Defect Sentence Examples
The one defect is lack of green sward.
He had another defect besides the want of popular power.
The council had also a fatal defect in its constitution.
A defect of title or undisclosed liability would invalidate the sale at any time.
This defect blocks B cells from maturing.Advertisement
Another defect is its relatively low elastic limit.
And if Pierre was often struck by Andrew's lack of capacity for philosophical meditation (to which he himself was particularly addicted), he regarded even this not as a defect but as a sign of strength.
It was well understood that the party intended that Jefferson should be president and Burr vice-president, but owing to a defect (later remedied) in the Constitution the responsibility for the final choice was thrown upon the House of Representatives.
Among the natural causes may be classed all failures of crops due to excess or defect of rainfall and other meteorological phenomena, or to the ravages of insects and vermin.
Some cases of spina bifida are accompanied by another defect at the base of the brain, known as the Arnold-Chiari malformation or Chiari II malformation.Advertisement
His aim is to remedy this defect by psychology, under the conviction that a true metaphysics is at bottom psychology, and a true psychology fundamentally metaphysics.
A more considerable defect is due to the earth having a diurnal rotation relative to a Newtonian base, and this is never wholly ignored.
No correction for any defect in it has been found necessary; moreover, no rotation of the base relative to the directions of the stars without proper motion has been detected.
Partial albinism in this case was undoubtedly correlated with some inherent constitutional defect, in virtue of which the individuals characterized by it were injuriously affected by the juices of a plant quite innocuous to their pigmented brethren.
Besides the blue and purple of the spectrum he was able to recognize only one colour, yellow, or, as he says in his paper, "that part of the image which others call red appears to me little more than a shade or defect of light; after that the orange, yellow and green seem one colour which descends pretty uniformly from an intense to a rare yellow, making what I should call different shades of yellow."Advertisement
Samples dating from the old sodium days are still in existence, and when they exhibit unpleasant properties the defect is often ascribed to the metal instead of to the process by which it was won.
Buffon accounted a grave defect of nature, and it must be confessed that no one has given what seems to be a satisfactory explanation of its precise use, though on evolutionary principles none will now doubt its fitness to the bird's requirements.
Wherever the soil is not quite suitable, but is capable of being made so, it is best to remedy the defect at the outset by trenching it all over to a depth of 2 or 3 ft., incorporating plenty of manure with it.
If the situation is not naturally well sheltered, the defect may be remedied by masses of forest trees disposed at a considerable distance so as not to shade the walls or fruit trees.
To obviate this defect, it has been recommended that ornamental plants should be formed into four or five separate suites of flowering, to be distributed over the garden.Advertisement
Its defect is that its tragic conclusion does not seem absolutely inevitable, but the characters - especially those of the Grafin Orsina and Marinelli, the prince of Guastalla's chamberlain who weaves the intrigue from which Emilia escapes by death, are powerfully drawn.
The absence of iron and the abundance of bronze in the relics of a prehistoric people is a piece of evidence to be accepted with caution, because the great defect of iron, its proneness to rust, would often lead to its complete disappearance, or conversion into an unrecognizable mass, even though tools of bronze originally laid down beside it might remain but little corroded.
Other minerals are iron, manganese, lead and zinc. The iron mines produce much less than formerly, and the want of iron is a grave defect in Belgian prosperity, as about £5,000,eoo sterling worth of iron has to be imported annually, chiefly from French Lorraine.
This limitation of administrative expenditure was the cardinal feature and the leading defect of the convention.
The greatest defect of all is their relative silence with regard to the myths.Advertisement
The self-love theory of Hobbes, with its subtle perversions of the motives of ordinary humanity, led to a reaction which culminated in the utilitarianism of Bentham and the two Mills; but their theory, though superior to the extravagant egoism of Hobbes, had this main defect, according to Herbert Spencer, that it conceived the world as an aggregate of units, and was so far individualistic. Sir Leslie Stephen in his Science of Ethics insisted that the unit is the social organism, and therefore that the aim of moralists is not the "greatest happiness of the greatest number," but rather the "health of the organism."
Such a compensation is only possible for one single defect, as we shall see later.
The extensive conjunctival defect, involving one-half of the bulbar conjunctiva, was reconstructed with an amniotic membrane allograft.
Mario's burning ambition at the moment is to defect.
The rectus sheath or external oblique aponeurosis was clearly exposed around the circumference of the defect.
The main defect in prawn aquaculture lies within the pond's waters.
This tape is concerned with the atrioventricular septal defect in the setting of a common atrioventricular septal defect in the setting of a common atrioventricular junction.
The urge to write is like a congenital birth defect.
Remedy defect in hanger on left side of trailing bogie.
Possibly we are dealing with a genetic defect in the metabolism of the satin cavy.
However, there is no congenital heart defect present and there are multiple contractures with overriding fingers observed with this syndrome.
It is also characterized by a heart defect, most often a hole in the heart, either ASD or VSD.
In thalassaemia there is an inherited defect in one of these genes.
If by any chance you should be as illiterate as I, and not know them, it is worth while curing the defect.
Dr. Hanley had closed Fahad's ventricular septal defect with a patch of the pericardium.
Thus, affected men do not transmit the genetic defect.
Children were assigned to heart defect groups based on medical records.
In acute infection the ventilation defect may exceed the perfusion defect.
That is the property will be valued as if such disrepair or defect did not exist.
Such is the natural result of defect of muscular exertion.
Another very rare birth defect called exstrophy can also increase a person's risk of developing bladder cancer later in life.
The main defect is that the acidity is too low which gives a rather flabby taste.
An extensive abdominoperineal resection was performed leaving a huge perineal defect (figure 4) which was reconstructed using bilateral myocutaneous gracilis flaps.
To cover a root surface denuded by gingival defect or periodontal disease, and widen the zone of attached gingiva.
Initially, a mutants will be screened for a combination of photosystem I impairment and a cellular iron homeostasis defect.
Such an explanation seems very improbable, particularly in view of the defect bands observed at the same sites.
Stoichiometry, doping, defect chemistry and also ceramic microstructure often control ferroelectric properties in bulk materials.
An onlay mesh was placed over the defect with anchoring sutures over the surrounding musculature.
Upon delivery please inspect your goods and make a note on the delivery paperwork of any damage or defect.
However, decreased penetrance of a particular gene defect cannot be excluded.
Likewise if there's a defect with the print we offer recompense.
Underlying molecular defect CF is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein.
To analyze data from mitochondrial respiration to identify a metabolic defect.
In the spine, the affected vertebrae have a defect at the back and the boney ring does not completely surround the spinal cord.
The third most common kind of defect affects the spinal cord, such as spina bifida.
Every fourth clone born is either stillborn or suffers from a lethal defect.
We will be happy to demonstrate how the Defect Tracking System could considerably streamline your customer relations procedures.
Zellweger-like syndrome, which is fatal in infancy and known to be a defect of three particular enzymes.
Defect results in absence or reduced numbers of B cells that do not mature and perform normal function.
Various types of congenital heart disease, including ventricular septal defect (VSD), atrial septic defect (ASD), or PDA (patent ductus arteriosus), may be present.
The defect most often interferes with the way the heart pumps and circulates blood.
Spina bifida is a defect in the structure of the spinal cord.
Hypospadias is a defect in the structure of the male urethra.
If you were trying to conceive and terminated your pregnancy due a fetal genetic defect, you should wait six to eight weeks before actively trying to conceive again.
The purpose of the warranty is to protect consumers from manufacturer defect, and do not include breakages caused by the user.
If your mixer's performance suffers from a defect in material or workmanship in the first two years from the date of purchase, then GE will provide you with a new one at no cost.
This warranty covers products that are defective out of the box and products that break down within the first year due to a manufacturer defect.
Most Bionaire humidifiers come with a limited warranty that will cover the cost of repair or replacement due to a manufacturer defect.
The warranty covers the cost of replacement or repairs if the damage to the device is due to a manufacturer defect and not owner neglect.
In some cases, the irregularities are readily apparent, but in other cases, you can't see the minor defect.
A recall is a defect with the car that could cause anything from a minor inconvenience to a major failure and a fatal crash.
In most cases, the recall involves a minor or moderate defect with the vehicle.
The accounts of his sister and niece have the defect of all hagiology; they are obviously written rather with a view to the ideas and the wishes of the writers than with a view to the actual and absolute personality of the subject.
Perhaps Chase's chief defect as a statesman was an insatiable desire for supreme office.
The defect of this arrangement consisted in the necessity of obtaining the consent of the commissionersa consent sometimes withheld on purely political grounds.
Its essential defect was what might be called insecurity of tenure.
On the other hand, congenital defect amounting to absence of one cerebellar hemisphere has been found to occasion practically no symptoms whatsoever.
The chief defect of the Digest is in point of scientific arrangement, a matter about which the Roman lawyers, perhaps one may say the ancients generally, cared very little.
The knowledge that the deepest devotion underlies misunderstandings is often a very imperfect consolation; but such devotion clearly existed all through, and proves the defect to have been relatively superficial.
With these considerable merits, normal sophistry had one defect, its indifference to truth.
The chief defect in equatorial mountings of type C is that in general they are not capable of continued observing much past the meridian without reversal.
The chief defect in the Spanish Philippine policy was that while it made converts it did not make citizens.
The advantage of the method is that there is no transference or mixture; the defect is that the whole measurement depends on the assumption that the rate of loss of heat is the same in the two cases, and that any variation in the conditions, or uncertainty in the rate of loss, produces its full effect in the result, whereas in the previous case it would only affect a small correction.
Mill in his Logic pointed out this defect, and without departing from Baconian principles remedied it by quoting scientific examples, in which deduction, starting from inductive principles, applies more general to less general universals, e.g.
The indefensible indecency and overstrained sentimentality are on the surface; but after a time every repellent defect is forgotten in the enjoyment of the exquisite literary art.
Again, in Oporto there is an area which combines every possible sanitary defect - dense overcrowding, great poverty, no light, no air, no drainage, no scavenging, water brought in buckets.
The discrepancy is attributed to a defect of rigidity in the earth.
Paley, though an excellent expositor and full of common sense, had the usual defect of common-sense people in philosophy - that of tame acquiescence in the prejudices of his age.
In Greece its insensibility to art and the cultivation of life was a fatal defect; not so with the shrewd men of the world, desirous of qualifying as advocates or jurists.
The chief defect of the league lay in its lack of proper provision for securing efficient armies and regular payment of imposts, and for dealing with disaffected members.
This explanation of the action of the solid is equivalent to that by which Gauss afterwards supplied the defect of the theory of Laplace, except that, not being expressed in terms of mathematical symbols, it does not indicate the mathematical relation between the attraction of individual particles and the final result.
Gauss thus supplied the principal defect in the great work of Laplace.
This, defect is noticeable, for example, in the elaborate great seals of the Henries of the 15th century, as compared with the finer types of their predecessors.
Again, many devices of civilization bear unmistakable marks of derivation from a lower source; thus the ancient Egyptian and Assyrian harps, which differ from ours in having no front pillar, appear certainly to owe this remarkable defect to having grown up through intermediate forms from the simple strung bow, the still used type of the most primitive stringed instrument.
Beautifully decorated on the exterior with gable reliefs by Artus Quellinus (1609-1668) of Antwerp, its great external defect is the absence of a grand entrance.
Such a defect is a ground for consideration in weighing a particular tax against others, but it is only one inconvenience among many incidental to all taxes.
Having detected an important defect in one of Laplace's demonstrations, he was induced by a friend to write out his remarks, that they might be shown to Dr John Brinkley (1763-1835), afterwards bishop of Cloyne, but who was then the first royal astronomer for Ireland, and an accomplished mathematician.
But it suffered from one fatal defect.
This defect in the budget was exposed in a great speech by Gladstone, which did much to ensure the defeat of the scheme and the fall of the ministry.
The defect of the bill was that it did nothing to meet the only real need of reform the enfranchisemeht of a certain.
Defect in speculative imagination appears when he encounters the vast and complex final problem of the universe in its organic unity.
Thus his famous general formula for virtue, that it is a mean or middle state, always to be found somewhere between the vices which stand to it in the relation of excess and defect, scarcely avails to render his treatment more systematic.
The only good of man is the pure existence of the soul, which in itself, apart from the contagion of the body, is perfectly free from error or defect; if only it can be restored to the untrammelled activity of its original being, nothing external, nothing bodily, can positively impair its perfect welfare.
In the classification of sins the Christian element predominates; still we find the Aristotelian vices of excess and defect, along with the modern divisions into " sins against God, neighbour and self," " mortal and venial sins," and so forth.
Besides escheat for defect of heirs, there was formerly also escheat propter delictum tenentis, or by the corruption of the blood of the tenant through attainder consequent on conviction and sentence for treason or felony.
His unshaken conviction of his mission made him conscious of the responsibility which rested on him, but hid from him the hopeless defect in the coup d'etat.
He too notes " the defect in early speech " - that is, the " lack of words free from implications of vitality " - as one of the causes which " favour personalization."
This explanation is incomplete, as it leaves out of account the action of the polarizer and analyser, and it was with the purpose of removing this defect that Fresnel and Arago undertook the investigations mentioned above and thus supplied what was wanting in Young's explanation.
It was at first supposed that the defect of Fresnel's formulae was due to the neglect of the superficial undulations that, on a rigorous elastic solid theory of the ether, are called into existence at reflection and refraction.
A well-made horse wants dissecting in detail, and then if a good judge can discover no fault with any part, but finds each of good proportions, and the whole to harmonize without defect, deformity or deficiency, he has before him a well-shaped horse; and of two equally well-made and equitably proportioned horses the best bred one will be the best.
Linnaeus's copy of the book evinces the great assiduity with which he studied it; he laboured throughout to remedy the defect of the want of synonyms, sub-joined his own generic names to nearly every species, and particularly indicated the two remarkable passages where the germination of plants and their sexual distinctions are explained.
Abbe overcame this defect by using the so-called compensation ocular, made with Jena glasses.
But a defect was soon found in the latter, the correction of which reconciled the divergence.
The chief defect of his work, inevitable at the time it was composed, is that, drawing the materials from contemporary memoirs rather than from inscriptions, he relies on literary gossip rather than on numismatics and epigraphy.
One defect a fluorescein angiogram test may reveal are abnormal blood vessels which leak blood into the surrounding tissues.
He leads his officers to defect to the US with a new super sub.
A distinction can be drawn however when the defect is a mere technicality.
Double outlet right ventricle A cardiac defect in which both great major vessels emerge from the right ventricle.
His researches from 1860 and onwards on the then vexed question of spontaneous generation proved that, in all cases where spontaneous generation appeared to have taken place, some defect or other was in the experiment.
On the other hand carelessness and neglect were severely punished, as in the case of the unskilful physician, if it led to loss of life or limb his hands were cut off, a slave had to be replaced, the loss of his eye paid for to half his value; a veterinary surgeon who caused the death of an ox or ass paid quarter value; a builder, whose careless workmanship caused death, lost his life or paid for it by the death of his child, replaced slave or goods, and in any case had to rebuild the house or make good any damages due to defective building and repair the defect as well.
This defect appears most strongly in his treatment of Joan of Arc; and the attack on Agnes Sorel seems to have been dictated by the dauphin (afterwards Louis XI.), then a refugee in Burgundy, of whom he was afterwards to become a severe critic. He was not, however, misled, as his more picturesque predecessor Froissart had been, by feudal and chivalric tradition into misconception of the radical injustice of the English cause in France; and except in isolated instances where Burgundian interests were at stake, he did full justice to the patriotism of Frenchmen.
The structure of the prosomatic appendages or legs is also seen to present many significant points of agreement (see figures), but a curious discrepancy existed in the six-jointed structure of the limb in Limulus, which differed from the seven-jointed limb of Scorpio by the defect of one joint.
The defect of the disputed prophecies in the former part of the book (a defect, as long as we regard them in isolation, and not as supplemented by those which come after) is that they emphasize too much for the Christian sentiment the stern, destructive side of the series of divine interpositions in the latter days.
The embittering influence of Ultramontanism may be further traced in its attitude towards the baptism of nonCatholics, for it seeks to establish the rule that baptism conferred by Protestants is invalid through defect of form or matter, or even of intention, and that, consequently, the rite must be readministered, at least conditionally, to proselytes joining the Roman Church.
The outlines of her foreign policy are sketched elsewhere (see English History), and her courtships were diplomatic. Contemporary gossip, which was probably justified, said that she was debarred from matrimony by a physical defect; and her cry when she heard that Mary queen of Scots had given birth to a son is the most womanly thing recorded of Elizabeth.
On this view, the function of the solvent is to give space for the solute to diffuse, and the pressure on a semi-permeable membrane is due to the excess of solvent molecules entering over those leaving in consequence of the smaller number which impinge on the membrane from the side of the solution; the defect in the number must be proportional, roughly at any rate, to the number of solute molecules, present, that is, to the strength of the solution.
This defect is usually remedied by heating the pits by the Siemens regenerative system (see § 99); the greater FIG.
That this defect was serious was dimly apprehended even by those who frequented and admired the lectures of the earlier sophists; that it was fatal was clearly seen by Socrates, who, himself commonly regarded as a sophist, emphatically reprehended, not only the taking of fees, which was after all a mere incident, objectionable because it seemed to preclude independence of thought, but also the fundamental disregard of truth which infected every part and every phase of sophistical teaching.
It is, however, in some degree a defect; for his defence of religion against the deists rests on a view of reason which would for ever preclude a demonstrative proof of God's existence.
He certainly seems to have been the reverse of athletic (the stalwart Aeschines upbraids him with never having been a sportsman), and he probably had some sort of defect or impediment in his speech as a boy.
Like pulmonic stenosis, aortic stenosis is a congenital heart defect in which a malformation impedes the flow of blood through the heart.
Retrograde pyelography revealed an irregular filling defect in the right renal pelvis.
Likewise if there 's a defect with the print we offer recompense.
Here at least there is a chance to remedy that defect.
Prepare, clean and scarify the recipient site then create a flap at least 2.5 times wider than the defect on an adjacent site.
Blood returning from the lungs must flow through an opening in the wall between the atria, called an atrial septal defect.
For example atrial septum defect in humans is directly linked to the mammalian controlled term atrial septal defect and nothing else.
Dislocations may nucleate near a different type of crystalline defect, such as a grain boundary, solute atom or vacancy.
The second section delves into the techniques and theory behind the applications such as specular X-ray reflectivity, diffraction imaging and defect mapping.
The project features the world 's largest lattice Boltzmann simulation of its kind, to study defect dynamics in liquid crystalline surfactant systems.
Transposition of the great arteries (or vessels) A congenital heart defect in which the two arteries emerging from the heart are switched.
All such performances are vitiated by the inherent defect of making the first move toward reconciliation come from our side.
Tips on strategy The ultimate zero-sum strategy is to defect every time (' Always Defect ').
Long QT can't explain all incidences of SIDS, but one study found that around one in ten babies who die of SIDS had this heart defect.
In a nut shell, a serotonin defect in a baby's brainstem most likely contributed to these babies' demise.
A lemon is any car that has a continual and unrepairable defect that affects the car's value, safety and use.
In other states, the presence of a single, serious defect can cause your car to be classed as a lemon.
Be sure you have your receipt if you find a major defect, and be sure the place where you bought the book allows returns.
Sometimes outlets purchase pieces that have a variation in fabric coloration that's a fabric manufacturing defect.
You can take advantage of great prices when purchasing what's called a manufacturing defect as long as you take your time to examine the furniture thoroughly.
The greater the defect, the greater the discounted price.If the defect is something that won't show when the furniture is placed in your home, then you've made a great find.
In order for a haute couture item to be present in a discount store, special circumstances would need to arise or there might even be a manufacturing defect in the item.
Typical patients would include those with natural hearing loss due to aging, hearing loss due to an injury in the workplace such as loud noise, and those with a hearing defect due to trauma at birth, genetic disorders and viral infections.
Buy your laminate floor from a reputable dealer that you know will be there if by chance you need to order more flooring due to a defect or error on your part.
It is true that if a certain item is deeply discounted, it might be because it has a small defect (such as a snag or missing button).
Often the defect is minor, but enough to fail inspection.
Unfortunately, you'll have to include a non-refundable processing fee of $12.50 with your sunglass package, as well as a brief description of the defect or damage.
You can also visit your local Ray Bans store, and in many cases, they can arrange to ship your product back to the manufacturer for repair--as long as the defect is covered by your warranty.
You must pay the postage and insure the shipment, as well as include a $12.50 processing fee, your contact information, and a description of the damage to the glasses or the manufacturer's defect.
They take care of it for you as long as it's a manufacturer defect.
For three years, if you experience a problem due to a manufacturer defect with your frames, you send them back.
Make sure you're aiming for the underside because the outer shell will defect your shots.
These repairs could be any number of things, from a small cosmetic defect to something that has major ramifications for the functionality of the system.
Near Mint - If the item is in near mind condition the tags might be slightly worn or bent but the character is totally without defect.
Patent ductus arteriosus-A congenital defect in which the temporary blood vessel connecting the left pulmonary artery to the aorta in the fetus doesn't close after birth.
Patent foramen ovale (PFO)-A congenital heart defect characterized by an open flap that remains between the two upper chambers of the heart (the left and right atria).
Less commonly, heart murmurs can result from a valve defect, narrowed blood vessel, or other cardiovascular defect.
These conditions, called pathologic heart murmurs, may indicate the presence of a serious heart defect, especially when accompanied by other signs and symptoms of a heart problem such as shortness of breath, rapid heartbeats, or fainting.
A septal defect or aortic aneurysm can cause heart murmurs.
The most common types of septal defects are atrial septal defect, an opening between the two upper heart chambers (atria), and ventricular septal defect, an opening between the two lower heart chambers (ventricles).
To determine if the child has any conditions or disorders that might increase the risk of a cardiovascular defect, the physician will review the child's family medical history.
If a septal defect is causing the heart murmurs, corrective surgery may be required.
Children with an underlying congenital cardiovascular defect tend to gain weight slowly.
The defect can be effectively controlled by diet.
If an underlying congenital cardiovascular defect is diagnosed, there are many treatment options that allow children to be fully active and grow up to be healthy adults.
Support groups are available to help parents and caregivers cope with the challenges of providing care for a child with a congenital cardiovascular defect.
Since the specific cause of this birth defect is unknown, there is no way known as of 2004 to prevent biliary atresia.
In both types of NF, a genetic defect causes these neural crest cells to develop abnormally, resulting in numerous tumors and malformations of the nerves, bones, and skin.
When a parent has NF, and the specific genetic defect causing the parent's disease has been identified, tests can be performed on the fetus (developing baby) during pregnancy.
The tissue can then be examined for the presence of the parent's genetic defect.
Jaundice resulting from a congenital defect usually does not appear until the baby is at least ten days old.
Prenatal testing is available for pregnancies in which an affected parent has been identified and the DNA mutation is known or the biochemical defect has been demonstrated.
However, prenatal testing is only a possibility in these types if the underlying defect has been found in another family member.
Body dysmorphic disorder-A psychiatric disorder marked by preoccupation with an imagined physical defect.
Fragile X, a defect in the chromosome that determines sex, is the most common inherited cause of mental retardation.
Neural tube defect, for example, is a birth defect in which the neural tube that forms the spinal cord does not close completely.
This defect may cause children to develop an accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid on the brain (hydrocephalus).
Inborn error of metabolism-One of a group of rare conditions characterized by an inherited defect in an enzyme or other protein.
This defect causes the lungs and pancreas to secrete thick mucus, blocking passageways and preventing proper function.
Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disease, meaning it is caused by a defect in the person's genes.
A simple defect in this gene leads to all the consequences of CF.
However, 70 percent of all people with a defective CFTR gene have the same defect, known as delta-F508.
In some types of albinism, a genetic defect in tyrosinase means that the amino acid tyrosine cannot be converted by tyrosinase into melanin.
Coarctation of the aorta (COA) is a congenital heart defect that develops in the fetus.
The genetic defect causes a deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase that is responsible for breaking down a certain type of fat and releasing it from fat cells.
Wolman's disease is caused by a genetic defect with a recessive pattern of inheritance that results in a deficiency of an enzyme that breaks down cholesterol.
In this case, the birth defect usually presented itself as very small, deformed versions of normal limbs.
The same test may be used to determine the presence of the genetic defect in unaffected individuals, such as siblings.
Cystoscopy (looking into the bladder with a thin telescope-like instrument) and x rays with a contrast agent to illuminate the urinary system will usually identify the defect.
If it can be done safely, it is better to repair the defect surgically.
A-T is a genetic disorder, meaning that it is caused by a defect in a gene that is present in a person at birth.
As of 2004, the A-T diagnosis is usually based on the characteristic clinical findings and supported by laboratory tests that point to a defect of DNA (genes and chromosomes) and to an inability to repair some types of damage to DNA.
Even within families, in which the specific genetic defect should be the same, some children have mostly neurologic problems while others have recurrent infections, and still others have neither neurologic problems nor recurrent infections.
An atrial septal defect (ASD) is an abnormal opening in the muscular wall separating the left and right upper chambers (atria) of the heart.
This abnormal opening is called an atrial septal defect and causes blood from the left atrium to flow (or "shunt") across the hole into the right atrium.
The most commonly found atrial septal defect, called secundum atrial septal defect, occurs in the middle of the atrial septum and accounts for about 70 percent of all atrial septal defects.
Atrial septal defects can occur alone or in combination with other congenital heart disorders, such as ventricular septal defect.
If the defect is large, oxygen-rich blood from the left atrium flows back into the right atrium and gets pumped back to the lungs again, causing more work for the heart and lungs.
In some cases, an atrial septal defect can allow blood clots from the body to enter the brain and cause a stroke.
Untreated atrial septal defect can lead to pulmonary hypertension, chest infection, Eisenmenger's syndrome, atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, stroke, or right-sided heart failure.
A person born with an atrial septal defect may have no symptoms in childhood, and the condition may go undetected into adulthood.
Stunted growth may be a symptom of atrial septal defect.
The medical and family history help the physician determine if the child has any conditions or disorders that might contribute to or cause the heart defect.
Some heart murmurs (abnormal heart sounds) can indicate an atrial septal defect.
In some cases, cardiac catheterization, a more invasive diagnostic procedure, may be performed to diagnose atrial septal defect.
During traditional atrial septal defect surgery, the heart is exposed through an incision made in the chest or between the ribs.
A heart-lung bypass machine pumps blood for the heart while the heart is stopped and the wall defect is being repaired.
When possible, minimally-invasive surgical techniques that use smaller incisions (3-4 inches [7-10 cm]) may be performed, depending on the size and location of the defect.
The catheter-based cardiac implant procedure involves the implantation of a closure device that seals the defect.
Closure devices cannot be used to treat all atrial septal defects, especially if the defect is large, if it is not centrally located within the atrial septum, or if there is not enough nearby tissue to adequately support the closure device.
The procedure starts with a cardiac catheterization to determine the size and location of the defect.
The closure device is placed through a specially designed catheter and guided to the location of the heart wall defect.
Diuretics may be prescribed if the atrial septal defect was diagnosed later in life and is causing fluid build-up.
Children with atrial septal defects require lifelong monitoring, even after a successful surgery or procedure to close the defect.
There is a 25 percent lifetime risk of death if the atrial septal defect is not repaired.
When an atrial septal defect is corrected within the first 20 years of life, there is an excellent chance for the child to live a normal and productive life.
Once an atrial septal defect has been closed, it is unlikely that more surgery will be needed.
Certain athletic activities such as competitive sports may be limited, depending on the child's type of defect and medical condition.
A child with an atrial septal defect may tire more easily than other children; frequent breaks and rest periods should be encouraged as needed during activities.
A child with an atrial septal defect has a greater risk of having a child with a heart defect.
Treatment and care for a child with an atrial septal defect can be costly, and some health insurance plans may not cover all expenses associated with a child's hospitalization or surgery.
Caring for a child with an atrial septal defect is demanding.
The disorder can result from a defect in formation during the embryonic stage, as a result of certain degenerative diseases, as a part of various genetic syndromes, or as an inherited family trait.
If prenatal testing indicates the baby has a serious congenital anomaly as a heart defect or spinal cord defect, the mother may need additional testing to determine the extent of the problem.
Laryngomalacia-A birth defect that causes the tissues around the larynx to partially collapse and narrow the air passageway, causing noisy breathing.
Congenital heart disease, or congenital heart defect, includes a variety of structural problems of the heart or its major blood vessels, which are present at birth.
In some cases, the defect may be mild and unnoticed at birth, then diagnosed later in life.
Each defect is defined by its location and severity.
Although rare, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, a condition in which the left side of the heart is underdeveloped, is the most serious congenital cardiovascular defect.
With this syndrome, blood returning from the lungs must flow through an opening or hole in the wall between the atria, called an atrial septal defect.
Two variations of septal defects include atrioventricular canal defect and Eisenmenger's complex.
Atrioventricular canal defect (also called endocardial cushion defect or atrioventricular septal defect) is a large hole in the septum, accompanied by abnormal tricuspid and mitral valves that are not formed as individual valves.
Instead, a single large valve crosses the defect.
The defect allows oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to flow from the left side of the heart to the right side of the heart and back again to the lungs.
Eisenmenger's complex is a ventricular septal defect coupled with pulmonary high blood pressure, an enlarged right ventricle, and sometimes an aorta that is not positioned correctly.
The major defects are a large hole (ventricular septal defect) between the ventricles, which allows oxygen-poor blood to mix with oxygen-rich blood, and narrowing at or beneath the pulmonary valve.
The other defects are an overly muscular right ventricle and an aorta that lies over the ventricular septal defect.
Transposition of the great arteries comprises 10-14 percent of congenital cardiovascular defect cases in the United States.
This condition may cause a hole in the wall between the left and right atrium, called an atrial septal defect.
Brugada syndrome is another rare congenital cardiovascular defect that appears in adulthood and may cause sudden death if untreated.
Researchers believe the defect responsible for Marfan's syndrome is found in gene FBN1 on chromosome 15.
About 44,000 infants (about eight of every 1,000 infants or 1 percent of live births) are born every year with congenital cardiovascular defects, the most common birth defect.
Most of these children can benefit from surgical treatment, even if the defect is severe.
The likelihood of having a child with a congenital cardiovascular defect increases if the mother or father, another child, or another relative had congenital cardiovascular defects, or there is a family history of sudden death.
Children with oral clefts are 16 times more likely to have a congenital cardiovascular defect than the normal population, although the reason for this association is unknown.
Severe congenital cardiovascular defect is diagnosed in infancy and usually becomes evident shortly after birth.
In a few cases, a cardiovascular defect is not detected until the child is a teenager or adult.
The medical and family history help the physician determine if the child has any conditions or disorders that might contribute to or cause the cardiovascular defect.
Some heart murmurs (abnormal heart sounds) can indicate a congenital heart defect.
Between 10 and 14 weeks of pregnancy, physicians may use an ultrasound to look for a thickness at the nuchal translucency, a pocket of fluid in back of the embryo's neck, which may indicate a cardiac defect in 55 percent of cases.
Several closure devices such as coils, patches, or umbrella-like devices, have been developed that can be inserted through the catheter and are designed to close the defect.
The goal of surgery is to repair the defect as much as possible, restore circulation to as close to normal as possible, reduce symptoms, improve survival, and improve quality of life.
For tricuspid atresia and pulmonary atresia, the Fontan procedure connects the right atrium to the pulmonary artery directly or with a conduit, and the atrial defect is closed.
Pulmonary artery banding, narrowing the pulmonary artery with a band to reduce blood flow and pressure in the lungs, is used for ventricular septal defect, atrioventricular canal defect, and tricuspid atresia.
The band can be removed at a later time, and the defect corrected with open-heart surgery.
A child with a congenital cardiovascular defect has a greater adulthood risk of having a child with a cardiovascular defect.
Coarctation of the aorta-A congenital defect in which severe narrowing or constriction of the aorta obstructs the flow of blood.
When this pocket of fluid is thickened, it may indicate that the infant will be born with a congenital cardiovascular defect.
If this tube forms incompletely during the first few months of pregnancy, a serious, and often fatal, defect results in spina bifida or anencephaly (formation of the head without the brain).
About one person in 30,000 has the genetic defect that causes Wilson's disease, while about 1.1 percent of the general population are carriers of the mutant gene.
Although the defect in cerebral function that causes CP is not progressive, the symptoms of CP often change over time.
For women in the first trimester of pregnancy, there is a high likelihood of the child being born with one or more birth defect.
Owing to a defect in one of the enzymes of the heme biosynthesis pathway, protoporphyrins or porphyrins (heme precursors) are prevented from proceeding further along the pathway.
These precursors accumulate at the stage of the enzyme defect, causing an array of physical symptoms in an affected child.
Each type of porphyria corresponds with a specific enzyme defect and an accumulation of the associated precursor.
Although there are eight steps in heme biosynthesis, there are only seven types of porphyrias; a defect in ALA synthase activity does not have a corresponding porphyria.
In virtually all cases of porphyria, an inherited factor causes the enzyme's defect.
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome, in which the blood flow through the left side of the heart is obstructed, is the most common congenital heart defect that is a candidate for prenatal surgery.
This is the second most common birth defect in the United States, affecting one out of every 2,000 newborns.
Ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) is a surgery performed for a congenital defect that blocks the fetus's airway.
Ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT)-A cesarean section in which the infant is removed from the uterus but the umbilical cord is not cut until after surgery for a congenital defect that blocks the air passage.
Omphalocele-A birth defect where the bowel and sometimes the liver, protrudes through an opening in the baby's abdomen near the umbilical cord.
Spina bifida-A birth defect (a congenital malformation) in which part of the vertebrae fail to develop completely so that a portion of the spinal cord, which is normally protected within the vertebral column, is exposed.
Although there is a wide range of effects that result from in utero alcohol exposure, the diagnosis of FAS is recognized as the most severe birth defect that occurs.
With each of the inherited myopathies, a genetic defect is linked to a lack of, or defect in, one of the proteins needed for normal muscle cell function.
Only one of these two copies needs to have the mutation (change) or defect in order for the child to have the disease.
Most cases of VUR are due to a defect in the way the ureter is implanted into the bladder.
In peroxisomal single-enzyme disorders, the peroxisome is intact and functioning, but there is a defect in only one enzymatic process, with only one corresponding biochemical abnormality.
If IUGR is related to a disease or a genetic defect, the future of the infant is related to the severity and the nature of that disorder.
Mitral valve prolapse-A heart defect in which the mitral valve of the heart (which normally controls blood flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle) becomes floppy.
However, if the defect is large, it may be difficult to fit all the organs into the small abdominal cavity.
The spinal cord may protrude through a defect in the vertebrae of the spinal column (myelomeningocele).
Von Willebrand's disease is caused by a defect in the von Willebrand clotting factor, often accompanied by a deficiency of factor VIII as well.
In fact, the defect often extends all the way to the penis in the male or splits the clitoris in the female.
Lack of prenatal care and nutrition has been linked to many birth defects; however, beyond the avoidance of known teratogens (anything that can cause a birth defect), there is little prevention possible.
As a congenital birth defect, OI cannot be prevented.
In an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, only one of these two copies needs to have the mutation (change) or defect in order for the child to have DM.
This genetic defect is called DM2 or proximal myotonic myopathia (PROMM).
This defect has only been decoded since 2001; therefore, less is known about how it functions.
Since the mid-1970s, amniocentesis has been used routinely to test for Down syndrome, by far the most common, nonhereditary, genetic birth defect, afflicting about one in every 1,000 babies.
It is also recommended for women who have already borne children with birth defects, or when either of the parents has a family history of a birth defect for which a diagnostic test is available.
The risk of bearing a child with a nonhereditary genetic defect such as Down syndrome is directly related to a woman's age-the older the woman, the greater the risk.
Thirty-five is the recommended age to begin amnio testing because that is the age at which the risk of carrying a fetus with such a defect roughly equals the risk of miscarriage caused by the procedure-about one in 200.
At age 25, the risk of giving birth to a child with this type of defect is about one in 1,400; by age 45 it increases to about one in 20.
Professional counseling may also prove necessary, particularly if a fetal defect is discovered.
An overall "normal" result does not, however, guarantee that the pregnancy will come to term, or that the fetus does not suffer from some other defect.
Anencephaly-A genetic defect resulting in the partial to complete absence of the brain and malformation of the brainstem.
Positive results on an amnio analysis indicate the presence of the fetal defect being tested for, with an accuracy approaching 100%.
Turner syndrome is a birth defect caused by the absence of an X chromosome in some or all cells of a female, which inhibits sexual development and usually causes infertility.
This defect is thought to be a result of an obstructed lymphatic system compressing the aorta during fetal development.
But many physicians avoid this and operate to remove diseased bowel and repair the defect at the same time.
The relationship between this defect and the symptoms of the disease is unclear.
This gene defect is called a triple repeat, meaning it contains extra triplets of DNA code.
Therefore, a male has only one copy of each gene on the X chromosome, and if it is flawed, he will have the disease that defect causes.
A son born with the defect has the disease.
Most men with EDMD survive into middle age, although a defect in the heart's rhythm (heart block) may be fatal if not treated with a pacemaker.
Hence, some vitamin deficiencies tend to result in one type of defect, while other deficiencies result in a variety of problems.
Immunodeficiency is a defect of any component of the immune system or a defect of another system that affects the immune system leading to an increased incidence or severity of infection.
X-linked agammaglobulinemia is an inherited disease stemming from a defect on the X chromosome, consequently affecting more males than females.
It is believed to be caused by a defect in the development of T helper cells (cells that recognize foreign antigens and activate T and B cells in an immune response).
Hemophilia is a coagulation disorder arising from a genetic defect of the X chromosome; the defect can either be inherited or result from spontaneous gene mutation.
Hemophilia A and B are both caused by a genetic defect present on the X chromosome.
Both factors VIII and IX are produced by a genetic defect of the X chromosome, so hemophilia A and B are both sex-linked diseases passed on from a female to male offspring.
An umbilical hernia occurs when a portion of the bowel protrudes through a small defect in the abdominal wall muscle near where the umbilical cord attaches to the baby's abdomen.
These are not a result of an organ protruding through weakened muscle tissue but rather are a result of a much larger defect of the muscles of the abdomen that causes the internal organs to develop outside the body.
A diaphragmatic hernia can occur as an isolated defect or as part of a more complex syndrome.
Umbilical hernia is caused by a small defect in the muscles of the abdominal wall.
Infants with siblings who have been diagnosed with congenital hip dysplasia or who have parents with the defect are at an increased risk.
Operations are performed to reduce the dislocation of the hip and to repair a defect in the acetabulum.
The development of infection or the presence of a birth defect can also affect long-term prognosis.
Congenital deficiency is caused by an enzyme defect present at birth.
Primary deficiency is caused by an enzyme defect developed over time.