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degeneration

degeneration

degeneration Sentence Examples

  • So, too, degeneration is not to be lightly assumed as the explanation of a simplicity of structure.

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  • The variety of special developments of structure accompanying the atrophy of typical organs in the Opisthobranchia and general degeneration of organization is very great.

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  • Spencer), as in the Araneae and Opiliones, and, on the other hand, may terminate in simplification and degeneration, as in the Acari.

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  • A survey of the vegetable kingdom indicates that evolution has proceeded, on the whole, from the simple to the complex; at the same time, as has been already mentioned, evidence of reduction or degeneration in common.

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  • Thus workers in lead suffer from the effects of this substance as a poison, those who work in phosphorus are liable to necrosis of bone and fatty degeneration of the blood vessels and organs, and the many occupations in which dust is inhaled (coalmining, stone-dressing, steel-polishing, &c.; fig.

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  • Claus, " Degeneration of the Acari and Classification of Arthropoda," Anzeiger d.

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  • Autolysis is a disintegration of dead tissues brought about by the action of their own ferments, while degeneration takes place in the still living cell.

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  • There is a very definite criterion of the simplicity due to degeneration, which can in most cases be applied.

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  • The muscles suffer at an early period: they fall off in bulk, and later suffer from fatty degeneration, the heart being probably the first muscle to give way.

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  • From whatever cause the tissues become disorganized and undergo fatty degeneration, the fatty acids may become liberated and combine with the alkalies to form potash and soda soaps.

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  • This term is usually applied to a semi-solid substance of homogeneous and gelatinous consistence, which results partly from excretion and partly from degeneration of cellular structures, more particularly of the epithelial type.

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  • Serous degeneration is met with in epithelial cells in inflammatory conditions and following on burns.

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  • Fatty degeneration is a retrogressive change associated with the deposit of fatty granules or globules in the cytoplasm, and is caused by disorganized cellular activity (figs.

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  • Over and above the bacterial intoxications we have a very extreme degree of fatty degeneration, widely distributed throughout the tissues, which is produced by certain organic and inorganic poisons; it is seen especially in phosphorus and chloroform poisoning.

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  • Fatty degeneration is common to all dead or decaying tissues in the body, and may be followed by calcification.

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  • The fibrils of the outer coat also show the change to a less extent, while the degeneration very rarely spreads to the middle coat.

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  • Hyaline degeneration is found in certain acute infective conditions; the toxins specially act on these connective-tissue cell elements.

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  • 611; Pelagatti, " Blastomycetes and Hyaline degeneration," Arch.

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  • Waller (1816-1870), who tracked the line of nervous strands by experimental sections, and showed that when particular strands are cut off from their nutritive centres the consequent degeneration follows the line of the separated strands.

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  • In such cases the paths of degeneration are so neatly defined that, when the tissues are prepared after death by modern methods, they are plainly to be seen running along certain columns, the subdivisions of which in the normal state may hardly be distinguishable one from another: some run in strips along the periphery of the spinal cord, at its anterior, middle or posterior segments, as the case may be; in other cases such strips occur within its substance, whether along columns of cells or of white matter.

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  • The essential part of the medicinal treatment of this condition is the administration of iodides, which are able to decompose the insoluble albuminates of lead which have become locked up in the tissues, rapidly causing their degeneration, and to cause the excretion of the poisonous metal by means of the intestine and the kidneys.

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  • The fibrils of the outer coat also show the change to a less extent, while the degeneration very rarely spreads to the middle coat.

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  • Despite all this, one must not fall into the easy error of exaggerating the degeneration into which the Jewries of the world fell from the middle of the 17th till the middle of the 18th century.

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  • The reduction of the organism to seven leg-bearing somites, of which the first pair, as in so many Eu-arachnida, are chelate, is a form of degeneration connected with a peculiar quasi-parasitic habit resembling that of the crustacean Laemodipoda.

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  • Idem, " Degeneration, a Chapter in Darwinism," 1878, reprinted in the Advancement of Science (Macmillan, 1890); 20.

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  • Another important factor in the present condition of zoological knowledge as represented by classification is the doctrine of degeneration propounded by Anton Dohrn.

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  • It is Dohrn's merit to have pointed out 1 that this assumption is not warranted, and that degeneration or progressive simplification of structure may have, and in many lines certainly has, taken place, as well as progressive elaboration and in other cases continuous maintenance of the status quo.

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  • The deleterious influence of high bloodpressure has engaged the attention of physicians and pathologists in later years, and the conclusion arrived at is, that although it may arise from accidental causes, such as malcomposition of the blood, yet that in many instances it is a hereditary or family defect, and is bound up with the tendency to gout and cirrhotic degeneration of the kidney.

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  • When a nerve-trunk is separated from its central connexion, the distal portion falls into a state of fatty degeneration (Wallerian or secondary degeneration).

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  • Cell in a state of degeneration and chromatolysis; the large rounded body in the cell is a cancer parasite.

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  • - Fatty degeneration of heart from case of perni cious anaemia.

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  • - Fatty degeneration of kidney from case of starvation.

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  • With changes of the pressures of the blood in arteries, veins or capillaries, and in the heart itself and its respective chambers, static changes are apt to follow in these parts; such as degeneration of the coats of the arteries, due either to the silent tooth of time, to persistent high blood pressures, or to the action of poisons such as lead or syphilis.

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  • Their structure has undergone little degeneration in connexion with this habit, and may be compared organ for organ with that of the Planarians.

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  • The only organs that exhibit any sign of degeneration are those of sense, but in the ectoparasitic Trematodes simple eye-like structures are present and perhaps serve as organs of temperature.

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  • His universal process of Evolution seems to give Spencer a criterion of" higher "and" lower " progression "and" degeneration,"independent of the accidents of actual history, and unattainable by strictly Darwinian methods.

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  • The history of the male communities is to a certain extent parallel with the female, but they were never so numerous and their degeneration was far more rapid.

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  • The toxic actions produced in continued fevers, in certain chronic diseases, and by intestinal parasites largely aid in producing degeneration, emaciation and atrophy.

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  • Marey, 1863) attention was drawn to the physical features of the circulation, to the signs of degeneration of the arterial tree, and less definitely to the fluctuations of blood pressure; but as we have said under the consideration of diseases of the heart, the kymographs of Ludwig and his pupils brought out these fluctuations far more accurately and completely.

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  • On the degeneration of the polypide, its nutritive material is apparently absorbed for the benefit of the zooid, while the pig mented substances assume a spheroidal form, which either remains as an inert "brown body" in the body-cavity or is discharged to the exterior by the alimentary canal of the new polypide.

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  • The drug is contra-indicated in all cases where the heart is already beating too slowly; in aortic incompetence - where the prolongation of diastole increases the amount of the blood that regurgitates through the incompetent valve; in chronic Bright's disease and in fatty degeneration of the heart - since nothing can cause fat to become contractile.

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  • When sessile gonophores are produced, they may show all stages of degeneration.

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  • Careful annual selection by hand of the best seed is the only way to prevent degeneration.

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  • Thirdly, those members of a group which, whilst exhibiting undoubted structural characters indicative of their proper assignment to that group, yet are simpler than and inferior in elaboration of their organization to other members of the group, are not necessarily representatives of the earlier and primitive phases in the development of the group - but are very often examples of retrogressive change or degeneration.

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  • The confluence of the regions of the body and the dislocation of apertures from their typical position are results of degeneration.

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  • Large cell with a single nucleus; nucleoli in a state of degeneration.

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  • In acute and chronic alcoholism, in phthisis, and in other diseases this fatty condition may be very extreme, and is commonly found in association with other tissue changes, so that probably we should look on these changes as a degeneration.

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  • Any of the abnormal conditions that bring about general or local defective nutrition is an important factor in producing fatty degeneration.

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  • This splitting up of the fats previously combined with albumin in the cell by the action of natural ferments - lipases - and the setting free of the fats under the influence of toxins represent the normal and the pathological process in the production of so-called fatty degeneration.

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  • 1461), a true prophet in an age of degeneration.

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  • It holds scattered fragments of limestone, and is itself the result of limestone degeneration.

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  • If this possibility in regard to I Peter is granted, it is fatal to the theory, because at the time when the epistle was written official presbyters were so well established that abuse and degeneration had already begun to creep in and some of the elders were already guilty of "lording it over their heritage" and making a profit out of their office (I Pet.

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  • Variations in the structure and forms of leaves and leafstalks are produced by the increased development of cellular tissue, by the abortion or degeneration of parts, by the multiplication or repetition of parts and by adhesion.

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  • The later parts of E show a great degeneration in language, and a querulous tone due to the sufferings of the native population under the harsh Norman rule; "but our debt to it is inestimable; and we can hardly measure what the loss to English history would have been, if it had not been written; or if, having been written, it had, like so many another English chronicle, been lost."

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  • In the severed axon the degeneration is first evident in a breaking down of the naked nerve filaments of the motor end plate.

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  • Similarly, when the axons of the motor spinal cells are by severance of the nerve trunk of a muscle broken through, the muscle cells undergo "degeneration" - dwindle, become fatty, and alter almost beyond recognition.

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  • This is the explanation of the repair of nerve trunks that have been severed, with consequent degeneration of the peripheral nerve fibres.

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  • Examination of the cerebellum by the method of Wallerian degeneration has shown that a large number of spinal and bulbar nerve cells send branches up into it.

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  • The escape of zoospores is effected by the degeneration of the sporangial wall (Chaetophora), or by a pore (Cladophora), a slit (Pediastrum), or a circular fracture (Oedogonium).

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  • While there is a general tendency in the group to mucilaginous degeneration of the cell-wall, in Laminaria digitata there are also glands secreting a plentiful mucilage.

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  • The effects of exposure in the case of white races are not only manifested by the acute attack of heat-stroke, but, if this is avoided by proper care, it is nevertheless certain that long residence in the Persian Gulf causes a certain amount of tissue degeneration, owing to the exposure of the body cells to abnormal conditions of temperature.

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  • In the adult aquatic stage the alimentary canal shows signs of degeneration, and it seems probable that in this stage Gordian worms take no food.

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  • In the dyspnoea of advanced valvular disease of the heart morphine relieves the distress and restlessness, and induces sleep. It should however be withheld if the heart has undergone fatty degeneration.

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  • The early stages of morphinism are marked by moral degeneration; the patient seems to lose all sense of right and wrong, and will lie most plausibly and even thieve to obtain the drug; personal disorderliness, disregard of time, neglect of business and decline of family affection become soon evident.

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  • Given in large doses it causes rapid and characteristic poisoning, with alterations in the blood and rapid degeneration of nearly all the internal organs; but in small doses-5 to 15 grains - it partly undergoes reduction in the blood and tissues, the chloride being formed and oxygen being supplied to the body-cells in nascent form.

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  • But there must always have been some correspondence between the stages of social advance (or, in certain cases, of degeneration) and the religious interpretation of the world.

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  • The degeneration produced by sedentary habits in all lamellibranchs has in the oyster reached its most advanced stage.

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  • To these factors must be added the degeneration of the royal line-a degeneration inevitable in Oriental states.

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  • Where there has been local mischief due to inflammation the dead leucocytes must be removed, and this is done either by their being converted into pus in one mass, and making their way through the tissues to the nearest surface, whether of skin or mucous membrane, from which it can be discharged, or they may undergo a process of fatty degeneration and absorption, leaving behind in some cases cheesy matter, in others hard connective tissue.

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  • Brentano (On Gilds) holds that it is wrong to represent such regulations as monopolistic, inasmuch as there was no question whatever of a monopoly in that time nor until the degeneration of the craftgilds into limited corporations of capitalists.

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  • For an account of the "degeneration of craftgilds" a general reference may be made to Brentano, On Gilds (1870), and C. Gross, The Gild Merchant (2 vols., 1890).

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  • A widespread toxic action is indicated by the lesions found - cloudy swelling, which may be followed by fatty degeneration, in internal organs, capillary haemorrhages, &c. In septicaemia.

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  • (Many such changes are usually grouped together under the heading of " inflammation " of varying degree--acute, subacute and chronic.) Degeneration and death of cells, haemorrhages, serous and fibrinous exudations, leucocyte emigration, proliferation of connective tissue and other cells, may be mentioned as some of the fundamental changes.

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  • Perhaps the most complete degeneration is found in the Rhizocephala, which are parasitic on other Crustacea.

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  • "The antlers of young deer are in the form of simple spikes; and this form is retained in the South American brockets, although the simple antlers of these deer appear due to degeneration, and are not primitive types.

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  • Degeneration of Curves.

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  • According to his theory, too, this habit of mind may be regarded as the result of degeneration, for in his view, as in Max Muller's, it is not primary, but the result of misconceptions.

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  • After chronic poisoning a widely spread fatty degeneration is present.

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  • - iii.), the civilization and moral degeneration of mankind, the history of man to the time of Noah (iv.

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  • The degeneration of the monarchy was clearly apparent on the death of Charles the Bald, when his son, Louis the Stammerer, was only assured of the throne, which had passed by Louis the right of birth under the Merovingians and been Stan,hereditary under the earlier Carolingians, through his election by nobles and bishops under the direction (877-879).

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  • Too much linseed, often used in preparing horses for market, gives a similar appearance, but is liable to induce fatty degeneration of the liver; given in moderation it regulates the bowels and stimulates the more perfect digestion of other foods.

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  • Alteration in the symmetrical arrangement as well as in the completeness and regularity of flowers has been traced to suppression or the non-development of parts, degeneration or imperfect formation, cohesion or union of parts of the same whorl, adhesion or union of the parts of different whorls, multiplication of parts, and deduplication (sometimes called chorisis) or splitting of parts.

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  • Degeneration, or the transformation of parts, often gives rise either to an apparent want of symmetry or to irregularity in form.

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  • Other modifications of some part of the flower, especially of the corolla and stamens, are produced either by degeneration or outgrowth, or by chorisis, or deduplication.

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  • Stamens occasionally become sterile by the degeneration or non-development of the anthers, when they are known as staminodia, or rudimentary stamens.

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  • The disk is frequently formed by degeneration or transformation of the staminal row.

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  • The anterior antennae are fused with the anchoring attachment, whilst the posterior pair is vestigial, and the appendages of the mouth and body present various degrees of degeneration and specialization.

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  • Cope (16) regarded the Apoda as the extremes of a line of degeneration from the Salamanders, with Amphiuma as one of the annectent forms. In the opinion of P. and F.

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  • Arsenic and antimony do not form combinations with albumen, but they both greatly depress the central nervous system and circulation; and, if their action be long continued in large doses, they cause fatty degeneration of the viscera and disappearance of glycogen from the liver.

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  • Chapter 3, ' absinthe for the people ', documents the connections between absinthe drinking by the poor and debates about degeneration.

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  • axon degeneration.

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  • cartilage degeneration.

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  • degeneration of terminal axons in PPS.

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  • degeneration of motor neurones cells which control movement.

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  • degeneration of motor neurons.

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  • degeneration of cartilage within the joint.

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  • degeneration of the liver and kidneys which was believed to have been caused by a form of diabetes.

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  • Age-related macular degeneration Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is a very common cause of reduced vision in the UK.

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  • Age related macular degeneration, cataract, multidimensional assessment.

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  • Glucosamine can also reverse joint degeneration in osteoarthritis sufferers.

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  • They did not have macular degeneration at the start of the study.

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  • The majority of people with dry age-related macular degeneration do not suffer very severe visual loss.

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  • Again, glutamate excess can lead to neuronal degeneration.

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  • Are we dealing with just a handful of disease mechanisms or are there many different routes to retinal degeneration?

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  • The presence of alien limb syndrome pointed to the diagnosis of " Corticobasal degeneration " .

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  • Genetics Approximately 50% of reported cases of frontotemporal degeneration are found to have a family history of dementia.

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  • In this way, we will build up a pathway of molecular events and their regulation during the early stages of axon degeneration.

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  • In osteoarthritis these cells behave abnormally and this behavior leads to cartilage degeneration.

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  • Different studies have shown that mutant SOD1 causes motor neuron degeneration by a toxic gain of function, but the mechanism is not clear.

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  • It includes the specific diseases of Pick's disease and frontal lobe degeneration among others.

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  • Genetic characterization of the legs at odd angles angles locus, a new mutation causing motor neuron degeneration in a gene dose dependent manner.

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  • The small area of lattice degeneration in the superior temporal quadrant OS remained free of retinal breaks.

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  • discructure of intervertebral disk & what happened with age & in degeneration 65, Shown a drawing of the ulna bursa in the hand.

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  • disc other environmental factors appeared to be related to disk degeneration or pain.

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  • I'm guessing that degeneration means the new cells aren't exact duplicates of the cells they replace, kind of like accelerated aging.

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  • else share in the degeneration.

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  • There is degeneration of cardiac ventral epicardium and toxic cardiac necrosis, especially of the atrial lining with damage to spleen and heart.

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  • Although the degeneration of the Clinton administration into a bedroom farce will make the situation worse, it is not the fundamental cause.

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  • fatty degeneration of the liver and kidneys and splenomegaly.

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  • fatty degeneration of the heart.

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  • Lesions Non-specific: generalized congestion; renal and hepatic degeneration (variable ); haemorrhagic gastroenteritis (occasional ).

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  • More serious problems include abnormalities of the vitreous gel, degeneration of the retina and glaucoma.

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  • hyaline degeneration of skeletal muscle has also been reported.

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  • These were characterized by hepatic hypertrophy and fatty degeneration.

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  • Joint pain is often due to the degeneration of cartilage within the joint pain is often due to the degeneration of cartilage within the joint.

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  • lobar degeneration.

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  • Age related macular degeneration, cataract, multidimensional assessment.

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  • Age-related macular degeneration Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is a very common cause of reduced vision in the UK.

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  • Gender - Women seem more likely to develop macular degeneration than men.

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  • At the moment it is not known how these may help prevent age-related macular degeneration.

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  • Dry macular degeneration can progress to the second, more severe type, called wet macular degeneration.

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  • Sunlight triggers oxidative damage in the eye, which in turn can cause macular degeneration.

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  • For example the light sensitivity caused by macular degeneration.

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  • The majority of people with dry age-related macular degeneration do not suffer very severe visual loss.

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  • Individuals with wet macular degeneration may see a dark spot or spots within their central vision due to the blood leakage under the retina.

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  • senile macular degeneration was used as an example of a code expected to be found on a practice system.

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  • Is a screening program for early age-related macular degeneration likely to be cost-effective?

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  • Age - related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in people over 60 years in the western world.

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  • macular degeneration in this eye.

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  • macular degeneration in a population-based case-control study.

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  • macular degeneration of the eye.

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  • macular degeneration than non-smokers.

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  • metaphysical subtlety in the word " damn " than in the word " degeneration.

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  • motor neuron degeneration in a gene dose dependent manner.

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  • Acute Polio: Poliovirus invasion of one motor neuron produces degeneration of the motor neuron with denervation of muscle fibers innervated by that neuron.

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  • neuron degeneration in a gene dose dependent manner.

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  • It is associated with progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in specific areas in the brain.

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  • People with this degeneration also appear to have parkinsonism.

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  • photoreceptor differentiation, function and degeneration.

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  • Predisposition to motor neuron degeneration because of the glial, vascular, and lymphatic changes caused by poliovirus.

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  • Spinal cord and nerve root compression from degeneration, disk protrusion, or trauma.

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  • retinal degeneration?

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  • sameness of thought and feeling would produce mental decay and degeneration.

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  • senile macular degeneration was used as an example of a code expected to be found on a practice system.

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  • sexed adults were suffering from vertebral joint degeneration.

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  • Further narrowing consequent on disk degeneration and osteoarthrosis may produce neurological symptoms, which may be unilateral (root canal stenosis ).

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  • There is much more metaphysical subtlety in the word " damn " than in the word " degeneration.

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  • Macular translocation for a patient with age-related macular degeneration.

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  • The reason for this extreme degeneration is probably to be found in the sandy nature of the soil in which the creature burrows, a substance which would evidently irritate and inflame any functional remnant of an eye.

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  • The gonophores of different hydroids differ greatly in structure from one another, and form a series showing degeneration of the medusa-individual, which is gradually stripped, as it were, of its characteristic features of medusan organization and finally reduced to the simplest structure.

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  • A very early stage in the degeneration is well exemplified by the so-called " meconidium " of Gonothyraea (fig.

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  • medusa-buds) in the extreme of degeneration, then it follows from Brooks's theory that Hydra must be descended from an archaic form in which the medusan type of organization had not yet been evolved.

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  • When sessile gonophores are produced, they may show all stages of degeneration.

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  • Just as in the Mediterranean region, the degeneration of forests has given rise to mhquis and garigues, so in western Europe, the degeneration of forests has brought about different types ot grassland, heaths, and moors.

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  • But, as will be pointed out later, organs are often found to have undergone degeneration or reduction, and such reduced or degenerate structures may easily be mistaken for primitive structures, and so the investigator may be misled.

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  • A survey of the vegetable kingdom indicates that evolution has proceeded, on the whole, from the simple to the complex; at the same time, as has been already mentioned, evidence of reduction or degeneration in common.

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  • The young pigeons are fed by both parents with a peculiar stuff, the product of the strongly proliferating epithelial cells of the crop, which cells undergo a cheese-like fatty degeneration, and mixed with mucus, perhaps also with the proventricular juice, make up a milklike fluid.

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  • Degeneration of prayer: W.

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  • As might be expected, degeneration in larval structure is correlated with a concealed habit of life.

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  • But, excluded though they were from most trades and occupations, confined to special quarters of the city, disabled from sharing most of the amenities of life, the Jews nevertheless were gradually making their escape from the ghetto and from the moral degeneration which it had caused.

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  • He found on both sides an unreadiness for approximation: the Jews had sunk into apathy and degeneration, the Christians were still moved by hereditary antipathy.

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  • Despite all this, one must not fall into the easy error of exaggerating the degeneration into which the Jewries of the world fell from the middle of the 17th till the middle of the 18th century.

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  • Careful annual selection by hand of the best seed is the only way to prevent degeneration.

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  • The variety of special developments of structure accompanying the atrophy of typical organs in the Opisthobranchia and general degeneration of organization is very great.

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  • Some Opisthobranchia are striking examples of degeneration (some Nudibranchia), having none of those regions or processes of the body developed which distinguish the archaic Mollusca from such flat-worms as the Dendrocoel Planarians.

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  • It has, moreover, been noticed that even in cases where phagocytosis exists a greater or less extent of degeneration of the tissue may be observed before phagocytosis occurs.

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  • and the evil effects of nervous degeneration find a more recent illustration in the mysticism of the Chasidim (Hdsidim, " saints "), a Jewish sect in eastern Europe which started from a movement in the 38th century against the exaggerated casuistry of contemporary rabbis, and combined much that was spiritual and beautiful with extreme emotionalism and degradation.

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  • But the practitioner must be assured that neither valvular lesion nor degeneration of the myocardium is present.

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  • Thirdly, those members of a group which, whilst exhibiting undoubted structural characters indicative of their proper assignment to that group, yet are simpler than and inferior in elaboration of their organization to other members of the group, are not necessarily representatives of the earlier and primitive phases in the development of the group - but are very often examples of retrogressive change or degeneration.

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  • So, too, degeneration is not to be lightly assumed as the explanation of a simplicity of structure.

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  • There is a very definite criterion of the simplicity due to degeneration, which can in most cases be applied.

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  • Further: degeneration cannot be inferred safely by the examination of an isolated case; usually we obtain a series of forms indicating the steps of a change in structure - and what we have to decide is whether the movement has been from the simple to the more complex, or from the more complex to the simple.

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  • Spencer), as in the Araneae and Opiliones, and, on the other hand, may terminate in simplification and degeneration, as in the Acari.

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  • The reduction of the organism to seven leg-bearing somites, of which the first pair, as in so many Eu-arachnida, are chelate, is a form of degeneration connected with a peculiar quasi-parasitic habit resembling that of the crustacean Laemodipoda.

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  • The confluence of the regions of the body and the dislocation of apertures from their typical position are results of degeneration.

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  • Idem, " Degeneration, a Chapter in Darwinism," 1878, reprinted in the Advancement of Science (Macmillan, 1890); 20.

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  • Claus, " Degeneration of the Acari and Classification of Arthropoda," Anzeiger d.

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  • Another important factor in the present condition of zoological knowledge as represented by classification is the doctrine of degeneration propounded by Anton Dohrn.

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  • It is Dohrn's merit to have pointed out 1 that this assumption is not warranted, and that degeneration or progressive simplification of structure may have, and in many lines certainly has, taken place, as well as progressive elaboration and in other cases continuous maintenance of the status quo.

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  • The general purpose is to give something like an equivalence of importance to divisions or branches indicated by the same term, but it is not intended to imply that every phylum has the Ursprung der Wirbelthiere (Leipzig, 1875); and Lankester, Degeneration (London, 1880),, ti, ae / .r ?

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  • A knowledge of the bacteriology of scrofulous affections of bone and joints, such as caries and gelatinous degeneration, has shown that they also are tubercular diseases - that is to say, diseases due to the presence locally of the tubercle bacillus.

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  • The deleterious influence of high bloodpressure has engaged the attention of physicians and pathologists in later years, and the conclusion arrived at is, that although it may arise from accidental causes, such as malcomposition of the blood, yet that in many instances it is a hereditary or family defect, and is bound up with the tendency to gout and cirrhotic degeneration of the kidney.

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  • The muscles suffer at an early period: they fall off in bulk, and later suffer from fatty degeneration, the heart being probably the first muscle to give way.

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  • Indeed, all tissues when under-nourished, either locally as the result of an ischaemia, or generally as from some impairment of the blood, such as that prevailing in pernicious anaemia, tend to suffer from fatty degeneration; and at first sight it seems somewhat remarkable that under-nourished tissues should develop fat in their substance (figs.

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  • The earliest interpretation put upon this experiment was that the trophic influence of the nerve having been withdrawn, the tissue failed to nourish itself, and that degeneration ensued as a consequence.

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  • A salivary gland degenerates when its nerve-supply is cut off; and the nerves leading up to the symmetrical sloughs in Raynaud's disease have been found in an advanced state of degeneration (Affleck and Wiglesworth).

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  • When a nerve-trunk is separated from its central connexion, the distal portion falls into a state of fatty degeneration (Wallerian or secondary degeneration).

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  • The toxic actions produced in continued fevers, in certain chronic diseases, and by intestinal parasites largely aid in producing degeneration, emaciation and atrophy.

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  • Thus workers in lead suffer from the effects of this substance as a poison, those who work in phosphorus are liable to necrosis of bone and fatty degeneration of the blood vessels and organs, and the many occupations in which dust is inhaled (coalmining, stone-dressing, steel-polishing, &c.; fig.

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  • Cell in a state of degeneration and chromatolysis; the large rounded body in the cell is a cancer parasite.

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  • Large cell with a single nucleus; nucleoli in a state of degeneration.

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  • - Fatty degeneration of heart from case of perni cious anaemia.

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  • - Fatty degeneration of kidney from case of starvation.

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  • In many pathological conditions this tissue is commonly found to undergo mucoid or myxomatous degeneration, which is regarded as a reversion to a closely similar type - that of foetal connective tissue (fig.

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  • This term is usually applied to a semi-solid substance of homogeneous and gelatinous consistence, which results partly from excretion and partly from degeneration of cellular structures, more particularly of the epithelial type.

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  • Serous degeneration is met with in epithelial cells in inflammatory conditions and following on burns.

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  • In acute and chronic alcoholism, in phthisis, and in other diseases this fatty condition may be very extreme, and is commonly found in association with other tissue changes, so that probably we should look on these changes as a degeneration.

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  • Fatty degeneration is a retrogressive change associated with the deposit of fatty granules or globules in the cytoplasm, and is caused by disorganized cellular activity (figs.

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  • Over and above the bacterial intoxications we have a very extreme degree of fatty degeneration, widely distributed throughout the tissues, which is produced by certain organic and inorganic poisons; it is seen especially in phosphorus and chloroform poisoning.

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  • Fatty degeneration is common to all dead or decaying tissues in the body, and may be followed by calcification.

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  • Autolysis is a disintegration of dead tissues brought about by the action of their own ferments, while degeneration takes place in the still living cell.

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  • Any of the abnormal conditions that bring about general or local defective nutrition is an important factor in producing fatty degeneration.

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  • This splitting up of the fats previously combined with albumin in the cell by the action of natural ferments - lipases - and the setting free of the fats under the influence of toxins represent the normal and the pathological process in the production of so-called fatty degeneration.

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  • From whatever cause the tissues become disorganized and undergo fatty degeneration, the fatty acids may become liberated and combine with the alkalies to form potash and soda soaps.

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  • Hyaline degeneration is found in certain acute infective conditions; the toxins specially act on these connective-tissue cell elements.

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  • 611; Pelagatti, " Blastomycetes and Hyaline degeneration," Arch.

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  • Waller (1816-1870), who tracked the line of nervous strands by experimental sections, and showed that when particular strands are cut off from their nutritive centres the consequent degeneration follows the line of the separated strands.

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  • In such cases the paths of degeneration are so neatly defined that, when the tissues are prepared after death by modern methods, they are plainly to be seen running along certain columns, the subdivisions of which in the normal state may hardly be distinguishable one from another: some run in strips along the periphery of the spinal cord, at its anterior, middle or posterior segments, as the case may be; in other cases such strips occur within its substance, whether along columns of cells or of white matter.

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  • With changes of the pressures of the blood in arteries, veins or capillaries, and in the heart itself and its respective chambers, static changes are apt to follow in these parts; such as degeneration of the coats of the arteries, due either to the silent tooth of time, to persistent high blood pressures, or to the action of poisons such as lead or syphilis.

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  • Marey, 1863) attention was drawn to the physical features of the circulation, to the signs of degeneration of the arterial tree, and less definitely to the fluctuations of blood pressure; but as we have said under the consideration of diseases of the heart, the kymographs of Ludwig and his pupils brought out these fluctuations far more accurately and completely.

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  • Their structure has undergone little degeneration in connexion with this habit, and may be compared organ for organ with that of the Planarians.

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  • The only organs that exhibit any sign of degeneration are those of sense, but in the ectoparasitic Trematodes simple eye-like structures are present and perhaps serve as organs of temperature.

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  • On the degeneration of the polypide, its nutritive material is apparently absorbed for the benefit of the zooid, while the pig mented substances assume a spheroidal form, which either remains as an inert "brown body" in the body-cavity or is discharged to the exterior by the alimentary canal of the new polypide.

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  • His universal process of Evolution seems to give Spencer a criterion of" higher "and" lower " progression "and" degeneration,"independent of the accidents of actual history, and unattainable by strictly Darwinian methods.

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  • 1461), a true prophet in an age of degeneration.

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  • It holds scattered fragments of limestone, and is itself the result of limestone degeneration.

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  • He recognized the fact that the shells of molluscs, which grow by successive additions, preserve unchanged the whole series of stages of their individual development, so that each shell of a Cretaceous ammonite, for example, represents five stages of progressive modification as follows: the first is the periode embryonnaire, during which the shell is smooth; the second and third represent periods of elaboration and ornamentation; the fourth is a period of initial degeneration; the fifth and last a period of degeneration when ornamentation becomes obsolete and the exterior smooth again, as in the young.

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  • In general we find an analogy between the development of groups and of organs; we discover that each phyletic branch of certain organisms traverses a geologic career comparable to the life of an individual, that we may often distinguish, especially among invertebrates, a phase of youth, a phase of maturity, a phase of senility or degeneration foreshadowing the extinction of a type.

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  • The essential part of the medicinal treatment of this condition is the administration of iodides, which are able to decompose the insoluble albuminates of lead which have become locked up in the tissues, rapidly causing their degeneration, and to cause the excretion of the poisonous metal by means of the intestine and the kidneys.

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  • The history of the male communities is to a certain extent parallel with the female, but they were never so numerous and their degeneration was far more rapid.

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  • The drug is contra-indicated in all cases where the heart is already beating too slowly; in aortic incompetence - where the prolongation of diastole increases the amount of the blood that regurgitates through the incompetent valve; in chronic Bright's disease and in fatty degeneration of the heart - since nothing can cause fat to become contractile.

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  • If this possibility in regard to I Peter is granted, it is fatal to the theory, because at the time when the epistle was written official presbyters were so well established that abuse and degeneration had already begun to creep in and some of the elders were already guilty of "lording it over their heritage" and making a profit out of their office (I Pet.

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  • Variations in the structure and forms of leaves and leafstalks are produced by the increased development of cellular tissue, by the abortion or degeneration of parts, by the multiplication or repetition of parts and by adhesion.

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  • The later parts of E show a great degeneration in language, and a querulous tone due to the sufferings of the native population under the harsh Norman rule; "but our debt to it is inestimable; and we can hardly measure what the loss to English history would have been, if it had not been written; or if, having been written, it had, like so many another English chronicle, been lost."

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  • Any part of the cell cut off from the nucleus-containing part dies down: this is as true of nerve cells as of amoeba, and in regard to the neuron it constitutes what is known as the Wallerian degeneration.

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  • In the severed axon the degeneration is first evident in a breaking down of the naked nerve filaments of the motor end plate.

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  • Similarly, when the axons of the motor spinal cells are by severance of the nerve trunk of a muscle broken through, the muscle cells undergo "degeneration" - dwindle, become fatty, and alter almost beyond recognition.

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  • This is the explanation of the repair of nerve trunks that have been severed, with consequent degeneration of the peripheral nerve fibres.

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  • Examination of the cerebellum by the method of Wallerian degeneration has shown that a large number of spinal and bulbar nerve cells send branches up into it.

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  • The escape of zoospores is effected by the degeneration of the sporangial wall (Chaetophora), or by a pore (Cladophora), a slit (Pediastrum), or a circular fracture (Oedogonium).

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  • While there is a general tendency in the group to mucilaginous degeneration of the cell-wall, in Laminaria digitata there are also glands secreting a plentiful mucilage.

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  • The effects of exposure in the case of white races are not only manifested by the acute attack of heat-stroke, but, if this is avoided by proper care, it is nevertheless certain that long residence in the Persian Gulf causes a certain amount of tissue degeneration, owing to the exposure of the body cells to abnormal conditions of temperature.

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  • In the adult aquatic stage the alimentary canal shows signs of degeneration, and it seems probable that in this stage Gordian worms take no food.

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  • In the dyspnoea of advanced valvular disease of the heart morphine relieves the distress and restlessness, and induces sleep. It should however be withheld if the heart has undergone fatty degeneration.

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  • The early stages of morphinism are marked by moral degeneration; the patient seems to lose all sense of right and wrong, and will lie most plausibly and even thieve to obtain the drug; personal disorderliness, disregard of time, neglect of business and decline of family affection become soon evident.

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  • Given in large doses it causes rapid and characteristic poisoning, with alterations in the blood and rapid degeneration of nearly all the internal organs; but in small doses-5 to 15 grains - it partly undergoes reduction in the blood and tissues, the chloride being formed and oxygen being supplied to the body-cells in nascent form.

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  • The great series of German thinkers, Lessing, Herder, Kant, Hegel, Fichte, Schleiermacher and their 1 This does not, of course, preclude the possibility of degeneration in particular instances.

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  • But there must always have been some correspondence between the stages of social advance (or, in certain cases, of degeneration) and the religious interpretation of the world.

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  • The degeneration produced by sedentary habits in all lamellibranchs has in the oyster reached its most advanced stage.

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  • To these factors must be added the degeneration of the royal line-a degeneration inevitable in Oriental states.

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  • Where there has been local mischief due to inflammation the dead leucocytes must be removed, and this is done either by their being converted into pus in one mass, and making their way through the tissues to the nearest surface, whether of skin or mucous membrane, from which it can be discharged, or they may undergo a process of fatty degeneration and absorption, leaving behind in some cases cheesy matter, in others hard connective tissue.

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  • Brentano (On Gilds) holds that it is wrong to represent such regulations as monopolistic, inasmuch as there was no question whatever of a monopoly in that time nor until the degeneration of the craftgilds into limited corporations of capitalists.

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  • For an account of the "degeneration of craftgilds" a general reference may be made to Brentano, On Gilds (1870), and C. Gross, The Gild Merchant (2 vols., 1890).

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  • A widespread toxic action is indicated by the lesions found - cloudy swelling, which may be followed by fatty degeneration, in internal organs, capillary haemorrhages, &c. In septicaemia.

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  • (Many such changes are usually grouped together under the heading of " inflammation " of varying degree--acute, subacute and chronic.) Degeneration and death of cells, haemorrhages, serous and fibrinous exudations, leucocyte emigration, proliferation of connective tissue and other cells, may be mentioned as some of the fundamental changes.

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  • The changes produced at a distance by distribution of toxins may be very manifold - cloudy swelling and fatty degeneration, serous effusions, capillary haemorrhages, various degenerations of muscle, hyaline degeneration of small blood-vessels, and, in certain chronic diseases, waxy degeneration, all of which may be widespread, are examples of the effects of toxins, rapid or slow in action.

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  • We possess a large series of coins of Panticapaeum and other cities from the 5th century B.C. The gold staters of Panticapaeum beating Pan's head and a griffin are specially remarkable for their weight and fine workmanship. We have also coins with the names of the later Spartocids and a singularly complete series of dated solidi issued by the later or Achaemenian dynasty; in them may be noticed the swift degeneration of the gold solidus through silver and potin to bronze (see also Numismatics).

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  • Perhaps the most complete degeneration is found in the Rhizocephala, which are parasitic on other Crustacea.

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  • "The antlers of young deer are in the form of simple spikes; and this form is retained in the South American brockets, although the simple antlers of these deer appear due to degeneration, and are not primitive types.

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  • Degeneration of Curves.

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  • In the latter class we should distinguish three phases: (a) those with numerous and comparatively undeveloped rami; (b) those with three, or two highly developed rami, or with only one - the corm being reduced to the dimensions of a mere basal segment; (c) those reduced to a secondary simplicity (degeneration) by overwhelming development of one segment (e.g.

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  • According to his theory, too, this habit of mind may be regarded as the result of degeneration, for in his view, as in Max Muller's, it is not primary, but the result of misconceptions.

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  • On the whole, then (though degeneracy, as well as progress, is a force in human evolution), we are not tempted to believe in so strange a combination of forgetfulness with long memory, nor so excessive a degeneration from common sense into a belief in the personality of phenomena, as are required no less by Spencer's system than by that of Max Muller.

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  • After chronic poisoning a widely spread fatty degeneration is present.

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  • - iii.), the civilization and moral degeneration of mankind, the history of man to the time of Noah (iv.

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  • The degeneration of the monarchy was clearly apparent on the death of Charles the Bald, when his son, Louis the Stammerer, was only assured of the throne, which had passed by Louis the right of birth under the Merovingians and been Stan,hereditary under the earlier Carolingians, through his election by nobles and bishops under the direction (877-879).

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  • Too much linseed, often used in preparing horses for market, gives a similar appearance, but is liable to induce fatty degeneration of the liver; given in moderation it regulates the bowels and stimulates the more perfect digestion of other foods.

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  • Alteration in the symmetrical arrangement as well as in the completeness and regularity of flowers has been traced to suppression or the non-development of parts, degeneration or imperfect formation, cohesion or union of parts of the same whorl, adhesion or union of the parts of different whorls, multiplication of parts, and deduplication (sometimes called chorisis) or splitting of parts.

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  • Degeneration, or the transformation of parts, often gives rise either to an apparent want of symmetry or to irregularity in form.

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  • Other modifications of some part of the flower, especially of the corolla and stamens, are produced either by degeneration or outgrowth, or by chorisis, or deduplication.

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  • Stamens occasionally become sterile by the degeneration or non-development of the anthers, when they are known as staminodia, or rudimentary stamens.

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  • The disk is frequently formed by degeneration or transformation of the staminal row.

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  • The anterior antennae are fused with the anchoring attachment, whilst the posterior pair is vestigial, and the appendages of the mouth and body present various degrees of degeneration and specialization.

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  • Cope (16) regarded the Apoda as the extremes of a line of degeneration from the Salamanders, with Amphiuma as one of the annectent forms. In the opinion of P. and F.

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  • Arsenic and antimony do not form combinations with albumen, but they both greatly depress the central nervous system and circulation; and, if their action be long continued in large doses, they cause fatty degeneration of the viscera and disappearance of glycogen from the liver.

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  • Absolute sameness of thought and feeling would produce mental decay and degeneration.

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  • The most frequent site is the spine, some c. 56 per cent of all sexed adults were suffering from vertebral joint degeneration.

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  • Further narrowing consequent on disk degeneration and osteoarthrosis may produce neurological symptoms, which may be unilateral (root canal stenosis).

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  • Macular translocation for a patient with age-related macular degeneration.

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  • Melanin lenses are believed to help protect against macular degeneration.

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  • UV, or ultraviolet, rays from the sun can be extremely damaging, causing cataracts and macular degeneration.

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  • Dr. Aguirre (DA): The most common eye diseases secondary to UV rays (usually from sunlight but also other UV emitting devices such as suntan machines) are cataracts and retinal macular degeneration.

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  • Absorption of the rays by the central retina (called the macula) in the back of the eye causes degeneration of this tissue, which results in decreased central vision or fine pinpoint vision.

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  • Retinal macular degeneration (dry type) on the other hand is irreversible, resulting in loss of central vision while the eye retains peripheral vision.

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  • DA: Cataracts and macular degeneration usually occur in individuals aged 50 or older but may occur earlier if there is chronic unprotected exposure to UV rays.

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  • If dry macular degeneration develops, some studies indicate that the use of vitamins containing lutein and other minerals may be helpful in slowing the progression of the condition.

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  • This can ring especially true if you suffer from, or have suffered from, macular degeneration or any retinal dystrophies.

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  • Some of these consequences include macular degeneration (which is the leading cause of vision loss of older individuals).

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  • As many people age, they start to experience a normal degeneration of near focusing ability, and progressive reading glasses often provide the best solution.

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  • Osteoarthritis-A noninflammatory type of arthritis, usually occurring in older people, characterized by degeneration of cartilage, enlargement of the margins of the bones, and changes in the membranes in the joints.

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  • Osteoarthritis-A noninflammatory type of arthritis, usually occurring in older people, characterized by degeneration of cartilage, enlargement of the margins of the bones, and changes in the membranes in the joints.

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  • Canavan disease: an inherited metabolic disorder characterized by degeneration of the white matter of the brain.

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  • Spinal muscular atrophy type 1 (Werdnig-Hoffman): a group of inherited diseases causing progressive muscle degeneration and weakness, eventually leading to death.

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  • This condition, which is also called globoid cell leukodystrophy or Krabbe leukodystrophy, is characterized by acute nervous system degeneration.

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  • FA is also referred to as spinocerebellar degeneration.

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  • "Spinocerebellar Degeneration (Friedreich's Ataxia)."

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  • Children with Menkes disease have characteristic kinky hair, seizures, developmental failures, and progressive degeneration of the brain.

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  • CP does not include conditions due to progressive disease or degeneration of the brain.

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  • DM may cause cataracts in the eye, retinal degeneration, low IQ, early frontal balding, skin disorders, atrophy of the testicles, and diabetes.

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  • Other body systems are affected as well: myotonic dystrophy may cause cataracts, retinal degeneration, low IQ, frontal balding, skin disorders, testicular atrophy, sleep apnea, and insulin resistance.

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  • A number of brain scan studies also indicate a degeneration of the white matter in the brains of older patients who have not maintained adequate dietary control.

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  • People with night blindness, macular degeneration and cataracts may find benefits in taking zinc as a supplement.

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  • Selenium helps protect against the development of macular degeneration of the eye.

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  • It is believed consumption of foods rich in these colorful antioxidants offer powerful protection against Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

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  • For example, it has been shown that a decreased risk of heart disease, certain cancers such as colon and breast, stroke, diverticulitis, cataracts, and macular degeneration are outcomes of eating plenty of fruits and vegetables.

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