The site of the arx of the ancient town is probably to be sought on the hill on which lies the Villa Spada, though no traces of early buildings or defences are to be seen: pre-Roman tombs are to be found in the cliffs to the north.
Though the emperor Julian improved its defences, the town was destroyed by the Huns under Attila, in the 5th century, but Justinian did his best to restore it.
Behind all this huge development of fixed defences lie the central fortresses of Paris and Lyons.
The defences, of the Spanish frontier consist of the entrenched camps of Bayonne and Perpignan and the various small forts darrt of the Pyrenees.
Of the coast defences the principal are Toulon, Antibes, Rochefort, Lorient, Brest, Olron, La Rochelle, BelleIsle, Cherbourg,St-Malo, Havre, Calais, Gravelines and Dunkirk A number of the older fortresses, dating for the most part from Louis XIV.s time, are still in existence, but are no longer of military importance.
There are also directors of stores, of naval construction, of the medical service, and of the submarine defences (which are concerned with torpedoes, mines and torpedo-boats), as well as of naval ordnance and works, The prefect directs the operations of the arsenal, and is responsible for its efficiency and for that of the ships which are there in reserve.
In regard to the constitution and maintenance of the naval forces, the administration of the arsenals is divided into three principal departments, the first concerned with naval construction, the second with ordnance, including gun-mountings and small-arms, and the third with the so-called submarine defences, dealing with all torpedo materiel.
The defences of the place are now solely confined to the island of Danholm, known down to the 13th century as Strehla or Strehlo, lying in the Sound.
Hezekiah improved the defences and arranged for a good water supply, preparatory to the siege by Sennacherib, the Assyrian general.
We have no information regarding Jerusalem during the period of the captivity, but fortunately Nehemiah, who was permitted to return and rebuild the defences about 445 B.C., has given a fairly clear description of the line of the wall which enables us to obtain a good idea of the extent of the city at this period.
But his successors did not act with similar leniency; when the city was captured by Ptolemy I., king of Egypt, twelve years later, the fortifications were partially demolished and apparently not again restored until the period of the high priest Simon II., who repaired the defences and also the Temple buildings.
The occasion was the report of Major-General Edwards on the defences of Australia, and Sir Henry addressed the other premiers on the desirability of a federal union for purposes of defence.
The opening of the railway enabled it to compete successfully with Alicante, and revived the mining and metallurgical industries, while considerable sums were expended on bringing the coast and land defences up to date, and adding new quays, docks and other harbour works.
The inquiries made by this body revealed an unsatisfactory condition in tile national defences, traceable in the main to financial exigencies, and as regards recruiting a new law was brought into force in 1 9071908.
As a precaution against an eventual French attempt to restore the temporal power, orders were hurriedly given to complete the defences of Rome, but in other respects the Italian government maintained its subservient attitude.
Credits for the army and navy were voted almost without a dissentient voice; new battleships were laid down, the strength of the army was increased, and the defences of the exposed eastern border were strengthened.
Instead of a wellorganized army of the modern type there was merely an undisciplined militia composed almost exclusively of irregular cavalry; and the national defences as a whole were so weak that, in the opinion of such a competent authority as Maurice of Saxony, the country might easily be conquered by a regular army of 48,000 men.
It was demolished in 1897, the defences being antiquated.
Amongst his works may be mentioned Our National Defences (1860), War in Bulgaria, a Narrative of Personal Experience (London, 1879), Clouds in the East (London, 1876).
The blanched fronds are also sold in large quantities for the processions of Palm Sunday, and after they have received the blessing of the priest they are regarded throughout Spain as certain defences against lightning.
Sheridan's cavalry, during the " Richmond Raid," carried the city's outer defences (May 12), but found, the river line too strong to be taken by assault and moved away.
Would be required, and in 1912 it was proposed to construct defences both at Cromarty and at Scapa Flow.
Permanent defences at Scapa were, however, abandoned in 1913, owing to the developments of submarine warfare, which rendered it very costly to protect the various entrances.
The few capital ships which happened to be there put to sea, and it was recognized that the base would be unsafe until anti-submarine defences were installed.
After the departure of the Persians the first necessity was the reconstruction of the defences of the city and the citadel.
The Phaleric wall, branching from the city circuit at some point farther east than the middle or south wall, may have followed the ridge of the Sikelia heights, where some traces of fortifications remain, and then traversed the Phalerum plain till it reached the Peiraeus defences at a point a little to the north-west of their junction with the middle wall..
As soon as the building of the city walls had been completed, Themistocles resumed the construction of the Peiraeus defences, which protected the larger harbour of Cantharus on the west and the smaller ports of Zea and Munychia (respectively southwest and south-east of the Munychia heights), terminating in moles at their entrances and enclosing the entire promontory on the land and sea sides except a portion of the south-west shore of the peninsula of Acte.
Being ordered to co-operate with Grant, who was then before Vicksburg, he invested the defences of Port Hudson, Louisiana, in May 1863, and after three attempts to carry the works by storm he began a regular siege.
After yielding to these hard conditions, Turkey took advantage of her respite to strengthen the frontier defences and to put down the rebellions in Syria and Egypt; some effort was also expended on the hopeless task of reforming the Janissaries.
With an inexperienced boy on the throne, divided and untrustworthycounsels in :the divan, and the defences of the empire shattered, the house of Osman seemed doomed and the Turkish Empire about to dissolve into its elements.
It occupies a commanding position, while the remains of its walls, and of a fine Moorish castle on a rock that overhangs the town, show how admirably its natural defences were supplemented by art.
The citadel of Wilhelmsburg remains, and also the defences on the left bank of the Danube, further extended and strengthened.
After several preliminary engagements Sherman on the 26th and 27th of June made repeated unsuccessful attempts to drive the Confederates from their defences at Kenesaw Mountain; he then resorted to a flanking movement which forced the Confederate general to retire (July 2) toward Atlanta.
News had now been received of the arrival of Austrian reinforcements by rail at the capital both from Hungary and Italy, and of the preparation of a strong line of provisional defences along the Florisdorf position directly in front of Vienna.
The island (Ortygia) had been provided with its own defences, converted, in fact, into a separate stronghold, with a fort to serve specially as a magazine of corn, and with a citadel or acropolis which stood apart and might be held as a last refuge.
Each quarter of the city had its own distinct defences, and Syracuse was now the most splendid and the best fortified of all Greek cities.
Marcellus, after an unsuccessful attempt to negotiate, began the siege in regular form (214 B.C.) by both land and sea, establishing a camp on Polichne, where stood the old temple of Olympian Zeus; but he made his chief assault on the northern side and on the defences of Tyche, particularly at the Hexapylum, the entrance facing Megara and Leontini.
To the east of the gorge the wall still follows the edge of low cliffs of the, coast, and continues to do so all along the east side of Achradina 1 The date of the fragment of city wall immediately to the north-east of the so-called palaestra is uncertain; it is therefore doubtful whether it can belong to this system of defences (Lupus, pp. 308, 331).
In reality, a very liberal expenditure of artillery ammunition on the part of the fleet was doing considerably less damage to the Ottoman defences than the Allied sailors imagined to be the case.
Carden, decided, under some pressure from home, to undertake an onset in full force upon the defences of the Narrows by day, although mine-fields still forbade a close attack on the forts on the part of battleships.
At the time however when active operations began the 42nd Division and one of the French divisions could 1 The chief naval incidents of this month were: - a raid by the Turkish destroyer " Demir Hissar " which sank the British transport " Manitou " on March 16, but had to be blown up next day off Chios to avoid capture; an attempt of the British submarine E15 to enter the Straits, which led to her being forced ashore (April 16) and in the sequel to her destruction by a daring boat's crew from the " Majestic " (April 18); bombardments of the defences of Smyrna on March 28, April 6 and April 22; and operations at Gaza and El Arish on the Syrian coast by the French battleship " St.
From the Black Sea the Russian naval forces bombarded the Bosporus defences on March 28; some fruitless operations were then carried out against the "Goeben " and " Breslau " (in the course of which the Turkish cruiser " Medjidieh " was sunk off Odessa (April 3), and on April 25, the day of the landing in the Peninsula, and on May 2, the Bosporus defences were again shelled.
2 The coast defences themselves remained under the command of the German Adml.
The Khazars and their companions broke through the Persian defences of the Caucasus.
The present fortifications were planned and made in 1815, the older defences having been destroyed by Napoleon I.
The demolition of the ramparts of Old Calais was followed by the construction of a new circle of defences, embracing both the old and new quarters, and strengthened by a deep moat.
The military defences were entirely remodelled under Sir G.
43) show Metz as it was about 'goo; in the years following a new outer chain of defences was constructed, which extends as far as Thionville on the north side and has its centre in front of Metz on the Gravelotte battleground.
The Germans; secure in the strength of their position on the left bank of the Moselle, drew more troops over to the right, and added to their defences and communications.
Behind them lay a succession of strongly fortified zones - first, the old British and German defences of 1917 covering all the ground W.
Of the river without success and at the end of the day the Canadians had penetrated into and maintained themselves within the enemy defences some two and a half miles to the E.
All the German defences in the vicinity of Queant, where the Drocourt-Queant line joined the main Hindenburg line.
Their losses had been heavy; II divisions had been defeated with a loss of close on i i,000 prisoners and many guns; the artificial defences had not held up or even appreciably checked the British advance, which now threatened to turn from the N.
Rawlinson then proposed to undertake an operation on a large scale with the object of capturing the outer defences of the Hindenburg line along the whole front of the Fourth Army.
These outer defences consisted of two strongly fortified lines, the first of which had been the German outpost line in the spring of 1917 and the British main line of resistance before March 1918, and the second the British outpost line corresponding to this main line - a less formidable obstacle about a mile farther east.
The capture of these defences, which would afford observation over the greater part of the main Hindenburg line proper, was of course an essential preliminary to any operation against the latter.
Of it, before reaching its first objective, and was checked in front of the final objective till darkness fell, when the last hostile defences W.
A series of partial offensives were therefore undertaken on the succeeding days, on both wings of the army, but with little real result; neither corps could succeed in attaining the final objectives of the first day's attack or clear the enemy entirely from the advanced defences of the Hindenburg line.
Butler captured the southern outer line of the Richmond defences on the 29th of September 1864.