How to use Deficiency in a sentence

deficiency
  • As it is a staple food with the poorer classes, the deficiency is made up through importation.

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  • This deficiency is made up by the addition of auxiliaries or suffixes.

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  • There is, however, a yearly deficiency of more than £6000.

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  • Beri-beri is a dietetic deficiency disease which manifests itself by cardiac weakness with shortness of breath, swelling of the legs and peripheral neuritis with numbness of the limbs and weakness.

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  • In consequence of this deficiency he failed to pay the tribute due from the people to Ptolemy, as his fathers had done, and is set down by Josephus as a miser who cared nothing for the protest of Ptolemy's special ambassador.

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  • There was no real deficiency of ammunition and stores in the fortress, and provisions for forty days were reported in hand.

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  • Until recent years the forest birds did much to atone for this deficiency, for among them the tui and makomako rank high as songsters, while the apteryxes, kakapo, weka and stitch-bird are of peculiar interest to science.

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  • As a result of incurring the large debt, a clause in the constitution prohibits the legislature from contracting a debt without providing by the imposition of taxes for the payment of the interest annually and the principal within fifteen years, except to meet a temporary deficiency not exceeding $50,000.

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  • A higher temperature, especially with deficiency of moisture, will tend to throw a plant into a flowering condition.

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  • This deficiency is very usual in the class; at the same time, many Lamellibranchs have tentacles on the edge of the mantle supplied by a pair of large well-developed nerves, which are given off from the cerebro-pleural ganglion-pair, A, When free swimming, shows the two dentigerous valves widely open.

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  • Jacobsen on some occasions found water in the surface layers of the Baltic supersaturated with oxygen, which he ascribed to the action of the chlorophyll in vegetable plankton; in other cases when examining the nearly stagnant water from deep basins he found a deficiency of oxygen due no doubt to the withdrawal of oxygen from solution, by the respiration of the animals and by the oxidation of the deposits on the bottom.

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  • Although the interest on the state fund had risen to $70,000 in 1819, this together with an equal sum raised by the cities and towns was insufficient, and to meet the deficiency the patrons in each district were required by a " rate bill " to contribute in proportion to the attendance of their children.

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  • Discoveries in other Cordilleran territories, notably in Montana and Idaho, made up, however, in part for the deficiency of California, so that in I 860 the total amount of gold produced in the United States was estimated at not less than $45,000,000.

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  • The shortness of the summer, the deficiency of drainage and the depth to which the soil freezes in winter, are the circumstances which determine the characteristic features of the vegetation of the tundras.

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  • They possessed some arms, but the supply was insufficient, and the leaders were hoping for a French invasion to make good the deficiency and to give support to a popular uprising.

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  • Deficiency of light is less injurious than might at first be expected, because the plant to be forced has stored up in its tissues, and available for use, a reserve stock of material formed through the agency of light in former seasons.

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  • A deficiency in vitamin C leads to a disease called scurvy.

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  • The greatest proportionate deficiency, however, is observable in the arenaceous region between the Danube and Theiss, where for the most part only periodical floods occur.

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  • Dittmar's analysis of the " Challenger " samples indicated an excess of oxygen in the surface water of high southern latitudes and a deficiency at depths below 50 fathoms.

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  • A deficiency of lean meat is a common characteristic of the breed, which is almost extinct.

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  • Agriculture is the principal occupation, but the crops vary very greatly from year to year, owing to deficiency of rain.

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  • The dates of the earlier dynasties in this table are always intended to be only approximate; for instance, Meyer in 1904 allowed an error of 100 years either of excess or deficiency in the dates he assigned to the dynasties from the Xth upwards.

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  • Even if the agent made no profit he was bound to return double what he had received, if he made poor profit he had to make up the deficiency; but he was not responsible for loss by robbery or extortion on his travels.

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  • The deficiency on the working for the year ended 31st March 1907 was £54,924, and the approximate number of messages transmitted during the year was 96,783 with 1,126,940 words.

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  • It is obvious that the final moral ideal is not realized in any body of civic institutions actually existing, but the same analysis which demonstrates this deficiency points out the direction which a true development will take.

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  • The indigenous fauna of Brazil is noteworthy not only for the variety and number of its genera and species, but also for its deficiency in the larger mammals.

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  • Its objects were to relieve agricultural land from half the local rates, and to provide the means of making good out of imperial funds the deficiency in local taxation caused thereby.

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  • But it still contains a large amount of oil, which forms animal fat and heat, and thus makes up for part of its deficiency in carbohydrates.

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  • The reserve fund was created primarily to make good any deficiency in the revenues below the amount required to pay the interest due.

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  • Trophic and nervous conditions sometimes cause localized deficiency of pigment which produces white areas in the skin.

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  • This deficiency must be attributed partly to failing light and an inferior horizon but also to the fact that the ships had had scant opportunity for training and their firecontrol equipment was poor.

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  • The deficiency between revenue and expenditure is met by a subsidy from the imperial government.

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  • After the detailed tabulation had been completed, it was shown that the number of persons under ten years of age in 18go was surprisingly small, and that this deficiency in children was a leading cause of the slow growth in population.

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  • There is no public debt, the annual deficiency being made good by a grant-in-aid from the imperial exchequer.

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  • No impurity, consisting of any known substance, could be discovered capable of explaining an excessive weight in the one case, or a deficiency in the other.

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  • Calcium deficiency has long been linked to muscular cramps.

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  • I have not been able, through the deficiency of records, to trace the descent of these manors satisfactorily.

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  • Another time when Winslow visited them, it being a season of plenty with them, there was no deficiency in this respect.

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  • In the case of the Old World, the divergence from the standard which most deserves notice is the remarkable preponderance of the young in all the countries of eastern Europe, as well as in India, accompanied by an equally notable deficiency of the older elements in the population.

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  • Before this could be accomplished Chatham's mind became impaired, and Townshend, who was the most determined and influential of his colleagues, swayed the ministry as he liked, pledging himself to find a revenue in America with which to meet the deficiency caused by the reduction in the land tax.

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  • This is done by the usual trial impression sheet, and, as blocks are found to vary much in height and are generally low as compared with type, this deficiency has to be remedied by underlaying the blocks so that they are brought to the height of the type, or a shade higher.

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  • It is true that most terrestrial animals are restricted to countries not possessing a great range of temperature or very diversified climates, but there is reason to believe that this is due to quite a different set of causes, such as the presence of enemies or deficiency of appropriate food.

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  • For many years pepsine has been used as a remedy in dyspepsia to supplement the deficiency of digestive juice in the stomach, and it has been used popularly in dyspepsia for a still longer period.

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  • At the close of 1903 the mine-owners, to meet the deficiency, asked for permission to import Chinese.

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  • But its flora is the richest in Europe, and combines with the brilliant sunshine, the vivid but harmonious costumes of the peasantry, and the white or paletinted houses to compensate for any such deficiency.

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  • When, at the beginning of the French Revolution, the deficiency in the supply of saltpetre became a serious matter, he was placed at the head of the commission entrusted with the development of its production in French territory, and another commission on which he served had for its object the improvement of the methods of iron manufacture.

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  • The tension for clean water thus found is considerably lower than that (81) adopted by Quincke, but it seems to be entitled to confidence, and at any rate the deficiency is not due to contamination of the surface.

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  • Suffrage requirements are citizenship in the United States, registration and residence in the state for six months and in the county for thirty days immediately before election, but mental deficiency, conviction of infamous crimes (without restoration to rights of citizenship), bribery or attempt at bribery, bigamy, living in " what is known as patriarchal, plural or celestial marriage," or teaching its validity or belonging to any organization which teaches polygamy,' are disqualifications.

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  • It has recently been shown, however, that opium grown in the hilly districts of the Himalayas yields 50% more morphia than that of the plains, and that the deficiency of morphia in the Indian drug is due, in some measure, to the long exposure to the air in a semi-liquid state which it undergoes.

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  • Even then the amount of the rate is left to the council, any deficiency in the cost of the water, in so far as it is not defrayed out of water rates or rents, being borne in an urban district by the general district rate, and in a rural district by the separate sanitary rates made for the parish or contributory place supplied.

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  • To prove this, it will be sufficient to mention that an exceedingly small deficiency in the transparency of the free aether would be sufficient to prevent the light of the fixed stars from reaching the earth, since their distances are so immense.

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  • The reason for this deficiency is perhaps the unsettled conditions of Rumanian life, and the lack of a profound and longestablished civilization; or it may be found in the unstable and fickle character of the people.

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  • In short, if the reservoir is to equalize the whole flow of this year, it must have a capacity equal to the greatest deficiency c d of the cumulative flow below the cumulative demand, plus the greatest excess e f of the cumulative flow over the cumulative demand.

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  • This capacity is represented by the height of the line a'a' (drawn parallel to a a from the point of maximum surplus f) vertically above the point of greatest deficiency c, and equal, on the vertical scale, to the difference between the height c = 48% and g= 78% or 30% of the stream-flow during the driest year.

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  • The particular drought shown on the diagram is the result of an exceptionally early deficiency of rainfall which, in conjunction with the variation of demand shown by the dotted line b b, is the most trying condition.

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  • The reservoir begins to fall at the end of February, and continues to do so with few and short exceptions until the end of August, and it so happens that about the end of August this dotted line, b b representing actual cumulative demand, crosses the straight line a a of uniform demand, so that the excess of demand, represented by the slope from June to September, is balanced by the deficiency of demand, represented by the flatter slope in the first five months, except as regards the small quantity b e near the end of February, which, not having been drawn off during January and February, must overflow before the end of February.

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  • It is to be observed that any irregularity in the rate of supply from the reservoir may occur between the critical periods of maximum excess of cumulative flow and maximum deficiency 77NJN/Vtl 7b/7NNb' NE'3W 'Inn Ilrthy 1 ' '.l?

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  • These variations are attributed by Sir William Garstin to deficiency or excess of rainfall.

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  • To create a debt for any purpose other than to meet a temporary deficiency, the mayor and council must first obtain the consent of both the state legislature and the city electorate.

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  • For a curve of the order the expression Zm(m - I) - 6 - K is termed the " deficiency " (as to this more hereafter); the equation (to) expresses therefore that the curve and its reciprocal have each of them the same deficiency.

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  • The theory first referred to, with the resulting notion of " Geschlecht," or deficiency, is more than the other two an essential part of the theory of curves, but they will all be considered.

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  • The general theorem is that two curves corresponding rationally to each other have the same deficiency.

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  • The extension to curves of any given deficiency D was made in the memoir of Cayley, " On the correspondence of two points on a curve, " - Pore.

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  • In his organization there was a peculiar, perhaps a great deficiency; he was a man without affection.

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  • The muscular system is usually well developed, but there is deficiency of fatty tissue, which affects the features (particularly by giving relative prominence to the eyes) and the general character of the skin.

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  • But we may supply this deficiency from the Enchiridion Ethicum of Henry More, another thinker of the same school.

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  • Only the want of ships had prevented the Mahommedans from mastering the town, and crossing the straits, and now this deficiency was supplied by the Christians themselves.

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  • A well-made horse wants dissecting in detail, and then if a good judge can discover no fault with any part, but finds each of good proportions, and the whole to harmonize without defect, deformity or deficiency, he has before him a well-shaped horse; and of two equally well-made and equitably proportioned horses the best bred one will be the best.

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  • The want of courage and self-reliance, the deficiency in truth and honesty sometimes noticed in connexion with them, are doubtless due to long servitude under an unsympathetic government.

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  • The British Eocene and Oligocene strata yield so large a flora, and contain plant-beds belonging to so many different stages, that it is unfortunate we have still no monograph on the subject, the one commenced by Ettingshausen and Gardner in 1879 having reached no farther than gocene 79 g Oli of Great the Ferns and Gymnosperms. This deficiency makes it impossible to deal adequately with the British Eocene plants, most of the material being either unpublished or needing re-examination.

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  • Whether this deficiency is accidental or real time will show.

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  • It is obvious that many of these Swiss Miocene plants will need more close study before their specific characters, or even their generic position, can be accepted as thoroughly made out; still, this will not affect the general composition of the flora, with its large proportion of deciduous trees and evergreens, and its noticeable deficiency in many of our largest living families.

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  • Some enzymes whose deficiency leads to glycogen accumulation are part of the interconnected pathways shown at right.

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  • In adults, too much GH causes a condition called acromegaly, but deficiency in adults had been considered previously to have no importance.

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  • Patients with a severe deficiency of cortisol and the related hormone aldosterone, often have a low sodium level and an increased potassium level.

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  • For iron deficiency, which causes anemia, they use aloes, a hedging plant.

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  • It is interesting to note that individuals with a deficiency in 5 alpha reductase do not develop androgenetic alopecia.

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  • Gross deficiency of dietary selenium may cause many heart problems, including arrhythmia.

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  • Some causes are mainly unilateral whereas others like vitamin A deficiency are often bilateral.

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  • Even marginal biotin deficiency is teratogenic in mice [17] and implicated in human birth defects [18] .

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  • For example, a common cause of tear lipid deficiency is meibomian gland dysfunction secondary to staphylococcal blepharitis.

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  • Citrate - ferric ammonium citrate - ferric ammonium citrate - iron deficiency Nux vomica - stimulant of gastrointestinal tract, increase appetite.

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  • Fetal abnormalities, including cleft palate, have been linked to Vitamin B6 deficiency.

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  • Anyway, John Hunter from Oz has rectified the deficiency, which has enabled Number Watch to introduce a new section.

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  • Adult liver disease The symptoms of liver disease due to alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency in adults are similar to those in older children.

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  • In another 2000 study, researchers found a high degree of folate deficiency in heart disease patients.

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  • Folic acid deficiency is known to occur in pregnancy.

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  • Such definitions include many people with milder immune deficiency, which is generally not fatal.

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  • Vitamin B12 deficiency is recurrently seen in strict vegetarians who do not take vitamin supplements.

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  • There is ample evidence that a deficiency of DHA is associated with depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and dementia.

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  • And calcium deficiency is known to cause thin eggshells (5 ).

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  • Production of endogenous erythropoietin is impaired in patients with chronic renal failure and the primary cause of their anemia is due to erythropoietin deficiency.

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  • Deficiency is defined as an inappropriately low serum erythropoietin level in relation to the degree of anemia.

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  • Drought intensity again declined in some of the affected regions but overall the rainfall deficiency remains exceptional.

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  • Iron deficiency anemia is more common in patients with diarrhea or atrophic gastritis.

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  • I had the vet and it was mineral deficiency of cobalt, selenium and zinc, together with parasitic gastroenteritis caused by worms.

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  • Naively, Bandolier thought that iron deficiency was of only historical interest in Britain, tho important in developing countries with poor diets.

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  • Carbon monoxide replaces oxygen in the bloodstream causing hypoxia, an abnormal reduction of oxygen in the body tissues also called oxygen deficiency.

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  • In some cases IgG subclass deficiency may be the first indication of the future evolution of common variable immunodeficiency (CVI ).

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  • Vitamin D deficiency is strongly implicated in infant.. .

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  • A severely inflamed small intestine cannot absorb vitamins and minerals efficiently, which can result in a deficiency.

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  • Little evidence of iron deficiency anemia was found from total iron deficiency anemia was found from total iron binding capacity.

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  • Reactions to lactose are due to a deficiency of the enzyme lactase, which the body needs in order to digest lactose.

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  • Clinical deficiency may increase platelet aggregation and reduce the life span of red blood cells.

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  • In children, fat malabsorption can lead to a deficiency of vitamin E characterized by abnormal red blood cell development.

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  • The Cyclops is totally mindless and instinctive, the lowest depths of mental deficiency capable of post-natal existence.

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  • The four-year old boy who received the therapy was affected by ADA-SCID, a life-threatening immune deficiency condition.

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  • Vitamin B6 deficiency leads to an increase in kidney stones as a result of elevated urinary oxalate.

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  • However, the lack of active extension combined with effusion, palpable deficiency in the patellar mechanism, and patella Alta is diagnostic.

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  • Malaria, dysentery and the vitamin deficiency disease pellagra attacked the prisoners.

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  • Classical PKU is caused by a deficiency of the liver enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, which converts the amino acid phenylalanine to tyrosine.

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  • In children, severe iron deficiency may lead them to eat dirt (a condition called pica ).

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  • Recent scholarship has proffered the theory that his condition was occasioned by an enzyme deficiency that leads to the inherited disease porphyria.

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  • The user must subtract the reservoir deficiency R from the sample radiocarbon age in this case.

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  • A deficiency of Vitamin D leads to a failure of the bones to grow and causes rickets in children and osteoporosis in adults.

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  • The Royal Navy later used it - ineffectively, of course - to treat scurvy, an illness caused by vitamin deficiency.

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  • A deficiency of vitamin C causes the disease scurvy, which is rare in the United States.

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  • Less than optimal intake of selenium may have adverse effects on psychological function, even in the absence of signs of frank selenium deficiency.

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  • Severe anomolous trichromats or dichromats are aceptable but you will need to be aware of the deficiency and make appropriate adjustments.

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  • But they may also have specific nutrient deficiencies such as iron deficiency anemia or low plasma zinc levels.

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  • Notwithstanding the primitive condition of agriculture, the deficiency of communications and the damage caused by frequent inundations, Albania furnishes almost the entire corn supply of the Dalmatian coast and islands.

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  • The university is supported by a state tax of 0.23 mills per dollar on the taxed property of the state, by special appropriations from the state (for " deficiency," for School of Mines, and for salaries of teachers in the department of mines and engineering), by the interest on state bonds and land contracts purchased with the proceeds of Federal land grants under the Morrill Act of 1862, by Federal appropriations under the Morrill Act of 1890 and the Hatch Act, and by students' fees, &c. the total of this income was estimated in1906-1907at 8628,500.

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  • When brought before the emperor, Gerbert admitted his skill in all branches of the quadrivium, but lamented his comparative ignorance of logic. Eager to supply this deficiency he followed Lothair's ambassador Germanus, archdeacon of Reims, to that city, for the sake of studying under so famous a dialectician in the episcopal schools which were rising into reputation under Archbishop Adalbero (969-989).

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  • His theory of medicine professed to explain the processes of life and disease, and the methods of cure, upon one simple principle - that of the property of" excitability,"in virtue of which the" exciting powers,"defined as being (1) external forces and (2) the functions of the system itself, call forth the vital phenomena" sense, motion, mental function and passion."All exciting powers are stimulant, the apparent debilitating or sedative effect of some being due to a deficiency in the degree of stimulus; so that the final conclusion is that" the whole phenomena of life, health as well as disease, consist in stimulus and nothing else."Brown recognized some diseases as sthenic, others as asthenic, the latter requiring stimulating treatment, the former the reverse; but his practical conclusion was that 97% of all diseases required a" stimulating "treatment.

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  • To compensate for this deficiency, the bucks are armed with long sabre-like upper tusks (see Deer).

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  • The deficiency thus created was to be met by a " succession-duty," or application of the legacy-duty to real property; by an increase of the duty on spirits; and by the extension of the income-tax, at 5d.

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  • Recent pendulum observations have shown that it is incorrect to assume a uniform density of 2.6 in the elevated part of the earth's crust, that on the contrary there are great local differences in density, the most important being a confirmation of Airy's discovery that there is a marked deficiency of mass under high mountains and a marked excess under the bed of the ocean.

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  • The dissolution of this second parliament was followed by a short imprisonment of some of the more active members, and by a dethand made through England for a benevolence to make up the deficiency which parliament had neglected to meet.

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  • A good example of this, which will be discussed elsewhere on this site, is the intersex condition, five alpha reductase deficiency.

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  • However, alcohol consumption and oral contraceptives may cause a riboflavin deficiency.

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  • A vitamin D deficiency can lead to osteoporosis in adults or rickets in children.

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  • The IgG subclass deficiencies are a subgroup of primary antibody deficiency.

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  • Sublingual vitamin b -12 tablets are designed to dissolve under the tongue to speed B... symptom of vitamin b12 deficiency.

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  • You must take advice from your vet tho, as taurine deficiency can result in blindness and even death.

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  • Consequently, testosterone deficiency is uncommon among postmenopausal women.

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  • Test-tube experiments on brain tissue from autopsy confirmed this dopamine deficiency.

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  • In all the patients, thiamine deficiency was subclinical.

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  • Miranda hoped that taking the vitamin supplement would help to replenish her vitamin B deficiency.

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  • Currently, formulas made from soy are recommended for infants with galactosemia, primary and secondary lactase deficiency and for families choosing a vegetarian lifestyle.

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  • Change brands and varieties of food from time to time to avoid a chronic nutritional deficiency, and to prevent the development of food allergies.

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  • This substance can create a thiamin deficiency.

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  • A deficiency can cause blindness and cardiovascular issues in your pet.

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  • Close to two dozen cases of thiamine deficiency were reported in cats after the recall.

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  • Serious illnesses can develop due to a deficiency of a single nutrient.

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  • The deficiency may also trigger a variety of secondary symptoms.

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  • When the nervous system suffers from a nutrient deficiency, the body's involuntary and voluntary mechanisms may suffer in both humans and animals.

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  • Why should consumers be concerned regarding something as simple as a single nutrient deficiency?

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  • It takes time for a nutrient deficiency to emerge in its worst form, but after an extended period of consumption, a cat that is not receiving ample levels of thiamine will begin to display some highly concerning symptoms.

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  • Since the average household cat has no access to other viable sources of B1, repeated intake of a deficient food product will lead to an incidentally irreversible thiamine deficiency.

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  • Although less than two dozen cats were actually reported as being afflicted with a B1 deficiency, it is impossible to tell how many felines were displaying latent symptoms of the condition, symptoms that went unnoticed by their owners.

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  • In replicating their diet for domestic animals, cat foods must supply the nutrients in which cats are most likely to suffer a deficiency.

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  • A deficiency in the amino acid taurine, for example, will have a direct impact on the heart's ability to function.

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  • If your hair has recently lost its sheen as well as its thickness, it could well be a sign of nutritional deficiency.

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  • In The Apple Cider Vinegar Miracle Health System, author Paul Chappuis Bragg identifies the following hair symptoms in relation to potassium deficiency.

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  • I have done some research on this topic and after checking with your doctor; you may want to look into the possibility of a potassium deficiency which I have read could cause a drooping or sagging of the eyelids.

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  • That way he or she can give advice on any vitamin supplements that can help for maintaining optimal health before a nutrient deficiency occurs.

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  • What's more, deficiency could build up over time and for vegetarians, the recommended daily allowance is nearly double that the normal value.

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  • Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world.

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  • Deficiency vitamin B12 can lead to anemia and in severe cases, irreversible neurological damage.

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  • However, strict vegetarians and vegans are prone to deficiency since they do not eat any animal products, including dairy and eggs.

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  • Though deficiency of B12 is rare, it does occur.

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  • However, be aware that while folic acid can correct anemia, it cannot reverse nerve damage caused by a B12 deficiency.

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  • The only people who would benefit from the shots or supplements are those who suffer from a deficiency.

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  • While protein deficiency can be a risk for some vegetarians and vegans, most meat-free foods contain at least some protein, and eating a healthy and varied vegetarian diet provides a sufficient amount of protein for most adults.

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  • If you are a vegetarian who regularly eats a variety of beans, legumes, nuts, dairy, fruits, vegetables, and grains, you should have no reason to worry about protein deficiency.

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  • Many people avoid a vegan diet due to concerns about protein deficiency.

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  • The fact is that protein deficiency is rare and easily avoided by eating protein-rich plant foods such as nuts, seeds, beans and grains.

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  • A manganese or iron deficiency often causes yellow leaves.

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  • A magnesium deficiency can also cause a gardenia's leaves to turn yellow.

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  • A potassium deficiency may lead to increased disease and susceptibility to environmental stress.

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  • A diet of only fish can cause a deficiency in thiamine.

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  • Organic soil fixes vary depending on soil composition and what deficiency is present.

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  • A healthy lawn is better able to fight off parasites and disease than one which suffers from some type of deficiency or inadequate care.

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  • Supplements can bring your body back into balance and relieve the symptoms the deficiency caused.

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  • Avoid self-medicating with supplements without knowing you have a deficiency.

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  • Another theory on the cause of narcolepsy includes a deficiency.

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  • Some scientists believe that a deficiency in the production of hypocretin could be behind the episodes.

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  • Researchers conducting examinations of human and animal brains surmise that a deficiency of cells called hypocretin may be a cause for narcolepsy.

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  • It was discovered that most people who have narcolepsy also have this hormone deficiency, although the same assumption may not be reliable with animal subjects.

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  • Some research also reveals a possible mutation with hypocretin in addition to the deficiency, making it more difficult for the body to regulate normal sleep cycles.

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  • Anemia - A severe iron deficiency can lead to cramping.

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  • Some researchers believe that a deficiency of the substance tryptophan can lead to insomnia.

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  • A deficiency in platelets or a disorder that affects platelet production can disrupt clotting and severely complicate blood loss from accidental injury, surgery, and specific diseases or conditions in which bleeding can occur.

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  • Lactose intolerance occurs when, due to a deficiency of lactase, lactose is not completely broken down and consequently blood sugar levels do not rise.

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  • Lactose intolerance is also referred to as lactase deficiency, milk intolerance, dairy product intolerance, or disaccharidase deficiency.

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  • For most people, however, lactase deficiency develops naturally because, after about two years of age, the body produces less lactase.

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  • Since there is no treatment that can improve the body's ability to produce lactase, treatment for lactose deficiency is focused on controlling the diet.

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  • The virus causes the destruction of red blood cells and, therefore, a deficiency in the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood (anemia) can result.

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  • Hereditary fructose intolerance is a metabolic disorder in which the small intestine cannot process fructose (fruit sugar) into a source of energy because of an enzyme deficiency that prevents fructose absorption.

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  • Children with granulocytopenia (deficiency of white blood cells) are particularly at risk for deep organ candidiasis.

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  • Granulocytopenia-A condition characterized by a deficiency of white blood cells.

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  • Osteomalacia-A bone disease that occurs in adults due to a prolonged period of vitamin D deficiency.

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  • Scurvy-A nutritional disorder caused by vitamin C deficiency that is characterized by tiredness, muscle weakness, joint and muscle aches, a rash on the legs, bleeding gums, and skin bruising.

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  • Sometimes infants, as well as older children and adults, have a transient lactose deficiency after an episode of diarrhea.

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  • Children with lactose intolerance have a lactase deficiency that keeps them from processing milk and milk products.

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  • Deficiency in one nutrient occurs less often than deficiency in several nutrients.

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  • Worldwide, the most common form of malnutrition is iron deficiency, affecting up to 80 percent of the population, as many as four or five billion people.

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  • Children who are lactose intolerant have difficulty digesting milk and milk products, and may be at risk for malnutrition, particularly a calcium deficiency.

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  • Iron deficiency can be prevented by consuming red meat, egg yolks, and fortified breads, flour, and cereals.

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  • Somatrotropin (hGH) is measured in the clinical laboratory to identify hGH deficiency in adolescents with short stature, delayed sexual maturity, and other growth or development abnormalities.

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  • However, due to variable secretion of hGH, as well as hGH production in response to stress, exercise, or other factors, random assays are not an adequate determination of hGH deficiency.

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  • The somatomedin C test is usually ordered to help detect pituitary abnormalities, hGH deficiency, and acromegaly.

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  • Abnormally low levels of somatomedin C will require further investigation, so doctors may perform the hGH stimulation test to diagnose hGH deficiency.

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  • The hGH stimulation test, also called hGH provocation test, insulin tolerance, or arginine test, is performed to test the body's ability to produce human growth hormone and to confirm suspected hGH deficiency.

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  • This approach is believed to be more accurate and specific for hGH deficiency caused by the pituitary.

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  • Growth hormone deficiency is also suspected when x-ray determination of bone age indicates retarded growth in comparison to chronological age.

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  • When caused by hGH deficiency, as opposed to late growth spurt or genetics, abnormally slow growth and short stature with normal proportions may be seen.

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  • If the doctor has determined that the child has a nutritional deficiency, parents can insure that the child is taking the appropriate supplements and eating the recommended foods.

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  • The genetic defect causes a deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase that is responsible for breaking down a certain type of fat and releasing it from fat cells.

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  • Krabbe's disease is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme galactoside beta-galactosidase.

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  • It is due to a deficiency of phytanic acid hydroxylase, an enzyme that breaks down a fatty acid called phytanic acid.

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  • Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) is a fatal condition caused by a deficiency of the enzyme hexosaminidase A (Hex-A).

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  • Wolman's disease is caused by a genetic defect with a recessive pattern of inheritance that results in a deficiency of an enzyme that breaks down cholesterol.

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  • Thus, dwarfism can result if there is a deficiency in any of these hormones, if there is a failure in the receptor cells receiving the hormonal stimuli, or if the target cells are unable to respond.

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  • A child with a growth hormone deficiency is often small with an immature face and chubby body build.

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  • Growth hormone deficiency is present at birth, but since the primary symptoms of pituitary dwarfism are height and growth at a reduced rate, the condition is not diagnosed until later in childhood.

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  • If growth hormone is not the only hormone deficiency, the doctor must prescribe ways to raise the levels of the other deficient hormones, if these options are available.

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  • Dwarfism due only to growth hormone deficiency has a much better prognosis if treated early with replacement GH.

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  • The complete absence of a limb leaving a stump is called transverse deficiency, or amelia.

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  • When a specific part of a limb is missing, for example, when the fibula bone in the lower leg is missing, but the rest of the leg is intact, it is called a longitudinal deficiency.

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  • However, if a doctor suspects that the fetus is at risk for developing a limb deficiency (for example, if the mother has been exposed to radiation), a more detailed ultrasound examination may be performed.

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  • A congenital limb deficiency has a profound effect on the life of the child and his or her parents.

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  • Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-A disease associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that attacks the immune system.

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  • When excess iron in the cells (as a result of the deficiency of frataxin) reacts with oxygen, free radicals are produced.

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  • Mental deficiency, seizures, and movement disorders are common in macrocephalic children.

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  • When mental deficiency and the attendant diseases or disorders are severe, the child may require a life-support system.

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  • When the mental deficiency is less severe, the child may be diagnosed with minimal brain dysfunction or as neurologically handicapped.

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  • In most people, recurrent bleeding results in an iron deficiency.

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  • It is also possible that the IV solution may not provide all of the nutrients needed, leading to a deficiency or an imbalance, which would need to be corrected.

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  • Zinc especially appears to have an effect on the immune system, and deficiency of this mineral can lead to chronic diarrhea.

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  • Recurrent canker sores may indicate a metabolic imbalance, dietary deficiency, stress, and a lack of rest.

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  • There is evidence that folate deficiency is a worldwide problem.

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  • A deficiency of folic acid may lead to anemia, in which there is decreased production of red blood cells.

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  • During pregnancy, a folic acid deficiency may lead to preeclampsia, premature birth, and increased bleeding after birth.

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  • Using large amounts of folic acid (e.g., over 5,000 mcg per day) can mask a vitamin B 12 deficiency and thereby risk of irreversible nerve damage.

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  • To correct a folic acid deficiency, supplements are taken in addition to food.

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  • In the early 2000s, however, condoms are just as important as a device for preventing the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), especially HIV, the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

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  • Persons who have a deficiency of insulin may require insulin to maintain glucose, but those who have a poor response to insulin may not.

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  • Blood tests or a scalp biopsy may be required if a medical condition-such as lupus erythematosus, thyroid dysfunction, iron deficiency, or hormonal imbalance-is suspected.

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  • Pituitary dwarfism is a result of growth hormone deficiency.

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  • The deficiency may be genetic or the result of a severe brain injury.

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  • Probably the best known of these conditions is growth hormone deficiency, which is associated with the pituitary and hypothalamus glands.

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  • If the deficiency begins prenatally, the baby will still be of normal size and weight at birth but will then experience slowed growth.

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  • Adults in whom growth hormone deficiency has not been treated attain a height of only about 2.5 feet (76 cm).

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  • If a child has unusual infections, unusually severe infections, infections with unusual organisms, or unusual complications of usual infections, a doctor should be consulted to evaluate for possible immune deficiency.

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  • This is particularly important if there is a family history of immune deficiency.

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  • For those children with ADA deficiency, ADA infusions are the accepted treatment of choice.

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  • As an example of gene therapy for SCID children with ADA deficiency, the child receives periodic infusions of his or her own T cells corrected with a gene for ADA that has been implanted in an activated virus.

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  • Children with an ADA deficiency have low levels of both B and T cells.

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  • Goiter is usually caused by iodine deficiency.

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  • The chronic intake of excessive zinc supplements can result in copper deficiency, as zinc inhibits the absorption of copper.

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  • In addition to a deficiency in blood plasma of a protein known as ceruloplasmin, Wilson's disease is characterized by gold or greenish-gold discolorations of the cornea of the eye known as Kayser-Fleischer rings.

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  • Several enzymes are involved in breaking down each GAG, and a deficiency or absence of any of the essential enzymes can cause the GAG not to be broken down completely.

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  • Although MPS are all inherited disorders, each type is caused by a deficiency of one particular enzyme involved in breaking down GAGs.

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  • It was later discovered that the physical symptoms associated with Sanfilippo syndrome could be caused by a deficiency in one of four enzymes.

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  • There are a number of mild variant forms of spina bifida, including multiple vertebral abnormalities, skin dimples, tufts of hair, and localized areas of skin deficiency over the spine.

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  • This technique is being investigated to evaluate traumatic brain injury, speech delay, creatine deficiency syndromes, and mood disorders in young children.

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  • In the early 2000s medical research has found that many children who wet the bed may have a deficiency of an important hormone known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH).

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  • Rickets-A condition caused by the dietary deficiency of vitamin D, calcium, and usually phosphorus, seen primarily in infancy and childhood, and characterized by abnormal bone formation.

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  • Symptoms of AIP usually do not occur unless a person with the deficiency encounters a trigger substance.

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  • Most people with this deficiency never develop symptoms.

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  • This enzyme deficiency is caused by mutations in the ferrochelatase gene (FECH) located at 18q21.3.

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  • Persons with immune deficiency diseases and/or those whose immunity has been suppressed with anti-cancer drugs, corticosteroids, or radiation should not receive the vaccine.

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  • Other causes that should be ruled out include liver disease, alcoholism, drug addiction, and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

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  • The condom is the only form of birth control that also protects against sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

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  • As of the early 2000s, narcolepsy is thought to be an orexin deficiency syndrome; that is, it develops when a person's hypothalamus does not secrete enough orexins to keep the person from falling asleep at inappropriate times.

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  • Narcolepsy is sometimes described as an orexin deficiency syndrome.

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  • Hypokalemia-A condition characterized by a deficiency of potassium in the blood.

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  • In some cases breath holding spells may be associated with anemia (a reduced number of red blood cells) caused by an iron deficiency, although this is controversial.

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  • Milder cases of iron deficiency may not produce any physical symptoms, but children may learn at a slower pace than children with a proper amount of iron in their diet.

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  • Zinc deficiency has been associated with reduced growth and mental retardation.

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  • While a high fiber diet is important for health, too much fiber can reduce the absorption of zinc and lead to a zinc deficiency.

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  • Because magnesium is found in most foods, deficiency is usually associated with absorption problems and requires medical attention.

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  • Following a proper balanced diet is the best prevention of both mineral deficiency and mineral overdose.

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  • In X-ALD there is a deficiency in the enzyme that breaks down VLCFAs, which then accumulate in myelin and the adrenal glands.

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  • Iron deficiency anemia is the most common form of anemia worldwide.

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  • The onset of iron deficiency anemia is gradual and may not have early symptoms.

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  • The deficiency begins when the body loses more iron than it derives from food and other sources.

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  • Then the body tries to compensate for the iron deficiency by producing more red blood cells, which are characteristically small in size (spherocytosis).

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  • Folic acid deficiency anemia is the most common type of megaloblastic anemia, arising from a problem with the synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) within the cells of the body.

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  • It is characterized by RBCs that are larger than normal and is caused by a deficiency of folic acid, a vitamin that the body needs to produce normal cells and normal DNA.

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  • This condition usually results from a dietary deficiency but may also be due to an inability to absorb (malabsorption) folic acid.

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  • Folic acid deficiency in pregnant women may lead to birth defects in their children.

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  • Less common in the United States than folic acid anemia, vitamin B12 deficiency anemia is another type of megaloblastic anemia that develops when the body does not absorb enough of this nutrient.

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  • Confusion, depression, and memory loss may also be associated with the deficiency.

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  • Pernicious anemia is the most common form of B12 deficiency.

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  • Since most people who eat meat or eggs get enough B12 in their diets, a deficiency of this vitamin usually means that the body is not absorbing it properly.

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  • Anemia due to vitamin C deficiency is a rare disorder that causes the bone marrow to manufacture abnormally small red blood cells.

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  • Malnutrition or malabsorption of nutrients can contribute to vitamin deficiency anemia and iron deficiency anemias.

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  • In the United States, iron deficiency anemia is the most prevalent type of anemia, affecting about 240,000 toddlers between one and two years of age and 3.3 million women of childbearing age.

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  • Folate deficiency is not common in young people who eat an adequate diet and is usually associated with malnutrition, pregnancy, and alcoholism.

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  • In some anemias, a bone marrow sample will be removed (bone marrow biopsy) for microscopic examination, especially to confirm iron deficiency anemia or the megaloblastic anemias.

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  • Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia requires a life-long regimen of B12 shots to maintain vitamin levels and control symptoms of pernicious anemia.

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  • Nutrition education is readily available from public health sources, books, and the reliable Internet sources for parents who are concerned about providing essential nutrients for children who may be susceptible to deficiency anemias.

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  • A low red blood cell count can lead to anemia (deficiency of red blood cells) and fatigue.

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  • Since thalassemia trait can sometimes be difficult to distinguish from iron deficiency, tests to evaluate iron levels are important.

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  • Retroviruses are composed of RNA molecules instead of DNA, and the only treatable one is the one that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

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  • Hemophilia or hemophilia A (factor VIII deficiency) is an inherited coagulation disorder, affecting about 20,000 Americans.

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  • Christmas disease or hemophilia B (factor IX deficiency) is less common than hemophilia A with similar symptoms.

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  • Deficiency in the vitamin can affect the clotting factor's performance as well as deficiency in the factor itself.

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  • Von Willebrand's disease, a hereditary disorder with prolonged bleeding time, is due to a clotting factor deficiency and impaired platelet function.

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  • Hypoprothrombinemia is a congenital deficiency of clotting factors that can lead to hemorrhage.

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  • Other coagulation disorders include factor XI deficiency (hemophilia C), and factor VII deficiency.

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  • Factor VII is also called serum prothrombin conversion accelerator (SPCA) deficiency.

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  • A deficiency of factor VII, also called serum prothrombin conversion accelerator (SPCA) deficiency, affects one in 500,000 people and is often diagnosed in newborns.

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  • The severity depends on the degree of deficiency of factor IX.

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  • Von Willebrand's disease is caused by a defect in the von Willebrand clotting factor, often accompanied by a deficiency of factor VIII as well.

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  • Hypoprothrombinemia is an inherited or acquired deficiency in prothrombin, or factor II, a glycoprotein formed and stored in the liver.

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  • Acquired hypoprothrombinemia usually arises from a vitamin K deficiency caused by liver disease, newborn hemorrhagic disease, or other causes.

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  • Factor XI deficiency, or hemophilia C, is a bleeding disorder that occurs among certain ethnic groups.

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  • A deficiency of factor VII may cause varying levels of bleeding severity in those affected.

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  • Christmas disease involves an investigation of bleeding and clotting times, as well as determining factor IX deficiency.

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  • Factor XI deficiency is determined by measuring the specific coagulation factor as well as other coagulation tests including prothrombin time and clotting time.

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  • Factor XI (hemophilia C) deficiency is most often treated with plasma, since there are no commercially available concentrates of factor XI in the United States.

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  • Factor VII deficiency may be treated with prothrombin complex concentrates; as of 2004 factor VII is not licensed in the United States.

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  • Because the symptoms of OI are caused by collagen abnormalities and not a calcium deficiency (such as in osteoporosis), supplementation of vitamins or minerals will not cure the disease.

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  • This condition is due to a deficiency of the enzyme trypsin and other digestive enzymes produced in the pancreas.

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  • This may be more frequent in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

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  • Pica may be a symptom of an underlying nutritional deficiency.

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  • Correcting the deficiency usually stops the pica.

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  • Patients with other conditions in which celiac disease may be more commonly found include those with juvenile chronic arthritis, some thyroid diseases, and IgA deficiency.

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  • Some girls with Turner syndrome may also have difficulties with memory and motor coordination, which may be related to estrogen deficiency.

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  • The use of estrogen therapy may also improve memory and motor coordination problems associated with estrogen deficiency.

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  • Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a rare metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency in the production of the hepatic (liver) enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH).

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  • Most of the vitamins are closely associated with a corresponding vitamin deficiency disease.

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  • Vitamin D deficiency causes rickets, a disease of the bones.

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  • Vitamin E deficiency occurs only very rarely and causes nerve damage.

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  • Vitamin A deficiency, common throughout the poorer parts of the world, causes night blindness.

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  • Severe vitamin A deficiency can result in xerophthalmia, a disease that, if left untreated, results in total blindness.

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  • Mild or moderate folate deficiency, common throughout the world, can result from the failure to eat green, leafy vegetables or fruits and fruit juices.

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  • Folate deficiency causes megaloblastic anemia, which is characterized by the presence of large abnormal cells called megaloblasts in the circulating blood.

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  • Vitamin B12 deficiency occurs with the failure to consume meat, milk, or other dairy products.

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  • Vitamin B12 deficiency causes megaloblastic anemia and, if severe enough, can result in irreversible nerve damage.

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  • Niacin deficiency results in pellagra, which involves skin rashes and scabs, diarrhea, and mental depression.

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  • Thiamin deficiency results in beriberi, a disease resulting in atrophy, weakness of the legs, nerve damage, and heart failure.

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  • Vitamin C deficiency results in scurvy, a disease that involves bleeding.

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  • Pernicious anemia, homocystinuria, and biotinidase deficiency are three examples of genetic diseases which are treated with megadoses of vitamins.

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  • The primary reason is to relieve a vitamin deficiency, when one has been detected.

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  • The diagnosis of vitamin deficiency is often aided by visual tests, such as the examination of blood cells with a microscope, the x-ray examination of bones, or a visual examination of the eyes or skin.

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