high, rich in hematite iron ore; valuable limestone deposits are found some 30 m.
The marine facies of the later Tertiaries is confined to the neighbourhood of the coast, and was probably formed after the elevation of the Andes; but inland, freshwater deposits of this period are met with, especially in Patagonia.
Large deposits of alum occur close to the village of Bulladelah, 30 m.
In the silicious matter which the water deposits is perhaps the bony system, and in the still finer soil and organic matter the fleshy fibre or cellular tissue.
Geologically Sardinia consists of two hilly regions of Pre-Tertiary rock, separated by a broad depression filled with Tertiary deposits.
Institutions possessing a special character are the monti frumentarii, public grain deposits, founded for the purpose of supplying peasant proprietors with seed corn, debts being paid in kind with interest after harvest.
The superiority which is claimed for Burton ales is attributed to the use of well-water impregnated with sulphate of lime derived from the gypseous deposits of the district.
Deposits of copper, tin, iron and tungsten have been discovered, and a variety of other mineral products (graphite, mica, spodumene, coal, petroleum, &c.).
The earlier deposits of that sea now rise to the surface in Brittany, the Ardennes, the Montagne Noire and the Cvennes, and in all these regions they arc intensely folded.
Towards the end of the period, however, during the deposition of the Portlandian beds, the sea again retreated, and in the early part of the Cretaceous period was limited (in France) to the catchment basins of the Sane and Rhnein the Paris basin the contemporaneous deposits were chiefly estuarine and were confined to the northern and eastern rim.
The same deposits have also yielded remains of extinct types of kangaroo, some of gigantic size, constituting the genera Sthenurus, Procoptodon and Palorchestes.
From the Oligocene deposits of France and southern England have been obtained numerous remains of opossums referable to the American family Didelphyidae.
The same deposits have yielded remains of small mammals whose dentition approximates more nearly to that of either polyprotodont marsupials or insectivores; and these may be conveniently noticed here without prejudice to their true affinities.
As the general level of the country is raised by successive alluvial deposits, the more ancient river-beds become buried, but being still connected with the newer rivers at some point or other, they continue to absorb water.
Cambrian rocks occur in each of these districts, and they are best developed in the South Australian high= lands, where they include a long belt of contemporary glacial deposits.
The Devonian system includes a complex series of deposits, which are of most interest in eastern Australia.
The mountains both in Victoria and New South Wales were snow-capped, and glaciers flowed down their flanks and laid down Carboniferous glacial deposits, which are still preserved in basins that flank the mountain ranges, such as the famous conglomerates of Bacchus Marsh, Heathcote and the Loddon valley in Victoria, and cf Branxton and other localities in New South Wales.
The age of the glacial deposits is later than the Glossopteris flora and occurs early in the time of the Gangamopteris flora.
The Permian deposits are best developed in New South Wales and Tasmania, where their characters show the continuation of the Carboniferous conditions.
They are also preserved in basins on the western plateau, as shown by brown coal deposits passed through in the Lake Phillipson bore.
The Cretaceous sea gradually receded and the plains of the Rolling Downs formation formed on its floor were covered by the sub-aerial and lacustrine deposits of the Desert Sandstone.
Similar deposits, of approximately the same age, occur in Tasmania and New Zealand; and at about the same time there began the Kainozoic volcanic period of Australasia.
Farther east the sea was interrupted by the still existing land-connexion between Tasmania and Victoria; but beyond it, the marine deposits are found again, fringing the coasts of eastern Gippsland and Croajingolong.
These marine deposits are not found anywhere along the eastern coast of Australia; but they occur, and reach about the same height above sea-level, in New Guinea, and are widely developed in New Zealand.
For many years Western Australia was considered to be destitute of mineral deposits of any value, but it is now known that a rich belt of mineral country extends from north to south.
Gold is obtained chiefly from quartz reefs, but there are still some important alluvial deposits being worked.
A considerable number of men are engaged in the various states on alluvial fields, in hydraulic sluicing, and dredging is now adopted for the winning of gold in river deposits.
iodide and chloro-bromide of silver, and argentiferous Silver lead ores, the largest deposits of the metal being found in the last-mentioned form.
For a number of years, however, the mine has been suffered to remain untouched, as the deposits originally worked were found to be depleted.
The principal deposits of copper in New South Wales are found in the central part of the state between the Macquarie, Darling and Bogan rivers.
Deposits have also been found in the New England and southern districts, as well as at Broken Hill, showing that the mineral is widely distributed throughout the state.
In Western Australia copper deposits have been worked for some years.
The yield of tin in Victoria is very small, and until lately no fields of importance have been discovered; but towards the latter end of 1890 extensive deposits were reported to exist in the Gippsland district - at Omeo and Tarwin.
in unlimited supply, important deposits of rich iron ores suitable for smelting purposes; and for the manufacture of steel of certain descriptions abundance of manganese, chrome and tungsten ores are available.
Extensive deposits, which are being developed successfully, occur in Tasmania, it being estimated that there are, within easy shipping facilities, 17,000,000 tons of ore.
Near Lithgow extensive deposits of limonite, or clay-band ore, are interbedded with coal.
Manganese probably exists in all the states, deposits having been found in New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland and Western Australia, the richest specimens being found in New South Wales.
Little, however, has been done to utilize the deposits, the demands of the colonial markets being extremely limited.
Black coal forms one of the principal resources of New South Wales; and in the other states the deposits of this valuable mineral are being rapidly developed.
Except in the vicinity of cities and townships, however, little use has been made of the abundant deposits of clay.
In ordinary banks the deposits amounted to £106,625,000, so that the total deposits stood at £143,830,000, equivalent to the very large sum of £34, 18s.
The Chinese difficulty, so far as the mining population was concerned, was solved by the exhaustion of the extensive alluvial deposits; the miners' prejudice against the race, however, still exists, though they are no longer serious competitors, and the laws of some of the states forbid any Chinese to engage in mining without the express authority in writing of the minister of mines.
The building societies and financial institutions in receipt of deposits, or so many of them as were on an unsound footing, failed at an early period of the depression, so also did the weaker banks.
There was distrust in the minds of the depositors, especially those whose holdings were small, and most of the banks were, at a very early period, subjected to the strain of repaying a large proportion of their deposits as they fell due.
During the crisis banks having a paid-up capital and reserves of 5,000,000 and deposits of 53,000,000 closed their doors.
So far as is known, the Malay Peninsula consists of an axial zone of crystalline rocks, flanked on each side by an incomplete band of sedimentary deposits.
The sedimentary deposits include slate, limestone and sandstone.
As stream tin it occurs abundantly in some of the alluvial deposits derived from the crystalline area, especially on the west coast.
It is noticed that labourers employed in deep mines worked by shafts suffer less from fever than do those who are engaged in stripping the alluvial deposits.
Owing to the high rate of taxation on deposits, a considerable part of the savings of the people is sent into other states.
Mean Karstens, 2047 fathoms. If we include the enclosed depth, and seas, the North Atlantic has a mean depth of 1800 bottom fathoms. The South Atlantic has a mean depth of deposits.
The terrigenous deposits consist of blue muds, red muds (abundant along the coast of Brazil, where the amount of organic matter present is insufficient to reduce the iron in the matter brought down by the great rivers to produce blue muds), green muds and sands, and volcanic and coral detritus.
Serpentines, peridotites and diabases are interstratified with the Eocene deposits.
The deposits are superficial, resulting from the opening out of veins at the surface, and consist chiefly of haematite.
Cables have frequently been picked up showing after many years of submergence no appreciable deterioration in this respect, while in other cases ends have been picked up which in the course of twelve years had been corroded to needle points, the result probably of metalliferous deposits in the locality.
S.E., there are deposits of rock salt.
Cadmium sulphate, CdSO 4, is known in several hydrated forms; being deposited, on spontaneous evaporation of a concentrated aqueous solution, in the form of large monosymmetric crystals of composition 3CdSO 4.8H 2 O, whilst a boiling saturated solution, to which concentrated sulphuric acid has been added, deposits crystals of composition CdSO 4 4H 2 0.
On each side of that great chain are found extensive Tertiary deposits, sometimes, as in Tuscany, the district of Monferrat, &c., forming a broken, hilly country, at others spreading into broad plains or undulating downs, such as the Tavoliere of Puglia, and the tract that forms the spur of Italy from Bari to Otranto.
The whole of the great plain of Lombardy is covered by Pleistocene and recent deposits.
It is a great depression—the continuation of the Adriatic Sea—filled up by deposits brought down by the rivers from the mountains.
Savings Bank and the ordinary savings banks, many co-operative credit societies and ordinary credit banks receive deposits of savings.
The Monti frumentarii or co-operative corn deposits, which lend seed corn to farmers, and are repaid after harvest with interest in kind, numbered f615 in 1894, and possessed apatrimonyof~24o,ooo.
No satisfactory collection has been made of the Celtic inscriptions of Cisalpine Gaul, though many are scattered about in different museums. For our present purpose it is important to note that the archaeological stratification in deposits like those of Bologna shows that the Gallic period supervened upon the Etruscan.
It appears, however, to have been partly derived from yet earlier Tertiary deposits (Eocene); and it occurs also as a derivative mineral in later formations, such as the drift.
Rolled pieces of amber, usually small but occasionally of very large size, may be picked up on the east coast of England, having probably been washed up from deposits under the North Sea.
Roumanite, or Rumanian amber, a dark reddish resin, occurring with lignite in Tertiary deposits.
It occurs in Miocene deposits and is also found washed up by the sea near Catania.
Though Angiosperms become dominant in all known plant-bearing Upper Cretaceous deposits, their origin dates even earlier.
That the arctic flora was driven south into Central Europe cannot be contested in the face of the evidence collected by Nathorst from deposits connected with the boulderclay.
Quercus Robur has left no trace in the Tertiary deposits of Europe and it is most nearly all~d to east Asiatic species.
The Mediterranean basin has been a centre of preservation of Mibcene vegetation: the oleander is said to have been found in local deposits of even earlier age, and the hoim oak (Quercus hex) is the living representative of a Miocene ancestor.
Little confidence can, however, be placed in the identification of Proteaceous or, indeed, of any distinctively Australian plants in Tertiary deposits in the northern hemisphere.
The Cambridgeshire coprolites are believed to be derived from deposits of Gault age; they are obtained by washing from a stratum about a foot thick, resting on the Gault, at the base of the Chalk Marl, and probably homotaxeous with the Chloritic Marl.
In 1864 two phosphatic deposits, a limestone 3 ft.
Teall, On the Potton and Wicken Phosphatic Deposits (Sedgwick Prize Essay for 1873) (1875) and "The Natural History of Phosphatic Deposits," Proc. Geol.
A wide gap separates Archaeopteryx from the next order of fossil birds of the Cretaceous epoch, and, since freshwater deposits of that age are rare, bird remains are uncommon.
Coal deposits exist in the immediate vicinity of the town.
It lies in the midst of the great red and brown hematite iron-ore deposits of the Mesabi Range - the richest in the Lake Superior district - and the mining and shipping of this ore are its principal industries.
There are salt works and important coal deposits in its vicinity, the latter at Naricual and Capiricual, 12 m.
long, formed by alluvial deposits during the last fifteen centuries.
Ungava includes much of the lower portion of Labrador, with a rim of recent marine deposits along its western coast, but the interior has the usual character of low rocky hills of Archean rocks, especially granite and gneiss, with a long band of little disturbed iron-bearing rocks, resembling the Animikie, or Upper Huronian of the Lake Superior region, near its eastern side.
The plains are covered by a formation similar to that of the Argentine pampas and by the alluvial deposits of the present rivers.
Deposits of sulphur are frequently formed by the decomposition of hydrogen sulphide, on exposure to the atmosphere: hence natural sulphureous waters, especially hot springs, readily deposit sulphur.
Some of the most important deposits of sulphur in the world are worked in Sicily, chiefly in the provinces of Caltanisetta and Girgenti, as at Racalmuto and Cattolica; and to a less extent in the provinces of Catania, Palermo (Lercara) and Trapani (Gibellina).
Russia possesses large deposits of sulphur in Daghestan in Transcaucasia, and in the Transcaspian steppes.
Important deposits of sulphur are worked at several localities in Japan, especially at the Kosaka mine in the province of Rikuchiu, and at Yatsukoda-yama, in the province of Mutsu.
The Louisiana deposits are worked by a process devised by Herman Frasch in 1891.
Buchu leaves contain a volatile oil, which is of a dark yellow colour, and deposits a form of camphor on exposure to air, a liquid hydro-carbon being the solvent of the camphor within the oil-glands.
Azurite occurs with malachite in the upper portions of deposits of copper ore, and owes its origin to the alteration of the sulphide or of native copper by water containing carbon dioxide and oxygen.
Over the greater part of the Cambrian country the strata are still nearly as flat as when they were first laid down, and the deposits, even of the Cambrian period, are as soft as those of the Mesozoic and Tertiary formations in England.
Being concealed, however, by more recent deposits, the deposits appear on the surface only in N.W.
Carboniferous deposits occur over nearly the whole of E.
In the Moscow basin, which was a broad gulf of the Carboniferous sea, coal appears as isolated inconstant seams amidst littoral deposits, the formation of which was favoured by frequent minor subsidences of the seacoast.
Europe generally, the principal coal seams occur in the Upper Carboniferous, while the Lower Carboniferous is mainly composed of marine deposits, with, however, the first bed of coal near its summit.
Russia, rich in salt-springs, but very poor in fossils, are now held by most Russian geologists to be Triassic. The Permian deposits contain marine shells and also remains of plants similar to those of England and Germany.
Dvina, Glossopteris, Noeggerathiopsis and other ferns characteristic of the Indian Gondwana beds have been found; and with these are numerous remains of reptiles similar to those which occur in the Indian deposits.
to N.E., are filled up with Upper Jurassic deposits.
all the older subdivisions are represented, the deposits having the characters of a deep-sea formation in the Aral-Caspian region and on the Caucasus.
Over a large part of this area, however, they are concealed by the later Tertiary deposits, and they are absent over the Dnieper and Don ridge in the Yaila Mountains and in the higher parts of the Caucasus.
They are rich in grinding stone, and in phosphatic deposits.
The Eocene covers wide tracts from Lithuania to Tsaritsyn, and is represented in the Crimea and Caucasus by thick deposits belonging to the same ocean which left its deposits on the Alps and the Himalayas.
The thick Quaternary, or Post-Pliocene, deposits which cover nearly all Russia were for a long time a puzzle to geologists.
Such being the characters of the Quaternary deposits in Russia, the majority of Russian geologists now adopt the opinion that Russia was covered, as far as the above limits, with an immense ice-sheet which crept over central Russia and central Germany from Scandinavia and N.
The deposits of the Post-Glacial period are represented throughout Russia, Poland and Finland, as also throughout Siberia and Central Asia, by very thick lacustrine deposits, which show that, after the melting of the ice-sheet, the country was covered with immense lakes, connected by broad channels (the fjarden of the Swedes), which later on gave rise to the actual rivers.
On the outskirts of the lacustrine region, traces of marine deposits, not higher than 200 or perhaps even 150 ft.
Russia witness the formation of numerous miniature canons, or ovraghi (deep ravines), the summits of which rapidly advance and ramify in the loose surface deposits.
The only sources of extraordinary revenue still remaining under that head are the money derived from loans and the perpetual deposits in the Imperial Bank.
Still, the reindeer frequents it for its lichens, and on the drier slopes of the moraine deposits there occur four species of lemming, hunted by the Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus).
The Russian plains have been, however, the scene of so many migrations of successive races, that at many places a series of deposits belonging to widely distant epochs are found one upon another.
The " northern soils," which are glacial deposits more or less redistributed by water, are much less fertile as a rule, and consist of all possible varieties from a tough boulder clay to loose sand.
As these lakes shrank after the return of an arid climate, they left elevated beaches and deposits of various minerals, which mark their former extent.
With the working out of the deposits in the Comstock region, the mining industry declined, and between 1877 and 1900 there was a period of great depression, in which Nevada fell from first to sixth place among the silver-producing states and Territories.
In May 1900, however, very rich deposits of gold and silver were discovered in Nye county, near the summit of the San Antonio Mountains, and a new era began in Nevada's mining industry.
Salt deposits are extensive and commercially important in Washoe and Churchill counties.
North of this is the deep bay called in ancient times the Gulf of Iasus (now known as the Gulf of Mendeliyah), and beyond this again was the deeper inlet which formerly extended inland between Miletus and Priene, but of which the outer part has been entirely filled up by the alluvial deposits of the Maeander, while the innermost arm, the ancient Latmic Gulf, is now a lake.
Sleep may overtake the patient in the midst of the sweating stage, and he awakes, not without some feeling of what he has passed through, but on the whole well, with the temperature fallen almost or altogether to the normal, or it may be even below the normal; the pulse moderate and full; the spleen again of its ordinary size; the urine that is passed after the paroxysm deposits a thick brick-red sediment of urates.
In amber, as proved by the deposits on the shores of the Baltic, the proverbial "fly" is more numerous than any other creatures, and with very few exceptions representatives of all the existing families have been found.
He was scourged and only escaped with his life at the intercession of Onias the high priest, who had pleaded with him vainly that the treasure included the deposits of widows and orphans and also some belonging to Hyrcanus, " a man in very high position."
Another group of islands consists of elevated masses of submarine volcanic deposits, upon some of which coral-reef limestone forms a more or less complete covering; such are Tonumeia and the Nomuka group (Mango, Tonua, Nomuka-iki).
All these are involved in the earth movements to which the mountains of the island owe their formation, but the Miocene beds (with Clypeaster) and later deposits lie almost undisturbed upon the coasts and the low-lying ground.
Among the more interesting relics found were ivory figures of Egyptian or strongly Egyptianizing fabric. On an adjacent hill were the remains of what seems to have been in later times a temple of the Dictaean Zeus, and from the occurrence of rich deposits of Minoan vases and sacrificial remains at a lower level, the religious tradition represented by the later temple seems to go back to prehistoric times.
Michoacan is essentially a mining region, producing gold, silver, lead and cinnabar, and having rich deposits of copper, coal, petroleum and sulphur.
As the tench is of comparatively uncommon occurrence in unenclosed waters, its place among the indigenous fishes of Great Britain has been denied, and it has been supposed to have been introduced from the Continent; a view which, however, is not supported by any evidence, and is practically disposed of by the fact that fossil remains of the fish are found in the Pleistocene deposits of Great Britain.
The older formations are nearly all overlaid by deposits of the Quaternary period, which will be described last.
Deposits of the Tertiary period form the basis of more than half the state, extending from the border of the Cretaceous westward nearly to the Yazoo Delta and the Mississippi Bottom, and southward to within a few miles of the Gulf coast.
The state contains deposits of iron, gypsum, marl, phosphate, lignite, ochre, glass-sand, tripoli, fuller's earth, limestones and sandstones; and there are small gas flows in the Yazoo Delta.
The mining of corundum was begun at Corundum Hill in Macon county in 1871, and from 1880 to 1902 the output was considerable, but with the discovery of the Canadian corundum Scale, 1:2,500,000 English Miles 20 30 4 0 So County Seats e County Boundaries Railitlays Canals Swamps deposits the importance of those of North Carolina greatly declined.
Wilkins, The Tin Deposits of the Carolinas (1905), by J.
There are many rich deposits of iron ores in the state, but they only produce a small quantity of charcoal iron for local consumption.
Such lakes (in common with all the plateau hamuns of south-west Baluchistan and Persia) change their form and extent from season to season, and many of them are impregnated with saline deposits from the underlying strata.
The kavirs, or salt depressions, of the Persian desert are more frequently widespread deposits of mud and salt than water-covered areas.
The great plain extends, with an almost unbroken surface, from the most western to the most eastern extremity of British India, and is composed of deposits so finely comminuted, that it is no exaggeration to say that it is possible to go from the Bay of Bengal up the Ganges, through the Punjab, and down the Indus again to the sea, over a distance of 2000 m.
above the present level of the Caspian, gives support to this hypothesis, which is further advanced by the ascertained nature of the Kara-kum sands, which appear to be a purely marine formation exhibiting no traces of fluviatile deposits which might be considered as delta deposits of the Oxus.
E Arabian Sea Ba Of G A L e Geological information incomplete Desert Deposits Quaternary Tertiary Mesozoic Palaeozoic Archaean and Metamorphic Younger Volcanic Rocks English Miles b iuHi iiiiuiiiiii after llargl,aua Geology The geology of Asia is so complex and over wide areas so little known that it is difficult to give a connected account of either the structure or the development of the continent, and only the broader features can be dealt with here.
North of this lies a broad belt in which the Mesozoic deposits and even the lower divisions of the Tertiary system are thrown into folds which extend in a series of arcs from west to east and now form the principal mountain ranges of central Asia.
Between these ancient land masses lies an area in which marine deposits of Mesozoic age are well developed and which was evidently beneath the sea during the greater part of the Mesozoic era.
Upon these rest patches of freshwater deposits containing numerous remains of plants.
Some of the deposits appear to be of Permian age, but others are probably Jurassic; and they are all included under the general name of the Angara series.
Here again there are no marine beds of Mesozoic or Tertiary age, while plant-bearing deposits belonging to the Angara series are known.
From the Upper Carboniferous onward, however, no marine deposits are known; and, as in Siberia, plant-bearing beds are met with.
Southern China is very different in structure, consisting largely of folded mountain chains, but the geological succession is very similar, and excepting near the Tibetan and Burmese borders, there are no marine deposits of Mesozoic or Tertiary age.
Thus it appears that from the Arctic Ocean there stretches a broad area as far as the south of China, in which no marine deposits of later date than Carboniferous have yet been found, except in the extreme north.
The Triassic deposits of the Verkhoyansk Range show that this land did not extend to the Bering Sea; while the marine Mesozoic deposits of Japan on the east, the western Tian-shan on the west and Tibet on the south give us some idea of its limits in other directions.
Between India and China there is a broad belt in which marine deposits of Mesozoic and Tertiary age are well developed.
Marine Tertiary beds occur in Burma; in the Himalayas and in south Tibet there is a nearly complete series of marine deposits from the Carboniferous to the Eocene; in Afghanistan the Mesozoic beds are in part marine and in part fluviatile.
It is also applied to those brecciated and stalagmitic deposits on the floor of caves, which frequently contain osseous remains.
He was a Whig member of the United States senate in 1831-1837, and as such took a prominent part in the legislative struggle over the United States Bank, whose rechartering he favoured and which he resolutely defended against President Jackson's attack, opposing in able speeches the withdrawal of deposits and Secretary Woodbury's " Specie Circular of 1836.
In the vicinity are large deposits of coal, of glass-sand, and of clay suitable for brick and tile.
Certain deposits appear to have been formed, directly or indirectly, by wet processes.
Mining attracts much attention in the sierras, and its mineral deposits are rich.
Large pits containing deposits of white sand, clay and pebbles are found in the limestone at Longcliff, Newhaven and Carsington.
It is deeper and more fertile, however, in the basins of the Great Miami and Little Miami rivers, where there is a liberal mixture of decomposed limestone and where extensive areas with a clay subsoil are covered with alluvial deposits.
One of the chief of them was the production of 'salt from the deposits of the desert; 2 another was no doubt the manufacture of leather; the inscriptions mention also a powerful gild of workers in gold and silver (NSI.
The soil is composed of red ferruginous kankar, with a stratum of clay in the more elevated parts, covered by a thin layer of vegetable mould, or by recent alluvial deposits.
In the breeding season the male deposits drops of sperm on a sheet of webbing, picks it up in these flasks by means of capillary attraction and carries it about until he falls in with a female.
Remains of spiders from the Baltic amber beds of Oligocene age and from nearly coeval fluviatile or lacustrine deposits of North America belong to forms identical with or closely related to existing genera, thus proving the great antiquity of our present spider fauna.
The occurrence of commercially valuable petroleum is, however, comparatively limited, hitherto exploited deposits being confined to rocks younger than the Cambrian and older than the Quaternary, while the majority of developed oilfields have been discovered north of the equator.
But new deposits are continually being exploited, and there may be others as yet unknown, which would entirely alter any view that might be expressed at the present time in regard to the probable duration of the world's supply of oil and gas.
It should be pointed out that the deposits which have been hitherto of chief commercial importance occur in the old rocks (Carboniferous to Silurian) on the one hand, and in the comparatively new Tertiary formations on the other, the intermediate periods yielding but little or at any rate far less abundantly.
Consideration of the evidence leads us to the conclusion that, at least in commercially valuable deposits, mineral oil has generally been formed by the decomposition of marine organisms, in some cases animal, in others vegetable, in others both, under practically normal conditions of temperature and pressure.
Nummulitic limestone (Eocene) overlies the Cretaceous in Philistia, and north of Lebanon Eocene and Miocene deposits cover the greater part of the country.
The Pliocene deposits are not very widely spread and are generally of fresh-water origin excepting near the coast, but marine Pliocene beds have been found at el Forklus in the Palmyra desert.
A continuous electric current of one ampere is defined to be one which deposits electrolytically 0.001118 of a gramme of silver per second from a neutral solution of silver nitrate.'
The principal minerals are rock phosphate and (recently more important) land and river pebble phosphate, found in scattered deposits in a belt on the " west coast " about 30 m.
Although the economic value of the phosphate deposits was first realized about 1889, between 1894 and 1907 Florida produced, each year, more than half of all the phosphate rock produced in the whole United States, the yield of Florida (1,357,365 long tons) in 1907 being valued at $ 6, 577,757; that of the whole country at $10,653,558.
The eastern part, however, contains large barren plains, showing some stunted vegetation, and having numerous saline deposits.
The great deposits of sculpture and pottery now unearthed, representing all that escaped from the ravages of the Persians and the burning of the ancient shrines, afford a startling revelation of the development of Greek art in the 7th and 6th centuries.
wide) and the smaller and nearly barren island of Culebra off the east coast, the island of Mona, covered with deposits of guano, off the west coast, and numerous islets.
Brick clay and limestone are abundant, and there are on the south coast a sand marl rich in phosphates and productive salt deposits.
In 1508 Nicolas de Ovando, governor of Hispaniola (Haiti) rewarded the services of Juan Ponce de Leon, one of Columbus's companions in 1493, by permitting him to explore the island, then called by the natives "Borinquen," and search for its reputed deposits of gold.
In recognition of the city's financial strength, Atlanta has been designated by the secretary of the treasury as one of the cities whose bonds will be accepted as security for Federal deposits.
Next, the long and narrow valley of the Nerbudda from Jubbulpore to Hoshangabad is formed of deep alluvial deposits of extreme richness and excellently suited to the growth of wheat.
If a substance deposits itself on the faces of a crystal of another substance of similar crystal form, the substances are probably isomorphous.
The usual coal deposits of Alberta are of bituminous or semi-bituminous coal.
Mogilev is built up of Devonian deposits in the north, of Cretaceous in the east, and of Tertiary elsewhere, but generally is covered with a thick layer of Glacial and later alluvial deposits.
The group is represented by the families Palaeosyopidae and Titanotheriidae in the Tertiary deposits of North America.
This gave rise to a production of sulphuretted hydrogen which is found in the deposits, as well as in the deeper waters.
Most of the rocks or soils composing its surface were formed as submarine deposits; the easternmost and southernmost parts are true river deposits.
The " bluffs " (remnants of an eroded plain formed of alluvion deposits over an old, mature and drowned topography) run through the second tier of parishes W.
Through its great flood-plain the Mississippi river winds upon the summit of a ridge formed by its own deposits.
There are large deposits also on Orange Island (in places at least 1800 ft.
Near Lake Charles, at Sulphur, are very extraordinary sulphur deposits.
A very peculiar feature of Cuba is the abundance of caverns in the limestone deposits that underlie much of the island's surface.
The latter, like the similar deposits in other West Indian islands, is probably of Oligocene age.
Large copper deposits of peculiar richness occur here in the Sierra de Cobre, near the city of Santiago; and both iron and manganese are abundant.
Besides the deposits in Oriente province, iron is known to exist in considerable amount in Camaguey and Santa Clara, and copper in Camaguey and Pinar del Rio provinces.
Much of the bituminous deposits is on the dividing line between asphalt and coal.
There are extensive and valuable deposits of beautiful marbles in the Isle of Pines, and lesser ones near Santiago.
The most promising deposits and the most important workings are in Matanzas and Santa Clara provinces.
The trade of the city is principally in Bolivian products - mineral ores, alpaca wool, &c. - but it also receives and exports the products of the neighbouring Peruvian provinces, and the output of the borax deposits in the neighbourhood.
The state owes to this ruler the opening up of new railways across the great desert, which was formerly passable only by camels, and the tapping of the valuable coal deposits that occur in the territory.
This was met in a very large measure by deposits of natural nitre and the products of artificial nitrieres, whilst additional supplies are available in the ammoniacal liquors of the gas-manufacturer, &c. The possible failure of the nitre deposits led to attempts to convert atmospheric nitrogen into manures by processes permitting economic success.
The aeolian deposits, which form the greater part of the islands, frequently rise, in rounded hills and ridges to a height of 100 or 200 ft., and in Cat Island nearly 400 ft.
The concessions are to be for 99 years with the exception of chrome, emery, boracite and other minerals found only in the form of deposits, which may be granted for not less than 40 years or more than 99 years.
The commercial greatness of Cardiff is due to the vast coal and iron deposits of the country drained by the Taff and Rhymney, between whose outlets the town is situated.
Marine deposits were laid down over the south of the state after a submergence of the region; an uplift afterwards made of these deposits a coastal plain.
More than three-fourths of the area of the state is arable, the small percentage of non-arable land lying principally in the north-eastern regions, which afford compensation in the form of rich mineral deposits.
The remarkably level character of the Red River district is due to horizontal deposits in the bottom of this lake, which have been little dissected by river erosion.
Much pottery was found, including examples of a peculiar style, with decorative designs, mostly floral, and also considerable deposits of obsidian.
So accurate and convenient is this determination that it is now used conversely as a practical definition of the ampere, which (defined theoretically in terms of magnetic force) is defined practically as the current which in one second deposits i '18 milligramme of silver.
The concentration of the simple copper ions is then so much diminished that the copper plate becomes an anode with regard to zinc. Thus the cell - copper I potassium cyanide solution I potassium sulphate solution - zinc sulphate solution I zinc - gives a current which carries copper into solution and deposits zinc. In a similar way silver could be made to act as anode with respect to cadmium.
Copper is mined and extensive deposits of petroleum and asphalt are being exploited.
The first settlement was made here in 1849; rich deposits of gold were soon afterwards found on or near the surface, and the settlement had the characteristic growth of a western mining town; its output of gold reached its maximum in 1850-1851.
Burnt deposits are dark-coloured, or even pulverulent and useless.
Thus so-called coloured-gold deposits may be produced by the judicious introduction of suitable impurities.
Deposits of trap stretch for more than 1200 m.
The basin thus presents interesting problems. The existence of wide valleys where the small upper waters of the Cherwell, Evenlode and Coln now flow, the occurrence of waterborne deposits in their beds from the northwest of England and from Wales, and the fact that the Thames, like its lower southern tributaries which pierce the North Downs, has been able to maintain a deep valley through the chalk elevation at Goring, are considered to point to the former existence of a much larger river, in the system of which were included the upper waters of the present Severn, Dee and other rivers of the west.
It forms gigantic deposits of almost constant thickness, embedded between a floor of limestone and a roof of porphyry.
Deposits are also worked at Broken Hill, New South Wales.
Concealed in part by later deposits, this ancient mountain chain extends from Castelnaudary to the neighbourhood of Valence, where it sinks suddenly beneath the Tertiary and recent deposits of the valley of the Rhone.
It was primarily a military station and transport post on the road to Peru, but after the discovery of the rich silver deposits near Chanarcillo by Juan Godoy in 1832 it became an important mining centre.
Through confiscation of money, and deposits in banks removed to Russia, cancellation of shares, destruction of private and public bonds, and loss of interest, a loss of 379,- 000,000 gold rubles was caused by Russia, and 6,000,000 marks by Germany.
The flat summit is formed by a succession of limestones - all deposited in shallow water - from the Eocene (or Oligocene) up to recent deposits in the above-mentioned atoll with islands on its reef.
The occurrence of such a series of Tertiary deposits appears to be unknown elsewhere.
In 1891 Mr Ross and Sir John Murray were granted a lease, but on the further discovery of phosphatic deposits they disposed of their rights in 1897 to a company.
He also showed that crystals of alum cannot be obtained by dissolving alumina in sulphuric acid and evaporating the solutions, but when a solution of potash or ammonia is dropped into this liquid, it immediately deposits perfect crystals of alum (Sur la regeneration de l'alun, Marggraf's Opusc. ii.
The solution turns yellow in colour, and, when saturated, deposits a pasty mass of crystals.
It has extensive campos and large areas of exposed rock and stony steppes, but is richly provided with mineral deposits.
In a large part of this basin the covering of sedimentary deposits is comparatively thin.
These bands are often concealed by more recent deposits, but it is clear that in this region the Devonian beds form a basin or synclinal with the Amazon for its axis.
Of the Pleistocene and recent deposits the most interesting are the remains of extinct animals (Glyptodon, Mylodon, Megatherium, &c.) in the caves of the Sao Francisco.
tracaxa, is still more highly esteemed for its flesh, but it is smaller and deposits fewer eggs in the sandy river beaches.
The richer deposits of Minas Geraes were discovered about 1693, and those of Matto Grosso early in the following century.
The copper deposits of Minas Geraes are said to be promising.
Many of the richer deposits have never been developed because of a lack of fuel and limestone.
These coal deposits extend from Rio Grande do Sul north into the state of Sao Paulo.
Savings bank and other deposits!
It is modelled after the Argentine Conversion office, and is authorized to issue notes to bearer against deposits of gold at the rate of 15 pence per milreis although exchange was above 17d.
Deposits of this age are confined to the littoral.
Secondary deposits are apt to form also in the liver and they may cause the appearance of a bulging below the ribs on the right side.
The great Hungarian plain is covered by Tertiary and Quaternary deposits, through which rise the Bakony-wald and the Mecsek ridge near Pecs (Funfkirchen).
Eocene nummulitic beds occur, but the deposits are mostly of Miocene age.
Five subdivisions may be recognised in the Miocene deposits, corresponding with five different stages in the evolution of southern Europe.
Suess, during which the Hungarian plain was covered by the sea, and the deposits were purely marine.
The next is the Schlier, a peculiar blue-grey clay, widely spread over southern Europe, and contains extensive deposits of salt and gypsum.
The third period is represented by the Second Mediterranean stage of Suess,, during which the sea again entered the Hungarian plain and formed true marine deposits.
Finally, in the Pontian period, the lagoons became gradually less and less salt, and the deposits are characterized especially by the abundance of shells.
Its chief mineral products are coal, nitre, sulphur, alum, soda, saltpetre, gypsum, porcelain-earth, pipe-clay, asphalt, petroleum, marble and ores of gold, silver, mercury, copper, iron, lead, zinc, antimony, cobalt and arsenic. The principal mining regions are Zsepes-Giimor in Upper Hungary, the Kremnitz-Schemnitz district, the Nagybanya district, the Transylvanian deposits and the Banat.
Gold and silver are chiefly found in Transylvania, where their exploitation dates back to the Roman period, and are mined at Zalatna and Abrudbanya; rich deposits are also found in the Kremnitz-Schemnitz, and the Nagybanya districts.
The shafts reached deposits of salt at a depth of 850 ft., but the finer and purer layers lie more than 1 roo ft.
Besides the rock-salt, which is excavated by blasting, the saline deposits of Stassfurt yield a considerable quantity of deliquescent salts and other saline products, which have encouraged the foundation of numerous chemical factories in the town and in the neighbouring village of Leopoldshall, which lies in Anhalt territory.
The solution in sulphuric acid deposits green crystals of the sulphate, U(S04)2.8H20, on evaporation.
The absence of alluvial deposits of any size is another characteristic of the Transvaal rivers.
The recent deposits of the Transvaal may be considered to be insignificant.
The minerals chiefly mined besides gold are diamonds and coal, but the country possesses also silver, iron, copper, lead, cobalt, sulphur, saltpetre and many other mineral deposits.
Besides the alluvial deposits a little mining is carried on, gold being present in the thin veins of quartz which cross the sandstone.
It is also found in the form of rolled lumps and grains, "stream tin," in alluvial gravels; the latter are secondary deposits, the products of the disintegration of the first-named primary deposits.
Throughout the world, primary deposits of tinstone are in or closely connected with granite or acid eruptive rocks of the same type, its mineral associates being tourmaline, fluorspar, topaz, wolfram and arsenical pyrites, and the invariable gangue being quartz: the only exception to this mode of occurrence is to be found in Bolivia, where the tin ore occurs intimately associated with silver ores, bismuth ores and various sulphides, whilst the gangue includes barytes and certain carbonates.
During the 18th century the world's supply of tin was mainly drawn from the deposits of England, Saxony and Bohemia; in 1801 England produced about 2500 tons, while the supplies of Saxony and Bohemia had been greatly diminished.
Australian deposits were worked in 1872, and in the following year the production was 3000 tons; the maximum outputs were in 1881-1883, averaging 10,000 tons annually; but the supply declined to 2420 tons in 1898 and has since increased to about 5028 tons in 1905.
The alluvial deposits are almost invariably worked opencast, those of the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago chiefly by Chinese labour: in a few instances hydraulic mining has been resorted to, and in other cases true underground mining is carried on; but the latter is both exceptional and difficult.
Lode tin, as tinstone derived from primary deposits is often termed, is mined in the ordinary method, the very hard gangue in which it occurs necessitating a liberal use of explosives.
For its production and metallurgy see Sydney Fawns, Tin Deposits of the World; A.
In the vicinity are valuable deposits of crinoid limestone, a coarse white building stone which takes a good polish.
to the level of the great desert plain of Tarapaca, celebrated for its rich deposits of nitrate of soda.
This mass also forms the bed of the Orinoco from its junction with the Apure nearly to its mouth, and it probably extends northwards for some distance beneath the more recent deposits of the plain.
(2) The llanos, covered by deposits of Quaternary or late Tertiary age.
The principal coal deposits developed are at Naricual, near Barcelona, and a railway has been constructed to bring the output to the port of Guanta.
Calcification and calcareous deposits are extremely common in many pathological conditions.
form an insoluble calcium soap. The interaction between the soaps, the phosphates and the carbonates which are brought by the blood and lymph to the part results in the weaker fatty acids being replaced by phosphoric and carbonic acid, and thus in the formation of highly insoluble calcium phosphate and carbonate deposits in the disorganized tissues.
Within the valley all the alluvial deposits are recent.
The very extensive pumice deposits at Neuwied and the lava and other volcanic rocks belong to a more recent epoch.
The main deposits of alluvium occur below Lambeth and Westminster, and in the valley of the Wandle, which joins the Thames from the south near Putney.
MINING, the general term for the working of deposits of valuable mineral.
The term 1 is not limited to underground operations, but includes also surface excavations, as in placer mining and open-air workings of coal and ore deposits by methods similar to quarrying, and boring operations for oil, natural gas or brine.
In the article on Mineral Deposits the distribution and mode of occurrence of the useful minerals and ores are fully discussed.
Search should be made in the beds of streams and on the hillsides for " float mineral " or " shoad stones," fragments of rocks and minerals known to be associated with and characteristic of the deposits.
Work undertaken to secure this information must be distinguished from prospecting, which is the search for mineral deposits and from development, work undertaken to prepare for actual mining operations.
It must be remembered that the line between a workable deposit and one that cannot be profitably worked is often very narrow and that the majority of mineral deposits are not workable.
In the case of the cheaper and more abundant minerals, such as coal and iron ore, and of large deposits of low-grade ores, the extent and character of the deposit can generally be determined by surface examinations at comparatively small expense.
On the other hand, in the case of less regular deposits, including most metalliferous veins, and especially those of the precious metals, the uncertainty is often very great, and it is sometimes necessary to work on a small scale for months before any considerable expenditure of money is justified.
veins and flat deposits below the general level Boring of the country; or the outcrop lies beyond the limits of the property or under water or water-bearing formations, or is covered by quicksand, or is deeply buried.
For such buried deposits boring is cheaper than sinking.
In the case of metalliferous deposits of varying thickness or irregular distribution the information from bore-holes is less satisfactory.
In the case of such altered deposits surface exploration alone is likely to be misleading, and it is important to push the underground exploration far enough to reach the unaltered part of the deposit, or at least deep enough to make it certain that there is a sufficient quantity of altered or enriched ore to form the basis of profitable mining operations.
This is in general a cheaper and quicker method of development for inclined deposits than by a vertical shaft, and it has the added advantage that much information as to the character of the deposit is obtained as the shaft is sunk.
In the case of very thick beds and mass deposits the main shaft or tunnel will preferably be located in the foot-wall.
In irregular and uncertain deposits this work of development should be kept at all times so far in advance of mining operations as to ensure a regular and uniform output.
This can be done in inclined deposits, it can often be done by the aid of mechanical appliances, though sometimes at an expense not warranted in the saving in the labour of loading.
In Complete the case of cheap and abundant minerals and low- Extraction grade ore deposits it is sometimes necessary to of Mineral.
In the systematic mining of larger deposits, the simplest plan consists in mining large areas by means of numerous working-places under the protection of pillars of mineral left for the purpose, and later mining these pillars systematically, allowing the overlying rock beds to fall and fill the abandoned workings.
In the working of thick deposits the block of ground between two levels is divided into horizontal sections or floors which are worked either from above downward or from of Thick the bottom upward; in the first case the separate floors are worked by one of the caving systems; in the second, generally with the aid of filling.
'Where mineral deposits lie near the surface underground mining may be replaced by open excavations, and the reduced cost of mining makes it possible to remove the overlying soil and rock to considerable depths.
For the special methods by which placer deposits are mined see Gold.
Natural ventilation is impracticable in flat deposits worked by drifts and without shafts.
In most cases the deposits worked are known to extend to much greater depths than have been reached.
The vast majority of mineral deposits are unworkable, and of those that are developed a large proportion prove unprofitable.
On the other hand in the case of uncertain and irregular deposits, the value of which varies between very wide limits, as, for example - in most metal mines and especially mines of gold and silver - a very large number of samples must be taken - sometimes not more than two or three feet apart - in order that the average value of the ore may be known within reasonable limits of error.
It is necessary to have the work directed by men thoroughly familiar with the characteristics of mineral deposits, and with wide experience in mining.
From very ancient times deposits of gold and silver have in most countries been held as the property of the crown.
It is to the public interest that deposits of mineral should not be permitted to remain idle and undeveloped.
Pamphylia consists almost entirely of a plain, extending from the slopes of Taurus to the sea, but this plain, though presenting an unbroken level to the eye, does not all consist of alluvial deposits, but is formed in part of travertine.
Coal is found in the Tertiary deposits in the valley of the Irrawaddy and in Tenasserim.
Coal is found in the Thayetmyo, Upper Chindwin and Shwebo districts, and in the Shan States; it also occurs in Mergui, but the deposits which have been so far discovered have been either of inferior quality or too far from their market to be worked to advantage.
65), assigns the discovery of glass to Syria, and the geographical position of that country, its forests as a source of fuel, and its deposits of sand add probability to the tradition.
The solution on evaporation deposits a hydrated form, H 2 SiF 6.2H 2 O, which decomposes when heated.
MEGATHERIUM (properly Megalotherium), a huge extinct edentate mammal from the Pleistocene deposits of Buenos Aires, typifying the family Megatheriidae (or Megalotheriidae), and by far the largest representative of the Edentata.
The stones, averaging ten to a carat, are found in the river gravel or in alluvial deposits.
The gold is found in placer deposits.
crassum) have been found in the Miocene deposits of France.
It is the centre for a farming region, in which there are deposits of coal, iron, lead and shale, and there are various manufactures in the city.
In contrast with the arid plateau of Mesopotamia, stretched the rich alluvial plain of Chaldaea, formed by the deposits of the two great rivers by which it was enclosed.
Grape-stones have been found among the remains of Swiss and Italian lake dwellings of the Bronze period, and others in tufaceous volcanic deposits near Montpellier, not long before the historic era.
They are covered by marine Jurassic beds and they in turn by Cretaceous coal-bearing, terrestrial deposits, resembling those of New Zealand.
Glasser, the basic igneous rocks which are associated with the mineral deposits of New Caledonia were intrusive in Cainozoic times, at the severing of the connexion between New Caledonia and New Zealand.
The main mineral deposits are the nickel ores, occurring as veins of garnierite, associated with peridotite dikes, in the ancient rocks of the eastern slope of the island.
By a system of carefully laid channels the water flows gently over the land, and deposits its warp with an even level surface.
The deposits in the great limestone caves of Kentucky, Virginia and Indiana have been probably derived from the overlying soil and accumulated by percolating water; they are of no commercial value.
Chile saltpetre, cubic nitre or sodium nitrate, NaNO,, occurs under the same conditions as ordinary saltpetre in deposits covering immense areas in South America, which are known locally as caliche or terra salitrosa, and abound especially in the provinces of Tarapaca and Antofagasta in Chile.
The caliche is worked up in loco for crude nitrate by extracting the salts with hot water, allowing the suspended earth to settle, and then transferring the clarified liquor, first to a cistern where it deposits part of its sodium chloride at a high temperature, and then to another where, on cooling, it yields a crop of crystals of purified nitrate.
For references to memoirs descriptive of the Chilian nitrate deposits, see G.
Tobacco is extensively cultivated in the plains and on the rich alluvial deposits along the sides of rivers.
Traces of the former existence of this or of a very closely allied species are found in the PostTertiary deposits of Provence and elsewhere, proving the former much wider extension of the species.
It fuses at 415° C. and under ordinary atmospheric pressure boils at 1040° C. Its vapour density shows that it is monatomic. The molten metal on cooling deposits crystals belonging to the hexagonal system, and freezes into a compact crystalline solid, which may be brittle or ductile according to circumstances.
They were built up by the gradual accumulation of mud deposits in a shallow bay, separated by dunes from the North Sea.
The latter are represented by large contemporaneous deposits of tuff and felsitic lava which in the Snowdon District are several thousand feet thick.
Fossil species of Dolichotis occur in the caverns of Brazil, and also in the superficial deposits of Argentina.
Several large islands fill the upper bay near the eastern shore; some are used as coal deposits for the great steamship companies, and one (Flores) is used as an immigrants' depot.
His original intention had been after visiting Mecca to find his way across the peninsula to Oman, but the time at his disposal (as an Indian officer on leave) was insufficient for so extended a journey; and his further contributions to Arabian geography were not made until twenty-five years later, when he was deputed by the Egyptian government to examine the reported gold deposits of Midian.
The oldest rocks consist of granite and schist, penetrated by intrusive dykes, and upon this foundation rest the flat-lying sedimentary deposits, beginning with a sandstone like the Nubian sandstone of Egypt.
The filtrate, which may be collected in glass vessels if an excess of hydrofluoric acid has been avoided, deposits the greater part of the salt on cooling.
The solution, if boiled, deposits its titanic oxide as a hydrate called metatitanic acid, TiO(OH) 21 because it differs in its properties from orthotitanic acid, Ti(OH) 4, obtained by decomposing a solution of the chloride in cold water with alkalis.
The solution when boiled deposits most of its oxide in the meta-hydrate form.
The greater part of Tunisia is composed of sandstones, marls and loosely stratified deposits belonging to the Pliocene and Quaternary periods.
Phosphatic deposits are well developed among the Lower Eocene rocks.
Quaternary deposits cover much of the desert regions.'] Minerals.
Valuable deposits of phosphates are present, chiefly in the south-west of Tunisia, in the district of Gafsa.
frequented by sea-birds, whence come the guano deposits, the retention of ammonia and other fertilizing properties being due to the absence of rain.
respectively, are off the desert of Sechura, and contain deposits of guano.
The islets of Macabi, in 7° 49' 20" S., also have guano deposits, now practically exhausted.
The two islets of Guanape, surrounded by many rocks, in 8° 34' S., contain rich deposits.
long by I broad, the Ballista Islets, and farther north the three famous Chincha Islands, whose vast guano deposits are now exhausted.
Geology.'--The Eastern Cordillera., which, however, is but little known, appears to consist, as in Bolivia, chiefly of Palaeozoic rocks; the western ranges of the Andes are formed of Mesozoic beds, together with recent volcanic lavas and ashes; and the lower hills near the coast are composed of granite, syenite and other crystalline rocks, sometimes accompanied by limestones and sandstones, which are probably of Lower Cretaceous age, and often covered by marine Tertiary deposits.
From the analogy of the neighbouring countries it is possible that some of the tuffs may be Jurassic, but the other deposits probably belong for the most part to the Cretaceous system.
The deposits have been partially exhausted by the large shipments of over a half-century, but the export in 1905 was 73,369 tons, valued at £285,729.
The use of bronze also shows that they must have worked, perhaps superficially, some of the great copper deposits.
The alluvial deposits are found both in the beds of the small streams and in the soil of the small plains or pampas.
In,the vicinity of some of the deposits of argentiferous galena are large coal beds, but timber is scarce on the table-lands.
The copper deposits of Peru long remained undeveloped through want of cheap transport and failure to appreciate their true value.
Iron ores are found in Piura, the Huaylas valley, Aya, and some other places, but the deposits have not been worked through lack of fuel.
Sulphur deposits exist in the Sechura desert region, on the coast, and extensive borax deposits have been developed in the department of Arequipa.
Both anthracite and bituminous deposits have been found.
Most of the deposits are isolated and have not been developed for want of transport.
The claims measure 100 X200 metres (about 5 acres) in the case of mineral veins or lodes, and 200 X 200 metres (about 10 acres) for coal, alluvial gold and other deposits.
In 1876 interest payments on account of this debt were suspended and in1879-1882the war with Chile deprived Peru of her principal sources of income - the guano deposits and the Tarapaca nitrates.
In 1889 the total foreign debt, including arrears of interest, was £54,000,000, and in the following year a contract was signed with the Peruvian Corporation, a company in which the bondholders became shareholders, for the transfer to it for 66 years of the state railways,, the free use of certain ports, the right of navigation on Lake Titicaca, the exploitation of the remaining guano deposits up to 3,000,000 tons, and thirty-three annual subsidies of £80,000 each, in consideration of the cancellation of the debt.
With the vast sum raised front guano and nitrate deposits President Balta commenced the execution of public works, principally railroads on a gigantic scale.
The true object of Chile was the conquest of the rich Peruvian province of Tarapaca, the appropriation of its valuable guano and nitrate deposits, and the spoliation of the rest of the Peruvian coast.
Its ethnological value as indicating the existence of man on the Missouri in the glacial period is very doubtful, it being impossible accurately to determine the age of the deposits.
The Hong-Kong savings bank has deposits amounting to about $1,100,000.
The mineral resources include extensive deposits of copper, and some less important mines of gold and silver.
During the decade from 1890 to 1900 the deposits in the national banks increased only 5%, from $16,700,000 to $17,500,000; those of the trust companies increased 330%, from $12,000,000 to more than $40,000,000.
Silver, gold, copper, mercury, lead, tin, antimony and precious stones are found, in some cases in very rich deposits.
from the summit, but the rest are covered, for the most part, with deep deposits of ashes and scoriae.
The central vent displays considerable activity, while the rocky walls are stained with red, yellow and white deposits from numerous minor vents.
During the whole of the Mesozoic era Japan appears to have lain on or near the margin of the Asiatic continent, and the marine deposits are confined for the most part to the eastern side of the islands.
The intervening sea being comparatively warm, this wind arrives at Japan having its temperature increased and carrying moisture which it deposits as snow on the western faces of the Japanese mountains.
There are also salt-works, and some deposits of potter's clay.
The nitrate and borax deposits are extensive and productive, and common salt is a natural product of large areas in the elevated desert regions of the Andes.
It is near the great mineral deposits of Virginia, Tennessee, West Virginia, Kentucky and North Carolina; an important distributing point for iron, coal and coke; and has tanneries and lumber mills, iron furnaces, tobacco factories, furniture factories and packing houses.
We thus learn that the bronzes referred to above, although chemically uniform when solid, are not so when they begin to solidify, but that the liquid deposits crystals richer in copper than itself, and therefore that the residual liquid becomes richer in tin.
The alloy of the point e is the ternary eutectic; it deposits the three metals simultaneously during the whole period of its solidfication and solidifies at a constant temperature.
Lebanon has thick deposits of lignite coal, but of inferior quality owing to the presence of iron pyrites.
It is the centre of a large gold-field consisting of quartz ranges, with some alluvial deposits, and many of the mines are deep-level workings.
The association and distribution of gold may be considered under two different heads, namely, as it occurs in mineral veins - " reef gold," and in alluvial or other superficial deposits which are derived from the waste of the former - " alluvial gold."
Four distinct types of reef gold deposits may be distinguished: (I) Gold may occur disseminated through metalliferous veins, generally with sulphides and more particularly with pyrites.
These deposits seem to be the primary sources of native gold.
In the alluvial deposits the associated minerals are chiefly those of great density and hardness, such as platinum, osmiridium and other metals of the platinum group, tinstone, chromic, magnetic and brown iron ores, diamond, ruby and sapphire, zircon, topaz, garnet, &c. which represent the more durable original constituents of the rocks whose distintegration has furnished the detritus.
The fall in the price of silver stimulated the discovery and development of gold deposits, and many states formerly regarded as characteristically silver districts have become important as gold producers.
The gold occurs in alluvial deposits designated as gulch-, bar-, beach-, tundraand bench-placers.
The most interesting and, thus far, the most productive are the beach deposits, similar to those on the coast of Northern California.
Deposits similar to the Witwatersrand banket occur in Zululand, and also on the Gold Coast of Africa.
The various deposits of gold may be divided into two classes- " veins " and " placers."
In the placer or alluvial deposits, the precious metal is found usually in a water-worn condition imbedded in earthy matter, and the method of working all such deposits is based on the disintegration of the earthy matter by the action of a stream of water, which washes away the lighter portions and leaves the denser gold.
In alluvial deposits the richest ground is usually found in contact with the "bed rock"; and, when the overlying cover of gravel is very thick, or, as sometimes happens, when the older gravel is covered with a flow of basalt, regular mining by shafts and levels, as in what are known as tunnel-claims, may be required to reach the auriferous ground.
- In the early days of goldwashing in California and Australia, when rich alluvial deposits were common at the surface, the most simple appliances sufficed.
- This method is employed to extract gold from both alluvial and reef deposits: in the first case it is combined with " hydraulic mining," i.e.
Many processes have been suggested in which the gold of auriferous deposits is converted into products soluble in water, from which solutions the gold may be precipitated.
It is visible only in the west and in the east, while in the central Carpathians, between the Hernad and the headwaters of the Theiss, it is lost beneath the modern deposits of the Hungarian plain.
The Klippen are isolated hills, chiefly of Jurassic limestone, rising up in the midst of the later and softer deposits on the inner border of the sandstone zone.
Its inhabitants had frequent litigations and disputes with their neighbours at Reate in connexion with the regulation of the Velinus, the waters of which are so strongly impregnated with carbonate of lime that by their deposits they tend to block up their own channel.
Similar questions arose as the river formed fresh deposits during the middle ages and during the 15th and 16th centuries.
In the neighbourhood there are considerable deposits of lignite, and mineral-oil works.
The mammalian remains found in Pleistocene deposits are of exceptional interest.
The geological formations thus exposed show that the plateaus are composed of a base of eruptive material, overlaid by enormous deposits of reddish sandstones, conglomerates and quartzites, exposed in parts to a depth of 2000 feet.
The evidence upon which these opinions were based had been gathered by such anthropologists as Schmerling, Boucher de Perthes and others, and it had to do chiefly with the finding of implements of human construction associated with the remains of extinct animals in the beds of caves, and with the recovery of similar antiquities from alluvial deposits the great age of which was demonstrated by their depth.
Small quantities are occasionally met with in iron pyrites, and hence tellurium is found with selenium in the flue dust, or chamber deposits of sulphuric acid works.
In very damp or cold weather the insect remains in the ground near the surface, and deposits its eggs there.
But the two substances were generally confounded as "fixed alkali" (carbonate of ammonia being "volatile alkali"), till Duhamel du Monceau in 1736 established the fact that common salt and the ashes of seaplants contain the same base as is found in natural deposits of soda salts ("mineral alkali"), and that this body is different from the "vegetable alkali" obtained by incinerating land plants or wood (pot-ashes).
- The hand-lead attached to a line with samples of the deposits, and also observations of temperature divided into fathoms was a well-known aid to navigation even and salinity in different depths, as well as dredgings for the in high antiquity, and its use is mentioned in Herodotus (ii.
Being protected by the water from the rapid subaerial erosion which sharpens the features of the land, and subjected to the regular accumulation of deposits, the whole ocean floor has assumed some approach to uniformity.
Oceanic Deposits.-It has long been known that the deposits which carpet the floor of the ocean differ in different places, and coasting sailors have been accustomed from time immemorial to use the lead not only to ascertain the depth of the water but also to obtain samples of the bottom, the appearance of which is often characteristic of the locality.
The voyage of the " Challenger " supplied for the first time the nucleus of a collection of deep-sea deposits sufficient to serve as the basis for comprehensive classification and mapping.
Renard, whose monograph,' published in 18 9 1, laid the foundations and 1 " Challenger " Reports, " Deep Sea Deposits."
The classification adopted was a double one, taking account both of the origin and of the distribution in depth of the various deposits, thus: - II.
Shallow W Ate R Deposits (in less than too fathoms) III.
Littoral Deposits (between high andSands, gravels, muds, &c. low-water marks) Kriimmel prefers to simplify this by grouping the deposits in a single category arranged according to their position into: (a) Littoral (including Murray and Renard's littoral and shallow water deposits [II.
6-so of Deep Sea Deposits).
i-5 of Deep Sea Deposits).
As so defined the hemipelagic deposits are those which occur in general on the slope from the continental shelves to the ocean depths and also in the deep basins of enclosed and fringing seas.
The eupelagic deposits are subdivided by Kriimmel into two main groups; (a) epilophic,' including the pteropod, globigerina and diatom oozes occurring on the rises and ridges and in the less deep troughs.
The littoral deposits include those of the actual shore on the wash of the waves and of the surface of the continental shelf.
Shore Deposits are the product of the waste of the land arranged and bedded by the action of currents or tidal streams. On the rocky coast of high latitudes blocks of stone detached by frost fall on the beach and becoming embedded in ice during winter are often drifted out to sea and so carry the shore deposits to some distance from the land.
Sand may be taken as the predominating deposit on the continental shelves, often with a large admixture of remains of calcareous organisms, for instance the deposits of marl made up of nullipores off the coasts of Brittany and near Belle Isle.
Glacial detritus naturally plays a great part in the deposits on the polar continental shelves.
Hemipelagic deposits are a mixture of deposits of terrigenous and pelagic origin.
Pelagic Deposits (formed in deep water remote from land) B.
Terrigenous Deposits (formed in deep or shallow water close to land) by a calcareous cement.
The terrigenous ingredients in the deposits become less and less abundant as one goes farther into the deep ocean and away from the continental margins.
When those deposits of organic origin are wanting or have been removed, the red clay composed of the mineral constituents is found alone.
Thus red clay and radiolarian ooze are distinguished as abyssal deposits in contradistinction to the epilophic calcareous oozes.
Murray and Renard recognize the progressive diminution of carbonate of lime with increase of depth as a characteristic of all eupelagic deposits.
The whole collection of 231 specimens of deep-sea deposits brought back by the " Challenger " shows the following general relationship: Proportion of Calcium Carbonate in Deep-Sea Deposits.
This fact, together with the extraordinarily rare occurrence of such remains and meteoric particles in globigerina ooze, although there is no reason to suppose that at any one time they are unequally distributed over the ocean floor, can only be explained on the assumption that the rate of formation of the epilophic deposits through the accumulation of pelagic shells falling from the surface is rapid enough to bury the slowgathering material which remains uncovered on the spaces where the red clay is forming at an almost infinitely slower rate.
The total areas occupied by the various deposits according to the latest measurements of Kriimmel are as follows: - Area of Submarine Deposits.
Geologists are agreed that littoral and hemipelagic deposits similar to those now forming are to be found in all geological systems, but the existence in the rocks of eupelagic deposits and especially of the abysmal red clay, though viewed by some as probable, is totally denied by others.
Jacobsen on some occasions found water in the surface layers of the Baltic supersaturated with oxygen, which he ascribed to the action of the chlorophyll in vegetable plankton; in other cases when examining the nearly stagnant water from deep basins he found a deficiency of oxygen due no doubt to the withdrawal of oxygen from solution, by the respiration of the animals and by the oxidation of the deposits on the bottom.
Knudsen, Hydrographical Tables (Copenhagen, 1901); Sir John Murray, " Deep-Sea Deposits and their Distribution in the Pacific Ocean," Geogr.
On the seashore in the neighbourhood are extensive deposits of ironsand.
Coal is known at several points in Alaska, and there are rich but little worked deposits in Mexico.
Back of the islands are the quiet waters of lagoons, and at the mouths of rivers are several shallow bays indenting the mainland; these bays were formed by only a slight subsidence of the land and the rivers are filling them with deposits of silt.
Owing to a clause in the constitution forbidding the issue of bank charters, the financial business of the state was controlled by national and private banks until 1904, when the constitution was amended and provision was made for the incorporation of state banks under a system of state supervision, regulation and control, deposits being guaranteed as in the Oklahoma banking system.
In the vicinity of Fayetteville there are deposits of coal; and the city is in a fine fruit-growing region, apples being the principal crop. Much of the surrounding country is still covered with timber.
The chief gold and iron deposits are near Victoria Nyanza.
Most of western British New Guinea consists of recent superficial deposits, in the basin of the Fly river.
In the north-west coal deposits occur.
Fossil remains of beavers are found in the peat and other superficial deposits of England and the continent of Europe; while in the Pleistocene formations of England and Siberia occur remains of a giant extinct beaver, Trogontherium cuvieri, representing a genus by itself.
above sea-level, in an agricultural and lumbering region, and there are deposits of limestone in the vicinity..
Bricked vault tombs were discovered containing bodies outstretched (not contracted); the deposits were of an unusually fine character and comprised silve, alabaster and even iron.
The collection of this bullion was at all times a main object with the Spanish government, and more especially so after the discovery of the great silver deposits of Potosi in Bolivia.
The archaeologist recovers his specimens from waste places, cave deposits, abandoned villages, caches, shell-heaps, refuse-heaps, enclosures, mounds, hut rings, earthworks, garden beds, quarriesï¿½ and workshops, petroglyphs, trails, graves and cemeteries, cliff and cavate dwellings, ancient pueblos, ruined stone dwellings, forts and temples, canals or reservoirs.
Ameghino refers deposits in Patagonia, from which undoubted human bones and relics have been exhumed, to the Miocene.
Hatcher, demonstrate the Pleistocene nature of the deposits, by which is not necessarily meant older Quaternary, for their horizons have not been differentiated and correlated in South America.
are composed chiefly of comminuted shells drifted and deposited by the wind, and they are very irregularly stratified, as is usually the case with wind-blown deposits.
The filtrate on cooling deposits crystals of potassium zirconofluoride, K 2 ZrF 6, which are purified by crystallization from hot water.
There is no proof of their having lived in the Oligocene epoch, but in deposits of Miocene and Pliocene date remains undistinguishable generically and perhaps specifically from the modern tapirs (though named priscus, T.
The whole is overlaid with glacial deposits, sometimes 400 ft.
Sand-dunes cover large tracts on the shores of the Baltic. No traces of marine deposits are found higher than loo or 150 ft.
It usually forms a Chin syrup which on concentration in a vacuum over sulphuric: acid deposits hard, transparent, rhombic prisms which melt at 41.7°.
Stein in 1866 from the locality Staffel, in the valley of the Lower Lahn, where (as also in the valley of its tributary the Dill) large deposits of phosphorite occur.
Phosphorite, when occurring in large deposits, is a mineral of much economic value for conversion into the superphosphate largely used as a fertilizing agent.
In many deposits of iron ores found in connexion with igneous or metamorphic rocks small quantities of phosphate occur.
Another group of phosphatic deposits connected with igneous rocks comprises the apatite veins of south Norway, Ottawa and other districts in Canada.
In Ontario apatite has been worked for a long time in deposits of similar nature.
It has been estimated that 500,000 tons of phosphate were obtained in Aruba, 1,000,000 tons from Curacoa since the deposits were discovered in 1870, and Christmas Island in 1907 yielded 290,000 tons.
Important deposits of mineral phosphates are now worked on a large scale in the United States, the annual yield far surpassing that of any other part of the world.
In South Carolina, where there are important deposits of phosphate, formerly more productive than at present, the " land rock " is worked near Charleston, and the " river rock " in the Coosaw River and other streams near Beaufort.
Then the Florida deposits began to be worked.
Algeria contains important deposits of phosphorite, especially near Tebessa and at Tocqueville in the province of Constantine.
The deposits belong to the Lower Eocene, where it rests unconformably upon the Cretaceous.
France is rich in mineral phosphates, the chief deposits being the departments of the Pas-de-Calais, Somme, Aisne, Oise in and Meuse, in the north-east, and another group in the departments of Lot, Tarn-et-Garonne and Aveyron, in the south-west: phosphates occur also in the Pyrenees.
The deposits near Caylus and in Quercy occupy fissures and pockets in Jurassic limestone, and have yielded a remarkable assemblage of the relics of Tertiary mammals and other fossils.
Large and valuable deposits of the sand have been obtained in sinks and depressions on the surface of the chalk.
The deposits were rich but irregular and local, and were much worked from 1866 to 1884, but are no longer of economic importance.
In northern Estremadura in Spain and Alemtezo in Portugal there are vein deposits of phosphate of lime.
Large deposits of phosphate occur in Russia, and those in the neighbourhood of Kertch have attracted some attention; it is said that the Cretaceous rocks between the rivers Dniester and Volga contain very large supplies of phosphate, though probably of low grade.
Bands of black nodules, highly phosphatic, are found at the top of the Bala limestone in North Wales; beds of concretions occur in the Jurassic series; and important deposits are known in the Cretaceous strata, especially in the Lower Greensand and at the base of the Gault.
Hayes, also those in Rothwell's Mineral Industry; " Nature and Origin of Deposits of Phosphate of Lime," by R.
For a general discussion of the origin of the phosphates, see " The Natural History of Phosphate Deposits," by, J.
No Caspian deposits are found on or within the Ergeni hills.
Post-Pliocene "Aral-Caspian deposits," containing the usual fossils (Hydrobia, Neritina, eight species of Cardium, two of Dreissena, three of Adacna and Lithoglyphus caspius), attain thicknesses varying from 105 ft.
Lacustrine and fluviatile deposits occur intermingled with the above.
Long Island, though modified by extensive glacial deposits, may be considered a N.E.
its front rested on Staten Island and Long Island, whose surface features, and a part of whose area, are due to the deposits along the ice front, including terminal moraines and outwash gravel plains.
As the ice receded, it halted at various points, forming moraines and other glacial deposits.
The extensive deposits of clay in the Hudson Valley together with the easy water communications with New York City have made this valley the greatest brick-making region in the world; in 1906 the common bricks made here numbered 1,230,692,000.
There are also deposits of clay suitable for making bricks, terra-cotta and tiles in nearly every county outside of this valley, and there are some pottery clays in Albany and Onondaga counties.
Larger deposits of serpentine occur at several places in St Lawrence county; and at Warwick, in Orange county, is some beautiful marble of a carmine-red colour occasionally mottled with white or showing white veins.
border of the state in Erie county is a narrow belt containing large deposits of gypsum, and in 1908 the value of the state's output ($760,759) was greater than that of any other state, although Michigan produced a larger quantity.
From 1880 to 1885 the first brines were obtained in Wyoming and Genesee counties by boring deep wells into beds of rock salt, and in 1885 the mining of the extensive deposits of rock salt in Livingston county was begun.
Revenues for state purposes are derived from special taxes collected from the liquor traffic, corporations, transfers of decedents' estates, transfers of shares of stock, recording tax on mortgages, sales of products of state institutions, fees of public officers including fines and penalties, interest on deposits of state funds, refunds from department examinations and revenue from investments of trust funds, the most important of which are the common school fund and the United States deposit fund.
The law provides specifically as to the investment of deposits made in savings banks with the evident purpose of providing the greatest possible security to depositors.
The opinion of Pliny, that it is the most ancient aliment of mankind, appears to be well-founded, for no less than three varieties have been found in the lake dwellings of Switzerland, in deposits belonging to the Stone Period.
Buried in this clay-marl are found large deposits of the fossil resin which becomes the kauri gum of commerce; and on the surface extensive forests are still a great though diminishing source of wealth.
The Pleistocene system in the South Island includes glacial deposits, which prove a great extension of the New Zealand glaciers, especially along the western coast.
The Pleistocene swamp deposits are rich in the bones of the moa and other gigantic extinct birds, which lived on until they were exterminated by the Maori.
Their deposits exceeded £ 21,000,000 in 5907, as against £12,250,000 in 1890.
There are extensive deposits of iron-sand on the west coast of the North Island, and of iron ore at Parapara in Nelson.
Thereafter large deposits were profitably exploited in the south and west of South Island and in the Thames and Coromandel districts of the Auckland province.
In 1895 began a marked commercial revival, mainly due to the steady conversion of the colony's waste lands into pasture; the development of frozen meat and dairy exports; the continuous increase of the output of coal; the invention of gold-dredging; the revival and improvement of hemp manufacture; the exploiting of the deposits of kauri gum; the reduction in the rates of interest on mortgage money; a general rise in wages, obtained without strikes, and partially secured by law, which has increased the spending power of the working classes.
slope of the Cascades and on the Okanogan Highlands glacial deposits of clay, gravel or sand, as well as vegetable loam, are mixed with the volcanic substances.
The coal deposits of Washington are the only important ones in the Pacific states, and in Washington only, of the Pacific states, is there any coking coal.
There are large deposits of glacial and residual clays and clay shales throughout the state.
Antimony deposits were first worked in 1906.
The alluvial gold-fields were the richest ever opened up, but as these deposits have become exhausted the quartz reefs at deep levels have been exploited, and several mines are worked at depths exceeding 2000 ft.
The valleys of the Modder, Reit and the lower Caledon contain rich alluvial deposits.
deep. The alluvial deposits on the banks of the Vaal, N.E.
p roductive magnetite deposits in the world.
The higher elevations are mostly either Archean or Paleozoic formations projecting above Tertiary deposits.
Fossil remains of mammals, fish and reptiles found in the Tertiary deposits of south-western Montana are preserved in the Carnegie Museum at Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, and in the museum of the university of Montana.
Some of the best soil is in the mountain valleys, for these valleys were once lakes and rich deposits of alluvium were made in them.
north-east of Billings, in Yellowstone county; the large Clark Fork field in Meagher, Sweet Grass, Yellowstone and Carbon counties; the small but valuable Rocky Fork field in the south central part of Carbon county; the Red Lodge field in Carbon county; the Yellowstone field, chiefly in Gallatin and Park counties; the Trail Creek deposits, to m.
In 188.2 he discovered one of the richest copper deposits in the world.
The same Silurian deposits are widely spread on the mainland as far as Olenek.
Diabases pierce to Devonian rocks, and olivine rocks appear as dykes amidst the Triassic deposits.
The eastern portion of the island, named Bunge's Land, is thickly covered with Post-Tertiary deposits.
A range of hills, compose3 of Tertiary deposits, and named Hedenstriim's Mountains, runs along its south-western coast, and the same rocks form a promontory protruding northwards.
Dr Bunge found Bolshoy to consist of granite protruding from beneath non-fossiliferous deposits; while the promontory of Svyatoy Nos Qonsists of basalt hills, 1400 ft.
The proof that these animals lived and fed in this latitude (73° 20' N)., at a time when the islands were not yet separated from the continent, is given by the relics of forest vegetation which are found in the same deposits.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.