How to use Density in a sentence
One half of the earth has therefore a greater density than the other.
One of the most remarkable of Airy's researches was his determination of the mean density of the earth.
The density of helium has been determined by Ramsay and Travers as 1.98.
In these proportions the density of the alloy is less than the mean of its constituent metals.
The density of the population is 175 to the sq.Advertisement
If U is the velocity of sound in a gas at pressure P with density p, and if waves of length X and frequency N are propagated through it, then the distanc?e l between the dust-heaps is 2 = N - zN Vyp' where y is the ratio of the two specific heats.
At B there is only the latter kind, and since the transfer of matter is powoU, where po is the undisturbed density and wo is the undisturbed cross-section, since its velocity is U the passage of momentum per second is powoUo 2.
The mass of matter moving through A per second is pwa 2 U, where a is the radius of the wire and p is its density.
Substituting in (33) we get U 2 = n/p. (34) If we now keep the wire at rest the disturbance travels along it with velocity U= d (nip), and it depends on the rigidity and density of the wire and not upon its radius.
Let E be the effective elasticity of the aether; then E = pc t, where p is its density, and c the velocity of light which is 3 X 10 10 cm./sec. If = A cos" (t - x/c) is the linear vibration, the stress is E dE/dx; and the total energy, which is twice the kinetic energy Zp(d/dt) 2 dx, is 2pn2A2 per cm., which is thus equal to 1.8 ergs as above.Advertisement
The most fundamental experimental confirmation that the theory of the aether has received on the optical side in recent years has been the verification of Maxwell's proposition that radiation exerts mechanical force on a material system, on which it falls, which may be represented in all cases as the resultant of pressures operating along the rays, and of intensity equal at each point of free space to the density of radiant energy.
In respect of population it occupies the tenth place among European countries; in respect of size the fourteenth place; in density of population the seventh.
It is further assumed, as the result of experiment, that the resistance is proportional to the density of the air; so that if the standard density changes from unity to any other relative density denoted by then R= Td 2 p, and is called the coefficient of tenuity.
Starting with the experimental values of p, for a standard projectile, fired under standard conditions in air of standard density, we proceed to the construction of the ballistic table.
As a preliminary step to the determination of the pressure in the bore of a gun, it is desirable to measure the pressure obtained by exploding a charge of powder in a closed vessel, varying the weight of the charge and thereby the density of the powder-gas.Advertisement
Sometimes the factor 27.68 is employed, corresponding to a density of water of about 62-4 lb per cub.
The experimental determination of the time of burning under the influence of the varying pressure and density, and the size of the grain, is thus of great practical importance, as thereby it is possible to estimate close limits to the maximum pressure that will be reached in the bore of a gun, and to design the chamber so that the G.D.
This fact, coupled with the determination of the vapour density of the gas, establishes the molecular formula CO.
Its Vapour Density Is 2.1046 (Air= I).
There appears, however, to be some objection to the use of iridio-platinum for weights, as, owing to its great density (Î”=21.57), the slightest abrasion will make an appreciable difference in a weight; sometimes, therefore, quartz or rock-crystal is used; but to this also there is some objection, as owing to its low density (Î”=2.65) there is a large exposed surface of the mass.Advertisement
Owing to the great pressure on the soil from the density of the population, to the reluctance to part with land characteristic of small proprietors, to the generally great productiveness of land and to the very light assessment of government revenue, land in Ballia, for agricultural purposes merely, has a market value higher than in almost any other district.
Asplanchnaceae, plankton, dwellers in small pools, are, however, ovoid, and Trochosphaera is spherical and must owe its floating powers to the low density of the liquid in its enormously dilated bodycavity.
The sodium vapour in the middle is very dense on the heated side, the density diminishing rapidly towards the upper part of the tube, so that, although not prismatic in form, it refracts like a prism owing to the variation in density.
Meyer (Be y ., 1880, 1 3, p. 394), who found that the change of colour was accompanied by a change of vapour density.
In the eastern forest region the number of species decreases somewhat from south to north, but the entire region differs from the densely forested region of the Pacific Coast Transition zone in that it is essentially a region of deciduous or hardwood forests, while the latter is essentially one of coniferous trees; it differs from the forested region of the Rocky Mountains in that the latter is not only essentially a region of coniferous trees, but one where the forests do not by any means occupy the whole area, neither do they approach in density or economic importance those of the eastern division of the country.Advertisement
Total area covered by Density of population.
On the westward slopes, especially of the Selkirks and Coast Ranges, vegetation is almost tropical in its density and luxuriance, the giant cedar and the Douglas fir sometimes having diameters of 10 ft.
This is not an indication of the density in settled parts; as in Quebec, Ontario and the western provinces there are large unpopulated districts, the area of which enters into the calculation.
The quantity of mercury or shot inserted depends upon the density of the liquids for which the hydrometer is to be employed, it being essential that the whole of the bulb should be immersed in the heaviest liquid for which the instrument is used, while the length and diameter of the stem must be such that the hydrometer will float in the lightest liquid for which it is required.
If we wish the successive divisions of the scale to correspond to equal increments in the density of the corresponding liquids, then the volumes of the instrument, measured up to the successive divisions of the scale, must form a series in harmonical progression, the lengths of the divisions increasing as we go up the stem.Advertisement
The greatest density of the liquid for which the instrument described above can be employed is W/V, while the least density is W/(Vd-nlA), or W/(V-Fv), where v represents the volume of the stem between the extreme divisions of the scale.
But it is clear that if we increase A, the sectional area of the stem, we shall diminish 1, the length of a scale-division corresponding to a given variation of density, and thereby proportionately diminish the sensibility of the instrument, while diminishing the section A will increase land proportionately increase the sensibility, but will diminish the range over which the instrument can be employed.
The volume of the displaced liquid being then always the same, its density will be proportional to the whole weight supported, that is, to the weight of the instrument together with the weights required to be placed in the scale pan.
To determine the density of solids heavier than water with this.
Hence, since the weight of the solid itself is W-w, its density must be (W-w)/(wi-w).Advertisement
To use the instrument for liquids of much greater density than water additional weights must be placed in the upper pan, and the "plongeur" is then placed in the lower pan for the purpose of giving to the instrument the requisite stability.
It will thus be seen that the whole length of the stem corresponds to a difference of density of about 04, and one division to about 00074, indicating a difference of little more than a% in the strength of any sample of spirits.
In Beck's hydrometer the zero of the scale corresponds to density 1 000 and the division 30 to density.
This table differs slightly from that given above, which has been abridged from the table given in Keene's Handbook of Hydrometry, apparently on account of the equal divisions on Sikes's scale having been taken as corresponding to equal increments of density.
Any determination of density can be taken only as affording prima facie evidence of the quality of milk, as the removal of cream and the addition of water are operations which tend to compensate each other in their influence on the density of the liquid, so that the lactometer cannot be regarded as a reliable instrument.Advertisement
They are employed for taking observations of the density of sea-water.
The quality varies much, as well as the =colour and density; an Italian sample in the museum at Kew (of a very dark red tint) weighs about 241 lb to the cub.
Goldstein 7 was able to show that an increase in the current density is capable of destroying the well-known spectra of the alkali metals, replacing them by quite a new set of lines.
According to independent experiments by Paschen the radiation of the D line sent out by the sodium flame of sufficient density is nearly equal to that of a black body at 'the same temperature.
The discussion as to the causes of this widening has turned a good deal on the question whether it is primarily due to changes of density, pressure or temperature, but some confusion has been caused by the want of proper definition of terms. For the cause of this the writer of the present article is jointly with others at any rate partly responsible, and clearness of ideas can only be re-established by investigating the mechanical causes of the effect rather than by applying terms which refer to a different order of physical conceptions.Advertisement
But is this alone sufficient to justify us in assigning the widening to increased density?
Increased density at the same temperature means in the first place a reduction of the average distance between the molecules, but it means also a reduction in the mean free path and an increase in the number of impacts.
If it is the average distance irrespective of length of path and of number of impacts we should be justified in ascribing the effect to density, but if it is the number of impacts it would be more reasonable to ascribe it to pressure.
Experimentally we should be confined to a strict investigation of absorption spectra, because in the electric discharge temperature has no definite meaning, and variations of pressure and density are not easily measured.
Assuming for a moment the change to be one of density and leaving out of account the pressure shift, the cases (e) and (f) point to the fact that it is the closeness of packing of similar molecules which is effective, e.g.Advertisement
Experiment (c) is, however, generally taken to mean that this closeness of packing cannot be the sole determining cause, for it is argued that if a closed vacuum tube can show both wide and narrow lines according to the mode of discharge, density alone cannot account for the change.
When we compare together electric discharges the intensity of which is altered by varying, the capacity, we are unable to form an opinion as to whether the effects observed are due to changes in the density of the luminous material or changes of temperature, but the experiments of Sir William and Lady Huggins 1 with the spectrum of calcium are significant in suggesting that it is really the density which is also the determining factor in cases where different concentrations and different spark discharges produce a change in the relative intensities of different lines.
Schuster suggested that the proximity of molecules vibrating in the same period might be the cause of the diminished frequency, and suggested that according to this view the shifts would be similar if the increase of density were produced by the presence of molecules of a different kind from those whose lines are being examined.
Fitzgerald 6 suggested as an alternative explanation the change of inductive capacity of the medium due to increased density.
That orthoboric acid is a tribasic acid is shown by the formation of ethyl orthoborate on esterification, the vapour density of which corresponds to the molecular formula B(0C2H5)3; the molecular formula of the acid must consequently be B(OH) 3 or H 3 B0 3.
This is expressed by saying that the density of gold is about two and a half times that of iron.
The product of the volume and density of a body measures what is called its "mass."
The density is 317 per sq.
Solutions were not distinguished from definite chemical compounds till John Dalton discovered the laws of definite and multiple proportions, but many earlier observations on the solubility of solids in water and the density of the resulting solutions had been made.
Equilibrium requires that the available energy and therefore the area of contact should be a minimum, as is demonstrated in Plateau's beautiful experiment, where a large drop of oil is placed in a liquid of equal density and a perfect sphere is formed.
If the height be not too great, we may assume the density of the vapour to be uniform, and write the difference in vapour pressure at the surfaces of the solvent and of the solution as p - p' = hgo-.
In the vapour pressure equation p - p' = Pa/p, we have the vapour density equal to M/v 1, where M is the molecular weight of the solvent.
The density of the liquid is MN/V, where N is the number of solvent molecules, and V the total volume of the liquid.
Hence we must not assume that the density of the vapour in the surrounding atmosphere is constant, or that the solution, when equilibrium is reached, is of uniform concentration throughout.
This determination involves a knowledge of the density and of the compressibility of the solution; the latter property is difficult to measure accurately.
A few concordant determinations of density having been effected, the question was at first regarded as disposed of, until the thought occurred that it might be desirable to try also the more usual method of preparation in which the oxygen is removed by actual oxidation of copper without the aid of ammonia.
Whatever were the means employed to rid air of accompanying oxygen, a uniform value of the density was arrived at, and this value was z% greater than that appertaining to nitrogen extracted from compounds such as nitrous oxide, ammonia and ammonium nitrite.
Storage for eight months did not disturb the density of the chemically extracted gas, nor had the silent electric discharge any influence upon either quality.
The density of argon, prepared and purified by magnesium, was found by Sir William Ramsay to be 19.941 on the O = 16 scale.
After two or three hours the liquid is diluted till its density falls to 1.23, when it is passed through filter-presses to remove the insoluble ferric oxide and silica.
Its vapour density at temperatures above 750 corresponds to the formula AlCl 3 j below this point the molecules are associated.
The extremes of density of population are found in the provinces of North Holland and South Holland on the one hand, and Drente on the other.
That for the thin-walled water mains must combine strength with the fluidity needed to enable it to run freely into its narrow moulds; that for most machinery must be soft enough to be cut easily to an exact shape; that for hydraulic cylinders must combine strength with density lest the water leak through; and that for car-wheels must be intensely hard in its wearing parts, but in its other parts it must have that shock-resisting power which can be had only along with great softness.
Of these several qualities which cast iron may have, fluidity is given by keeping the sulphur-content low and phosphoruscontent high; and this latter element must be kept low if shock is to be resisted; but strength, hardness, endurance of shock, density and expansion in solidifying are controlled essentially by the distribution of the carbon between the states of graphite and cementite, and this in turn is controlled chiefly by the proportion of silicon, manganese and sulphur present, and in many cases by the rate of cooling.
To sum this up, as graphite is replaced by carbon combined as cementite, the hardness, brittleness and density increase, and the expansion in solidification decreases, in both cases continuously, while the tensile strength increases till the combined carbon-content rises a little above I %, and then in turn decreases.
As regards density of colour the skunk or black marten has the blackest fur, and some cats of the domestic kind, specially reared for their fur, are nearly black.
Skins of a pale bluish tone are generally used in their natural state for stoles, boas and muffs, but the less clear coloured skins are dyed in beautiful shades similar in density to the dark and valuable sables from Russia, and are the most effective skins that can be purchased at a reasonable price.
A very prolific rodent of the amphibious class obtained from Canada and the United States, similar in habit to the English vole, with a fairly thick and even brown underwool and rather strong top dark hair of medium density.
They have long been known as "sables," doubtless owing to the density of colour to which many of them attain, and they have always been held in the highest esteem by connoisseurs as possessing a combination of rare qualities.
The Yakutsk, Okhotsk and Kamschatka sorts are good, the last being the largest and fullest furred, but of less density of colour than the others.
It is different, however, with physical properties, density, &c.; at present we have no fixed rules which enable us to predict quantitatively the differences in physical properties corresponding to a given difference in structure, the only general rule being that those differences are not large.
Its mean value may be determined most satisfactorily from the weight and the density.
No allowance was made for the variation of density with temperature, or for the variation of the distance between the thermometers, owing to the expansion of the bar.
Clerk Maxwell, who predicted that the effect should be independent of the density within wide limits.
This, at first sight, paradoxical result is explained by the fact that the mean free path of each molecule increases in the same proportion as the density is diminished, so that as the number of molecules crossing each square centimetre decreases, the distance to which each carries its momentum increases, and the total transfer of momentum is unaffected by variation of density.
By similar reasoning the thermal conductivity of a gas should be independent of the density.
Baille about 1870 a repetition of Cavendish's experiment for determining the mean density of the earth, his original work was mainly concerned with.
Its vapour density has been determined by Nilson and Pettersson, and corresponds to the molecular formula BeC12.
Density thgllsh per q.
There it is only in the valleys of the larger navigable rivers and on the southern border of the plain that the density exceeds 200 inhabitants per square mile.
In all these the density exceeds 400 inhabitants to the square mile, and in the case of Saxony rises to 750.
For the size and density of particles which he considers most likely, Arrhenius calculates the time required to travel from the sun as forty-six hours.
By modifying the hypothesis as to the size and density, times appreciably longer or shorter than the above would be obtained.
The average density is extremely high for a country which lives almost exclusively by agriculture, and is much higher than the average for Italy in general, 293 per sq.
In parts of Menufia, a Delta province, the density rises to 1352 per sq.
In 1901 the average density of the population of Denmark was 165.2 to the square mile, but varied much in the different parts.
The density at first was 1.02.
This goes on till a density of 1.1315 is attained, when hydrated calcium sulphate begins to deposit, and continues till specific gravity 1.2646 is reached.
At a density of 1.218 the deposit becomes augmented by sodium chloride, which goes down mixed with a little magnesium chloride and sulphate.
In the former case it is often difficult to obtain the brine at a density even approaching saturation, and chambers and galleries are sometimes excavated within the saliferous beds to increase the dissolving surface, and water let down fresh is pumped up as brine.
The coat is remarkable for its density and compactness; the general colour of the head and upper parts being clove-brown, with more or less white or whitish grey on the under parts and inner surfaces of the limbs, while there is also some white above the hoofs and on the muzzle, and there may be whitish rings round the eyes; there is a white area in the region of the tail, which includes the sides but not the upper surface of the latter; and the tarsal tuft is generally white.
In all cases the strength increases proportionately with the density of the wood.
The great fluidity of bronze when melted, the slightness of its contraction on solidifying, together with its density and hardness, make it especially suitable for casting, and allow of its taking the impress of the mould with extreme sharpness and delicacy.
One of the purposes of the expedition was to discover whether the rate of combustion of a candle varies with the density of the atmosphere in which it is burnt, a question which was answered in the negative.
It is not possible to deduce a more satisfactory value from the latent heat and the change of density, because these constants are very difficult to determine.
He found for natural pond-ice a density 0.9179 and for artificial ice 0.9161.
If such variations of density exist, they may introduce some uncertainty in the absolute values of results obtained with the ice calorimeter, and may account for some of the discrepancies above enumerated.
Employing Pressures Between 7 And 27 Atmospheres, He Found That The Specific Heat Of Air Between 10 And Ioo C. Increased Very Slightly With Increase Of Density, But That Of Co 2 Increased Nearly 3% Between 7 And 21 Atmospheres.
But this cannot continue indefinitely; when the density is too great the matter ceases to behave as a true gas, and the contraction is insufficient to maintain the heat.
The mean density of the sun is about 13 times that of water; but many of the stars, especially the brighter ones, have much lower densities and must be in a very diffused state.
The Orion stars have the highest temperature of all and have admittedly the greatest surfaceluminosity, but the extreme brilliancy of i Orionis in proportion to its mass must be mainly due to a small density.
For the Algol variables it is possible to form even more direct calculations of the density, for from the duration of the eclipse an approximate estimate of the size of the star may be made.
Roberts concluded in this way that the average density of the Algol variables and their eclipsing companions is about one-eighth that of the sun.
If the uniform distribution extends indefinitely, or as far as the telescope can penetrate, the star-ratio should have the theoretical value 3.98, 1 any decrease in density or limit to the distribution of the stars will be indicated by a continual falling off in the star-ratio for the higher magnitudes.
He indicated on planispheres the varying density of distribution of the stars over the sky.
On these the belt of greatest density can be easily traced, and it follows very closely the course of the Milky Way; but, whereas the latter is a belt having rather sharply defined boundaries, the star-density decreases gradually and continuously from the galactic equator to the galactic poles.
The following table shows the density with which stars brighter than the ninth magnitude are distributed in each of nine zones into which Seeliger divided the heavens and more generally recognized that the stars are not unrelated; they are parts of a greater system, and we have to deal with, not merely the history of a number of independent units, but with a far vaster conception, the evolution and development of an ordered universe.
It can be shown that, if the density of distribution of the stars through infinite space is nowhere less than a certain limit (which may be as small as we please), the total amount of light received from them (assuming that there is no absorption of light in space) would be infinitely great, so that the background of the sky would shine with a dazzling brilliancy.
If the stars were all of the same intrinsic brightness it is evident that the comparison of the number of stars of successive magnitudes would show directly where the decreased density of distribution began.
The star-gauges of the Herschels exhibit a similar result; the Herschels counted the number of stars visible with their powerful telescopes in different regions of the sky, and thus formed comparative estimates of the density of the stars extending to a very high magnitude.
In both divisions there is an average density of little more than 1 to every 2 sq.
While working on the olefines he noticed that a change takes place in the density of the vapour of amylene hydrochloride, hydrobromide, &c., as the temperature is increased, and in the gradual passage from a gas of approximately normal density to one of half-normal density he saw a powerful argument in favour of the view that abnormal vapour densities, such as are exhibited by sal-ammoniac or phosphorus pentachloride, are to be explained by dissociation.
In the variety, size and density of their growth these forests remind one of the tropics.
Michell described it in his proposal of a method for obtaining the mean density of the earth.
P. ponderosa, the yellow pine of the Pacific coast of America, belongs to this section; it is a fine timber tree deserving of notice from the extreme density of its wood, which barely floats in water; it abounds in some parts of the western range of the Rocky Mountains, and is the most widely distributed pine tree of the mountain forests of western North America.
His laborious operations for determining the mean density of the earth, carried on by Henry Cavendish's method (1838-1842), yielded for it the authoritative value of 5.66.
On the emission theory the velocity should be accelerated by an increase of density in the medium; on the wave theory, it should be retarded.
He maintained that there is a rapid variation of density near the surface of a liquid, and he gave very strong reasons, which have been only strengthened by subsequent discoveries, for believing that this is the case.
He proceeded to an investigation of the equilibrium of a fluid on the hypothesis of uniform density, and arrived at the conclusion that on this hypothesis none of the observed capillary phenomena would take place, and that, therefore, Laplace's theory, in which the density is supposed uniform, is not only insufficient but erroneous.
Laplace assumed that the liquid has uniform density, and that the attraction of its molecules extends to a finite though insensible distance.
The only difference is in the manner in which this quantity H depends on the law of the molecular forces and the law of density near the surface of the fluid, and as these laws are unknown to us we cannot obtain any test to discriminate between the two theories.
In more recent times the method of Gauss has been modified so as to take account of the variation of density near the surface, and its language has been translated in terms of the modern doctrine of the conservation of energy.'
He formed a mixture of alcohol and water of the same density as olive oil, and then introduced a quantity of oil into the mixture.
In like manner the density, p, is sensibly equal to the constant quantity po, which is its value in the interior of the liquid, except within a distance e of the bounding surface.
Hence if V is the volume of a mass M of liquid bounded by a surface whose area is S, the integral M = f f f pdx dydz, (I) where the integration is to be extended throughout the volume V, may be divided into two parts by considering separately the thin shell or skin extending from the outer surface to a depth within which the density and other properties of the liquid vary with the depth, and the interior portion of the liquid within which its properties are constant.
If we suppose a normal v less than E to be drawn from the surface S into the liquid, we may divide the shell into elementary shells whose thickness is dv, in each of which the density and other properties of the liquid will be constant.
In such a film it is possible that no part of the liquid may be so far from the surface as to have the potential and density corresponding to what we have called the interior of a liquid mass, and measurements of the tension of the film when drawn out to different degrees of thinness may possibly lead to an estimate of range of the molecular forces, or at least of the depth within a liquid mass, at which its properties become sensibly uniform.
If we take the axis of z normal to either surface of the film, the radius of curvature of which we suppose to be very great compared with its thickness c, and if p is the density, and x the energy of unit of mass at depth z, then o- = f o dz, (16) and e = f a xpdz,.
On the hypothesis of uniform density we shall find that this is true for films whose thickness exceeds The symbol x is defined as the energy of unit of mass of the substance.
To find the work done when m is brought to the point P in the neighbourhood of a solid body, the density of which is a function of the depth v below the surface, we have only to write instead of a pdz, and to integrate ?
In the form of the theory given by Laplace, the density of the liquid was supposed to be uniform.
In this assertion we think he was mathematically wrong, though in his own hypothesis that the density does actually vary, he was probably right.
In fact, the quantity 41rp 2 K, which we may call with van der Waals the molecular pressure, is so great for most liquids (5000 atmospheres for water), that in the parts near the surface, where the molecular pressure varies rapidly, we may expect considerable variation of density, even when we take into account the smallness of the compressibility of liquids.
If we suppose that the number of molecules within the range of the attraction of a given molecule is very large, the part of the pressure arising from attraction will be proportional to the square of the number of molecules in unit of volume, that is, to the square of the density.
If the density be a, the attraction between the whole of one side and a layer upon the other distant z from the plane and of thickness dz is 27r6 2 P(z)dz, reckoned per unit of area.
If a i, a 2 represent the densities of the two infinite solids, their mutual attraction at distance z is per unit of area 21ra l a fZ '(z)dz, (30) or 27ra l 02 0(z), if we write f 4,(z)dz=0(z) (31) The work required to produce the separation in question is thus 2 7ru l a o 0 (z)dz; (32) and for the tension of a liquid of density a we have T = a f o 0 (z)dz.
The early writers on capillary action supposed that the diminution of capillary action was due simply to the change of density corresponding to the rise of temperature, and, therefore, assuming the surface-tension to vary as the square of the (37)?(f) =eP f (38) density, they deduced its variations from the observed dilatation of the liquid by heat.
Suppose that the transition from o to s is made in two equal steps, the thickness of the intermediate layer of density la being large compared to the range of the molecular forces, but small in comparison with the radius of curvature.
The upper surface of this column is not level, so that the height of the column cannot be directly measured, but let us assume that h is the mean height of the column, that is to say, the height of a column of equal weight, but with a flat top. Then if r is the radius of the tube at the top of the column, the volume of the suspended column is 717 2 12, and its weight is 7rpgr 2 h, when p is its density and g the intensity of gravity.
We Will Assume That When, As In Most Cases, Viscosity Maybe Neglected, The Mass (M) Of A Drop Depends Only Upon The Density (V), The Capillary Tension (T), The Acceleration Of Gravity (G), And The Linear Dimension Of The Tube (A).
For All Fluids And For All Similar Tubes Similarly Wetted, The Weight Of A Drop Would Then Be Proportional Not Only To The Diameter Of The Tube, But Also To The Superficial Tension, And It Would Be Independent Of The Density.
From this the weight of a drop of any liquid of which the density and surface tension are known, can be calculated.
Calculated as if the density were the same as in a normal state, the thickness of the film is found to be about two millionths of a millimetre.
Then if p be the density of the upper liquid, and Q that of the lower liquid, and P the original pressure at the surface of separation, then when the surface receives an upward displacement z, the pressure above it will be P - pgz, and that below it will be P - Ogz, so that the surface will be acted on by an upward pressure (p - Q)gz.
If K is the height of the flat surface of the drop, and k that of the point where its tangent plane is vertical, then T = 1(K - k) 2gp. Quincke finds that for several series of substances the surfacetension is nearly proportional to the density, so that if we call Surface-Tensions of Liquids at their Point of Solidification.
As regards numbers, it occupies the second place amongst the Austrian provinces, coming after Galicia, and as regards density of population it stands third, Silesia and Lower Austria, which contains Vienna, standing higher.
It is very tolerant of fresh water, fattening best, as does the oyster, in water of density 1014 (the density of the water of the North Sea being 1026).
This allowance of space has been ascertained by experience to be sufficient, not only for comfort, but also for subsistence for one day, provided that the density of the ordinary civil population is not less than 200 persons to the square mile.
This comes of the action and reaction of matter, the resistance experienced varying according to the density of the atmosphere and the shape, extent and velocity of the body acting upon it.
China clay from the decomposing granites; tin and copper ore, once abounding at the contacts between the granite and the rocks it pierced, were the former staples of wealth, and the mining largely accounts for the exceptional density of population in Cornwall.
In almost every case the plain along the foot of an escarpment bears a line of villages and small towns, and on a good map of density of population the lines of the geological map may be readily discerned.
At the census of 1880 the density of the population was 1 8 and in 1890 it was 2.6.
It may happen that the change in density is so great that only the upper rays reach the eye; we are then met with the curious illusion of seeing inverted ships in the clouds, although nothing is visible on the ocean.
The distribution of density is similar to that attending a desert mirage, but the transition is not so abrupt.
In a similar way the absorption of light in the coloured gas chlorine is found to be unaltered if the thickness is reduced by compression, because the density is increased in the same ratio that the thickness is reduced.
It is a dark red microcrystalline powder, insoluble in carbon bisulphide, oil of turpentine, &c., and having a density of 2.2.
But as the mean density exceeds that of water, and probably falls but little from the centre to the surface, these gases are gases only in the sense that if the pressure of neighbouring and outward parts gravitating towards the centre were relaxed, they would expand explosively, as we see happening in the eruptive prominences.
Its temperature must be dominated directly or indirectly by the surface radiation, and since the matter is gaseous and so open to redistribution, the same is true of density and pressure.
We then find that the density would increase as we go outwards, at first slowly, but finally with extreme rapidity, the last tenth of the radius comprising half the mass.
Only near the surface would they become violent, and only there would there be a rapid fall of temperature and density.
Indeed it seems that, in the final distribution of density throughout the part which is not subject to violent convection currents, it must increase slightly from the centre outwards, since the currents would cease altogether as soon as 'a uniform state was restored.
The theory refers to radiation homogeneous at all points within a single closed boundary maintained at uniform temperature; in the actual case we have a double boundary, one the sun's surface, and the other infinitely remote, or say, non-existent, and at zero temperature; and it is assumed that the density of radiation in the free space varies inversely as the squares of the distance from the sun.
If we suppose the sun's mass once existed in a state of extreme diffusion, the energy yielded by collecting it into its present compass would not suffice to maintain its present rate of radiation for more than 17,000,000 years in the past; nor if its mean density were ultimately to rise to eight times its present amount, for more than the same period in the future.
This supposes the present density nearly uniform; if it is not uniform, any amount added to the former period is subtracted from the latter.
It is easy to calculate that this would be produced by an annual fall of matter equal to one nineteen millionth of the sun's mass, which would make an envelope eight metres thick, at the sun's mean density; this would be collected during the year from a spherical space extending beyond the orbit of Jupiter.
The earth would intercept an amount of it proportional to the solid angle it subtends at the sun; that is to say, it would receive a deposit of meteoric matter about one-tenth of a millimetre, of density say 2, over its whole surface in the course of the year.
Julius's phenomenon seems inseparable from grazing incidence, and hence any explanation it supplies depends upon his hypothetical tubular structure for layers of equal density.
The passes across these ranges are comparatively low, but they are difficult because of the precipitous character of their Pacific slopes and the density of the vegetation on them.
The resistance of clay to percolation by water depends chiefly upon the density of the clay, while that density is rapidly reduced if the clay is permitted to absorb water.
On the restoration of the pressure, the density will be again increased by the reduction of the water-filled interstices, and the percolation will be correspondingly checked.
Thus they not only penetrate all cavities in an exceedingly intrusive manner, but exert pressures in all directions, which, owing to the density of the asphalt, are more than 40 greater than would be produced by a corresponding depth of water.
It is obvious that the angles at the base of such a hypothetical dam must depend upon the relation between its density and that of the water.
It can be shown, for example, that for masonry having a density of 3, water being 1, the figure of minimum section is a right-angled triangle, with the water against its vertical face; while for a greater density the water face must lean towards the water, and for a less density away from the water, so that the water may lie upon it.
As the density of the heaviest rocks is only 3, that of a masonry dam must be below 3, and in practice such works if well constructed vary from 2.2 to 2.6.
For a density of 2.5 the base would therefore be 44.7% of the height.
The late Sir Benjamin Baker, F.R.S., suggested that the stresses might be measured by experiments with elastic models, and among others, experiments were carried out by Messrs Wilson and Gore a with indiarubber models of plane sections of dams (including the foundations) who applied forces to represent the gravity and water pressures in such a manner that the virtual density of the rubber was increased many times without interfering with the proper ratio between gravity and water pressure, and by this means the strains produced were of sufficient magnitude to be easily measured.
The line of pressures as generally given for this dam with the reservoir full, on the hypothesis that the density of the masonry was a little over 2, is shown by long and short dots in fig.
Materials actu ally collected from the dam indicate that the mean density did not exceed I.
And the weight of air displaced depends upon the density of the air at the time of weighing, and therefore the barometer reading must be taken.
These subjects are discussed in the articles Density; Thermometry; Calorimetry; Diffusion; Conduction Of Heat; and Condensation Of Gases.
The retort carbon products* formed as a dense deposit on the crown of the retort by the action of the high temperature on the hydrocarbons is, however, carbon in a very pure form, and, on account of its density, is largely used for electrical purposes.
The population of Wisconsin in 1890 was 1,686,880 (exclusive of 6450 persons specially enumerated); in 1900 the total was 2,069,042 - an increase of 22.2% on the basis of the total at each enumeration; and in 1910 it reached a total of 2,333,860.2 The density of the population in 1910 was 42.2 to the square mile.
A temperature of 70, and a reversal of the current (of low density) between two cast iron electrodes every few minutes, are the best working conditions.
In 1826 and 1828, Whewell was engaged with Airy in conducting experiments in Dolcoath mine, Cornwall, in order to determine the density of the earth.
This is one of the most troublesome problems in astronomy because, owing to the ever varying density of the atmosphere, arising from differences of temperature, and owing to the impossibility of determining the temperature with entire precision at any other point than that occupied by the observer, the amount of refraction must always be more or less uncertain.
Not the slightest change in the direction of such a star when in this position has ever been detected, and it is certain that if any occurs it can be but a minute fraction of a second of arc. As an atmosphere equal to ours in density would produce a deviation of an important fraction of a degree, it may be said that the moon can have no atmosphere exceeding in density the b b l o o that of the earth.
As seen from the above table the density of the population is unequal in the various crown lands.
In the bestwatered districts agriculture is naturally of the greatest importance, except where the density of the forest renders the work of clearing too arduous.
Ice forms over fresh water if the temperature of the air has been for a sufficient time at or below the freezing-point; but not until the whole mass of water has been cooled down to its point of maximum density, so that the subsequent cooling of the surface can give rise to no convection currents, is freezing possible.
If unit mass of a solution contain m grammes of an active substance and if o be the density and p be the rotary power of the solution, the specific rotary power is defined by p/m8, and the molecular rotary power is obtained from this by multiplying by the hundredth part of the molecular mass.
Fresnel obtained his formulae by assuming that the optical difference of media is due to a change in the effective density of the ether, the elasticity being the same - an assumption inconsistent with his theory of double refraction - and was led to the result that the vibrations are perpendicular to the plane of polarization.
Franz Neumann and James MacCullagh, starting from the opposite assumption of constant density and different elasticities, arrived at the same formulae for the intensities of the reflected light polarized in the principal azimuths, but in this case the vibrations must be regarded as parallel to the plane of polarization.
At 300 metres its density is 1.253.
The play of brilliant colours and of ever-changing contrasts of light and shade on those rugged mountain-sides and on the surface of the sea itself might have been expected to appeal to the most prosaic. The surface of the sea is generally smooth (seldom, however, absolutely inert as the pilgrims represented it), but is frequently raised by the north winds into waves, which, owing to the weight and density of the water, are often of great force.
At the beginning of 1905, the state contained 181,roo people, giving a density of 6.9 persons per square mile.
The density of population for the whole government is estimated as 3.7 or 4 per sq.
The density of population being calculated at about 2.7 to 3 per sq.
This principle is capable of very wide extension, the blast furnace being mainly limited in height by the strength the column of materials or "burden" has to resist crushing, under the weight due to the head adopted, and the power of the blowing engine to supply blast of sufficient density to overcome the resistance of the closely packed materials to the free passage of the spent gases.
When melted the products separate on the bed (which is made of closely packed sand or other infusible substances), according to their density; the lighter earthy matters forming an upper layer of slag are drawn out by the slag hole K at the flue end into an iron wagon or bogie, while the metal subsides to the bottom of the bed, and at the termination of the operation is run out by the tap hole L into moulds or granulated into water.
At that time the maximum potential development considered feasible for the island was a low density business park.
Her team recently announced it had created the highest density electronically addressable memory reported to date, a 64-bit memory using molecules as switches.
As the aircraft becomes lighter, it flies higher in air of lower density to maintain the same airspeed.
The local density approximation (LDA) is shown to be inadequate for calculating the band-gap narrowing.
About 60 million cubic meters of dome and crater wall traveled to the south as a debris avalanche and pyroclastic density currents.
These values depend on the density of protons and neutrons, which are collectively called baryons.
With the density of baryonic matter known, the total density can be determined from measuring the baryon fraction.
The living quarters must always be kept dry as it is said that wet bedding can affect density on feet.
In winter wheat, crop density is an important factor in limiting seed production by red dead-nettle through the effect on weed biomass.
The U.S. paper industry has managed to come up with a truly bizarre way of specifying the density of paper.
The lower density of ice is caused by its structure, a hydrogen bonded tetrahedral network similar to that of diamond.
The power density at the core of a fast breeder reactor is more than four times higher than that in a thermal reactor.
Density was rather low to meet my expectations, except for a great abundance of Flavescent and Brown-breasted bulbuls soon considered common.
To be an efficient fat burner you need to increase your muscle density.
Calculates the relaxing density contribution to the derivative of the energy wrt Cartesian coordinates.
The density, about 0.2 grams per cubic centimeter, means it is a gas giant like Jupiter.
The solubilized mixture was then resolved by sucrose density gradient centrifugation.
After density gradient centrifugation, virus particles were detected in the density zone of 1.34 g/ml.
Monocytes and lymphocytes may also be obtained fresh from human blood using density centrifugation to isolate distinct cell types according to their different densities.
The beams are then decked in 12mm (15mm on 900mm deep bays) high density chipboard panels.
A temporary fall in high and rise in low density lipoprotein cholesterol was observed in the study population.
Salinity is therefore a major factor in the density driven global scale thermohaline circulation.
Difference electron density for a molecule of AMPPNP is observed in the kinase active site cleft.
Weed population density may be markedly reduced using crop rotation but there has been little experimentation.
This increases its density, so it sinks and flows back south in a deep current.
At the active electrode there is a high current density due to the small area of the electrode.
The RNHRD uses the Hologic Acclaim bone densitometer, which allows bone density to be assessed in a few minutes.
Pea Forage Yield Forage yields of peas increased significantly with increased sowing density in all but the late pea harvest in 1999.
The current record for areal density for a commercially released drive is 133 gigabits per square inch, according to Toshiba.
The low energy density feeds require a large volume plant to process them.
Factors to be considered when selecting an appropriate scanner include optical resolution, optical density, bit depth and scanning time.
M Magnetic flux density A measure of the magnetic effect induced in a medium by an external field.
The bone mineral density changes were compared with a control group of 15 untreated women.
There were no significant differences in cortical volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) at the radius or tibia diaphysis between the groups.
Drought is also thought to be a factor causing dieback in hedgerow trees, which are not included in the UK crown density survey.
For London, dwelling density rose from 48 new dwellings per hectare in 1993 to 56 in 2000.
The paper discusses the possibility that horizontal advection combined with horizontal gradients in the plasma density can contribute to the radar echoes.
They discussed traffic density with ATC, and eventually declared an emergency in order to get priority for landing.
For damped exponentials, the ordering is by energy spectral density at the peak frequency.
Matched to the tissue matrix The density of the tissue matrix in the skin has implications for dermal fillers.
A superior mattress with firm, high density hollow fiber polyester filling, to maintain high performance.
For the most popular artifacts such as ceramic color standards and neutral density filters, streamlined procedures give a fast turn-around.
The distributions of the flux, area, peak flux density and lifetimes of the concentrations are determined.
The company can also mold polyurethane foam to any density.
Further, bone mineral density of the proximal femur, lateral spine, and distal forearm was studied after eight years.
A universe with nonzero size and finite energy density appears from a quantum fuzz.
The density of ice is about 0.92 g cm and that of water is about 1.00 g cm at 0.
For this shot, weve used a neutral density grad, a filter which is darker at the top than the bottom.
There are no published EMs of material banding in sucrose density gradients.
For the most part, the density looks great.
The density of tubers was greatest in the parietal lobes, and tubers were more frequent in the cingulate gyrus than expected.
Na + and ca 2+ ions can destroy the low density structuring in a cooperative manner.
A new method of monitoring the ionosphere based on radio tomography can be used to create two-dimensional images of electron density.
The best balls were made from African ivory which was considered to be of more even density than Indian ivory.
A high density of enclosed hollows with some dry valleys constitute the surface karst.
Define omega matter and omega lambda, to be the density and lambda, divided by the critical value.
Similar trends were seen with respect to low density lipoprotein.
There was no change in levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL ), the ' good ' cholesterol.
The values represent the approximate logarithm of the flux density.
We first estimate the far infrared luminosity density for the luminosity density for the luminosity function derived from IRAS 60 µm data.
Where necessary, treatments that include mammograms, cervical smears, hormone tests, bone density scans, are available.
Generally there is no point providing a solvent mask, since the solvent density generally does not provide a match to atomic features.
Bosnia's population density in 1998 was 66 persons per sq km (170 per sq mi ).
A high density store for positive microfilm is built.
Osteoporosis affects not just the bone mineral density, but also the internal microstructure of bone.
By using a triple density midsole, which they call " progressive posting.
Difference density maps were used to locate the ordered solvent molecules, which were included in the refinement.
Case 8 Cerebral embolus from atrial myxoma Findings Subtle reduced density in the left basal ganglia on CT.
Several works have obtained successful results achieved by combining occultation and ground GPS data to estimate the local three-dimensional structure of ionospheric electron density.
The book covers complex ideas, and the amount and density of information could seem off-putting to the busy practitioner.
Identification of altered gene expression in polymyositis using Affymetrix high density oligonucleotide arrays.
Define omega matter and omega matter and omega lambda, to be the density and lambda, divided by the critical value.
These density waves are twisted by the elliptical orbits into spiral arms.
For a given bone mineral density, the risk of fracture in steroid-induced osteoporosis is twice as high as in post-menopausal osteoporosis.
Dual density carbon outsole provide durability and a lightweight cushioned ride.
There's no frame and no special system for stabilizing the load, just dual density padding with mesh on the outside.
In the dense center of the cluster, the star density can increase from 100 to 1000 per cubic parsec.
We are investigating the determination of the uncertainty of the proton parton density functions.
The second, based on Basell's Lupotech T technology, will produce low density pe.
The density of states at the surface is calculated within the GW approximation of many-body perturbation theory.
To return to the pie chart analogy, you would not draw a pie chart of population density but one of total population.
For a long time it was regarded simplest and esthetically most pleasing to postulate that our universe is now of exactly critical density.
In short Regular Pegasus wearers might find the second density a little obtrusive at first, as the ride doesn't feel quite as plush.
Target materials are low and linear low density polyethylene, but the new masterbatches can also be used with HDPE and PP.
Our products are made in Britain of mild steel coated in black high density polyethylene to withstand the toughest weather.
The recycled plastic is made from a range of waste plastics, its main constituents being low and high density polyolefins.
Low density polythene is used for things like plastic bags.
The whole of the rest of Lapland is very sparsely populated with a density of only slightly over two persons per sq km.
It also showed some very high density objects, including a possible potsherd.
Any density gradients result in net negative pressure gradients which act on positive matter to produce negative buoyancy forces.
It is a suggestive coincidence that the space density of bright optical quasars also reached a peak sometime around z = 2-3.
The density measurements gave no ground for reliance on an unusual isotopic ratio.
The massive high density polyethylene container is durable, impact resistant, ultraviolet stabilized and corrosion free.
This comparison verifies the steep rise of the gluon density at low x with a precision of @ 15-20% .
Despite the population density, Central Java is predominately rural with an agricultural-based economy.
Use AmpÃ¨re's law to calculate the flux density inside a long solenoid.
In Figure 5, the energy period lies in the middle of the power spectral density.
Knots of higher density cause the regions behind them to be protected from direct starlight hence building up extended shadow zones.
Others have steeper outer density profiles, show sharp breaks in their density profiles, or have significant substructure.
Methodologies are all too often subsumed into the density of the doctoral dissertation, rarely to see the light of the wider academic day.
There is a small soft tissue density closely applied to the upper mediastinum on the right, in the superior sulcus.
Density of newly synthesized plasma membrane proteins in intracellular membranes.
The result is far better than we can get with equivalent density on our digital synthesizer here at Stanford.
Greater character density allows better data throughput than ASCII for the same baud rate.
The density of the reflections can be adjusted by increasing the transparency of the Rays layer.
Collectively the combination of disordered eating, menstrual irregularities and reduced bone density has become known as the female athlete triad (6 ).
In hypertensive patients eprosartan does not affect fasting triglycerides, total cholesterol, or LDL (low density lipoprotein) cholesterol levels.
Manufactured from heavy duty high density ultraviolet resistant plastic Features easy carry handles and antiperch domes.
Constructed with an innovative blend of resin and high density rigid urethane, these trays are approximately 40% lighter than stone trays.
The outer layer is then backed up with a high density urethane foam to add stiffness and impact resistance.
The variation of water vapor density with altitude suggests the water vapor density with altitude suggests the water vapor may come from a localized source comparable to a geothermal hot spot.
This allows a much higher density of traps, much more action, and still feels vast in practice.
The density relieving spheres within CMM dramatically damp vibration, offering a pure, soft feel.
The two materials investigated were a carbon black filled high density polyethylene (HDPE) and a filled ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA ).
The island also supports a high density of breeding waders, with 67 pairs being recorded in 1987.
Watt density is the total wattage of the heater divided by the heated surface area of the heater.
The slower propagation of light in gas or water than in air or vacuum may be attributed to a greater density, or to a less rigidity, in the former case; or we may adopt the more complicated supposition that both these quantities vary, subject only to the condition which restricts the ratio of velocities to equality with the known refractive index.
As Lord Kelvin has shown (Baltimore Lectures, p. 304, 1904) (16) may also be obtained by the consideration of the mean density of the altered medium.
The charge on the earth itself has its surface density given by v = - (I/47r) X125 volts per metre, =0.000331 in electrostatic units.
The density of population is 85.38 per sq.
The accepted atomic weight is accordingly double the density, i.e.
The Hrault average density of population in France is about 190 Ille-et-Vil to the square mile, the tendency being for the large Indre towns to increase at the expense of the small towns Indre-et-I as well as the rural communities.
The average density increased from 257.21 per sq.
The outer layers are denser than the inner, the density decreasing more or less uniformly from the outside layers to the centre of hilum.
But under the influence of the rotation the parts of greater density tend to recede further from the axis than the parts of less density.
It exhibits in a marked degree the density ol species which, as already pointed out, is explicable by the arrest 01 further southern expansion.