontage of 12 miles.
broad, has a depth ranging from 47 ft.
in depth, and its waters are remarkable for their transparency and refractive powers.
The vaulting of the three portals is of exceptional depth owing to the projection of the lower storey of the facade.
According to the latest calculations, the length of the main stream of the Ganges is 1540 m., or with its longest affluent, 1680; breadth at true entrance into the sea, 20 m.; breadth of channel in dry season, 14 to 21 m.; depth in dry season, 30 ft.;.
The mean depth of the Zuider Zee is 11.48 ft.; depth in the southern basin of the former lake, 19 ft.; at Val van Urk (deep water to the west of the island of Urk), 142 ft.
to Lemmer (Friesland), these lines will connect parts of the Zuider Zee having a uniform depth of 8 ft.
The first deals with mere party questions without sincerity and without depth; and the second, composed as an amusement in retirement without any serious preparation, in their attacks on metaphysics and theology and in their feeble deism present no originality and carry no conviction.
Its average depth is 3 ft.
The greatest depth is 70 ft.
The diameter is generally 26 ft., but may be greater; the best depth is considered to be a quarter of the diameter.
The harbour, though dry at low tides, has a depth of 14 ft.
The bar at the entrance to Maracaibo channel does not admit vessels drawing more than 12 ft., but there is a depth of 30 ft.
Considering its depth this fountain must be dated back to the 5th century, probably near the beginning.
The finest of the Greek sculptures is the head of a youth found in the orchestra of the theatre at a depth of 23 ft.
By good fortune the earth here was very deep. On the higher level of the agora and the Apollo temple, where the depth of earth is comparatively slight, there is little hope of important finds.
The geological formations thus exposed show that the plateaus are composed of a base of eruptive material, overlaid by enormous deposits of reddish sandstones, conglomerates and quartzites, exposed in parts to a depth of 2000 feet.
Dr Livingstone obtained a depth of 326 fathoms opposite Mount Kabogo, south of Ujiji.
The evidence upon which these opinions were based had been gathered by such anthropologists as Schmerling, Boucher de Perthes and others, and it had to do chiefly with the finding of implements of human construction associated with the remains of extinct animals in the beds of caves, and with the recovery of similar antiquities from alluvial deposits the great age of which was demonstrated by their depth.
- The Hindenburg line, which now faced the British armies, has been described in detail elsewhere; it will therefore suffice to say here that, together with the Ma.snieres-Beaurevoir line beyond it, it formed a fortified belt some four to six miles in depth, and was in all respects one of the most formidable defensive positions known to history.
in depth on a front of 15,000.
in width and 16 in depth, it presents an appearance of imposing strength.
It has a depth of 6 to io fathoms, with a good bottom, and large ships can anchor at a cable's length from the shore.
to the south, with a depth of 4 to 9 fathoms, Dockyard Bay and Artillery Bay.
The port has a depth of 18 to 24 ft.
Its lower course from Lubeck to the sea has been dredged to a depth of 25 ft., permitting sea-going vessels to lie alongside the wharves and quays.
broad and of good depth right up to the banks, the river offers every convenience for the berthing and loading of ships, though a bar at its mouth, which prevents the passage of vessels drawing more than 12 ft., necessitates in the case of large ships a partial loading and unloading from lighters outside.
long, has a depth of 25 ft., diminishing to 12 ft.
Another stimulus came from the biologists, Pacific. On the 1st of November 1876 a cyclone acting in this who began to realize the importance of a more detailed investigaway submerged a great area of the level plain of the Ganges tion of the life conditions of organisms at great depths in the delta to a depth of 46 ft.; here the influence of the difference sea.
a line detached a float on striking the bottom, and it was proposed " Gazelle " conducted observations in the South Atlantic, Indian to calculate the depth by the time required for the float to reand South Pacific Oceans; and the U.S.S.
American scientific enterprise, mainly in very deep water, though in a few instances he overestimated under the guidance of Professor Alexander Agassiz, has been the depth by failing to detect the moment at which the lead active in the North Atlantic and especially in the Pacific Ocean, touched bottom.
Instead of the expensive mile-long stout hemp lines used and since 1887 those of the prince of Monaco in his yachts, as by Ross, Maury introduced a ball of strong twine attached to a well as numerous Danish vessels in the sea between Iceland and cannon shot, which ran it out rapidly; when the bottom was Greenland, conspicuous amongst which were the expeditions reached the twine was cut and the depth deduced from the length in1896-1898on board the " Ingolf."
The soundings are made by means of a special machine fitted with a brake so adjusted that the revolution of the drum is stopped automatically the instant the lead touches the bottom, and the depth can then be read directly from an indicator.
All attempts to dispense with a lead and line and to measure the depth by determining the pressure at the bottom have hitherto failed when applied to depths greater than 200 fathoms; a new hydraulic manometer has been tried on board the German surveying ship " Planet."
Siemens has pointed out that a profile of the sea-bed can be delineated by taking account of the varying strain on a submarine cable while it is being laid, and the average depth of a section can thus be ascertained with some accuracy.
All deep-sea measurements are subject to uncertainty because the sounding machine merely measures the length of wire which runs out before the lead touches bottom, and this agrees with the depth only when the wire is perpendicular throughout its run.
Kriimmel has calculated the mean depth to be 2010 fathoms (12,060 ft.), while the mean elevation of the surface of the continents above sea-level is only 2300 ft.
m.), and below the depth of 15,000 ft.
m.), while below the depth of 20,000 ft.
In spite of the increase of deep-sea soundings in the last few decades, they are still very irregularly distributed in the open ocean, and the attempt to draw isobaths (lines of equal depth) on a chart of the world is burdened with many difficulties which can only be evaded by the widest generalizations.
The continental shelf is the gentle slope which extends from the edge of the land to a depth usually about loo, though in some cases as much as 300 fathoms, and is there demarcated by an abrupt increase in the steepness of the slope to ocean depths.
In particular Sir John Murray considers that only deeps exceeding 3000 fathoms in depth should be named, and in his charts he has named these deeps after persons whether the individuals thus honoured had themselves discovered or explored the deeps in question or not.
all soundings exceeding 4000 fathoms, occur in trenches, and there are only a few small trenches known (on the west coast of Central America) in which the maximum depth is less than 3000 fathoms. Jlost trenches are narrow, but of considerable length, and their steeper side is believed to be due in every case to a great fracture of the earth's crust..
the depth over it is less than 150o fathoms, thence to 12° N.
the rise resumes a southerly direction and from Ascension to Tristan d'Acunha, the depth is in many places less than r50o fathoms. The soundings of Bruce's Antarctic expedition in the " Scotia " showed that the rise cannot be traced beyond 55° S.
The Brazilian Basin has also a large area lying at a depth greater than 2500 fathoms and culminates in the Romanche Deep close to the Equatorial Ridge in o° rr' S., 18° 15' W.
It was long believed on the strength of a sounding of " 4000 fathoms, no bottom " reported by Sir James Ross in 68° 22' S., 12° 49' W., that the Indo-Atlantic Basin was of enormous depth, but W.
Bruce, in the " Scotia," showed in 1904 that the real depth at that point is only 2660 fathoms.
Between the Seychelles and Sokotra (0° - 9 ° N.) there are great stretches of the ocean floor forming an almost level expanse at a depth of 2800 fathoms. The Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Aden are also very uniform with depths of about 1900 fathoms, while the floor of the Bay of Bengal rises very gradually northwards and is 1000 fathoms deep close up to the Ganges Shelf.
" Nero " in 1899 found 5269 fathoms in 12° 43' N., 1 45° 49' E., the greatest depth yet measured.
The northern part of the Marianne Trench leads to a wave-like configuration of the ocean floor, the depth to the east of Saipan being over 4300 fathoms, followed by a rise to 1089 fathoms and then a descent to 3167 fathoms.
there is a trench with 4648 fathoms. To the north-east the Japan Trench adjoins the Aleutian Trench, where a depth of 4038 fathoms has been found south-west of Attu.
The greatest of the intercontinental seas, the Arctic, comes nearest to oceanic conditions in the extent and depth of its depressions.
m.) with depths down to 2200 fathoms. A rise between Spitsbergen and Greenland separates the Norwegian Trough (greatest depth 2005 fathoms in 68° 21' N., 2° 5' W.) which in turn is divided from the Atlantic by the Wyville Thomson Ridge which runs between the Faeroe and Shetland islands and is covered by only 314 fathoms of water at the deepest point.
The ridge across Denmark Strait west of Iceland nowhere exceeds 300 fathoms in depth, so that the deeper water of the North Polar Basin is effectively separated from that of the Atlantic. A third small basin occupies Baffin Bay and contains a maximum depth of 1050 fathoms. Depths of from loo to 300 fathoms are not uncommon amongst the channels of the Arctic Archipelago north of North America, and Bering Strait, through which the surface water of the Arctic Sea meets that of the Pacific, is only 28 fathoms deep.
The Central American Sea communicates with the Atlantic through the channels between the Antilles, none of which is quite 1000 fathoms deep, and it sinks to a depth of 2843 fathoms in the Caribbean Basin, 3428 fathoms in the Cayman Trench and 2080 fathoms in the Gulf of Mexico.
The China Sea on the north has a maximum depth of 2715 fathoms off the Philippines, the Sulu Basin reaches 2550 fathoms, and the Celebes Basin 2795 fathoms. Some of the channels between the islands are of very great depth, Macassar Strait exceeding 1000 fathoms, the Molucca Passage exceeding 2000 fathoms, and the Halmahera Trough sinking as deep as 2575 fathoms. The deepest of all is the Banda Basin, a large area of which lies below 2500 fathoms and reaches 3557 fathomsin the Kei Trench.
A depth of 2789 fathoms also occurs north of Flores.
The Mediterranean Sea, the best-known member of the intercontinental class, is separated from the Atlantic Ocean by a ridge running from Cape Spartel to Cape Trafalgar on which the greatest depth is only 175 fathoms. The depth increases so rapidly towards the east that soundings exceeding 500 fathoms occur off Gibraltar.
The Balearic Basin, between Spain and the rise bearing Corsica and Sardinia, has a maximum depth of 1742 fathoms, and the Tyrrhenian Basin between that rise, Italy and Sicily deepens to 2040 fathoms. The larger Eastern Mediterranean Basin stretches eastward from Sicily with large tracts more than 2000 fathoms below the surface, and the greatest depth ascertained during the detailed researches of the Austrian expedition on board the " Pola " was 2046 fathoms in 35° 44' 8' N., 21° 46.8' E.
The Adriatic Sea though very shallow in the north deepens southward to about 9 00 fathoms, and the Aegean Sea has a maximum depth of 1230 fathoms north of Crete.
lies the extremely shallow Gulf of Azov; but the greater part of the sea consists of a deep basin, the central part of which is an almost flat expanse at a uniform depth of 1220 fathoms.
The Baltic Sea exceeds 50 fathoms in few places except the broad central portion, though small caldron-like depressions here and there may sink below zoo fathoms. The Red Sea on the other hand, though shut off from the Indian Ocean by shallows of the Strait of Bab-elMandeb with little more than ioo fathoms, sinks to a very considerable depth in its central trough, which reaches 1209 fathoms in 20° N.
In the North Sea the depth of ioo fathoms is only exceeded to any extent in the Norwegian gully, which has a maximum depth of 383 fathoms in the Skagerrack.
The Sea of Japan has a wide shelf only in the north, the central part forms a broad basin with depths of 1650 fathoms. The Laurentian Sea (Gulf of St Lawrence) has a narrow branching gully running between wide shelves, in which a depth of 312 fathoms is found south of Anticosti.
The area, general depth and total volume of the oceans and principal seas have been recalculated by Krt mmel, and the accompanying table presents these figures.
Oceanic Deposits.-It has long been known that the deposits which carpet the floor of the ocean differ in different places, and coasting sailors have been accustomed from time immemorial to use the lead not only to ascertain the depth of the water but also to obtain samples of the bottom, the appearance of which is often characteristic of the locality.
Captain Phipps in 1773 secured samples of soft blue clay in this manner from a depth of 683 fathoms, but as a rule when sounding in great depths the sample is washed off the tallow before it can be brought on board.
Larger quantities of deposit may be conveniently collected by means of the dredge, which can be worked in any depth and brings up large stones, concretionary nodules or fossils, of the existence of which a sounding-tube could give no indication.
The classification adopted was a double one, taking account both of the origin and of the distribution in depth of the various deposits, thus: - II.
It is a remarkable geographical fact that on the rises and in the basins of moderate depth of the open ocean the organic oozes preponderate, but in the abysmal depressions below 2500 or 3000 fathoms, whether these lie in the middle or near the edges of the great ocean spaces, there is found only the red clay, with a minimum of calcium carbonate, though sometimes with a considerable admixture of the siliceous remains of radiolarians.
Red clay is the deposit peculiar to the abysmal area; 70 carefully investigated samples collected by the " Challenger " came from an average depth of 2730 fathoms, 97 specimens collected by the " Tuscarora " came from an average depth of 2860 fathoms, and 26 samples obtained by the " Albatross " in the Central Pacific came from an average depth of 2620 fathoms. Red clay has not yet been found in depths less than 2200 fathoms. The main ingredient of the deposit is a stiff clay which is plastic when fresh, but dries to a stony hardness.
A very interesting feature is the small proportion of calcium carbonate, the amount present being usually less as the depth is greater; red clay from depths exceeding 3000 fathoms does not contain so much as 1% of calcareous matter.
Murray and Renard recognize the progressive diminution of carbonate of lime with increase of depth as a characteristic of all eupelagic deposits.
Buchanan, which has an arbitrary scale and can be varied in weight by placing small metal rings on the stem so as to depress the scale to any desired depth in sea-water of any salinity, the specific gravity being calculated for each reading by dividing the total weight by the immersed volume; (3) the total immersion areometer, which has no scale and the weight of which can be adjusted so that the instrument can be brought so exactly to the specific gravity of the water sample that it remains immersed, neither floating nor sinking; this has the advantage of 'eliminating the effects of surface tension and in Fridtjof Nansen's pattern is capable of great precision.
The transparency of sea-water has frequently been measured at sea by the simple expedient of sinking white-painted disks and noting the depth at which they become invisible as the measure of the transparency of the water.
In the North Sea north of the Dogger Bank, for instance, the disk is visible in calm weather to a depth of from io to 16 fathoms, but in rough weather only to 62 fathoms. Knipovitch occasionally observed great transparency in the cold waters of the Murman Sea, where he could see the disk in as much as 25 fathoms, and a similar phenomenon has often been reported from Icelandic waters.
disk to depths of 31 and 36 fathoms in the Sargasso Sea, but in the cold currents of the north and also in the equatorial current the depth of visibility was only from zi to 162 fathoms. to the tropical parts of the Indian and the Pacific Oceans the depth of visibility increases again to from 20 to 27 fathoms. Some allowance should be made for the elevation of the sun at the time of observation.
Mill has shown that in the North Sea off the Firth of Forth the average depth of visibility of a disk in the winter half-year was 4; fathoms and in the summer half-year 62 fathoms, and, although the greater frequency of rough weather in winter might tend to obscure the effect, individual observations made it plain that the angle of the sun was the main factor in increasing the depth to which the disk remained visible.
Many experiments have also been made by the use of photographic plates in order to find the greatest depth to which light penetrates.
Fol and Sarasin detected the last traces of sunlight in the western Mediterranean at a depth of 254 to 260 fathoms, and Luksch in the eastern Mediterranean at 328 fathoms and in the Red Sea at 273 fathoms. The chief cause of the different depths to which light penetrates in sea-water is the varying turbidity due to the presence of mineral particles in suspension or to plankton.
means an increased depth of ioo ft.
The amount of carbonic acid in solution may also be increased by submarine exhalations in regions of volcanic disturbance, but it must be remembered that the critical pressure for this gas is 73 atmospheres, which is reached at a depth of 400 fathoms, so that carbonic acid produced at the bottom of the ocean must be in liquid form.
frequently the case in fjord basins; for instance, in the Gullmar Fjord at a depth of 50 fathoms with water of 34.14 per mille salinity and ' Meddelelser om Gronland (Copenhagen, 1904), p. 331.
Nansen perfected the instrument, adapting it not only for enclosing a portion of water at any desired depth, but by a series of concentric divisions insulating in the central compartment water at the temperature it had at the moment of collection.
By means of a weight dropped along the line the water-bottle can be shut and a sample enclosed at any desired depth.
In deep water the closing mechanism is usually actuated by a screw propeller which begins to work when the line is being hauled in and can be set so as to close the waterbottle in a very few fathoms. A small but heavy water-bottle has been devised by Martin Knudsen, provided with a pressure gauge or bathometer, by which samples may be collected from any moderate depth down to about roc fathoms, on board a vessel going at full speed.
As yet it is only possible to speak with confidence of the vertical distribution of salinity in the seas surrounding Europe, where there is a general increase of salinity with depth.
Buchanan pointed out in 1876, that the great contrasts in surface salinity between the tropical maxima and the equatorial minima give place at the moderate depth of 200 fathoms to a practically uniform salinity in all parts of the ocean.
He covered the bulb of the thermometer with layers of non-conducting material and left it immersed at the desired depth for a very long time to enable it to take the temperature of its surroundings.
Buchanan's large model they can be trusted to give a good account of the vertical distribution of temperature, provided the water grows cooler as the depth increases.
They would act equally well if the water grew continually warmer as the depth increases, but they cannot give an exact account of a temperature inversion such as is produced when layers of warmer and colder water alternate.
There are few obseryations available for ascertaining the depth to which warmth from the sun penetrates in the ocean.
Aime showed that on a calm bright day in the Mediterranean the temperature rose o 1° C. between the early morning and noon at a depth of about 12 fathoms. Luksch deduced a much greater penetration of solar warmth from the comparison of observations at different hours at neighbouring stations in the eastern Mediterranean, but his methods were not exact enough to give confidence in the result.
Conduction has practically no effect, for the coefficient of thermal conductivity in sea-water is so small that if a mass of sea-water were cooled to 0° C. and the surface kept at a temperature of 30° C., 6 months would elapse before a temperature of 15° C. was reached at the depth of 1 3 metres, 1 year at 1 85 metres, and io years at 5.8 metres.
Great irregular variations in radiation and convection sometimes produce a remarkably abrupt change of temperature at a certain depth in calm water.
Such a condition of things is only possible in very calm weather, the action of waves having the effect of mixing the water to a considerable depth.
We are still ignorant of the depth to.which the annual temperature wave penetrates in the open ocean, but observations in the Mediterranean enable us to form some opinion on the matter.
The regional differences of temperature at like depths become less as the depth increases.
1, which represents a sounding in the South Atlantic; and this arrangement of a rapid fall of temperature giving place gradually to an extremely slow but steady diminution as depth increases is termed anathermic (ava, back, and 8epµ6s, warm).
The nature of the change of temperature with depth below 2500 fathoms is entirely dependent on the position of the sub-oceanic elevations, for the rises and ridges act as true submarine watersheds.
in 61° S., 63° W., at a depth of 2018 fathoms. The conditions of temperature in the South Atlantic are characteristic. South of 55° S.
In similar depths in the Pacific south of the equator temperatures of 33.8° to 34.5° are found, and north of the equator bottom temperatures at the same depth increase to 35.1° in the neighbourhood of the Aleutian Islands, again completely justifying the conclusion as to the Antarctic control of deep water temperature throughout the ocean.
Thus in the Central American Sea below 93 o fathoms, the depth on the bar, no water is found at a temperature lower than that prevailing in the open ocean at that depth, viz.
Thus in the Malay Sea the various minor seas or basins are homothermic below the depth of the rim, at the temperature prevailing at that depth in the open ocean: in the China Sea below 875 fathoms with 36.5° F.; in the Sulu Sea (depth 2550 fathoms) below 400 fathoms with 50 5° F.; in the Celebes Sea below 820 fathoms with 38.6° F.; in the Banda Sea below 902 fathoms with 37.9° F.
or 9 Fahrenheit degrees higher than the water of the Bay of Bengal at the same depth.
above the temperature at the same depth off the Azores.
Such formations, termed toross by the Russians, may extend under water, according to Makaroff's investigations, to at least an equal depth.
Later apparatus, such as Pettersson's bifilar current-meter or his more recent electric-photographic apparatus, and Nansen and Ekman's propeller current-meter, measure both the direction and the velocity at any moderate depth from an anchored vessel.
We must remember that the ocean is a continuous sheet of water of a certain depth, and the conditions of continuity which hold good for all fluids require that there should be no vacant space within it; hence if a single water particle is set in motion, the whole ocean must respond, as Varenius pointed out in 1650.
When the wind acts on the surface of the sea it drives before it the particles of the surface layer of water, and, as these cannot be parted from those immediately beneath, the internal friction of the fluid causes the propelling impulse to act through a considerable depth, and if the wind continued long enough it would ultimately set the whole mass of the ocean in motion 'right down to the bottom.
He showed that at a certain depth the direction of the current becomes exactly the opposite of that which ha