How to use Denmark in a sentence
In 1203 it was conquered by Waldemar II., king of Denmark, but in 1227 it reverted to Albert, a son of its former duke.
It reverted to Hanover after the battle of Leipzig in 1813, and in 1816 was ceded to Prussia, the greater part of it being at once transferred by her to Denmark in exchange for Swedish Pomerania.
The only other occasions on which he was out of the Netherlands were in 1630, when he made a flying visit to England to observe for himself some alleged magnetic phenomena, and in 16 3 4, when he took an excursion to Denmark.
In 1848, when Prussia made war on Denmark, Lauenburg was occupied at her own request by some Hanoverian troops, and was then administered for three years under the authority of the German confederation, being restored to Denmark in 1851.
By his beloved consort Ulrica Leonora of Denmark, from the shock of whose death in July 1693 he never recovered, he had seven children, of whom only three survived him, a son Charles, and two daughters, Hedwig Sophia, duchess of Holstein, and Ulrica Leonora, who ultimately succeeded her brother on the Swedish throne.Advertisement
Already during his brother's lifetime, as duke of Schleswig, Valdemar had successfully defended Denmark against German aggression.
The royal couple, after visiting Denmark, arrived in Scotland in May 1590.
His opportunity seemed to have come when, in the middle of the 16th century, the Order of the Sword broke up, and the possession of Livonia was fiercely contested between Sweden, Poland and Denmark.
He had annihilated the petty kings of the South, had crushed the aristocracy, enforced the acceptance of Christianity throughout the kingdom, asserted his suzerainty in the Orkney Islands, had humbled the king of Sweden and married his daughter in his despite, and had conducted a successful raid on Denmark.
One tablet records that in 1631 two Algerine pirate crews landed in Ireland, sacked Baltimore, and carried off its inhabitants to slavery; another recalls the romantic escape of Ida M'Donnell, daughter of Admiral Ulric, consulgeneral of Denmark, and wife of the British consul.Advertisement
In 1651 the Dutch completed a treaty with Denmark to injure English trade in the Baltic; to which England replied the same year by the Navigation Act, which suppressed the Dutch trade with the English colonies and the Dutch fish trade with England, and struck at the Dutch carrying trade.
The Protestant policy was further followed up by treaties with Sweden and Denmark which secured the passage of the Sound for English ships on the same conditions as the Dutch, and a treaty with Portugal which liberated English subjects from the Inquisition and allowed commerce with the Portuguese colonies.
War broke out between the Protestant states of Sweden, Denmark, Holland and Brandenburg, with whom religion was entirely subordinated to individual aims and interests, and who were far from rising to Cromwell's great conceptions; while the Vaudois were soon subjected to fresh persecutions.
In 1906 there were 30,551, equal to 7.2 per cent., more telephone stations in the United Kingdom than in the ten European countries of Austria, Hungary, Belgium, Denmark, Holland, Italy; Norway, Portugal, Russia, Sweden and Switzerland, having a combined population of 288 millions as against a population of 42 millions in the United Kingdom.
The Italian suicide rate of 63.6 per 1,000,000 is, however, lower than those of Denmark, Switzerland, Germany and France, while it approximates to that of England.Advertisement
With the Reformation in the 16th century, Church courts properly speaking disappeared from the non-episcopal religious communities which were established in g Holland, in the Protestant states of Switzerland and of Germany, and in the then non-episcopal countries of Denmark and Norway.
It has been found in Mycenaean tombs; it is known from lake-dwellings in Switzerland, and it occurs with neolithic remains in Denmark, whilst in England it is found with interments of the bronze age.
On the other side of the North Sea, amber is found at various localities on the coast of Holland and Denmark.
It has even been supposed that amber passed from Sicily to northern Europe in early times - a supposition said to receive some support from the fact that much of the amber dug up in Denmark is red; but it must not be forgotten that reddish amber is found also on the Baltic, though not being fashionable it is used rather for varnish-making than for ornaments.
The period of study is eighteen months in Denmark or Norway, and two in Austria, Finland, Germany, Portugal, Russia, Sweden and Switzerland, three in Belgium, France, Greece and Italy, four to six in Holland, and five in Spain.Advertisement
The evidence of the peat bogs shows that the Scots fir, which is now extinct, was abundant in Denmark in the Roman period.
The oak in turn has been almost superseded in Denmark by the beech, which, if we may trust Julius Caesar, had not reached Britain in his time, though it existed there in the pre-glacial period, but is not native in either Scotland or Ireland.
The Northmen of Denmark and Norway, whose piratical adventures were the terror of all the coasts of Europe, and who established themselves in Great Britain and Ireland, in France and The Sicily, were also geographical explorers in their rough but Nothmen.
In December he was sent by the queen dowager to secure Stirling, and in 1560 was despatched on a mission to France, visiting Denmark on the way, where he either married or seduced Anne, daughter of Christopher Thorssen, whom he afterwards deserted, and who came to Scotland in 1563 to obtain redress.
Kitchen-middens of England, Ireland and Denmark reveal the existence of the capercally, Tetrao urogallus, and of the great auk or gare-fowl, Alca impennis; both species long since vanished from those countries.Advertisement
The great auk, once common on the British coasts, those of Denmark, the east coast of North America, then restricted to those of Newfoundland, Greenland and Iceland, has been killed by man, and the same fate has overtaken the Labrador duck, the Phillip Island parrot, Nestor productus, and the large cormorant of FIG.
In 1537 he was invited to Denmark by Christian III., and remained five years in that country, organizing the church (though only a presbyter, he consecrated the new Danish bishops) and schools.
After completing these reductions, Airy made inquiries, before engaging in any theoretical investigation in connexion with them, whether any other mathematician was pursuing the subject, and learning that Hansen had taken it in hand under the patronage of the king of Denmark, but that, owing to the death of the king and the consequent lack of funds, there was danger of his being compelled to abandon it, he applied to the admiralty on Hansen's behalf for the necessary sum.
During a halt of a few days in Poland on his way back from Vienna, King Augustus had explained to him a project for partitioning the transBaltic provinces of Sweden, by which Poland should recover Livonia and annex Esthonia, Russia should obtain Ingria and Karelia, and Denmark should take possession of Holstein.
Such train ferries arc common in America, especially on the Great Lakes, and exist at several places in Europe, as in the Baltic between Denmark and Sweden and Denmark and Germany, and across the Straits of Messina.
The castle, which occupies the site of a former Cistercian monastery, was, from 1622 to 1779, the residence of the dukes of HolsteinSonderburg-Gliicksburg, passing then to the king of Denmark and in 1866 to Prussia.
Immediately after his coronation, he hastened to his newly won territories, accompanied by the principal civil and ecclesiastical dignitaries of Denmark, and was solemnly acknowledged lord of Northalbingia (the district lying between the Eider and the Elbe) at Lubeck, Otto IV., then in difficulties, voluntarily relinquishing all German territory north of the Elbe to Valdemar, who in return recognized Otto as German emperor.
All his four sons, Valdemar, Eric, Abel and Christopher became kings of Denmark.
His exile, however, was brief, and some years after his return he became involved in a dispute with his sovereign, Christian III., king of Denmark, because he refused to further the progress of Lutheranism in the island.
This has commonly been taken as Denmark, but more probably it was the French or Italian Marches.
According to an older tradition it was named after Sueno, son of Harold, king of Denmark, who won a victory on the spot in io08.
Denmark has for long been distinguished for its liberal policy towards the Jews.
In the reformed churches the title was retained in England, Sweden, Denmark and Germany.
The sister of the new sovereign, Princess Alexandra, had a few months before (loth March) married the prince of Wales, afterwards King Edward VII., and his father succeeded to the crown of Denmark in the following November.
Then Sweden assigned her German possessions to Denmark in exchange for Norway, whereupon Prussia, partly by purchase and partly by the cession 4 r of the duchy of Lauenburg, finally succeeded in uniting the whole of Pomerania under her rule.
Regular passenger steamers run from Grimsby to Dutch and south Swedish ports, and to Esbjerg (Denmark), chiefly those of the Wilson line and the Great Central railway.
In 1678 it was captured by the elector of Brandenburg, but was restored to the Swedes in the following year; in 1713 it was desolated by the Russians; in 1715 it came into the possession of Denmark; and in 1721 it was again restored to Sweden, under whose protection it remained till 1815, when, along with the whole of Swedish Pomerania, it came into the possession of Prussia.
He encouraged Hans Svaning to complete Saxo's history of Denmark, and Anders Vedel to translate Saxo into Danish.
His generosity to poor students was well known; but he could afford to be liberal, as his share of spoliated Church property had made him one of the wealthiest men in Denmark.
He was largely responsible for the Scandinavian Seven Years' War (1562-70), which did so much to exacerbate the relations between Denmark and Sweden.
Failing the arrival of a favourable reply from London by the 1st of December 1807, the tsar would help Napoleon to compel Denmark, Sweden and Portugal to close their ports against, and make war on, Great Britain.
That state, where Bernadotte had latterly been chosen as crown prince, decided to throw off the yoke of the Continental System and join England and Russia, gaining from the latter power the promise of Norway at the expense of Denmark.
During this period of diplomatic work he acquired an exceptional knowledge of the affairs of Europe, and in particular of Germany, and displayed great tact and temper in dealing with the Swedish senate, with Queen Ulrica, with the king of Denmark and Frederick William I.
The young king resolved to attack the nearest of his three enemies - Denmark - first.
Hungary and Sweden accepted it, and so finally did Denmark, where at first it was rejected, and its publication made a crime punishable by death.
Knowledge of Neolithic times is derived principally from four sources, Tumuli or ancient burial-mounds, the Lake-dwellings of Switzerland, the Kitchenmiddens of Denmark and the Bone-Caves.
Peace having been concluded between Sweden and Denmark in 1645, Duquesne returned to France.
He made similar voyages in later years in Norway, Sweden and Denmark, the North Sea and Palestine.
In 1 575 a conference was held here between the ambassadors of Spain and those of the United Provinces; in 1667 a peace was signed between England, Holland, France and Denmark; and in 1746-1747 the representatives of the same powers met in the town to discuss the terms of another treaty.
In Denmark, on the proposal of the Academy of Science, a survey was carried out in 1766-1825, but the maps issued by the Danish general staff depend upon more recent surveys.
The German boarhound is one of the largest races of dogs, originally used in Germany and Denmark for hunting boars or deer, but now employed chiefly as watchdogs.
The operations of the British fleet were therefore divided between the work of patrolling the ocean roads and ancillary services to diplomacy, or to the armies serving in Italy, Denmark and, after 1808, in Spain.
It passed in 1559 to Duke John the Younger, founder of the line of Holstein-Sonderburg, on the extinction of which, in 1761, it fell to Denmark, and in 1867, with Schleswig-Holstein, to Prussia.
Denmark Strait is the sea between it and Iceland, and the northern Norwegian Sea or Greenland Sea separates it from Spitsbergen.
A submarine ridge, about 300 fathoms deep at its deepest, unites Greenland with Iceland (across Denmark Strait), the Faeroes and Scotland.
In 1807-1814, owing to the war, communication was cut off with Norway and Denmark; but subsequently the colony prospered in a languid fashion.
Denmark, however, only finally renounced her claims by the treaty of Gottorp in 1768, and in 1770 Hamburg was admitted for the first time to a representation in the diet of the empire.
At the present day the Lutheran Churches of Denmark and Scandinavia retain the use of alb and chasuble in the celebration of the eucharist (stole, amice, girdle and maniple were disused after the Reformation), and for bishops the cope and mitre.
On the 1st of October 1643 Frederick wedded Sophia Amelia of Brunswick Luneburg, whose .energetic, passionate and ambitious character was profoundly to affect not only Frederick's destiny but the destiny of Denmark.
Charles's invasion of Poland (July 1654) came as a distinct relief to the Danes, though even the Polish War was full of latent peril to Denmark.
But Charles's insatiable lust for conquest, and his ineradicable suspicion of Denmark, induced him, on the 17th of July, without any reasonable cause, without a declaration of war, in defiance of all international equity, to endeavour to despatch an inconvenient neighbour.
From Denmark he carried away thirty boys to be brought up among the Franks.
The alliance which he then concluded with Denmark bound the two northern realms together in a common foreign policy, and he sought besides to facilitate their harmonious co-operation by every means in his power.
In 1649 he accompanied the mission of Henry, count of Nassau, to Denmark, and in 1651 entered the lists of science as an assailant of the unsound system of quadratures adopted by Gregory of St Vincent.
He reformed the coinage, developed trade and commerce and introduced numerous agricultural reforms, especially on his own estates, which he was never weary of enlarging, so that on his death he was the wealthiest landowner in Denmark.
Oxe died on the 24th of October 1575, after contributing, more than any other statesman of his day, to raise Denmark for a brief period to the rank of a great power.
In 1069 Robert of Comines, a Norman to whom William had given the earldom of Northumberland, was murdered by the English at Durham; the north declared for Edgar Atheling, the last male representative of the West-Saxon dynasty; and Sweyn Estrithson of Denmark sent a fleet to aid the rebels.
In 1085 news arrived that Cnut the Saint, king of Denmark, was preparing to assert the claims of his house in England.
The Lutheran Bugenhagen, who was in priest's orders, ordained seven superintendents, afterwards called bishops, for Denmark in 1527, and Norway, then under the same crown, derives its present episcopate from the same source.
After spending a month in Paris, he walked on to Amsterdam, took sail to Hamburg, and so went back to Denmark in 1716.
Until this time no plays had been acted in Denmark except in French and German, but Holberg now determined to use his talent in the construction of Danish comedy.
During this period he published his poetical satire called Metamorphosis (1726), his Epistolae ad virum perillustrem (1727), his Description of Denmark and Norway (1729), History of Denmark, Universal Church History, Biographies of Famous Men, Moral Reflections, Description of Bergen (1737), A History of the Jews, and other learned and laborious compilations.
Holberg found Denmark provided with no books, and he wrote a library for her.
Of the reformed Churches of the continent of Europe only the Lutheran Churches of Denmark, Iceland, Norway, Sweden and Finland preserve the episcopal system in anything of its historical sense; and of these only the two last can lay claim to the possession of bishops in the unbroken line of episcopal succession.
But his long reign is unstained by a single ignoble deed, and he devoted himself heart and soul to the promotion of the material and spiritual welfare of Denmark.
In the 12th century the town was founded and a castle erected on Knudshoved (Canute's Head) by Knud, nephew of Waldemar the Great; and from the 13th to the 15th century Nyborg was one of the most important places in Denmark.
In 994 Olaf Tryggvason, king of Norway, and Sweyn, king of Denmark, united in a great invasion and attacked London.
In io05 the Danes were absent in Denmark, but came back next year, and emboldened by the utter lack of resistance, they ranged far inland.
They were easily defeated, though Ralph sent to Denmark for ships and went there himself to fetch them.
Within six years the mobilization arrangements were recast, the war against Denmark in 1864 proving an opportune test of the new system.
In 1526 he had married Dorothea, daughter of Frederick I., king of Denmark, and after her death in 1547, Anna Maria, daughter of Eric I., duke of Brunswick.
So few examples of glass vessels of this period which have been painted in enamel have come down to us that it has been questioned whether that art was then practised; but several specimens have been described which can leave no doubt on the point; decisive examples are afforded by two cups found at Vaspelev, in Denmark, engravings of which are published in the Annaler for Nordisk Oldkyndeghed for 1861, p. 305.
In 1747, alliances were also concluded with Denmark and the Porte.
His practice was not confined to his own country, but extended also to Sweden, Denmark, Belgium, Switzerland, Piedmont and Egypt.
The foster-brotherhood seems to have been unknown to the Franks and the Anglo-Saxons, the nations in which medieval gilds first appear; and hence Dr Pappenheim's conclusions, if tenable at all, apply only to Denmark or Scandinavia.
The gilds of Norway, Denmark and Sweden are first mentioned in the 11th, 12th and 14th centuries respectively; those of France and the Netherlands in the 11th.
Returning to Arabia a year later, he visited Oman and the shores of the Persian Gulf, and travelling from Basra through Syria and Palestine he reached Denmark in 1764 after four years' absence.
The commercial relations with the North cannot be regarded as an important element in the union of the Hanse towns, but the geographical position of the Scandinavian countries, especially that of Denmark, commanding the Sound which gives access to the Baltic, compelled a close attention to Scandinavian politics on the part of Lubeck and the League and thus by necessitating combined political action in defence of Hanseatic sea-power exercised a unifying influence.
A speech, denouncing the projected incorporation of Schleswig and Holstein with Denmark, delivered in the Chamber of Baden on the 6th of February 1845, spread his fame beyond the limits of his own state, and his popularity was increased by his expulsion from Prussia on the occasion of a journey to Stettin.
Jordanes says that they had been expelled from their territories by the Danes, from which it may be inferred that they belonged either to what is now the kingdom of Denmark, or the southern portion of the Jutish peninsula.
Their remains have been found in Belgium and France, in Britain, Germany and Denmark, as well as in Spain; and they bear a close resemblance to a type which is common among the Basques as well as all over the Iberian peninsula.
In September 1883 Tennyson and Gladstone set out on a voyage round the north of Scotland, to Orkney, and across the ocean to Norway and Denmark.
The same year witnessed the restoration of peace in Italy and the return of the emperor to Germany, where he received the homage of the rulers of Poland, Bohemia and Denmark; but he died suddenly at Memleben on the 7th of May 973, and was buried at Magdeburg.
The plan was also imitated in Denmark, Sweden and Germany.
Denmark Early in the 18th century Denmark had the Nye Tidender (1720), continued down to 1836 under the name of Danskliteraturtidende.
During the war with Denmark he had his first military experience, being attached to the staff of Marshal von Wrangel; he performed valuable service in arranging the difficulties caused by the disputes between the field marshal and the other officers, and was eventually given a control over him.
The choice of his governor, the patriotic historiographer Hans Svaning, was so far fortunate that it ensured the devotion of the future king of Denmark to everything Danish; but Svaning was a poor pedagogue, and the wild and wayward lad suffered all his life from the defects of his early training.
The war was very unpopular in Denmark, and the closing of the Sound against foreign shipping, in order to starve out Sweden, had exasperated the maritime powers and all the Baltic states.
On Baggesen's return to Denmark, Fernow, assisted by some of his friends, visited Rome and made some stay there.
His father was a physician who emigrated from Denmark in 1864.
The reigning king, Frederick VII., was childless, and the representatives of the great powers met in London and settled the crown on Prince Christian and his wife (May 1852), an arrangement which became part of the law of Denmark in 1853.
The hostile action of Denmark enabled him honourably to emerge from the inglorious Polish imbroglio, and he was certain of the zealous support of his own people.
He had learnt from Torstensson that Denmark was most vulnerable if attacked from the south, and, imitating the strategy of his master, he fell upon her with a velocity which paralysed resistance.
But the fortress of Fredriksodde (Fredericia) held Charles's little army at bay from mid-August to mid-October, while the fleet of Denmark, after a stubborn two days' battle, compelled the Swedish fleet to abandon its projected attack on the Danish islands.
In July an offensive and defensive alliance was concluded between Denmark and Poland.
In the middle of December 1657 began the great frost which was to be so fatal to Denmark.
Under his command the fleet made no attempt to blockade the Dutch coast, but was turned from its proper work to engage in a prize-hunting plot with the king of Denmark.
The object was to plunder a Dutch convoy which had taken refuge at Bergen in Norway, then united to Denmark.
About the same time a war was fought in northern Europe (1655-60), celebrated chiefly for the three days' battle of Warsaw (28th, 29th, 30th July 1656), and the successful invasion of Denmark by the Swedes, carried out from island to island over the frozen sea (February 1658), and culminating in a long siege of Copenhagen (1658-59).
The German princes and the empire itself rallied to the emperor, Denmark joined the coalition (January 1674), the Great Elector re-entered the war, and soon afterwards England made peace.
In Denmark he was brought much into contact with the imperial family, and on the death of Prince Lobanov in 1897 he was appointed by the Tsar Nicholas II.
This council was nominated by the governments of Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Russia, Germany, Great Britain, Holland and Belgium, with headquarters in Copenhagen and a central laboratory at Christiania, and its aim was to furnish data for the improvement of the fisheries of the North Sea and surrounding waters.
It has been found more convenient to take as northern boundaries the narrowest part of the straits near the Arctic circle, Bering Strait on the Pacific side, and on the Atlantic side the narrowest part of Davis Strait, and of Denmark Strait, then the shortest line from Iceland to the Faeroes, thence to the most northerly island of the Shetlands and thence to Cape Statland in Norway.
The ridge across Denmark Strait west of Iceland nowhere exceeds 300 fathoms in depth, so that the deeper water of the North Polar Basin is effectively separated from that of the Atlantic. A third small basin occupies Baffin Bay and contains a maximum depth of 1050 fathoms. Depths of from loo to 300 fathoms are not uncommon amongst the channels of the Arctic Archipelago north of North America, and Bering Strait, through which the surface water of the Arctic Sea meets that of the Pacific, is only 28 fathoms deep.
But when Denmark got a free constitution in 1848, which had no legal validity in Iceland, the island felt justified in demanding full home rule.
To this the Danish government was vehemently opposed; it convoked an Icelandic National Assembly in 1851, and brought before that body a bill granting Iceland small local liberties, but practically incorporating Iceland in Denmark.
In 1871 the Danish parliament (Riksdag) passed a law defining the political position of Iceland in the Danish monarchy, which, though never recognized as valid by the Icelanders, became de facto the base of the political relations of Iceland and Denmark.
He did all he could personally to strengthen the bonds between the Norwegians and the royal house of Denmark, and though his endeavours were opposed by the so-called Swedish party, which desired a dynastic union with Sweden, he placed himself at the head of the Norwegian party of independence, and was elected regent of Norway by an assembly of notables on the 16th of February 1814.
On being summoned by the commissioners of the allied powers at Copenhagen to bring about a union between Norway and Sweden in accordance with the terms of the treaty of Kiel, and then return to Denmark, he replied that, as a constitutional king, he could do nothing without the consent of the Storthing, to the convocation of which a suspension of hostilities on the part of Sweden was the condition precedent.
To the north, Lutheran influence had spread into Denmark; Sweden and Norway were also brought within its sphere.
In 1131 the king led an expedition into Denmark, where one of his vassals had been murdered by Magnus, son of the Danish king, Niels, and where general confusion reigned; but no resistance was offered, and Niels promised to pay tribute to Lothair.
In 1135, Eric II., king of Denmark, acknowledged himself a vassal of Lothair; Boleslaus III., prince of the Poles, promised tribute and received Pomerania and Riigen as German fiefs; while the eastern emperor, John Comnenus, implored Lothair's aid against Roger II.
Charles was a warm advocate of "Scandinavianism" and the political solidarity of the three northern kingdoms, and his warm friendship for Frederick VII., it is said, led him to give half promises of help to Denmark on the eve of the war of 1864, which, in the circumstances, were perhaps misleading and unjustifiable.
He left but one child, a daughter, Louisa Josephina Eugenia, who in 1869 married the crown-prince Frederick of Denmark.
The most celebrated of these struggles is the one known as the Hildesheimer Stiftsfehde, which broke out early in the 16th century when John, duke of Saxe-Lauenburg, was bishop. At first the bishop and his allies were successful, but in 1521 the king of Denmark and the duke of Brunswick overran his lands and in 1523 he made peace, surrendering nearly all his possessions.
A certain Widukind, or Wittekind, who had doubtless taken part in the earlier struggle, returned from exile in Denmark, and under his leadership the Saxon revolt broke out afresh in 778.
George William, however, took Ratzeburg, and held it against the troops of a third claimant, Christian V., king of Denmark; and in 1702 he bought off the claim of John George, his successor being invested with the duchy in 1728.
In 1800 he passed to Denmark, where, as at home, he gained many followers and assistants, chiefly among the lower orders.
The epoch-making events which occurred in England, while he was at Oxford profoundly interested him, and coinciding with the Revolution in Denmark, which threw open a career to the middle classes, convinced him that his proper sphere was politics.
In 1665 Schumacher obtained his first political post as the king's secretary, and the same year composed the memorable Kongelov (see Denmark, History) .
On the 25th of May 1671 the dignities of count and baron were introduced into Denmark "to give lustre to the court"; a few months later the order of the Danebrog was instituted as a fresh means of winning adherents by marks of favour.
In the last three years of his administration, Griffenfeldt gave himself entirely to the conduct of the foreign policy of Denmark.
Briefly, Griffenfeldt aimed at restoring Denmark to the rank of a great power.
The first postulate of such a policy was peace, especially peace with Denmark's most dangerous neighbour, Sweden.
Above all things Denmark was to beware of making enemies of France and Sweden at the same time.
An alliance, on fairly equal terms, between the three powers, would, in these circumstances, be the consummation of Griffenfeldt's "system"; an alliance with France to the exclusion of Sweden would be the next best policy; but an alliance between France and Sweden, without the admission of Denmark, was to be avoided at all hazards.
Had Griffenfeldt's policy succeeded, Denmark might have recovered her ancient possessions to the south and east comparatively cheaply.
The duke was aided in this work by the alliance of Valdemar I., king of Denmark, and, it is said, by engines of war brought from Italy.
A war with Valdemar of Denmark, caused by a quarrel over the booty obtained from 1 The see was transferred to Schwerin by Henry in 1167.
Under the guidance of his great chancellor Griffenfeldt, Denmark seemed for a brief period to have a chance of regaining her former position as a great power.
In 1863 the prince of Wales married the princess Alexandra of Denmark.
C. Dahlmann, he placed his historical learning at the service of the estates of SchleswigHolstein and composed the address of 1844, in which the estates protested against the claim of the king of Denmark to alter the law of succession in the duchies.
During the next two years he continued to support the cause of the duchies, and in 1850, with Carl Samwer, he published a history of the dealings of Denmark with Schleswig-Holstein, Die Herzogthiimer Schleswig-Holstein land das Kiinigreich Ddnemark seit dem Jahre 1806 (Hamburg, 1850).
A translation was published in London in the same year under the title The Policy of Denmark towards the Duchies of Schleswig-Holstein.
The work was one of great political importance, and had much to do with the formation of German public opinion on the rights of the duchies in their struggle with Denmark.
In 1908 the British empire retained the lead, but other nations, notably Germany, Denmark, Italy and Belgium, had recently acquired large interests in the commerce of the country.
In June he was appointed one of three commissioners to mediate for a peace between Denmark, supported by Holland, and Sweden.
Finally he picked a quarrel with Denmark for not accepting as an ultimatum the terms to be submitted by Russia to a peace conference to meet at Berlin for the purpose of adjusting the differences between the two powers.
On the 6th of July the Russian army received orders to invade Denmark by way of Mecklenburg.
Valdemar was brought up at the court of the German emperor, Louis of Bavaria, during those miserable years when the realm of Denmark was partitioned among Holstein counts and German Ritter, while Scania, "the bread-basket" of the monarchy, sought deliverance from anarchy under the protection of Magnus of Sweden.
Even the Hanse Towns, the hereditary enemies of Denmark, regarded the situation with disquietude.
Neither the time nor the place of Valdemar's birth is known, but he could not have been more than twenty when he became the nominal king of Denmark, though, as a matter of fact, his territory was limited to the northernmost county of Jutland.
In north German politics he interfered vigorously to protect his brotherin-law the Margrave Louis of Brandenburg against the lords of Mecklenburg and the dukes of Pomerania, with such success that the emperor, Charles IV., at the conference of Bautzen, was reconciled to the Brandenburger and allowed Valdemar an annual charge of 16,000 silver marks on the city of Lubeck (1349) Some years later Valdemar seriously thought of reviving the ancient claims of Denmark upon England, and entered into negotiations with the French king, John, who in his distress looked to this descendant of the ancient Vikings for help. A matrimonial alliance between the two crowns was even discussed, and Valdemar offered, for the huge sum of 600,000 gulden, to transport 12,000 men to England.
But the chronic state of rebellion in western Denmark, which, fomented by the discontented Jutish magnates, lasted with short intervals from 1350 to 1360, compelled Valdemar to renounce these farreaching and fantastic designs.
In July 1361 Valdemar set sail from Denmark at the head of a great fleet, defeated a peasant army before Visby, and a few days later the burgesses of Visby made a breach in their walls through which the Danish monarch passed in triumph.
At a Hansetag held at Cologne on the 11th of November 1367, three groups of the towns, seventy in number, concerted to attack Denmark, and in January 1368 Valdemar's numerous domestic enemies, especially the Jutlanders and the Holstein counts, acceded to the league, with the object of partitioning the realm among them.
This Book of Concord was accepted by the Lutheran churches of Sweden and of Hungary in 1593 and 1597; but it was rejected by the Lutheran churches of Denmark, of Hesse, of Anhalt, of Pomerania and of several of the imperial cities.
The Lutheran state churches of Denmark, Sweden and Norway have retained the episcopate.
In Denmark they are the inspectors of the clergy and of the schools.
He lived abroad from 1808 to 1812, passing most of his time in England, Scotland, Denmark, Sweden and France; trying to secure aid in the prosecution of his filibustering schemes but meeting with numerous rebuffs, being ordered out of England and Napoleon refusing to receive him.
Henceforth Absalon was the chief counsellor of Valdemar, and the promoter of that imperial policy which, for three generations, was to give Denmark the dominion of the Baltic. Briefly, it was Absalon's intention to clear the northern sea of the Wendish pirates, who inhabited that portion of the Baltic littoral which we now call Pomerania, and ravaged the Danish coasts so unmercifully that at the accession of Valdemar one-third of the realm of Denmark lay wasted and depopulated.
The very existence of Denmark demanded the suppression and conversion of these stiff-necked pagan freebooters, and to this double task Absalon devoted the best part of his life.
The aim of his policy was to free Denmark from the German yoke.
As the archpastor of Denmark Absalon also rendered his country inestimable services, building churches and monasteries, introducing the religious orders, founding schools and doing his utmost to promote civilization and enlightenment.
He received an excellent education, became elector of Brandenburg on his father's death in January 1499, and soon afterwards married Elizabeth, daughter of John, king of Denmark.
In 1810 he was about to enter upon his new post of governor of Rome when he was, unexpectedly, elected successor to the Swedish throne, partly because a large part of the Swedish army, in view of future complications with Russia, were in favour of electing a soldier, and partly because Bernadotte was very popular in Sweden, owing to the kindness he had shown to the Swedish prisoners during the late war with Denmark.
Though undoubtedly sparing his Swedes unduly, to the just displeasure of the allies, Charles John, as commander-in-chief of the northern army, successfully defended the approaches to Berlin against Oudinot in August and against Ney in September; but after Leipzig he went his own way, determined at all hazards to cripple Denmark and secure Norway.
His earlier policy aimed at strengthening Holstein-Gottorp at the expense of Denmark.
With this object, during Charles XII.'s stay at Altranstadt (1706-1707), he tried to divert the king's attention to the Holstein question, and six years later, when the Swedish commander, Magnus Stenbock, crossed the Elbe, Gertz rendered him as much assistance as was compatible with not openly breaking with Denmark, even going so far as to surrender the fortress of Tenning to the Swedes.
Gertz next attempted to undermine the grand alliance against Sweden by negotiating with Russia, Prussia and Saxony for the purpose of isolating Denmark, or even of turning the arms of the allies against her, a task by no means impossible in view of the strained relations between Denmark and the tsar.
Many of these secured royal and aristocratic patronage and encouragement-the tsar of Russia, the kings of Prussia, Bavaria, Sweden, Denmark and Wurttemberg all lending their influence to the enterprise.
In 1883 Strindberg left Sweden with his family, to travel in Germany, Italy, France and Denmark, writing for foreign reviews and producing various volumes of stories and articles.
Neper, Baron of Mercheston, near Edinburgh, and told him, among other discourses, of a new invention in Denmark (by Longomontanus, as 'tis said), to save the tedious multiplication and division in astronomical calculations.
As Sir William Stuart was sent to Denmark to arrange the preliminaries of King James's marriage, and returned to Edinburgh on the 15th of November 1588, it would seem probable that this was the volume referred to by Craig.
The " new invention in Denmark " to which Anthony Wood refers as having given the hint to Napier was probably the method of calculation called prosthaphaeresis (often written in Greek letters irpooOa4aipeats), which had its origin in the solution of spherical triangles.
The Smaller Catechism, with the Augsburg Confession, was made the Rule of Faith in Denmark in 1537.
During his twenty years' reign Denmark advanced steadily along the path of greatness and prosperity marked out for her by Valdemar I., consolidating and extending her dominion over the North Baltic coast and adopting a more and more independent attitude towards Germany.
The emperor Frederick I.'s claim of overlordship was haughtily rejected at the very outset, and his attempt to stir up Duke Bogislav of Pomerania against Denmark's vassal, Jaromir of Riigen, was defeated by Archbishop Absalon, who destroyed 465 of Bogislav's 500 ships in a naval action off Strela (Stralsund) in 1184.
In 1197, however, German jealousy of Denmark's ambitions, especially when Canute led a fleet against the pirates of Esthonia, induced Otto, margrave of Brandenburg, to invade Pomerania, while in the following year Otto, in conjunction with Duke Adolf of Holstein, wasted the dominions of the Danophil Abodrites.
The war continued intermittently till 1201, when Duke Valdemar, Canute's younger brother, conquered the whole of Holstein, and Duke Adolf was subsequently captured at Hamburg and sent in chains to Denmark.
In 1799 he returned to Denmark, where he entered the state service; in 1800 he married and settled at Copenhagen.
Not long after this he visited the king of Denmark, Sweyn Estrithson, in Zealand; on the death of Adalbert, in 1072, he began the Historia Hammaburgensis Ecclesiae, which he finished about 1075.
In 1848 he supported Denmark against Germany; placed Swedish and Norwegian troops in cantonments in Fiinen and North Schleswig (1849-1850); and mediated the truce of Malmo (August 26th, 1848).
He was also one of the guarantors of the integrity of Denmark (London protocol, May 8th, 1852).
In Denmark And Sweden The Reformed Calendar Was Received About The Same Time As In The Protestant States Of Germany.
He subsequently (about ?1590) became private secretary and Master of Requests to Anne of Denmark, wife of James VI., and was renominated to these offices when the queen went to England.
It formerly belonged to Denmark, but, as a result of the Danish war of 1864, was incorporated with Germany.
Augustus continued the war against the Turks for a time, and being anxious to extend his influence and to find a pretext for retaining the Saxon troops in Poland, made an alliance in 1699 with Russia and Denmark against Charles XII.
Declaring the treaty of Altranstadt void and renewing his alliance with Russia and Denmark, he quickly recovered the Polish crown.
He studied law at the universities of Berlin, GÃ¶ttingen and Kiel, and began his political career in the service of Denmark, in the chancery of Schleswig-Holstein-Lauenburg at Copenhagen, and afterwards in the foreign office.
In 1849, accordingly, he re-entered the service of Denmark, was appointed a royal chamberlain and in 1850 sent to represent the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein at the restored federal diet of Frankfort.
The lan of Halland formed part of the territory of Denmark in Sweden, and accordingly, in 1534, during his war with the Danes, Gustavus Vasa assaulted and took its chief town.
The family is divisible into two sub-families, of which the first, or Sminthinae, is represented only by the genus Sminthus, containing a few species which range from Denmark into Western Asia, Kashmir and China.
In 1864 Ruskin's father died, at the age of 79, leaving his son a large fortune and a fine property at Denmark Hill.
A single standard union exists between Sweden, Norway and Denmark under a convention of 1873.
The Swedish government was in the hands of an untried lad of sixteen; and the fine fleets of Denmark, and the veteran soldiers of Saxony, were on the same side as the myriads of Muscovy.
This influence extended from Germany to Denmark, where it was embraced by Hoff ding, and to England, where it was accepted by Romanes, and in a more qualified manner as " a working hypothesis " by Stout.
This office he relinquished in 1765, and travelled in Denmark and Sweden, where he studied the methods of working the mines, and made the acquaintance of Linnaeus at Upsala.
The only result of anthropological investigation which so far can be regarded as definitely established is that the old Teutonic lands in northern Germany, Denmark and southern Sweden have been inhabited by people of the same type since the neolithic age, if not earlier.
The Inguaeones again are defined as being " next to the ocean "; but the name can be traced only in Denmark and Sweden, where we find the eponymous hero Ing and the god Yngvi (Frey) respectively.
In the north, after several attempts during the 9th century which met with only temporary success, Christianity was established in Denmark under Harold Bluetooth, about 94 0 -9 60, and in Norway and Sweden before the end of the century, while in Iceland it obtained public recognition in the year 1000.
The spread of toleration, which always savours minorities, broke down between 1845 and 1873 the Lutheran exclusiveness of Norway, Denmark and Sweden; but as yet the Catholics form a disappearing fraction of the population.
For the first thirty years (1733-1762) his work was mainly devoted to the superintendence and organization of the extensive missionary enterprises of the body in Germany, England, Denmark, Holland, Surinam, Georgia and elsewhere.
When in 1625 Christian IV., king of Denmark, entered the arena of the war, he took the field again in the Protestant interest, but after some successes he died at Wolfenbiittel on the 16th of June 1626.
His first plan was a combination against her of Saxony, Denmark and Brandenburg; but, Brandenburg failing him, he was obliged very unwillingly to admit Russia into the partnership. The tsar was to be content with Ingria and Esthonia, while Augustus was to take Livonia, nominally as a fief of Poland, but really as an hereditary possession of the Saxon house.
Some of the islands belong to the United States, some to Denmark and some to Great Britain.
St Canute's cathedral, formerly connected with the great Benedictine monastery of the same name, is one of the largest and finest buildings of its kind in Denmark.
Under the altar lies Canute (Knud), the patron saint of Denmark, who intended to dispute with William of Normandy the possession of England, but was slain in an insurrection at Odense in 1086; Kings John and Christian II.
Odin's island, is one of the oldest cities of Denmark.
There was talk of something in Denmark; or he would settle in Spires, and practise in the court there.
He took a considerable part in the demonstrations of 1848, and was regarded as the leader of the "Eiderdanen," that is, of the party which regarded the Eider as the boundary of Denmark, and the duchy of Schleswig as an integral part of the kingdom.
His book On the Causes of the Misfortunes of Denmark (1864) went through many editions, and his posthumous works were published in 4 vols., 1872-1874.
Four years after her death the king privately wedded a handsome young gentlewoman, Christina Munk, by whom he had twelve children, - a connexion which was to be disastrous to Denmark.
On the 9th of May 1625 Christian quitted Denmark for the front.
In his extremity Christian now formed an alliance with Sweden (1st of January 1628), whereby Gustavus Adolphus pledged himself to assist Denmark with a fleet in case of need, and shortly afterwards a Swedo-Danish army and fleet compelled Wallenstein to raise the siege of Stralsund.
Thus the possession of a superior sea-power enabled Denmark to tide over her worst difficulties, and in May 162 9 Christian was able to conclude peace with the emperor at Lubeck, without any diminution of territory.
Vibeke's children were of course the natural enemies of the children of Christina Munk, and the hatred of the two families was not without influence on the future history of Denmark.
During that period he obtained once more the control of the foreign policy of Denmark as well as of the Sound tolls, and towards the end of it he hoped to increase his power still further with the assistance of his sons-in-law, Korfits Ulfeld and Hannibal Sehested, who now came prominently forward.
But his whole Scandinavian policy was so irritating and vexatious that Swedish statesmen made up their minds that a war with Denmark was only a question of time; and in the spring of 1643 it seemed to them that the time had come.
They were now able, thanks to their conquests in the Thirty Years' War, to attack Denmark from the south as well as the east; the Dutch alliance promised to secure them at sea, and an attack upon Denmark would prevent her from utilizing the impending peace negotiations to the prejudice of Sweden.
In May the Swedish Riksrad decided upon war; on the 12th of December the Swedish marshal Lennart Torstensson, advancing from Bohemia, crossed the northern frontier of Denmark; by the end of January 1644 the whole peninsula of Jutland was in his possession.
This totally unexpected attack, conducted from first to last with consummate ability and lightning-like rapidity, had a paralysing effect upon Denmark.
In Denmark, the Danish Missionary Society, founded by Pastor Bone Falck Ronne in 1821,.
The continent of Europe is no more than a great peninsula extending westwards from the much vaster continent of Asia, while it is itself broken up by two inland seas into several smaller peninsulas - the Mediterranean forming the Iberian, the Italian and the Greek peninsulas, while the Baltic forms that of Scandinavia and the much smaller one of Denmark.
Denmark and Sweden followed suit with translations, and the expression " eternal Jew " passed as a current term into Czech.
William, now supreme in the States, while on land struggling with chequered success against the superior forces of the French, strove by his diplomacy, and not in vain, to gain allies for the republic. The growing power of France caused alarm to her neighbours, and Sweden, Denmark, Spain and the emperor lent a willing ear to the persuasions of the stadholder and were ready to aid his efforts to curb the ambition of Louis.
Largest skins come from Denmark, Holland and Germany.
It shares with the royal library the right of receiving a copy of every book published in Denmark.
In front of it is the Denmark monument (1896), commemorating the golden wedding (1892) of Christian IX.
It contains the chronological collection of Danish monarchs, including a coin and medal cabinet, a fine collection of Venetian glass, the famous silver drinking-horn of Oldenburg (1474), the regalia and other objects of interest as illustrating the history of Denmark.
Copenhagen is by far the most important commercial town in Denmark, and exemplifies the steady increase in the trade of the country.
The Swedes could equip only eleven of the -line for sea, and Denmark only seven or eight.
Parker's orders were to give Denmark twenty-four hours in which to withdraw from the coalition, and on her refusal to destroy or neutralize her strength and then proceed against the Russians before the breaking up of the ice allowed the ships at Reval to join the squadron at Kronstadt.
Thesiger ashore to the crown prince of Denmark (then regent of the kingdom), to say that unless he was allowed to take possession of the hulks which had surrendered he would be compelled to burn them, a course which he deprecated on the ground of humanity and his tenderness of "the brothers of the English the Danes."
In 1658-59 he sustained Denmark against Sweden, and in 1662 concluded an advantageous peace with Portugal.
In 1230 the conquest of Prussia was begun by the Order, although not under his immediate leadership. In 1225 he reconciled Valdemar II., king of Denmark, with Henry I., count of Schwerin, and thus won again the land on the right bank of the Elbe for the Empire, and the recognition of imperial superiority over Denmark.
By releasing his country from the tyranny of Denmark, Gustavus had made the free independent development of Sweden a possibility.
Necessity compelled him indeed (1534-1536) to take part in Grevens fejde (Counts' War) (see Denmark, History), as the ally of Christian III., but his exaggerated distrust of the Danes was invincible.
In 1557 he even wrote to the Danish king protesting against the placing of "the three crowns" in the royal Danish seal beneath the arms of Denmark.
The battle was fought between Olaf Trygvesson, king of Norway, and a coalition of his enemies - Eric Hakonson, his cousin and rival; Olaf, the king of Sweden; and Sweyn Forkbeard, king of Denmark.
This collection of sagas, completed in about 1380, is "the most extensive and most perfect of Icelandic manuscripts," and was sent to Denmark in 1662 as a gift to the king.
Academies vied with each other in enrolling Leverrier among their members; the Royal Society awarded him the Copley medal; the king of Denmark sent him the order of the Dannebrog; he was named officer in the Legion of Honour, and preceptor to the comte de Paris; a chair of astronomy was created for his benefit at the Faculty of Sciences; he was appointed adjunct astronomer to the Bureau of Longitudes.
This was followed by the treaty of alliance between Denmark and Russia of the 12th of August 1773, which was partly a mutually defensive league, and partly an engagement between the two states to upset the new constitution recently established in Sweden by Gustavus III., when the right moment for doing so should arrive.
For this mischievous and immoral alliance, which bound Denmark to the wheels of the Russian empress's chariot and sought to interfere in the internal affairs of a neighbouring state, Bernstorff was scarcely responsible, for the preliminaries had been definitely settled in his uncle's time and he merely concluded them.
But there can be no doubt that he regarded this antiSwedish policy as the correct one for Denmark, especially with a monarch like Gustavus III.
Ill-disposed as Bernstorff was towards the Jacobins, he now condemned on principle any interference in the domestic affairs of France, and he was persuaded that Denmark's safest policy was to keep clear of every anti-French coalition.
Bernstorff's great faculties appeared, indeed, to mature and increase with age, and his death, on the 21st of June 1797, was regarded in Denmark as a national calamity.
Another, Count Joachim, was attached to his brother's fortunes so long as he remained in the Danish service, was associated with him in representing Denmark at the congress of Vienna, and in 1815 was appointed ambassador at that court.
This stronghold stood several sieges in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, and the town gives name to the treaty (Kalmar Union) by which Sweden, Norway and Denmark were united into one kingdom in 1397.
In 1732 he was sent on a diplomatic mission to the court of Dresden; and from 1738 he represented Holstein at the diet of Regensburg, from 1744 to 1750 he represented Denmark at Paris, whence he returned in 1754 to Denmark as minister of foreign affairs.
Ever since the conclusion of the Great Northern War, Danish statesmen had been occupied in harvesting its fruits, namely, the Gottorp portions of Schleswig definitely annexed to Denmark in 1721 by the treaty of Nystad, and endeavouring to bring about a definitive general understanding with the house of Gottorp as to their remaining possessions in Holstein.
Ever since Russia had become the dominant Baltic power, as well as the state to which the Gottorpers looked primarily for help, the necessity for a better understanding between the two Scandinavian kingdoms had clearly been recognized by the best statesmen of both, especially in Denmark from Christian VI.'s time; but unfortunately this sound and sensible policy was seriously impeded by the survival of the old national hatred on both sides of the Sound, still further complicated by Gottorp's hatred of Denmark.
Moreover, it was a diplomatic axiom in Denmark, founded on experience, that an absolute monarchy in Sweden was incomparablymore dangerous to her neighbour than a limited monarchy, and after the collapse of Swedish absolutism with Charles XII., the upholding of the comparatively feeble, and ultimately anarchical, parliamentary government of Sweden became a question of principle with Danish statesmen throughout the 18th century.
He was determined to preserve the neutrality of Denmark at any cost, and this he succeeded in doing, despite the existence of a subsidy-treaty with the king of Prussia, and the suspicions of England and ' Sweden.
It was through his initiative, too, that the convention of KlosterSeven was signed (loth of September 1757), and on the 4th of May 1758 he concluded a still more promising treaty with France, whereby, in consideration of Denmark's holding an army-corps of 24,000 men in Holstein till the end of the war, to secure Hamburg, Lubeck and the Gottorp part of Holstein from invasion, France, and ultimately Austria also, engaged to bring about an exchange between the king of Denmark and the cesarevitch, as regards Holstein.
Austria hastened to repudiate her guarantee to Denmark in order not to offend the new emperor of Russia, Peter III., and one of Peter's first acts on ascending the throne was to declare war against Denmark.
He protested that the king of Denmark was bound to defend Schleswig "so long as there was a sword in Denmark and a drop of blood in the veins of the Danish people."
This compact engaged Denmark to join with Russia in upholding the existing Swedish constitution, in return for which Catherine II.
On the accession of Christian VII., in 1766, Bernstorff's position became very precarious, and he was exposed to all manner of attacks, being accused, without a shadow of truth, of exploiting Denmark, and of unduly promoting foreigners.
It is remarkable, however, that though Bernstorff ruled Denmark for twenty years he never learnt Danish.
His last political achievement was to draw still closer to Russia by the treaty of the 13th of December 1769, the most important paragraph of which stipulated that any change in the Swedish constitution should be regarded by Denmark and Russia as a cases belli against Sweden, and that in the event of such a war Denmark should retain all the territory conquered from Sweden.
This treaty proved to be a great mistake on Denmark's part, but circumstances seemed at the time to warrant it.
Until 1658 it belonged to Denmark, and it was again occupied by the Danes in 1676 and 1677.
No doubt the pre-eminence of the north, and especially of Denmark, at this period, was due to the amber trade, causing southern influence to penetrate up the basin of the Elbe to Jutland.
On the north was Denmark ruled by Canute the Great; on the east was the wide Polish state whose ruler, Boleslaus, had just taken the title of king; and on the south-east was Hungary, which under its king, St Stephen, was rapidly becqming an organized and formidable power.
Peace was maintained with Canute, and in 1035 a treaty The was concluded and the land between the Eider and neigh- the Schlei was ceded to Denmark.
The king of Denmark, too, acknowledged Henry as his feudal lord.
He had put down the disorder in Bavaria, in Saxony and in Lorraine; a diet held at Magdeburg in 1135 was attended by representatives from the vassal states of Denmark, Hungary, Bohemia and Poland; and in 1136, when he visited Italy for the second time, Germany was in a very peaceful condition.
Early in his reign, by settling a dispute over the crown of Denmark, Frederick brought the king of that country once more into the position of a German vassal.
The Welfs also gained the assistance of Canute VI., king of Denmark.
After Bouvines he purchased the assistance of Valdemar II., king of Denmark, by ceding to him a large stretch of land along the Baltic coast; and, promising to go on crusade, he secured his coronation at Aix-la-Chapelle in July 1215.
There was, moreover, a struggle between Valdemar of Denmark and some neighboring German nobles.
Thenceforth Denmark and Poland rendered no homage to the German crown, and Burgundy was gradually absorbed by France.
The Hanseatic League carried on war with Valdemar V., king of Denmark, and his ally, the king of Norway, seventy-seven towns declaring war on these monarchs in 1367, and emerged victorious from the struggle, while its commerce extended to nearly all parts of the known world.
They were disturbed by democratic movements in many of the cities and they were threatened by the changing politics of the three northern kingdoms, Norway, Sweden and Denmark, and by their union in 1397; their trading successes had raised up powerful enemies and had embroiled them with England and with Flanders, and the Teutonic Order and neighboring princes were not slow to take advantage of their other difficulties.
Another loss took place in 1460, when Schleswig and Holstein were united with Denmark.
But the bishop of Miinster and his friends crushed the one movement, and after interfering in the affairs of Denmark the Lubeckers were compelled to revert to their former mode of government.
Among the new membersof the confederation was Christian III., king of Denmark.
England, although its leading member was Christian IV., king of Denmark, who as duke of Holstein was a prince of the Empire, and who like other Lutherans was alarmed at the emperors successes.
After Wallenstein had beaten Mansfeld at the bridge of Dessau in April 1626, and Tilly had defeated Christian of Denmark at Lutter in the succeeding August, the two generals united their forces.
Denmark was invaded, and Wallenstein.
Denmark, however, was compelled to conclude peace at LUbeck in May 1629.
Of the German states represented in it even Prussia, by the acquisition of Posen, had become a non-German power; the Habsburg monarchy was predominantly non-German; Hanover was attached to the crown of Great Britain, Holstein to that of Denmark, Luxemburg to that of the Netherlands.
This excited vehement opposition among the Germans, on the ground that Holstein, although subject to the king of Denmark, was a member of the German confederation, and that in virtue of ancient treaties it could not be severed from Schleswig.
The representatives of the states favorable to this proposal, ic, Austria, Luxemburg, Denmark and the four kingdoms, came together in Frankfort on the 4th of September 1850, constituted themselves a Plenum of the old diet and refused to admit the other states except under the terms of the act of 1815.
The armistice of Malmoe having expired in March 1840, the war with Denmark was resumed.
In Germany the relations between prussia Austria and Prussia were becoming unpleasantly and the strained in the question of the admission of the Habs Austro- burg monarchy to the Zollverein, in that of the elector Italian of Hesse and his parliament, in that of the relation War, of the Elbe duchies to the crown of Denmark.
A clause was also inserted provisionally recognizing the principle of the integrity of Denmark.
The marriage of the duke of Cumberland (the title by which the king called himself till he could come into his possessions) with Princess Thyra of Denmark in the same year was made the occasion of a great demonstration, at which a deputation of the Hanoverian nobility assured the duke of their continued attachment to his house.
These Danish subjects of Germany have elected one member to the Reichstag, whose duty is to demand that they should be handed over to Denmark.
Thurah, Le Vitruve danois (Copenhagen, 1746-49), is a similar collection of modern buildings in Denmark.
For a time Rostock was under the dominion of the kings of Denmark.
Scholars in England, America and Denmark, as well as in Germany, have taken part in this great enterprise, and though the completion of it may be far off, the collections of classified material already made are very valuable for consultation.i At present Egyptologists depend on Heinrich Brugschs admirable but somewhat antiquated Wrterbuch and on Levis useful but entirely uncritical Vocabolario.
The peninsula is divided between Denmark and Germany (Schleswig-Holstein).
There is little variety in the surface of Denmark.
Denmark, however, is nowhere low in the sense in which Holland is; the country is pleasantly diversified, and rises a little at the coast even though it remains flat inland.
There is a certain charm even about these monotonous tracts, and it cannot be said that Denmark is wanting in natural beauty of a quiet order.
Lakes, though small, are numerous; the largest are the Arresii and the Esromso in Zealand, and the chain of lakes in the Himmelbjerg region, which are drained by the largest river in Denmark, the Gudenaa, which, however, has a course not exceeding 80 m.
Continental Denmark is confined wholly to Jutland, the geographical description of which is given under that heading.
On Falster is the port of NykjObing, and from Gjedser, the extreme southern point of Denmark, communication is maintained with Warnemiinde in Germany (29 m.).
The surface in Denmark is almost everywhere formed by the so-called Boulder Clay and what the Danish geologists call the Boulder Sand.
Some parts of Denmark are supposed to have been finally raised out of the sea towards the close of the Cretaceous period; but as a whole the country did not appear above the water till about the close of the Glacial period.
The Danish forest is almost exclusively made up of beech, a tree which thrives better in Denmark than in any other country of Europe.
No conifer grows in Denmark except under careful cultivation, which, however, is largely practised in Jutland.
The wild animals and birds of Denmark are those of the rest of central Europe.
The usual domestic animals are abundantly found in Denmark, with the exception of the goat, which is uncommon.
The Gudenaa is the only salmon river in Denmark.
The population of Denmark in 1901 was 2,449,540.
In 1901 the average density of the population of Denmark was 165.2 to the square mile, but varied much in the different parts.
Emigration for some time in the 19th century at different periods, both in its early part and towards its close, seriously affected the population of Denmark.
The roads of Denmark form an extensive and well-maintained system.
The main source of wealth in Denmark is agriculture, which employs about two-fifths of the entire population.
During the last forty years of the 19th century dairy-farming was greatly developed in Denmark, and brought to a high degree of perfection by the application of scientific methods and the best machinery, as well as by the establishment of joint dairies.
Rabbits, which are not found wild in Denmark, are bred for export.
The fishery along the coasts of Denmark is of some importance both on account of the supply of food obtained thereby for the population of the country, and on account of the export; but the good fishing grounds, not far from the Danish coast, particularly in the North Sea, are mostly worked by the fishing vessels of other nations, which are so numerous that the Danish government is obliged to keep gun-boats stationed there in order to prevent encroachments on territorial waters.
The mineral products of Denmark are unimportant.
Tradeunionism flourishes in Denmark, and strikes are of frequent occurrence.
Formerly the commercial legislation of Denmark was to such a degree restrictive that imported manufactures had to be delivered to the customs, where they were sold by public auction, the proceeds of which the importer received from the custom-houses after a deduction was made for the duty.
During the 19th century, however, several commercial treaties were concluded between Denmark and the other powers of Europe, which made the Danish tariff more regular and liberal.
The vexed question, of many centuries' standing, concerning the claim of Denmark to levy dues on vessels passing through the Sound, was settled by the abolition of the dues in 1857.
The commerce of Denmark is mainly based on home production and home consumption, but a certain quantity of goods is imported with a view to re-exportation, for which the free port and bonded warehouses at Copenhagen give facilities.
By far the most important articles of export may be classified as articles of food of animal origin, a group which covers the vast export trade in the dairy produce, especially butter, for which Denmark is famous.
The production of margarine is large, but not much is exported, margarine being largely consumed in Denmark instead of butter, which is exported.
Denmark carries on its principal import trade with Germany, Great Britain and the United States of America, in this order, the proportions being about 30, 20 and 16% respectively of the total.
A considerable proportion of Denmark's large commercial fleet is engaged in the carrying trade between foreign, especially British, ports.
Registration of mortgages is compulsory in Denmark, and the system is extremely simple, a fact which has been of the greatest importance for the improvement of the country.