In return for their more equivocal attitude during the Third Macedonian War they were deprived by Rome of some possessions in Lycia, and damaged by the partial diversion of their trade to Delos (167).
Athenion sent him with some troops to Delos, to plunder the treasures of the temple, but he showed little military capacity.
Lastly, Peisistratus carried out the purification of Delos, the sacred island of Apollo of the Ionians; all the tombs were removed from the neighbourhood of the shrine, the abode of the god of light and joy.
He advocated (a) alliances with Argos, Thessaly and Macedon, (b) ascendancy in the Aegean (Naxos and Delos), (c) control of the Hellespontine route (Sigeum and the Chersonese), (d) control of the Strymon valley (Mt Pangaeus and the Strymon).
8) states that when Delos was "purified" more than half the bodies found buried in it were those of "Carians."
at Delos), from 'lovAos, " corn-sheaf," has been regarded as identifying the goddess with the sheaf, and as proving that the cult of Demeter originated in the worship of the corn-mother or corn-spirit, the last sheaf having a more or less divine character for the primitive husbandman.
The form C which it takes in the alphabets of Naxos, Delos and other Ionic islands at the same period is difficult to explain.
A copy of the Diadumenos of Polyclitus from Delos, and temple sculptures from Epidaurus and the Argive Heraeum, are among the more notable of its recent acquisitions.
Among its numerous enterprises have been the extensive and costly excavations at Delos and Delphi, which have yielded such remarkable results.
In return for help against King Perseus she acquired some new possessions, notably the great mart of Delos, which became an Athenian cleruchy (166).
The wide extension of the cult is attributable largely to Syrian merchants; thus we find traces of it in the great seaport towns; at Delos especially numerous inscriptions have been found bearing witness to its importance.
The pirates sold great numbers of slaves at Delos, where was the chief market for this kind of wares; and these sales went on as really, though more obscurely, after the successful expedition of Pompey.
In an inscription from Delos (Dittenberger, Or.
He was the favourite of Eos, the dawn-goddess, who loved him and carried him off to Delos; but the gods were angry, and would not be appeased till Artemis slew him with her arrows (Odyssey, V.
123, as an island sacred to Artemis, though the identification with Delos is not certain), though why Corinthians should have worshipped Artemis in preference to any other deity is not clear.
The chief seats of her legend are Delos and Delphi, and the generally accepted tradition is a union of the legends of these two places.
After long wandering she reaches the barren isle of Delos, which, according to Pindar (Frag.
The honour paid to her in Delphi and Delos might be explained as part of the cult of her son Apollo; but temples to her existed in Argos; in Mantineia and in Xanthus in Lycia; her sacred grove was on the coast of Crete.
He travelled extensively, and taught and practised his profession at Athens, probably also in Thrace, Thessaly, Delos and his native island.
DELIAN LEAGUE, or Confederacy Of Delos, the name given to a confederation of Greek states under the leadership of Athens, with its headquarters at Delos, founded in 478 B.C. shortly after the final repulse of the expedition of the Persians under Xerxes I.
Several causes contributed to the formation of the first Confederacy of Delos.
The general affairs of the league were managed by a synod which met periodically in the temple of Apollo and Artemis at Delos, the ancient centre sanctified by the common worship of the Ionians.
Athens thus became mistress of the Aegean, while the synod at Delos had become practically, if not theoretically, powerless.
Gradually individual cities which had formed part of the Athenian empire returned to their alliance with Athens, until the Spartans had lost Rhodes, Cos, Nisyrus, Teos, Chios, Mytilene, Ephesus, Erythrae, Lemnos, Imbros, Scyros, Eretria, Melos, Cythera, Carpathus and Delos.
17ropa&Es, from air€ip€u', to sow), the islands scattered about the Greek Archipelago, as distinguished from the Cyclades, which are grouped round Delos, and from the islands attached, as it were, to the mainlands of Europe and Asia.
He traversed Asia Minor and European Greece probably more than once; he visited all the most important islands of the Archipelago - Rhodes, Cyprus, Delos, Paros, Thasos, Samothrace, Crete, Samos, Cythera and Aegina.
During the Punic Wars it was still a naval port, but in the latter part of the 2nd century B.C. it became the greatest commercial harbour of Italy and we find Lucilius about 125 B.C. placing it next in importance to Delos, then the greatest harbour of the ancient world.
A further interest in Greek archaeology has been awakened in all civilized lands by the excavations of Troy, Mycenae, Tiryns, Epidaurus, Sparta, Olympia, Dodona, Delphi, Delos and of important sites in Crete.
After the nine days were passed, new fire was brought, from the sacred hearth at Delos.
During the festival of Artemis at Delos, Acontius saw Cydippe, a well-born Athenian maiden of whom he was enamoured, sitting in the temple of the goddess.
Other accounts make Briareus one of the assailants of Olympus, who, after his defeat, was buried under Mount Aetna (Callimachus, Hymn to Delos, 141).
According to Herodotus, two maidens, Opis and Arge, and later two others, Hyperoche and Laodice, escorted by five men, called by the Delians Perpherees, were sent by the Hyperboreans with certain offerings to Delos.
Finding that their messengers did not return, the Hyperboreans adopted the plan of wrapping the offerings in wheat-straw and requested their neighbours to hand them on to the next nation, and so on, till they finally reached Delos.
As the latter conveyed sacrificial gifts to Delos hidden in wheat-straw, so at the Thargelia a sheaf of corn was carried round in procession, concealing a symbol of the god (for other resemblances see Crusius's article).
Although the Hyperborean legends are mainly connected with Delphi and Delos, traces of them are found in Argos (the stories of Heracles, Perseus, Io), Attica, Macedonia, Thrace, Sicily and Italy (which Niebuhr indeed considers their original home).
BRIZO, an ancient goddess worshipped in Delos.
The women of Delos offered her presents consisting of little boats filled with all kinds of eatables (with the exception of fish) in order to obtain her protection for those engaged on the sea (Athenaeus viii.
Before the end of the 2nd century B.C. there were temples of Serapis in Athens, Rhodes, Delos and Orchomenos in Boeotia.
Such were the sanctuaries of Zeus Lycaeus in Arcadia, of Poseidon in the island of Calauria, and of Apollo at Delos; they were, however, numerous in Asia Minor.
The French have made good progress in their work at Delos, where the town site is now said to be a Hellenistic Pompeii, its houses still preserving their mosaic floors and frescopainted walls.
Marshall, Discovery in Greek Lands (1920); Cyrene, Notiziario Archeologico del Ministero delle Colonie (1915); Ecole Francaise d'Athenes, Exploration Archeologique de Delos (1911-4); J.
He landed also at Delos, and there he and his comrades danced the crane dance, the complicated movements of which were meant to imitate the windings of the Labyrinth.'
The island of Delos was thought to have been raised by him, and about 198, when a new island appeared between Thera and Therasia, the Rhodians founded a temple of Poseidon on it (Strabo i.
Aetiologists connected both offerings with the Cretan expedition of Theseus, who, when driven ashore at Delos, vowed a thank-offering to Apollo if he slew the Minotaur, which afterwards took the form of the eiresione and Pyanopsia.
Besides the excavations of Athens, Delos, Epidaurus and Delphi, the results of which are most important for the 5th century B.C. and later, the exploration of the sites of Olympia, of the Heraeum near Argos, of Naucratis in Egypt, and of various Cretan towns (above all the ancient Gortyn), has revolutionized our knowledge of the archaic alphabets of Greece.
The latter of these may evidently be taken to belong to Salamis in Cyprus and the festival of the Cyprian Aphrodite, in the same way that the Hymn to Apollo belongs to Delos and the Delian gathering.
The confederacy of Delos made provision for the collection of a revenue (46pos) from the members of the league, which was employed at first for defence against Persian aggression, but afterwards was at the disposal of Athens as the ruling state.
In the spring of 479 we find him in command of the Greek fleet of 110 ships, first at Aegina and afterwards at Delos.
the dedication of a Bactrian, Hyspasines, son of Mithroaxes, in the inventory of the temple of Apollo in Delos, Dittenberger, Sylloge, 588, 1.109) even though they were unable to renounce their innate characteristics.
We next find him, as legate, in command of a fleet which kept the seas between Delos and Sicily, while Pompey was suppressing the pirates, and he even won the " naval crown," a coveted reward of personal prowess.
Mikra Dili, or Little Delos, to distinguish it from Megali Dili, or Great Delos), an island in the Aegean, the smallest but most famous of the Cyclades, and, according to the ancient be lief, the spot round which the group arranged itself in a nearly circular form.
- Excavations have been made by the French School at Athens upon the island of Delos since 1877, chiefly by Th.
The most convenient place for landing is protected by an ancient mole; it faces the channel between Delos and Rheneia, and is about opposite the most northerly of the two little islands now called ` PevµaTtapt.
of Macedon, who dedicated it about zoo B.C. This avenue must have formed the usual approach for sacred embassies and processions; but it is probable that the space to the south was not convenient for marshalling them, since Nicias, on the occasion of his famous embassy, built a bridge from the island of Hecate (the Greater Rhevmatiari) to Delos, in order that the imposing Athenian procession might not miss its full effect.
Arehives de 1'Intendance Sacree t Delos [[Philip S C]] fi?
The temple of Apollo forms the centre of the whole precinct, Delos Precinct Of Apollo.
To the north of the precinct of Apollo, between it and the sacred lake, there are very extensive ruins of the commercial town of Delos; these have been only partially cleared, but have yielded a good many inscriptions and other antiquities.
- Many alternative names for Delos are given by tradition; one of these, Ortygia, is elsewhere also assigned to an island sacred to Artemis.
Of the various traditions that were current among the ancient Greeks regarding the origin of Delos, the most popular describes it as drifting through the Aegean till moored by Zeus as a refuge for the wandering Leto.
At the close of the Peloponnesian War the Spartans gave to the people of Delos the management of their own affairs; but the Athenian predominance was soon after restored, and survived an appeal to the amphictyony of Delphi in 345 B.C. During Macedonian times, from 322 to 166 B.C., Delos again became independent; during this period the shrine was enriched by offerings from all quarters, and the temple and its possessions were administered by officials called i€poirocol.
33.2) mentions Delos as deserted but for a few Athenian officials; and several epigrams of the ist or 2nd century A.D.
A museum has now been built to contain the antiquities found in the excavations; otherwise Delos is now uninhabited, though during the summer months a few shepherds cross over with their flocks from Myconus or Rheneia.
See Lebegue, Recherches sur Delos (Paris, 1876).
Numerous articles in the Bulletin de correspondance hellenique record the various discoveries at Delos as they were made.
Homolle, Les Archives de l'intendance sacree a Delos (with plan).
For works of art found at Delos see GREEK ART.
After a perilous voyage to Thrace, Delos, Crete and Sicily (where his father dies), he is cast up by a storm, sent by Juno, on the African coast.
He was a great admirer of the Greeks, who called him Euergetes; he removed his capital from Amasia to Sinope, and bestowed liberal gifts upon the temples of Delos and Athens.
In the legend, as set forth in the Homeric hymn to Apollo and the ode of Callimachus to Delos, Apollo is the son of Zeus and Leto.
The latter, pursued by the jealous Hera, after long wandering found shelter in Delos (originally Asteria), where she bore a son, Apollo, under a palm-tree at the foot of Mount Cynthus.
Before this, Delos - like Rhodes, the centre of the worship of the sun-god Helios, with whom Apollo was wrongly identified in later times - had been a barren, floating rock, but now became stationary, being fastened down by chains to the bottom of the sea.
In accordance with this, the epithet -yEvns will not mean "born of" or "begetting light," but rather "born from the she-wolf," in which form Leto herself was said to have been conducted by wolves to Delos.
This would point to the fact that certain settlements of Apolline worship along the northernmost border of Greece (Illyria, Thrace, Macedonia) were in the habit of sending offerings to the god to a centre of his worship farther south (probably Delphi), advancing by the route from Tempe through Thessaly, Pherae and Doris to Delphi; while others adopted the route through Illyria, Epirus, Dodona, the Malian gulf, Carystus in Euboea, and Tenos to Delos (Farnell, Cults, iv.
In his hymns he celebrated Opis and Arge, two Hyperborean maidens who founded the cult of Apollo in Delos, and in the hymn to Eilythyia the birth of Apollo and Artemis and the foundation of the Delian sanctuary.
See Callimachus, Hymn to Delos, 305; Pausanias i.
The ancient Calauria, with which Poros is identified, was given, according to the myth, by Apollo to Poseidon in exchange for Delos; and it became in historic times famous for a temple of the sea-god, which formed the centre of an amphictyony of seven maritime states' - Hermione, Epidaurus, Aegina, Athens, Prasiae, Nauplia, and Orchomenus.
The altar of Apollo at Delos (6 Keparcvos f wpos) was made Photo, Alina r:.
She is said to have been born a day before him (on the 6th of the month) and tradition assigns them different birthplaces - Delos to Apollo, Ortygia to Artemis.
But Ortygia ("home of quails") applies still to Delos, and may well have been a synonym for that island.
Although Apollo has nothing to do with the earlier cult of Artemis, nor Artemis with that of Delphi, their association was a comparatively early one, and probably originated in Delos.
The Greeks of Ephesus identified her with their own Artemis, and claimed that her birthplace Ortygia was near Ephesus, not in Delos.
Another famous statue is one from Gabii, in which she is finishing her toilet and fastening the chlamys over her tunic. In older times her figure is fuller and stronger, and the clothing more complete; certain statues discovered at Delos, imitated from wooden models (oava), are supposed to represent Artemis; they are described as stiff and rigid, the limbs as it were glued to the body without life or movement, garments closely fitting, the folds of which fall in symmetrical parallel lines.
The Delian amphictyony probably reached the height of its splendour early in the 7th century B.C. The Hymn to the Delian Apollo, composed about that time, celebrates the gathering of the Ionians with their wives and children at the shrine of their god on the island of Delos, to worship him with music, dancing and gymnastic contests (vv.
Peisistratus, taking possession of Delos, seems to have used the sanctuary as a means of extending his political influence.
The removal of the treasury to Athens in 454 B.C. deprived Delos of political importance, though the amphictyony continued.
At the end of the Peloponnesian War Athens was deprived of Delos along with her other possessions, but she appears to have regained control of the island after the victory of Cnidus (394)ï¿½ An inscription of 390 B.C. proves that at this date Athenian authority had been restored.
Another has been found beneath the pedestal of Apollo in Delos.
In Lemnos an annual festival of the Cabeiri was held, lasting nine days, during which all the fires were extinguished and fire brought from Delos.
The Homeric Hymn to Apollo of Delos (7th century) describes an Ionian population in the Cyclades with a loose religious league about the Delian sanctuary.
To the student of antiquity the most interesting are: Delos, one of the greatest centres of ancient religious, political and commercial life, where an important series of researches has been carried out by French archaeologists; Melos, where, in addition to various buildings of the Hellenic and Roman periods, the large prehistoric stronghold of Phylakopi has been excavated by members of the British school at Athens; and Thera (see Santorin), the ancient capital of which has been explored by Baron Hiller von Gaertringen.
The only other fact preserved by Thucydides is that Athens appointed a board called the Hellenotamiae (ra,aias, steward) to watch over and administer the treasury of the league, which for some twenty years was kept at Delos, and to receive the contributions (06pos) of the allies who paid in money.
The temple inventories recently discovered at Delos illustrate the great quantity of such possessions which were apt to accumulate at a shrine of Panhellenic celebrity.
Among plants, the bay, used in expiatory sacrifices and also for making the crown of victory at the Pythian games, and the palm-tree, under which he was born in Delos, were sacred to him; among animals and birds, the wolf, the roe, the swan, the hawk, the raven, the crow, the snake, the mouse, the grasshopper and the griffin, a mixture of the eagle and the lion evidently of Eastern origin.
Many hymns, nomes (simple songs to accompany the circular dance of the chorus), and oracles, attributed to Olen, were preserved in Delos.
Here the connexion of Artemis with the Hyperborean legend (see Apollo) is shown in the names of the maidens (Opis, Hecaerge) who were supposed to have brought offerings from the north to Delos, where they were buried.
At the end of the Peloponnesian War Athens was deprived of Delos along with her other possessions, but she appears to have regained control of the island after the victory of Cnidus (394)Ã¯¿½ An inscription of 390 B.C. proves that at this date Athenian authority had been restored.
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