Delian sentence example
The conditions which led to the second Athenian or Delian Confederacy were fundamentally different, not only in virtue of the fact that the allies had learned from experience the dangers to which such a league was liable, but because the enemy was no longer an oriental power of whose future action there could be no certain anticipation, but Sparta, whose ambitious projects since the fall of Athens had shown that there could be no safety for the smaller states save in combination.
The details of his conquests are uncertain, but it is known that in the Cyclades he maintained an alliance with the tyrant Lygdamis of Naxos, and curried favour with the Delian Apollo by dedicating to, him the island of Rheneia.
It became known as the "Delian problem" or the "problem of the duplication of the cube," and ranks in historical importance with the problems of "trisecting an angle" and "squaring the circle."
After the defeat of Xerxes the Thasians joined the Delian confederacy; but afterwards, on account of a difference about the mines and marts on the mainland, they revolted.
Halicarnassus and other Dorian cities of Asia were to some extent absorbed by the Delian League, but the peace of Antalcidas in 387 made them subservient to Persia; and it was under Mausolus, a Persian satrap who assumed independent authority, that Halicarnassus attained its highest prosperity.Advertisement
The key to the situation is in fact the commercial rivalry of the Corinthians, whose trade (mainly in the West) had been seriously limited by the naval expansion of the Delian League.
While acknowledging the suzerainty of Persia, however, the Lycians remained practically independent, and for a time joined the Delian league.
The hymn to the Delian Apollo ends with an address of the poet to his audience.
The latter of these may evidently be taken to belong to Salamis in Cyprus and the festival of the Cyprian Aphrodite, in the same way that the Hymn to Apollo belongs to Delos and the Delian gathering.
At the north-west corner of the precinct is a building of limestone, the mWpcvos oircos often mentioned in the inventories of the treasures of the Delian shrine.Advertisement
In the 6th century B.C. the influence of the Delian Apollo was at its height; Polycrates of Samos dedicated the neighbouring island of Rheneia to his service and Peisistratus of Athens caused all the area within sight of the temple to be cleared of the tombs by which its sanctity was impaired.
After the Persian wars, the predominance of Athens led to the transformation of the Delian amphictyony into the Athenian empire.
After 166 B.C. the Romans restored the control of Delian worship to Athens, but granted to the island various commercial privileges which brought it great prosperity.
These were mostly settled by Milesians, Panticapaeum in the 7th or early in the 6th century B.C., but Phanagoria (c. 540 B.C.) was a colony of Teos, and Nymphaeum had some connexion with Athens - at least it appears to have been a member of the Delian Confederacy.
Apollo was born on the 7th day (050,ua-yEviis) of the month Thargelion according to Delian, of the month Bysios according to Delphian, tradition.Advertisement
Though enrolled in the Delian League it remained disaffected towards Athens, and in 447 had to be coerced by the settlement of a cleruchy.
As a member of the second Delian League it was again controlled by a garrison and an archon.
In his hymns he celebrated Opis and Arge, two Hyperborean maidens who founded the cult of Apollo in Delos, and in the hymn to Eilythyia the birth of Apollo and Artemis and the foundation of the Delian sanctuary.
After its liberation in 479 Chios joined the Delian League and long remained a firm ally of the Athenians, who allowed it to retain full autonomy.
As a member of the Delian League it had regained its prosperity, being able to equip a fleet of 50 or 60 sail.Advertisement
When after the great war with Persia the Aegean cities under the leadership of Athens united in a political league (477 B.C.), they chose as its centre the temple of the Delian Apollo, doubtless through a desire to connect the new alliance with the associations of the old amphictyony.
How far the council and other institutions of the Delian confederacy were based upon the amphictyonic organization cannot be determined.
The Homeric Hymn to Apollo of Delos (7th century) describes an Ionian population in the Cyclades with a loose religious league about the Delian sanctuary.
Turning to Pericles' policy towards the members of the Delian League, we find that he frankly endeavoured to turn the allies into subjects (see Delian League).
The people of Ceos fought on the Greek side at Artemisium and Salamis; they joined the Delian League and also the later Athenian alliance in 377 B.C. They revolted in 3 6 3-3 62, but were reduced again, and the Athenians established a monopoly of the ruddle, or red earth, which was one of the most valuable products of the island.Advertisement
In 478 or 477 Aristides was in command of the Athenian squadron off Byzantium, and so far won the confidence of the Ionian allies that, after revolting from the Spartan admiral Pausanias, they offered him the chief command and left him with absolute discretion in fixing the contributions of the newly formed confederacy (see DELIAN LEAGUE).
To counterbalance the new power Athens very rashly plunged into Peloponnesian politics with the ulterior object of inducing the states which had formerly recognized the hegemony of Sparta to transfer their allegiance to the Delian League.
But it soon became evident that the only gainers by the war were the Athenians, who in 389, under Thrasybulus, tried to found their old empire anew (see Delian League).
League the system was the simplest precaution against disaffection on the part of the allies, the strength of whose resentment may be gathered from an inscription (Hicks and Hill, ioi ), which, in setting forth the terms of the second Delian Confederacy, expressly forbids the holding of land by Athenians in allied territory.
Athens, on the other hand, had undoubtedly interfered in the interest of democracy in various allied states (see Delian League).Advertisement
The revolt of the Ionian allies, and (in 411) the loss of the Hellespontine, Thracian and Island tributes (see Delian League), very seriously crippled her finances.
The synod (see Delian League) of the "allies" soon degenerated into a mere form; of comprehensive united policy there was none, at all events after the League had achieved its original purpose of expelling the Persians from Europe.
In imperial Athens large revenues were derived from the states of the Delian league, while in both Carthage and Rome inferior or dependent districts and races were laid under contribution to a very considerable extent (see Finance).
They henceforth became the dependent allies of, Athens (see Delian League), though still retaining their autonomy, which they preserved until the peace of Antalcidas in 387 B.C. once more placed them as well as the other Greek cities in Asia under the nominal dominion of Persia.
It was almost certainly due to Cleon that the tribute of the "allies" was doubled in 425 (see Delian League).Advertisement
In his attitude towards the members of the Delian League Pericles likewise maintained a purely Athenian point of view.
In the 5th century the three cities were enrolled in the Delian League, and democracies became prevalent.
Led by Aristides and Cimon they rendered such prominent service as to receive in return the formal leadership of the Greek allies and the presidency of the newly formed Delian League.
The Delian confederacy lay completely under Athenian control, and the points of strategic importance were largely held by cleruchies (q.v.; see also Pericles) and garrisons.
With tolls, and the tribute of the Delian League, a fund of 9700 talents (2,30o,000) was amassed in the treasury.Advertisement
Her generals and admirals, Conon, Iphicrates, Chabrias, Timotheus, distinguished themselves by their military skill, and partially recovered their country's predominance in the Aegean, which found expression in the temporary renewal of the Delian League.
At all events, it is significant of the success of the main object of the Delian League, the Athenians resigning Cyprus and Egypt, while Persia recognized the freedom of the maritime Greeks of Asia Minor.
Chalcis subsequently became a member of both the Delian Leagues.
The city was soon rebuilt, and as a member of both the Delian Leagues attached itself by numerous treaties to the Athenians.
The Athenian Empire is described elsewhere (Delian League, Athens).Advertisement
Thucydides, who quotes this passage to show the ancient character of the Delian festival, seems to have no doubt of the Homeric authorship of the hymn.