Densities sentence example

densities
  • equal changes in temperature and pressure occasion equal changes in equal volumes of all gases and vapours - Avogadro deduced the law: Under the same conditions of temperature and pressure, equal volumes of gases contain equal numbers of molecules; and he showed that the relative weights of the molecules are determined as the ratios of the weights of equal volumes, or densities.
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  • The method of weighing equal volumes is particularly applicable to the determination of the relative densities of liquids.
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  • Morley determined the densities of hydrogen and oxygen in the course of his classical investigation of the composition of water.
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  • The heights of the columns above the surface of junction of the liquids are inversely proportional to the densities of the liquids.
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  • The instrument thus adapted to the determination of densities exceeding that of water was called the hydrometer for salts.
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  • Hydro- statical principles can be applied to density determinations in four typical ways: (I) depending upon the fact that the heights of liquid columns supported by the same pressure vary inversely as the densities of the liquids; (2) depending upon the fact that a body which sinks in a liquid loses a weight equal to the weight of liquid which it displaces; (3) depending on the fact that a body remains suspended, neither floating nor sinking, in a liquid of exactly the same density; (4) depending on the fact that a floating body is immersed to such an extent that the weight of the fluid displaced equals the weight of the body.
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  • The heights to which the liquids rise, measured in each case by the distance between the surfaces in the reservoirs and in the tubes, are inversely proportional to the densities.
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  • The principle is readily adapted to the determination of the relative densities of two liquids, for it is obvious that if W be the weight of a solid body in air, W, and W2 its weights when immersed in the liquids, then W - W, and W - W 2 are the weights of equal volumes of the liquids, and therefore the relative density is the quotient (W - W,)/(W - W2).
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  • Similarly in the case of the weighing in water, account must be taken of the buoyancy of the weights, and also, if absolute densities be required, of the density of water at the temperature of the experiment.
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  • As time is an object, the conditions alluded to in the article on Copper as being favourable to the use of high current densities should be studied, bearing in mind that a tough copper deposit of high quality is essential.
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  • For two different gases with the same value of y, but with densities at the same pressure and temperature respectively p i and p2, we should have U1/U2 =1 1 (P2/P1), (Io) another result confirmed by observation.
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  • Comparing the velocities of sound U i and U2 in two different gases with densities and at the same temperature and pressure, and with ratios of specific heats 'yl, 72, theory gives Ui/U2 = 1/ {71 p 2/72 p i }.
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  • too at 20° C. The solutions should be adjusted exactly to these densities and kept in stock bottles, from which the reservoirs of the cell should be filled up as required.
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  • Also W = (V +IA)w i; or w1=W/(V+/A), w p =W/(V+plA), and wn =W/(Vd-nIA), or the densities of the several liquids vary inversely as the respective volumes of the instrument immersed in them; and, since the divisions of the scale correspond to equal increments of volume immersed, it follows that the densities of the several liquids in which the instrument sinks to the successive divisions form a harmonic series.
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  • In comparing the densities of different liquids, it is clear that this instrument is precisely equivalent to that of Fahrenheit, and must be employed in the same manner, weights being placed in the top scale only until the hydrometer sinks to the mark on the wire, when the specific gravity of the liquid will be proportional to the weight of the instrument together with the weights in the scale.
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  • The hydrometer intended for densities less than that of water, or the hydrometer for spirits, is constructed on a similar principle.
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  • The densities corresponding to the several degrees of Baume's hydrometer are given by Nicholson (Journal of Philosophy, i.
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  • Table showing the Densities corresponding to the Indications of Sikes's Hydrometer.
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  • In the above table for Sikes's hydrometer two densities are given corresponding to each of the degrees 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90, indicating that the successive weights belonging to the particular instrument for which the table has been calculated do not quite agree.
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  • Twaddell's hydrometer is adapted for densities greater than that of water.
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  • Observations undertaken mainly in the interest of Prout's law, and extending over many years, had been conducted to determine afresh the densities of the principal gases - hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen.
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  • Norman Collie to separate argon by diffusion into two parts, which should have different densities or refractivities, led to no distinct effect.
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  • There he remained for thirteen years, and it was during this period that he devised his well-known method for determining vapour densities, and carried out his experiments on the dissociation of the halogens.
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  • the vapour densities of the isomers were the same, as in butylene and isobutylene, to take the most simple case; here the molecular conception admits that the isolated groups in which the atoms are united, i.e.
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  • iroXb, many) was chosen for compounds like butylene, C 4 H 8, and ethylene, C 2 H 4, corresponding to the same composition in weight but differing in molecular formula, and having different densities in gas or vapour, a litre of butylene and isobutylene weighing, for instance, under ordinary temperature and pressure, about 2.5 gr., ethylene only one-half as much, since density is proportional to molecular weight.
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  • In 1833 he made a series of careful determinations of the vapour densities of a large Drawn from a photograph taken by Father J.
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  • 8, January 1899) whether there may not be different modifications of ice with different densities, and different values of the latent heat of fusion.
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  • - Interesting light is thrown on the question of the physical state of the stars by some evidence which we possess as to their densities.
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  • The mean density of the sun is about 13 times that of water; but many of the stars, especially the brighter ones, have much lower densities and must be in a very diffused state.
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  • An immense mass of material has been collected on the subject of vapour-pressures and densities, the greater part of which will be found in Winkelmann's Handbook, in Landolt's and Bornstein's Tables, and in similar compendiums. The results vary greatly in accuracy, and are frequently vitiated by errors of temperature measurement, by chemical impurities and surface condensation, or by peculiarities of the empirical formulae employed in smoothing the observations; but it would not be within the scope of the present article to discuss these details.
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  • Thus, the higher densities are found in the eastern hemisphere, within the zone in which arose the great civilizations of the world, or, roughly speaking, between north parallels 25 and 40 towards the east, and 25 and 55 in the west.
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  • It is chiefly from the populations of the south-west of Europe that the New World is being colonized; but the territories over which the settlers and their recruits from abroad are able to scatter are so extensive that even the lower densities of the Old World have not yet been attained, except in a few tracts along the eastern coasts of Australia and North America.
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  • The flow of the liquids, in and out, can be so arranged that the motion is very slow, and hence the liquids of different densities do not mix.
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  • In addition to this list of some of the new substances he prepared, reference may be made to his work on abnormal vapour densities.
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  • While working on the olefines he noticed that a change takes place in the density of the vapour of amylene hydrochloride, hydrobromide, &c., as the temperature is increased, and in the gradual passage from a gas of approximately normal density to one of half-normal density he saw a powerful argument in favour of the view that abnormal vapour densities, such as are exhibited by sal-ammoniac or phosphorus pentachloride, are to be explained by dissociation.
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  • If a i, a 2 represent the densities of the two infinite solids, their mutual attraction at distance z is per unit of area 21ra l a fZ '(z)dz, (30) or 27ra l 02 0(z), if we write f 4,(z)dz=0(z) (31) The work required to produce the separation in question is thus 2 7ru l a o 0 (z)dz; (32) and for the tension of a liquid of density a we have T = a f o 0 (z)dz.
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  • By far the simplest supposition open to us is that the functions are the same in all cases, the attractions differing merely by coefficients analogous to densities in the theory of gravitation.
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  • (52) According to (52), the interfacial tension between any two bodies is proportional to the square of the difference of their densities.
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  • The densities a 1, 'a' 2, Q3 being in descending order of magnitude, we may write T 31 = (01 - 02+a, - o"3)'T0 =T 12+ T 23 + 2 (e 1 - (72) (02-0.3)Tc; so that T31 necessarily exceeds the sum of the other two interfacial tensions.
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  • The problem is to make the sum of the interfacial tensions a minimum, each tension being proportional to the square of the difference of densities of the two contiguous liquids in question.
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  • If the order of stratification differ from that of densities, we can show that each step of approximation to this order lowers the sum of tensions.
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  • The ship, in virtue of its being immersed in two fluids having different densities, can be steered and made to tack about in a horizontal plane in any given direction.
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  • For these densities, the deviation of the water face from the vertical in the figure of least sectional area is, however, so trifling that, so far as this consideration is concerned, it may be neglected.
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  • In the 1826 paper he described his famous method for ascertaining vapour densities, and the redeterminations which he undertook by its aid of the atomic weights of carbon and oxygen proved the forerunners of a long series which included some thirty of the elements, the results being mostly published in 1858-1860.
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  • These different air masses do not mix because they have different temperatures and densities.
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  • around-the-clock observations of F-region heights and densities, and an on-line library of models provided forecasting capabilities.
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  • Monocytes and lymphocytes may also be obtained fresh from human blood using density centrifugation to isolate distinct cell types according to their different densities.
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  • Nonetheless, " The RNA tumor viruses also have buoyant densities that coincide with those of certain cellular constituents.
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  • copepods in large densities in surface waters, which is known to be the primary food source of basking sharks in summer months.
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  • corn borer densities are high do transgenic crops out-perform the non-transgenic.
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  • coronagraph images will provide electron densities, or the number of electrons per unit volume, specifying their global distribution and radial variation.
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  • densityumber of working age residents figures used to calculate jobs densities are based on the mid-2001 population estimates.
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  • densitye doesn't like over-optimized, high keyword densities and over use of keywords in headings, etc. like they use to.
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  • densityr stocking densities make temperature control easier in cold weather.
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  • This is a reason why D syntheses are performed in studies of electron densities by single-crystal X-ray diffraction.
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  • Astasia Ehrenberg 1838, is a small flagellate, of extremely fast movement, which reached great densities in this culture.
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  • flux densitydividual measurements of magnetic flux densities in the range 2 to 10 microteslas were encountered in close proximity to the feeder cables.
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  • hatcherys likely to be largely due to the stocking densities and the relatively short periods fish are reared for in wild fish hatcheries.
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  • With three lighthouses on an island three miles long, Lundy now has one of the highest densities of lighthouses on an island three miles long, Lundy now has one of the highest densities of lighthouses in the country.
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  • Another curious effect, and rather absurd mistake, resulted from the different densities in the super-heated atmosphere which caused this mirage.
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  • The skin is the largest sensory organ in the body, covered in receptors of varying densities.
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  • High densities of fish otoliths have been found in one North Sea pockmark.
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  • parton densities has been achieved between five of the evolution programs.
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  • However, these time scales are all much smaller than typical time scales for collisions, when considering the low densities in coronal plasmas.
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  • The full conditional densities are evaluated and inverted numerically to obtain random draws of the joint posterior.
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  • Rotational and non-rotational set-aside supported higher densities and more species of birds than fields of wheat, brassicas, root crops and seed rye.
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  • We vary the spacing of the plants along the row to get the right crop densities.
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  • Beside the He-like triplets, Fe XXI line ratios are used to obtain plasma densities.
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  • The number (i) expressing the ratio of the two amplitudes is a function of the following quantities: - (T) the volume of the disturbing particle; (r) the distance of the point under consideration from it; (A) the wave-length; (b) the velocity of propagation of light; (D) and (D') the original and altered densities: of which the first three depend only upon space, the fourth on space and time, while the fifth and sixth introduce the consideration of mass.
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  • Province Or Government European Russia - Archangel Astrakhan Bessarabia Chernigov Courland Don Cossacks' territory Ekaterinoslav Esthonia Grodno Kaluga Kazan Kiev Kostroma Kovno Kursk Kharkov Kherson Poland Kalisz Kielce Lomza Lublin Grand-Duchy of Finland- Abo-Bjbrneborg Kuopio Nyland Caucasia- Kuban Baku Black Sea territory Daghestan Russia in Asia- Turkestan- Transcaspia Western Siberia- Tobolsk Tomsk Eastern Siberia Irkutsk Yakutsk Transbaikalia Yeniseisk Amur Region Amur Maritime Province Sakhalin It has been found, from a comparison of the densities of population of the various provinces in 1859 with the distribution in 1897, that the centre of density has distinctly moved S., towards the shores of the Black Sea, and W., the greatest increase having taken place in the E.
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  • Thus the actually observed densities of liquid chlorine and bromine at the boilingpoints are 1 56 and 2-96, leading to atomic volumes 22.7 and 26.9, which closely correspond to Kopp's values deduced from organic compounds.
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  • It is there shown that the surface tension of a liquid may be calculated from its rise in a capillary tube by the formula y = rhs, where y is the surface tension per square centimetre, r the radius of the tube, h the height of the liquid column, and s the difference between the densities of the liquid and its vapour.
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  • 1825) he devised a method for determining vapour densities at temperatures up to 1400° C., and, partly with F.
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  • In British units, especially in connexion with the statement of relative densities of alcoholic liquors for Inland Revenue purposes, comparison is made with water at 62° F.
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  • (16.6 C.); a reason for this is that the gallon of water is defined by statute as weighing Io lb at 62° F., and hence the densities so expressed admit of the ready conversion of volumes to weights.
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  • too at 20° C. The solutions should be adjusted exactly to these densities and kept in stock bottles, from which the reservoirs of the cell should be filled up as required.
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  • The first hydrometer intended for the determination of the densities of liquids, and furnished with a set of weights to be attached when necessary, was that constructed by Mr Clarke (instrument-maker) and described by J.
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  • The relatively electro-negative character of silver ensures that with moderate current densities no metal (other than precious metals) will be deposited with it; hence, while the solution is pure a current-density of 30 amperes per sq.
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  • There are basically two densities of the memory foam.
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  • There are higher densities at important strength points and less material at others, which allows for tons of strength and power transmission without a lot of weight.
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  • Glass, on the other hand, is heavier and more expensive, with higher optical densities and more visible light transmission.
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  • Because of the different densities and properties of gluten-free flours, there is an element of experimentation involved in coming up with your own gluten-free bread recipes.
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  • The relative densities of these two types of virtual particles inside the vacuum determine the gravity/antigravity fields in "empty space".
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  • This generalization was of great value inasmuch as it permitted the deduction of the atomic weight of a non-gasifiable element from a study of the densities of its gasifiable compounds.
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  • This law states that: - gases combine with one another in simple proportions by volume, and the volume of the product (if gaseous) has a simple ratio to the volumes of the original mixtures; in other words, the densities of gases are simply related to their combining weights.
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  • According to the law of Avogadro, equal volumes of different gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules; therefore, since the density depends upon the number of molecules present in unit volume, it follows that for a comparison of the densities of gases, the determinations must be made under coincident conditions, or the observations reduced or re-computed for coincident conditions.
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  • When this is done, such densities are measures of the molecular weights of the substances in question.
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  • 14, p. 78) determined the densities and specific heats of these modifications.
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  • The vats for depositing may be of enamelled iron, slate, glazed earthenware, glass, lead-lined wood, &c. The current densities and potential differences frequently used for some of the commoner metals are given in the following table, taken from M ` Millan's Treatise on Electrometallurgy.
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  • 1825) he devised a method for determining vapour densities at temperatures up to 1400° C., and, partly with F.
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  • At higher densities it is probable that more complex aggregates would be formed, so that as the effect of the collisions became more important c would cease to be a function of the temperature only; experiment, indeed, shows this to be the case.
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  • Matthiessen observed that the density of alloys, the composition of which varies from AuAg 6 to Au 6 Ag, is greater than that calculated from the densities of the constituent metals.
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  • In the " dry " methods the silver is converted into sulphide or chloride, the gold remaining unaltered; in the " wet " methods the silver is dissolved by nitric acid or boiling sulphuric acid; and in the electrolytic processes advantage is taken of the fact that under certain current densities and other circumstances silver passes from an anode composed of a gold-silver alloy to the cathode more readily than gold.
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  • In the numerical expression of absolute densities it is necessary to specify the units of mass and volume employed; while in the case of relative densities, it is only necessary to specify the standard substance, since the result is a mere number.
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  • In commerce, however, other expressions are met with, as, for example, "pounds per cubic foot" (used for woods, metals, &c.), "pounds per gallon," &c. The standard substances employed to determine relative densities are: water for liquids and solids, and hydrogen or atmospheric air for gases; oxygen (as 16) is sometimes used in this last case.
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  • The relative densities of gases are usually expressed in terms of the standard gas under the same conditions.
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  • In British units, especially in connexion with the statement of relative densities of alcoholic liquors for Inland Revenue purposes, comparison is made with water at 62° F.
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  • (16.6 C.); a reason for this is that the gallon of water is defined by statute as weighing Io lb at 62° F., and hence the densities so expressed admit of the ready conversion of volumes to weights.
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  • Practical Determination Of Densities The methods for determining densities may be divided into two groups according as hydrostatic principles are employed or not.
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  • The separate determination of the volume and mass of such substances as gunpowder, cotton-wool, soluble substances, &c., supplies the only means of determining their densities.
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  • The determination of the absolute densities of gases can only be effected with any high degree of accuracy by a development of this method.
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  • Lord Rayleigh has made many investigations of the absolute densities of gases, one of which, namely on atmospheric and artificial nitrogen, undertaken in conjunction with Sir William Ramsay, culminated in the discovery of argon.
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  • In the latter case, the densities of the fluids will be inversely proportional to the volumes thus displaced.
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  • When no weight is attached the instrument indicates densities from 806 to 843; with No.
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  • Absolute densities are generally stated in the C.G.S.
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