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deflection

Referring to the calculations given above, this is equivalent to 1' deflection for every degree of elevation, which amount had to be given towards the higher wheel.

85By plotting and averaging he obtained the following results: Ex,cess of Deflection and straining Action of a moving Load over that due to a resting Load.

63By plotting and averaging he obtained the following results: Ex,cess of Deflection and straining Action of a moving Load over that due to a resting Load.

63He regards the amount of deflection as a measure of the stability of the " ring."

44Maxwell (Electricity and Magnetism, § 444), recognizing that the theory in this form gave no account of residual magnetization, made the further assumption that if the deflection of the axis of the molecule exceeded a certain angle, the axis would not return to its original position when the deflecting force was removed, but would retain a permanent set.

32These arms. are then altered until on raising or depressing the battery key there is no sudden deflection either way of the galvano meter.

32He showed that at a certain depth the direction of the current becomes exactly the opposite of that which has been imposed by deflection on the surface current, and the strength is reduced thereby to only one-twentieth of that at the surface.

32The deeper layers lag behind the upper in deflection and the velocity of the current rapidly diminishes in consequence.

33He showed that at a certain depth the direction of the current becomes exactly the opposite of that which has been imposed by deflection on the surface current, and the strength is reduced thereby to only one-twentieth of that at the surface.

33The disadvantages that still remain are that the sight has to be removed every time the gun is fired, and the amount of deflection is limited and has to be put on the reverse way to that on a tangent scale.

21The pattern is that of a true sight, that is to say, the base plate is capable of movement about two axes, one parallel to and the other at right angles to the axis of the gun, and has cross spirit-levels and a graduated elevating drum and independent deflection scale, so that compensation for level of wheels can be given and quadrant elevation.

21The following is the approximate expression for the relation between a change Os in the length of the half chain and the corresponding change Ay in the dip s +Os =x+ (2/3x) {y2 or, neglecting the last term, 5 As= 4YAY/3x, and 6 Dy = 3xOs/4Y From these equations the deflection produced by any given stress on the chains or by a change of temperature can be calculated.

2172 with arcs of the length 1,, l2, l3, &c., and with the radii r1, r 2, &c. (note, for a length 2l 1 at each end the radius will be infinite, and the curve must end with a straight line tangent to the last arc), then let v be the measured deflection of this curve from the straight line, and V the actual deflection of the bridge; we have V = av/b, approximately.

21If the quadrants were near together there were certain limits between which the potential of the needle might vary without producing more than a small change in the deflection corresponding with the fixed potential difference of the quadrants.

2172 with arcs of the length 1,, l2, l3, &c., and with the radii r1, r 2, &c. (note, for a length 2l 1 at each end the radius will be infinite, and the curve must end with a straight line tangent to the last arc), then let v be the measured deflection of this curve from the straight line, and V the actual deflection of the bridge; we have V = av/b, approximately.

21If now a gradually increasing magnetizing force is applied, the needles at first undergo a stable deflection, giving to the group a small resultant moment which increases uniformly with the force; and if the current is interrupted while the force is still weak, the needles merely return to their initial positions.

22Left deflection has A been put on; this FIG.

22Rankine gives the approximate rule Working deflection =5= l a /t o,000h, where l is the span and h the depth of the beam, the stresses being those usual in bridgework, due to the total dead and live load.

22The deflection is indicated by a pointer upon a graduated scale, the readings being interpreted by comparison with two standard specimens supplied with the instrument.

22If now a gradually increasing magnetizing force is applied, the needles at first undergo a stable deflection, giving to the group a small resultant moment which increases uniformly with the force; and if the current is interrupted while the force is still weak, the needles merely return to their initial positions.

22If the looped lines are both in good condition and free from leakage, the current sent out on line r will be exactly equal to the current received back on line 2; and as these currents will have equal but opposite effects on the galvanometer needle, no deflection of the latter will be produced.

23The galvanometer being so adjusted that a current of definite strength through one of the coils gives a definite deflection of the needle, the amount of leakage expressed in terms of the insulation resistance of the wires is given by the formula.

23The deflection is indicated by a pointer upon a graduated scale, the readings being interpreted by comparison with two standard specimens supplied with the instrument.

23If a battery on the mainland is connected through a key with the shore end of the main cable, and a speaking galvanometer is in circuit with the short cable crossing the Fastnet rock, then closing or opening the battery connexion will create a deflection of the galvanometer.

10We then have approximately for the field at M due to the rod 4 HP= (dm1)2 (d + 1) = m (d 2 _ M Therefore 2m1= = (d2 - 12)2Ht, - (d2-12)2HEtan 0 2d 2d (44) M (d2-12)2HE (45) And I = v - 2dv tan 0, whence we can find the values of I which correspond to different angles of deflection.

10For experiments with long thin rods or wires it has an advantage over the other arrangements in that the position of the poles need not be known with great accuracy, a small upward or downward displacement having little effect upon the magnetometer deflection.

10C is a " compensating coil " consisting of a few turns of wire through which the magnetizing current passes; it serves to neutralize the effect produced upon the magnetometer by the magnetizing coil, and its distance from the magnetometer is so adjusted that when the circuit is closed, no ferromagnetic metal being inside the magnetizing coil, the ti, magnetometer needle undergoes no deflection.

10Grassot has devised a galvanometer, or " fluxmeter," which greatly alleviates the tedious operation of taking ballistic readings.2 The instrument is of the d'Arsonval type; its coil turns in a strong uniform field, and is suspended in such a manner that torsion is practically negligible, the swings of the coil being limited by damping influences, chiefly electromagnetic. The index therefore remains almost stationary at the limit of its deflection, and the deflection is approximately the same whether the change of induction occurs suddenly or gradually.

10If the ball is lowered until the lid is in place, the leaves take a steady deflection.

10Hence the deflection of the needle is proportional to the insulation resistance, and the scale can be graduated to show directly this resistance in megohms.

10If any sensible current flows through this insulator the galvanometer will show a deflection.

10(5) Speed of train produces no effect on the mean deflection, but only on the magnitude of the vibrations.

10- In order that a girder may become straight under its working load it should be constructed with a camber or upward convexity equal to the calculated deflection.

10If then we substitute for the standard cell any other source of electromotive force, we can move the slider into another position in which the galvanometer will show no deflection.

10apart and the suspended fibres near together at the top, the deflection produced by a P.D.

10In this case the deflection of the needle was practically quite constant when its potential varied from to 3227 volts.

10apart, the deflection for a given P.D.

10or more apart, the deflection increased much more rapidly than the potential, so that a maximum sensibility bordering on instability was obtained.

10necessarily obey a law of deflection making the deflections proportional to the potential difference of the quadrants, but that an electrometer can be constructed which does fulfil the above law.

10The importance of this investigation resides in the fact that an electrometer of the above pattern can be used as a wattmeter, provided that the deflection of the needle is proportional to the potential difference of the quadrants.

10Blondlot and P. Curie afterwards suggested that a single electrometer could be constructed with two pairs of quadrants and a duplicate needle on one stem, so as to make two readings simultaneously and produce a deflection proportional at once to the power being taken up in the inductive circuit.

10With the scale at a distance of two metres, a deflection of 130 mm.

10The town has suffered much from the periodical breaking of the Hindieh dam and the consequent deflection of the waters of the Euphrates to the westward, as a result of which at times the Euphrates at this point has been entirely dry.

10This deflection of water has also seriously interfered with the palm groves, the cultivation of which constitutes a large part of the industry of the surrounding country along the river.

10Therefore the angle of deflection which would be produced by grain weight hung at the distance //I o (for example) from the centre is the same as would be produced by 1 - 1 6 th of a grain in the scale-pan at the distance 1.

10was measured by the deflection of a mirror galvanometer, and the temperature by means of a mercury thermometer or an auxiliary thermocouple.

10This will disturb the resistance balance by an amount which can be measured by the deflection of the galvanometer, or by the change of the shunt-box, S, required to restore the balance.

10deflection appeared to take a deflexion on the way in.

10deflection of the body are the deflexion drums which enable the director to be turned about the dial.

10deflection sufficient data to make installation of vertical deflexion devices on public streets illegal.

10deflection direct visual observation via the beam deflexion system is frequently not possible or yields unsatisfactory results.

10If the looped lines are both in good condition and free from leakage, the current sent out on line r will be exactly equal to the current received back on line 2; and as these currents will have equal but opposite effects on the galvanometer needle, no deflection of the latter will be produced.

10If, however, there is leakage, the current received on the galvanometer will be less than the current sent out, and the result will be a deflection of the needle proportional to the amount of leakage.

10The galvanometer being so adjusted that a current of definite strength through one of the coils gives a definite deflection of the needle, the amount of leakage expressed in terms of the insulation resistance of the wires is given by the formula.

10The deflection observed on the galvanometer when the lines are leaky is d, while D is the deflection obtained through one coil of the galvanometer with all the other resistances in circuit; and assuming that no leakage exists on the lines, this deflection is calculated from the " constant " of the instrument, i.e., from the known deflection obtained with a definite current.

10If a battery on the mainland is connected through a key with the shore end of the main cable, and a speaking galvanometer is in circuit with the short cable crossing the Fastnet rock, then closing or opening the battery connexion will create a deflection of the galvanometer.

10If Venetian cupidity had not originally deflected the Crusade (and it was the view of contemporary writers that Venice had committed her first treason against Christianity by diverting the Crusade from Egypt in order to get commercial concessions from Malik-al-Ad11, 2 yet it had at any rate profited exceedingly from that deflection; and the Hohenstaufen and their protÃ©gÃ© Alexius only reaped dust and ashes.

10Venice is not the primary agent in the deflection of the Fourth Crusade.

10He regards the amount of deflection as a measure of the stability of the " ring."

10Deflections of the suspended needle are indicated by the movement of a narrow beam of light which the mirror reflects from a lamp and focusses upon a graduated cardboard scale placed at a distance of a few feet; the angular deflection of the beam of light is, of course, twice that of the needle.

10We then have approximately for the field at M due to the rod 4 HP= (dm1)2 (d + 1) = m (d 2 _ M Therefore 2m1= = (d2 - 12)2Ht, - (d2-12)2HEtan 0 2d 2d (44) M (d2-12)2HE (45) And I = v - 2dv tan 0, whence we can find the values of I which correspond to different angles of deflection.

10This last method of arrangement is called by Ewing the " one-pole method, because the magnetometer deflection is mainly caused by the upper pole of the rod (Magnetic Induction, p. 40).

10For experiments with long thin rods or wires it has an advantage over the other arrangements in that the position of the poles need not be known with great accuracy, a small upward or downward displacement having little effect upon the magnetometer deflection.

10If the distance of the mirror from the scale is equal to n scale divisions, and if a deflection 0 of the needle causes, the reflected spot of light to move over s scale divisions, we shall have s/n = tan 20 exactly, s/2n = tan 0 approximately.

10C is a " compensating coil " consisting of a few turns of wire through which the magnetizing current passes; it serves to neutralize the effect produced upon the magnetometer by the magnetizing coil, and its distance from the magnetometer is so adjusted that when the circuit is closed, no ferromagnetic metal being inside the magnetizing coil, the ti, magnetometer needle undergoes no deflection.

10Under the influence of the transient current, the galvanometer needle undergoes a momentary deflection, or " throw," which is proportional to Q, and therefore to 8B, and thus, if we know the deflection produced by the discharge through the galvanometer of a given quantity of electricity, we have the means of determining the value of 8B.

10In practice it is usual to standardize or " calibrate " the galvanometer by causing a known change of induction to take place within a standard coil connected with it, and noting the corresponding deflection on the galvanometer scale.

10Grassot has devised a galvanometer, or " fluxmeter," which greatly alleviates the tedious operation of taking ballistic readings.2 The instrument is of the d'Arsonval type; its coil turns in a strong uniform field, and is suspended in such a manner that torsion is practically negligible, the swings of the coil being limited by damping influences, chiefly electromagnetic. The index therefore remains almost stationary at the limit of its deflection, and the deflection is approximately the same whether the change of induction occurs suddenly or gradually.

10Maxwell (Electricity and Magnetism, § 444), recognizing that the theory in this form gave no account of residual magnetization, made the further assumption that if the deflection of the axis of the molecule exceeded a certain angle, the axis would not return to its original position when the deflecting force was removed, but would retain a permanent set.

10C. Oersted (1777-1851) had shown that a magnetic needle is deflected by an electric current, he attempted, in the laboratory of the Royal Institution in the presence of Humphry Davy, to convert that deflection into a continuous rotation, and also to obtain the reciprocal effect of a current rotating round a magnet.

10In France not even the saintly King Louis IX., who made several vain attempts to mediate, approved the pope's attitude; and the failure of the crusade which, in 1248, he led against the Mussulmans in Egypt, was, with reason, ascribed to the deflection of money and arms from this purpose to the war against the emperor.

10Depending on the fact that the electrical conductivity of a metallic conductor is decreased by heat, it consists of two strips of platinum, arranged to form the two arms of a Wheatstone bridge; one strip being exposed to a source of radiation from which the other is shielded, the heat causes a change in the resistance of one arm, the balance of the bridge is destroyed, and a deflection is marked on the galvanometer.

10If the ball is lowered until the lid is in place, the leaves take a steady deflection.

10These arms. are then altered until on raising or depressing the battery key there is no sudden deflection either way of the galvano meter.

10The deeper layers lag behind the upper in deflection and the velocity of the current rapidly diminishes in consequence.

10When a drift-current impinges directly upon a coast there is a heaping up of surface water, giving rise to a counter-current in the depths, which maintains the level, and this counter-current, although subject to deflection on account of the rotation of the earth, is deflected much less than a pure drift-current would be.

10Both outflowing and inflowing currents are subject to the deflection towards the right imposed by the earth's rotation.

10Left deflection has A been put on; this FIG.

10could be done by noting the amount of deflection for each range and applying it by means of a sliding leaf carrying the notch, and it is so done in howitzers; in most guns, however, it is found more convenient and sufficiently accurate to apply it automatically by inclining the socket through which the tangent scale rises.

10amount of left deflection given - the amount can easily be determined thus: The height of tangent scale for any degree of elevation is given with sufficient accuracy by the rough rule for circular measure It= X 1200 where a is the angle of elevation in minutes, h the height 3 of the tangent scale, and R the sighting radius; thus for 10 h _ 60 X R _ 2.0 Now supposing the sight is inclined IÃ‚° to the left, 3600 - which will move the notch from H to H' (see fig.

10HH' = 60 X 60' the resultant angle of deflection is HFH', and this can be determined by the same formula a = h X1200 X 3, but in this case h = HH' = R R 60 60 R X 3600 a _ = i' so that if the sight is inclined to the left IÃ‚° it will R X 3600 give 1' deflection for every degree of elevation.

10formula it can be shown that I' deflection will alter the point of impact by 'i in.

10With rifled guns deflection was also found necessary to allow for effect of wind, difference of level of trunnions, movement of target, and for the purpose of altering the point of impact laterally.

10Referring to the calculations given above, this is equivalent to 1' deflection for every degree of elevation, which amount had to be given towards the higher wheel.

10The disadvantages that still remain are that the sight has to be removed every time the gun is fired, and the amount of deflection is limited and has to be put on the reverse way to that on a tangent scale.

1016) is that the tangent sight has a steel horizontal bar which can slide through the head of the tangent scale for deflection, and is graduated for 3Ã‚° left and 1 Ã‚° right deflection.

10The pattern is that of a true sight, that is to say, the base plate is capable of movement about two axes, one parallel to and the other at right angles to the axis of the gun, and has cross spirit-levels and a graduated elevating drum and independent deflection scale, so that compensation for level of wheels can be given and quadrant elevation.

10In the South African war improvised detachable deflection scales of wood or iron placed over the fore-sight, called gun arcs, were used, but this device was clumsy, inaccurate and insufficient, as it only gave about 30Ã‚° right or left deflection, and only a sight that admitted of all-round laying could really satisfy the requirements.

10Besides the main graduations there is usually a separate deflection scale " (Bethell).

10The fore-sight was a small globe, and in the original patterns this was placed on a movable leaf on which deflection for speed of one's own ship was given, while deflection for speed of enemy's ship and wind were given on the tangent sight.

10In subsequent patterns all the deflection was given on the tangent sight, which was provided with two scales, the upper one graduated in knots for speed of ship, and the lower one in degrees.

10Some foresights have, however, a lateral motion giving within narrow limits the deflection found to be necessary for the variation of each rifle from the average.

10The tangent of the angle of deflection 0 of this needle measured from its position, when the shunt coil is disconnected, is equal to the ratio of the voltage of the dynamo to the current through the insulator.

10Hence the deflection of the needle is proportional to the insulation resistance, and the scale can be graduated to show directly this resistance in megohms.

10If any sensible current flows through this insulator the galvanometer will show a deflection.

10The meaning of this deflection can be interpreted as follows: If a galvanometer has a resistance R and is shunted by a shunt of resistance S, and the shunted galvanometer is placed in series with a large resistance R' of the order of a megohm, and if the same w w Se J FIG.

10It is possible so to arrange the value of the shunt and of the high resistance R' that the same or nearly the same deflection of the galvanometer is obtained as when it is used in series with the battery and the insulation-resistance.

10Impact.-If a vertical load is imposed suddenly, but without velocity, work is done during deflection, and the deformation and stress are momentarily double those due to the same load at rest on the structure.

10But if a load is so applied that the deflection increases with speed, the stress is greater than that due to a very gradually applied load, and vibrations about a mean position are set up. The rails not being absolutely straight and smooth, centrifugal and lurching actions occur which alter the distribution of the loading.

10p. 467) collated some measurements of deflection taken during official trials of Indian bridges, and found the increment of deflection due to impact to depend on the ratio of dead to live load.

10(2) The increase of deflection due to impact at 40 or 50 m.

10(4) The increase per cent of boom stresses due to impact is about the same as that of deflection; that in web bracing bars is rather greater.

10(5) Speed of train produces no effect on the mean deflection, but only on the magnitude of the vibrations.

10The following is the approximate expression for the relation between a change Os in the length of the half chain and the corresponding change Ay in the dip s +Os =x+ (2/3x) {y2 or, neglecting the last term, 5 As= 4YAY/3x, and 6 Dy = 3xOs/4Y From these equations the deflection produced by any given stress on the chains or by a change of temperature can be calculated.

10It is usually accurate enough in deflection calculations to take for I the moment of inertia at the centre of the beam and to consider it constant for the length of the beam.

10Then the deflection at the centre is the value of y for x = a, and is _ 5 wa4 S - 14 EI' The radius of curvature of the beam at D is given by the relation R=EI/M.

10- In order that a girder may become straight under its working load it should be constructed with a camber or upward convexity equal to the calculated deflection.

10Rankine gives the approximate rule Working deflection =5= l a /t o,000h, where l is the span and h the depth of the beam, the stresses being those usual in bridgework, due to the total dead and live load.

10An elongated shot fired from a rifled gun does not move in a vertical plane, but as if the mean plane of the trajectory was inclined to the true vertical at a small angle, 2Ã‚° or 3Ã‚°; so that the shot will hit the mark aimed at if the back sight is tilted to the vertical at this angle 3, called the permanent angle of deflection (see Sights) .

10If then we substitute for the standard cell any other source of electromotive force, we can move the slider into another position in which the galvanometer will show no deflection.

10When making the deflection experiment the magnetometer is arranged as shown in fig.

10With a period of 18 seconds, and the record-receiving paper at a distance of about 15 ft., a deflection of I millimetre of the light spot may indicate a tilting of AD part of a second of arc, or I in.

10With an adjustment to give a t5-second period, a deflection Table Watch Stand ' 'Boom 0008.

10By this time its maritime commerce had suffered disaster owing to the silting up of its port and the deflection of the Adour.

10C. Schweigger (1779-1857) with his " multiplier " made an advance upon Oersted's discovery, by winding the wire conveying the electric current many times round the pivoted magnetic needle and thus increasing the deflection; and L.

10The formula indicates that the sensibility of the instrument should increase with the charge of the Leyden jar or needle, whereas Hopkinson found that as the potential of the needle was increased by working the replenisher of the jar, the deflection due to three volts difference between the quadrants first increased and then diminished.

10If the quadrants were near together there were certain limits between which the potential of the needle might vary without producing more than a small change in the deflection corresponding with the fixed potential difference of the quadrants.

10apart and the suspended fibres near together at the top, the deflection produced by a P.D.

10In this case the deflection of the needle was practically quite constant when its potential varied from to 3227 volts.

10apart, the deflection for a given P.D.

10or more apart, the deflection increased much more rapidly than the potential, so that a maximum sensibility bordering on instability was obtained.

10necessarily obey a law of deflection making the deflections proportional to the potential difference of the quadrants, but that an electrometer can be constructed which does fulfil the above law.

10The importance of this investigation resides in the fact that an electrometer of the above pattern can be used as a wattmeter, provided that the deflection of the needle is proportional to the potential difference of the quadrants.

10Blondlot and P. Curie afterwards suggested that a single electrometer could be constructed with two pairs of quadrants and a duplicate needle on one stem, so as to make two readings simultaneously and produce a deflection proportional at once to the power being taken up in the inductive circuit.

10With the scale at a distance of two metres, a deflection of 130 mm.

10The town has suffered much from the periodical breaking of the Hindieh dam and the consequent deflection of the waters of the Euphrates to the westward, as a result of which at times the Euphrates at this point has been entirely dry.

10This deflection of water has also seriously interfered with the palm groves, the cultivation of which constitutes a large part of the industry of the surrounding country along the river.

10Therefore the angle of deflection which would be produced by grain weight hung at the distance //I o (for example) from the centre is the same as would be produced by 1 - 1 6 th of a grain in the scale-pan at the distance 1.

10was measured by the deflection of a mirror galvanometer, and the temperature by means of a mercury thermometer or an auxiliary thermocouple.

10This will disturb the resistance balance by an amount which can be measured by the deflection of the galvanometer, or by the change of the shunt-box, S, required to restore the balance.

10Venice is not the primary agent in the deflection of the Fourth Crusade.

11Deflections of the suspended needle are indicated by the movement of a narrow beam of light which the mirror reflects from a lamp and focusses upon a graduated cardboard scale placed at a distance of a few feet; the angular deflection of the beam of light is, of course, twice that of the needle.

11This last method of arrangement is called by Ewing the " one-pole method, because the magnetometer deflection is mainly caused by the upper pole of the rod (Magnetic Induction, p. 40).

11If the distance of the mirror from the scale is equal to n scale divisions, and if a deflection 0 of the needle causes, the reflected spot of light to move over s scale divisions, we shall have s/n = tan 20 exactly, s/2n = tan 0 approximately.

11From the former we deduce Ho, and from the latter the corresponding value of I, using the formulae Ho = 47rin/l and I - X s, (d (-- 11)2n7rr 2 i where s is the deflection in scale-divisions, n the distance in scaledivisions between the scale and the mirror, and r the radius of the wire.

11Under the influence of the transient current, the galvanometer needle undergoes a momentary deflection, or " throw," which is proportional to Q, and therefore to 8B, and thus, if we know the deflection produced by the discharge through the galvanometer of a given quantity of electricity, we have the means of determining the value of 8B.

11In practice it is usual to standardize or " calibrate " the galvanometer by causing a known change of induction to take place within a standard coil connected with it, and noting the corresponding deflection on the galvanometer scale.

11could be done by noting the amount of deflection for each range and applying it by means of a sliding leaf carrying the notch, and it is so done in howitzers; in most guns, however, it is found more convenient and sufficiently accurate to apply it automatically by inclining the socket through which the tangent scale rises.

11HH' = 60 X 60' the resultant angle of deflection is HFH', and this can be determined by the same formula a = h X1200 X 3, but in this case h = HH' = R R 60 60 R X 3600 a _ = i' so that if the sight is inclined to the left I° it will R X 3600 give 1' deflection for every degree of elevation.

1116) is that the tangent sight has a steel horizontal bar which can slide through the head of the tangent scale for deflection, and is graduated for 3° left and 1 ° right deflection.

11When the target is completely concealed it is necessary to lay the gun on an aiming point more or less out of the line of fire, or to lay on a " director " with a large amount of deflection, and to align aiming posts with the sights at zero to give the direction of the target, and afterwards perhaps to transfer the line of sight to some other distant object, all of which require a far greater scope of deflection than is afforded by the deflection leaf.

11In the South African war improvised detachable deflection scales of wood or iron placed over the fore-sight, called gun arcs, were used, but this device was clumsy, inaccurate and insufficient, as it only gave about 30° right or left deflection, and only a sight that admitted of all-round laying could really satisfy the requirements.

11Besides the main graduations there is usually a separate deflection scale " (Bethell).

11The fore-sight was a small globe, and in the original patterns this was placed on a movable leaf on which deflection for speed of one's own ship was given, while deflection for speed of enemy's ship and wind were given on the tangent sight.

11In subsequent patterns all the deflection was given on the tangent sight, which was provided with two scales, the upper one graduated in knots for speed of ship, and the lower one in degrees.

11Some foresights have, however, a lateral motion giving within narrow limits the deflection found to be necessary for the variation of each rifle from the average.

11The tangent of the angle of deflection 0 of this needle measured from its position, when the shunt coil is disconnected, is equal to the ratio of the voltage of the dynamo to the current through the insulator.

11The meaning of this deflection can be interpreted as follows: If a galvanometer has a resistance R and is shunted by a shunt of resistance S, and the shunted galvanometer is placed in series with a large resistance R' of the order of a megohm, and if the same w w Se J FIG.

11It is possible so to arrange the value of the shunt and of the high resistance R' that the same or nearly the same deflection of the galvanometer is obtained as when it is used in series with the battery and the insulation-resistance.

11But if a load is so applied that the deflection increases with speed, the stress is greater than that due to a very gradually applied load, and vibrations about a mean position are set up. The rails not being absolutely straight and smooth, centrifugal and lurching actions occur which alter the distribution of the loading.

11It is usually accurate enough in deflection calculations to take for I the moment of inertia at the centre of the beam and to consider it constant for the length of the beam.

11Then the deflection at the centre is the value of y for x = a, and is _ 5 wa4 S - 14 EI' The radius of curvature of the beam at D is given by the relation R=EI/M.

11When making the deflection experiment the magnetometer is arranged as shown in fig.

11With a period of 18 seconds, and the record-receiving paper at a distance of about 15 ft., a deflection of I millimetre of the light spot may indicate a tilting of AD part of a second of arc, or I in.

11With an adjustment to give a t5-second period, a deflection Table Watch Stand ' 'Boom 0008.

11By this time its maritime commerce had suffered disaster owing to the silting up of its port and the deflection of the Adour.

11C. Schweigger (1779-1857) with his " multiplier " made an advance upon Oersted's discovery, by winding the wire conveying the electric current many times round the pivoted magnetic needle and thus increasing the deflection; and L.

11The formula indicates that the sensibility of the instrument should increase with the charge of the Leyden jar or needle, whereas Hopkinson found that as the potential of the needle was increased by working the replenisher of the jar, the deflection due to three volts difference between the quadrants first increased and then diminished.

11From the former we deduce Ho, and from the latter the corresponding value of I, using the formulae Ho = 47rin/l and I - X s, (d (-- 11)2n7rr 2 i where s is the deflection in scale-divisions, n the distance in scaledivisions between the scale and the mirror, and r the radius of the wire.

11When the target is completely concealed it is necessary to lay the gun on an aiming point more or less out of the line of fire, or to lay on a " director " with a large amount of deflection, and to align aiming posts with the sights at zero to give the direction of the target, and afterwards perhaps to transfer the line of sight to some other distant object, all of which require a far greater scope of deflection than is afforded by the deflection leaf.

11If, however, there is leakage, the current received on the galvanometer will be less than the current sent out, and the result will be a deflection of the needle proportional to the amount of leakage.

12If Venetian cupidity had not originally deflected the Crusade (and it was the view of contemporary writers that Venice had committed her first treason against Christianity by diverting the Crusade from Egypt in order to get commercial concessions from Malik-al-Ad11, 2 yet it had at any rate profited exceedingly from that deflection; and the Hohenstaufen and their protégé Alexius only reaped dust and ashes.

12C. Oersted (1777-1851) had shown that a magnetic needle is deflected by an electric current, he attempted, in the laboratory of the Royal Institution in the presence of Humphry Davy, to convert that deflection into a continuous rotation, and also to obtain the reciprocal effect of a current rotating round a magnet.

12In France not even the saintly King Louis IX., who made several vain attempts to mediate, approved the pope's attitude; and the failure of the crusade which, in 1248, he led against the Mussulmans in Egypt, was, with reason, ascribed to the deflection of money and arms from this purpose to the war against the emperor.

12Depending on the fact that the electrical conductivity of a metallic conductor is decreased by heat, it consists of two strips of platinum, arranged to form the two arms of a Wheatstone bridge; one strip being exposed to a source of radiation from which the other is shielded, the heat causes a change in the resistance of one arm, the balance of the bridge is destroyed, and a deflection is marked on the galvanometer.

12When a drift-current impinges directly upon a coast there is a heaping up of surface water, giving rise to a counter-current in the depths, which maintains the level, and this counter-current, although subject to deflection on account of the rotation of the earth, is deflected much less than a pure drift-current would be.

12Both outflowing and inflowing currents are subject to the deflection towards the right imposed by the earth's rotation.

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