Defect sentence example

defect
  • He had another defect besides the want of popular power.
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  • The one defect is lack of green sward.
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  • A defect of title or undisclosed liability would invalidate the sale at any time.
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  • The council had also a fatal defect in its constitution.
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  • And if Pierre was often struck by Andrew's lack of capacity for philosophical meditation (to which he himself was particularly addicted), he regarded even this not as a defect but as a sign of strength.
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  • The boat-builder had to make good any defect of construction or damage due to it for a year's warranty.
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  • Its inherent defect - that the products of combustion were invariably heavier than the original substance instead of less as the theory demanded - was ignored, and until late in the 18th century it dominated chemical thought.
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  • The first step towards overcoming this vital defect in optical glass was taken by P. L.
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  • It is true that all the structures of the time had the defect of a box-like appearance.
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  • As is always the case with a thoroughly attractive woman, her defect--the shortness of her upper lip and her half-open mouth--seemed to be her own special and peculiar form of beauty.
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  • The men of this party had both the quality and the defect of frankness in their opinions.
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  • the Austrians only marched io, and, owing to the defect in their tactical training alluded to above, the troops actually on the ground could not hold out long enough for their reserves to arrive.
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  • The highest ranking of his death dealers to defect, Harmony had been Gabriel's lover for months and his second-in-command since he took over the underworld.
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  • We see at once that, where u=o, the velocity has its " normal " value, while where u is positive the velocity is in excess, and where u is negative the velocity is in defect of the normal value.
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  • At the open end, as a first approximation to be corrected later, there are no pressure changes, for any tendency to excess can be relieved by immediate expansion into the outer air, and any tendency to defect can be filled up by an inrush from the outer air.
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  • Thus the characteristic defect in the British railway organization has been the tendency to put out new capital at a rate faster than has been warranted by the annual increases in earnings.
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  • This is the foundation of the use of recurring decimals; thus we can replace = s s = 1 o o /(' - 1 + 0 -)1 by .363636(=36/102 +36/ 104 +3 6 / 106), with an error (in defect) of only 36/(10 6.99).
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  • The pumps employed to force the oil through the pipes were at first of the single-cylinder or " donkey " type, but these were found to cause excessive wear - a defect remedied by the use of the Worthington pump now generally adopted.
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  • Or we may take it as representing the pressure - excess over the normal pressure in compression, defect from it in extension.
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  • His conversational powers rivalled those of Dr Johnson; and, if more of his sayings have not been chronicled for the benefit of posterity, the defect is due to the absence of a Boswell.
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  • It is certain that whatever merits the Cretan laws may have possessed for the internal regulation of the different cities, they had the one glaring defect, that they made no provision for any federal bond or union among them, or for the government of the island as a whole.
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  • Another defect arising during curing and fermentation is the efflorescence of salts on the surface, a phenomenon known as " saltpetre "; light brushing and spraying with a weak solution of acetic acid are effective remedies.
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  • Should a defect occur with a wrought iron boiler it is usually necessary for the purpose of repair to disconnect and remove the whole apparatus, the heating system of which it forms a part being in the meantime useless.
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  • Its greatest defect is the cold southerly and westerly storms, which cause great losses in cattle and sheep. The Patagonian coast-line and mountainous region are also healthy, having a dry and bracing climate.
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  • Nor is it, when newly gathered, heating, - a defect inherent to the preserved fruit everywhere; nor does its richness, however great, bring satiety; in short it is an article of food alike pleasant and healthy."
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  • [[[Construction Of Circuits]] This form of insulator is still largely used and is a very serviceable pattern, though possessing the defect that the porcelain cup is not removable from the iron bolt on which it is mounted.
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  • Not many years ago it would have been accounted a heresy to suggest that the historical books of the Old Testament had conveyed to our minds estimates of Oriental history that suffered from this same defect; but to-day no one who is competent to speak with authority pretends to doubt that such is really the fact.
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  • 1732); in particular, for loss by fire unless he show that the fire happened by accident, force majeure, or defect of construction, or through communication from a neighbouring house (Art.
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  • Perhaps the supreme defect of the kingdom of Jerusalem was its want of any financial basis.
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  • The court of cassation quashed the sentence, through defect of form, but sent Babeuf for a new trial before the Aisne tribunal, by which he was acquitted on the 18th of July.
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  • It is invariably the result of some cause acting generally, such as renal disease, valvular defect of the heart, or an impoverished state of the blood; while a mere oedema is usually dependent upon some local obstruction to the return of blood or lymph, or of both, the presence of parasites within the tissue, such as the filaria sanguinis hominis or trichina spiralis, or the poisonous bites of insects.
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  • Griesinger (1817-1868), Bevan Lewis - and in the separation from insanity due to primary disease or defect of nerve elements of such diseases as general paralysis of the insane, which probably arise, as we have said, by the action of poisons on contiguous structures - such as blood-vessels and connective elements - and invade the nervous matter secondarily.
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  • The defect may be overcome more or less completely by the use of the accommodation.
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  • when we take into account the other defect in the teaching of his predecessors that he sought in his Critique to correct.
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  • To remedy this defect, a statute (called the Statute of Enrolments) was passed in the same year, which provided that every conveyance by bargain and sale of freehold lands should be enrolled in a court of record or with the custos rotulorum of the county within six months of its date.
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  • La Rochefoucauld's character of the cardinal is on the whole harsh but scarcely unjust, and one of its sentences formulates, though in a manner which has a certain recoil upon the writer, the great defect of Retz's conduct: "Il a suscite les plus grands desordres dans l'etat sans avoir un dessein forme de s'en prevaloir."
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  • A defect in co-ordination allows the stimulated active vegetative cellular elements, or the more fully differentiated tissue, to over-develop and so form tumours, simple or malignant.
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  • But the iron sheathing was not strong enough to resist buckling under the passage of the loaded wagons, and to remedy this defect the plan, was tried of making the rails wholly of iron.
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  • But the second, notwithstanding the brilliancy of the narrative and the masterly art in the grouping of events, suffers from a radical defect which renders it a misleading guide.
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  • One drawback of Thomsen's notation is that the nature of the final system is not indicated, although this defect in general causes no ambiguity.
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  • A too frequent allusion to Greek mythological names is a defect sometimes observable in his writings.
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  • If, for instance, we find that instead of the natural number of Malpighian bodies in the kidney there are only half that number, then we are entitled to say that this defect represents disease of structure; and if we find that the organ is excreting a new substance, such as albumen, we can affirm logically that its function is abnormal.
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  • But bodily defect is largely a result of evil circumstances, in the prevention of which the physician is not unsuccessfully engaged, and the growth of sympathy means a stronger cement of the social structure.
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  • Thus the field of disease arising not from essential defect in the body, but from external contingencies, is vastly enlarging; while on the other hand the great variability of individuals in susceptibility explains the very variable results of such extrinsic causes.
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  • This type of pump is, however, not very efficient, for there is not only leakage about the valves and between the piston and cylinder, but at a certain degree of exhaust the air within the vessel is insufficient to raise the inlet valve; this last defect has been met in some measure by using an extension of the piston to open and close the valve.
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  • His defect lies rather in not presenting the historic Christ as the Christian's chief inspiration, a fact which connects itself with the strange absence of the names " Jesus " and " Christ."
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  • His main defect was unscrupulousness: he hesitated at nothing necessary to accomplish an object, and the conviction of his untrustworthiness gradually alienated his associates, and left him politically powerless.
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  • But his plays - with the exception of The Witch of Edmonton, in which he doubtless had a prominent share - too often disturb the mind like a bad drel n which ends as an unsolved dissonance; and this defect is a sup
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  • While the priests developed the sacrificial ritual, it was the prophets that represented the theocratic element of the national life - they devoted themselves to their task with noteworthy persistence and ability, and their efforts were crowned with success; but their virtue of singlemindedness carried with it the defect of narrowness - they despised all peoples and all countries but their own, and were intolerant of opinions, held by their fellow-citizens, that were not wholly in accordance with their own principles.
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  • The defect of English empiricism from the outset had been the uncritical acceptance of the metaphysical dogma of a pure unadulterated sense-experience as the criterion of truth.
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  • In astigmatism, owing to differences in the refractive power of the various meridians of the eye, great defect of sight, frequently accompanied by severe headache, occurs.
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  • The deleterious influence of high bloodpressure has engaged the attention of physicians and pathologists in later years, and the conclusion arrived at is, that although it may arise from accidental causes, such as malcomposition of the blood, yet that in many instances it is a hereditary or family defect, and is bound up with the tendency to gout and cirrhotic degeneration of the kidney.
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  • The chief defect of the tower was its weakness against vertical fire; its masonry was further liable to be cut through by breaching batteries.
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  • (17) in which c is a small quantity (expressing the defect from the ideal volume V =Re/p due to co-aggregation of the molecules) which varies inversely as the nth power of 0, but is independent of p to a first approximation at moderate pressures.
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  • Closely connected with this remarkable defect in the Kantian view - lying, indeed, at the foundation of it - was the doctrine that the matter of cognition is altogether given, or thrown into the form of cognition from without.
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  • Among them secular studies had been neglected, and Mendelssohn saw that he could best remedy the defect by attacking it on the religious side.
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  • The energy is less than that of an ideal gas by the term npc. If we imagine that the defect of volume c is due to the formation of molecular aggregates consisting of two or more single molecules, and if the kinetic energy of translation of any one of these aggregates is equal to that of one of the single molecules, it is clear that some energy must be lost in co-aggregating, but that the proportion lost will be different for different types of molecules and also for different types of co-aggregation.
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  • The individuality of great authors is thus dissipated except when it has been preserved by an occasional sacrifice of the arrangement - and this defect, if it is to be esteemed a defect, is increased by the very sparing references to personal history and character with which Hallam was obliged to content himself.
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  • As a songster it is indeed surpassed by many other species, but its docility and ready attachment to its master or mistress make up for any defect in its vocal powers.
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  • The defect of mouth-organs probably does not apply to the period of youth, which some of them spend parasitically in the body-cavity of worms (Giard, 1896).
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  • birth defect.
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  • defect tracking in your project?
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  • Children who have an affected relative are more likely to be at risk, because the defect causing the disorder is inherited.
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  • XLA is caused by a defect in the gene that controls the production of the enzyme Btk.
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  • This defect blocks B cells from maturing.
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  • Another congenital brain defect, encephalocele, is a protrusion of part of the brain through a defect in the skull.
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  • Some cases of spina bifida are accompanied by another defect at the base of the brain, known as the Arnold-Chiari malformation or Chiari II malformation.
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  • Origen indulged in many speculations which were afterwards condemned, but, as these matters were still open questions in his day, he was not reckoned a heretic. (iii.) In accordance with the New Testament use of the term heresy, it is assumed that moral defect accompanies the intellectual error, that the false view is held pertinaciously, in spite of warning, remonstrance and rebuke; aggressively to win over others, and so factiously, to cause division in the church, a breach in its unity.
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  • The value of the angular coefficient d(pv)/dp is evidently (b - c), which expresses the defect of the actual volume v from the ideal volume Re/p. Differentiating equation (17) at constant pressure to find dv/do, and observing that dcldO= - nc/O, we find by substitution in (is) the following simple expression for the cooling effect do/dp in terms of c and b, Sdo/dp= (n+I)c - b..
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  • a propos of the consequent weakness which led him to associate such a defect with beauty.'
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  • The merit of the simple suspension bridge is its cheapness, and its defect is its flexibility: This last becomes less serious as the dead weight of the structure becomes large in proportion to the live or temporary load.
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  • It was well understood that the party intended that Jefferson should be president and Burr vice-president, but owing to a defect (later remedied) in the Constitution the responsibility for the final choice was thrown upon the House of Representatives.
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  • Even in the case of the two more important epistles, i Peter and James, we have to add the qualification " if genuine," but rather perhaps because of the persistence with which they are challenged than because of inherent defect of attestation.
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  • The great extension of surface thus produced had the drawback of exaggerating any small defect in the union of the two metals, increasing it to a blister of an inch or more in diameter.
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  • Another defect in the evidence of coins is that, when one variety of the unit of weight was once fixed on for the coinage, there was (barring the depreciation) no departure from it, because of the need of a fixed value, and hence coins do not show the range and character of the real variations of units as do buildings, or vases, or the actual commercial weights.
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  • A breakwater has remedied this defect and Vera Cruz is no longer considered a dangerous port.
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  • The criticisms of Fichte, and more particularly of Hegel (in the "Vorrede" to the Pheinomenologie des Geistes), point to the fatal defect in the conception of the absolute as mere featureless identity.
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  • There was one great defect in his speculative theology: he ignored historical criticism.
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  • And he claimed one serious defect of the plan was that the haddock quota may never be caught.
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  • His chief defect was an over-sensitiveness, leading to peevish and unreasonable behaviour in his private and official relations, to hasty and unbalanced judgments of persons and things that had given him annoyance, and to a despondency and discouragement which frustrated the great good he might have effected as a philosophic critic of public affairs.
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  • This serious defect of solid weirs, where the riparian lands are liable to be injured by inundations, can be slightly mitigated by keeping down the crest of the weir somewhat below the required level, and then raising the water-level at the low stage of the river by placing a row of planks along the top of the weir.
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  • and produced it to meet the tangent at A in E; and then his assertion (not established by him) was that AE was nearly equal to the arc AC, the error being in defect.
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  • Pleasure is a physical state, and is not a generation in the body supplying a defect and establishing a natural condition, but an activity of a natural condition of the soul.
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  • The English Denomination Of Leap Year Would Have Been More Appropriate If That Year Had Differed From Common Years In Defect, And Contained Only 364 Days.
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  • The Second, ?9, Gives Seven Intercalary Days In Twenty Nine Years, And Errs In Defect, As It Supposes A Year Of 365 Days 5 Hours 47 Min.
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  • A more serious defect was his practice of violently assailing philosophers, economists and men of science, of whom he knew almost nothing, and whom he perversely misunderstood: men such as Adam Smith, Comte, Mill, Spencer, Darwin and all who followed them.
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  • Among the natural causes may be classed all failures of crops due to excess or defect of rainfall and other meteorological phenomena, or to the ravages of insects and vermin.
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  • His aim is to remedy this defect by psychology, under the conviction that a true metaphysics is at bottom psychology, and a true psychology fundamentally metaphysics.
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  • A more considerable defect is due to the earth having a diurnal rotation relative to a Newtonian base, and this is never wholly ignored.
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  • No correction for any defect in it has been found necessary; moreover, no rotation of the base relative to the directions of the stars without proper motion has been detected.
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  • Partial albinism in this case was undoubtedly correlated with some inherent constitutional defect, in virtue of which the individuals characterized by it were injuriously affected by the juices of a plant quite innocuous to their pigmented brethren.
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  • Besides the blue and purple of the spectrum he was able to recognize only one colour, yellow, or, as he says in his paper, "that part of the image which others call red appears to me little more than a shade or defect of light; after that the orange, yellow and green seem one colour which descends pretty uniformly from an intense to a rare yellow, making what I should call different shades of yellow."
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  • Samples dating from the old sodium days are still in existence, and when they exhibit unpleasant properties the defect is often ascribed to the metal instead of to the process by which it was won.
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  • Buffon accounted a grave defect of nature, and it must be confessed that no one has given what seems to be a satisfactory explanation of its precise use, though on evolutionary principles none will now doubt its fitness to the bird's requirements.
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  • escape the Levitical priesthood (Latin Prologue), or it was a natural defect (Cod.
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  • Wherever the soil is not quite suitable, but is capable of being made so, it is best to remedy the defect at the outset by trenching it all over to a depth of 2 or 3 ft., incorporating plenty of manure with it.
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  • If the situation is not naturally well sheltered, the defect may be remedied by masses of forest trees disposed at a considerable distance so as not to shade the walls or fruit trees.
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  • long, which are not to be pruned unless they are unequal in strength, a defect which is rather to be remedied by summer pinching than by winter pruning.
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  • To obviate this defect, it has been recommended that ornamental plants should be formed into four or five separate suites of flowering, to be distributed over the garden.
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  • Its defect is that its tragic conclusion does not seem absolutely inevitable, but the characters - especially those of the Grafin Orsina and Marinelli, the prince of Guastalla's chamberlain who weaves the intrigue from which Emilia escapes by death, are powerfully drawn.
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  • The absence of iron and the abundance of bronze in the relics of a prehistoric people is a piece of evidence to be accepted with caution, because the great defect of iron, its proneness to rust, would often lead to its complete disappearance, or conversion into an unrecognizable mass, even though tools of bronze originally laid down beside it might remain but little corroded.
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  • The great defect of both these processes, that they could not remove the baneful phosphorus with which all the ores of iron are associated, was remedied in 1878 by S.
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  • Another defect is its relatively low elastic limit.
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  • - When Bessemer discovered that by simply blowing air through molten cast iron rapidly he could make low-carbon steel, which is essentially wrought iron greatly improved by being freed from its essential defect, its necessarily weakening and embrittling slag, the very expensive and exhausting puddling process seemed doomed, unable to survive the time when men should have familiarized themselves with the use of Bessemer steel, and should have developed the evident possibilities of cheapness of the Bessemer process.
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  • - Phosphorus has, along with its great merit of giving fluidity, the grave defect of causing brittleness, especially under shock.
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  • Other minerals are iron, manganese, lead and zinc. The iron mines produce much less than formerly, and the want of iron is a grave defect in Belgian prosperity, as about £5,000,eoo sterling worth of iron has to be imported annually, chiefly from French Lorraine.
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  • The accounts of his sister and niece have the defect of all hagiology; they are obviously written rather with a view to the ideas and the wishes of the writers than with a view to the actual and absolute personality of the subject.
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  • Lasker, to remedy this defect, proposed, therefore, an alteration in the constitution, which, after being twice carried against the opposition of the Centre, was at last accepted by the Bundesrat.
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  • Perhaps Chase's chief defect as a statesman was an insatiable desire for supreme office.
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  • This limitation of administrative expenditure was the cardinal feature and the leading defect of the convention.
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  • The defect of this arrangement consisted in the necessity of obtaining the consent of the commissionersa consent sometimes withheld on purely political grounds.
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  • The greatest defect of all is their relative silence with regard to the myths.
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  • Its essential defect was what might be called insecurity of tenure.
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  • On the other hand, congenital defect amounting to absence of one cerebellar hemisphere has been found to occasion practically no symptoms whatsoever.
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  • The chief defect of the Digest is in point of scientific arrangement, a matter about which the Roman lawyers, perhaps one may say the ancients generally, cared very little.
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  • The knowledge that the deepest devotion underlies misunderstandings is often a very imperfect consolation; but such devotion clearly existed all through, and proves the defect to have been relatively superficial.
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  • Yet, in spite of these causes making for union, and in spite of the manifest advantages of union, it was by a mere dynastic accident that, in the defect of nearer heirs to the English throne, the crowns of both kingdoms were worn by James VI.
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  • With these considerable merits, normal sophistry had one defect, its indifference to truth.
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  • The chief defect in equatorial mountings of type C is that in general they are not capable of continued observing much past the meridian without reversal.
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  • The chief defect in the Spanish Philippine policy was that while it made converts it did not make citizens.
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  • The advantage of the method is that there is no transference or mixture; the defect is that the whole measurement depends on the assumption that the rate of loss of heat is the same in the two cases, and that any variation in the conditions, or uncertainty in the rate of loss, produces its full effect in the result, whereas in the previous case it would only affect a small correction.
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  • Mill in his Logic pointed out this defect, and without departing from Baconian principles remedied it by quoting scientific examples, in which deduction, starting from inductive principles, applies more general to less general universals, e.g.
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  • In the third-order complex the centre locus becomes a finite closed quartic surface, with three (one always real) intersecting nodal axes, every plane section of which is a trinodal quartic. The chief defect of the geometrical properties of these bi-quaternions is that the ordinary algebraic scalar finds no place among them, and in consequence Q:1 is meaningless.
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  • The indefensible indecency and overstrained sentimentality are on the surface; but after a time every repellent defect is forgotten in the enjoyment of the exquisite literary art.
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  • Again, in Oporto there is an area which combines every possible sanitary defect - dense overcrowding, great poverty, no light, no air, no drainage, no scavenging, water brought in buckets.
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  • The discrepancy is attributed to a defect of rigidity in the earth.
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  • Paley, though an excellent expositor and full of common sense, had the usual defect of common-sense people in philosophy - that of tame acquiescence in the prejudices of his age.
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  • For the application of continued fractions to the problem " To find the fraction, whose denominator does not exceed a given integer D, which shall most closely approximate (by excess or defect, as may be assigned) to a given number commensurable or incommensurable," the reader is referred to G.
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  • In Greece its insensibility to art and the cultivation of life was a fatal defect; not so with the shrewd men of the world, desirous of qualifying as advocates or jurists.
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  • The chief defect of the league lay in its lack of proper provision for securing efficient armies and regular payment of imposts, and for dealing with disaffected members.
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  • This explanation of the action of the solid is equivalent to that by which Gauss afterwards supplied the defect of the theory of Laplace, except that, not being expressed in terms of mathematical symbols, it does not indicate the mathematical relation between the attraction of individual particles and the final result.
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  • Gauss thus supplied the principal defect in the great work of Laplace.
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  • This, defect is noticeable, for example, in the elaborate great seals of the Henries of the 15th century, as compared with the finer types of their predecessors.
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  • Again, many devices of civilization bear unmistakable marks of derivation from a lower source; thus the ancient Egyptian and Assyrian harps, which differ from ours in having no front pillar, appear certainly to owe this remarkable defect to having grown up through intermediate forms from the simple strung bow, the still used type of the most primitive stringed instrument.
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  • Beautifully decorated on the exterior with gable reliefs by Artus Quellinus (1609-1668) of Antwerp, its great external defect is the absence of a grand entrance.
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  • Such a defect is a ground for consideration in weighing a particular tax against others, but it is only one inconvenience among many incidental to all taxes.
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  • Having detected an important defect in one of Laplace's demonstrations, he was induced by a friend to write out his remarks, that they might be shown to Dr John Brinkley (1763-1835), afterwards bishop of Cloyne, but who was then the first royal astronomer for Ireland, and an accomplished mathematician.
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  • But it suffered from one fatal defect.
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  • This defect in the budget was exposed in a great speech by Gladstone, which did much to ensure the defeat of the scheme and the fall of the ministry.
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  • The defect of the bill was that it did nothing to meet the only real need of reform the enfranchisemeht of a certain.
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  • Defect in speculative imagination appears when he encounters the vast and complex final problem of the universe in its organic unity.
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  • Thus his famous general formula for virtue, that it is a mean or middle state, always to be found somewhere between the vices which stand to it in the relation of excess and defect, scarcely avails to render his treatment more systematic.
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  • The only good of man is the pure existence of the soul, which in itself, apart from the contagion of the body, is perfectly free from error or defect; if only it can be restored to the untrammelled activity of its original being, nothing external, nothing bodily, can positively impair its perfect welfare.
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  • In the classification of sins the Christian element predominates; still we find the Aristotelian vices of excess and defect, along with the modern divisions into " sins against God, neighbour and self," " mortal and venial sins," and so forth.
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  • Besides escheat for defect of heirs, there was formerly also escheat propter delictum tenentis, or by the corruption of the blood of the tenant through attainder consequent on conviction and sentence for treason or felony.
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  • His unshaken conviction of his mission made him conscious of the responsibility which rested on him, but hid from him the hopeless defect in the coup d'etat.
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  • He too notes " the defect in early speech " - that is, the " lack of words free from implications of vitality " - as one of the causes which " favour personalization."
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  • This explanation is incomplete, as it leaves out of account the action of the polarizer and analyser, and it was with the purpose of removing this defect that Fresnel and Arago undertook the investigations mentioned above and thus supplied what was wanting in Young's explanation.
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  • It was at first supposed that the defect of Fresnel's formulae was due to the neglect of the superficial undulations that, on a rigorous elastic solid theory of the ether, are called into existence at reflection and refraction.
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  • The self-love theory of Hobbes, with its subtle perversions of the motives of ordinary humanity, led to a reaction which culminated in the utilitarianism of Bentham and the two Mills; but their theory, though superior to the extravagant egoism of Hobbes, had this main defect, according to Herbert Spencer, that it conceived the world as an aggregate of units, and was so far individualistic. Sir Leslie Stephen in his Science of Ethics insisted that the unit is the social organism, and therefore that the aim of moralists is not the "greatest happiness of the greatest number," but rather the "health of the organism."
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  • A well-made horse wants dissecting in detail, and then if a good judge can discover no fault with any part, but finds each of good proportions, and the whole to harmonize without defect, deformity or deficiency, he has before him a well-shaped horse; and of two equally well-made and equitably proportioned horses the best bred one will be the best.
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  • Linnaeus's copy of the book evinces the great assiduity with which he studied it; he laboured throughout to remedy the defect of the want of synonyms, sub-joined his own generic names to nearly every species, and particularly indicated the two remarkable passages where the germination of plants and their sexual distinctions are explained.
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  • Such a compensation is only possible for one single defect, as we shall see later.
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  • Abbe overcame this defect by using the so-called compensation ocular, made with Jena glasses.
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  • This defect has been avoided in the instruments constructed in the Zeiss factory (fig.
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  • But a defect was soon found in the latter, the correction of which reconciled the divergence.
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  • The chief defect of his work, inevitable at the time it was composed, is that, drawing the materials from contemporary memoirs rather than from inscriptions, he relies on literary gossip rather than on numismatics and epigraphy.
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  • abnormalityndrome A birth defect due to abnormalities of the chromosomes, many such patients have cardiac disease, usually atrio-ventricular canal defect.
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  • adrenocortical tumor or due to a congenital enzyme defect affecting cortisol synthesis.
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  • afferent pupillary defect to either eye.
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  • The extensive conjunctival defect, involving one-half of the bulbar conjunctiva, was reconstructed with an amniotic membrane allograft.
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  • Mario's burning ambition at the moment is to defect.
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  • One defect a fluorescein angiogram test may reveal are abnormal blood vessels which leak blood into the surrounding tissues.
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  • The rectus sheath or external oblique aponeurosis was clearly exposed around the circumference of the defect.
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  • The main defect in prawn aquaculture lies within the pond's waters.
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  • arginine transport defect is linked to the symptoms of the disease, they say.
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  • This tape is concerned with the atrioventricular septal defect in the setting of a common atrioventricular septal defect in the setting of a common atrioventricular junction.
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  • The urge to write is like a congenital birth defect.
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  • Remedy defect in hanger on left side of trailing bogie.
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  • boron implanted silicon using defect engineering.
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  • Possibly we are dealing with a genetic defect in the metabolism of the satin cavy.
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  • However, there is no congenital heart defect present and there are multiple contractures with overriding fingers observed with this syndrome.
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  • It is also characterized by a heart defect, most often a hole in the heart, either ASD or VSD.
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  • In thalassaemia there is an inherited defect in one of these genes.
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  • If by any chance you should be as illiterate as I, and not know them, it is worth while curing the defect.
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  • Dr. Hanley had closed Fahad's ventricular septal defect with a patch of the pericardium.
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  • Thus, affected men do not transmit the genetic defect.
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  • Children were assigned to heart defect groups based on medical records.
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  • The lawsuit refers to a ' manufacturing defect ' .
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  • In acute infection the ventilation defect may exceed the perfusion defect.
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  • dimer defect of Chapter 4.
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  • That is the property will be valued as if such disrepair or defect did not exist.
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  • Such is the natural result of defect of muscular exertion.
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  • Another very rare birth defect called exstrophy can also increase a person's risk of developing bladder cancer later in life.
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  • exterior of premises, the landlord still has a duty to remedy the defect.
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  • The main defect is that the acidity is too low which gives a rather flabby taste.
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  • An extensive abdominoperineal resection was performed leaving a huge perineal defect (figure 4) which was reconstructed using bilateral myocutaneous gracilis flaps.
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  • fractional coordinates are assumed in which case the nearest image to the defect center is taken.
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  • To cover a root surface denuded by gingival defect or periodontal disease, and widen the zone of attached gingiva.
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  • Initially, a mutants will be screened for a combination of photosystem I impairment and a cellular iron homeostasis defect.
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  • Such an explanation seems very improbable, particularly in view of the defect bands observed at the same sites.
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  • labiodental approximant is well-known in speakers of all accents as a minor defect.
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  • luteal phase defect.
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  • Stoichiometry, doping, defect chemistry and also ceramic microstructure often control ferroelectric properties in bulk materials.
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  • missense mutation associated with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: evidence for a defect in protein trafficking.
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  • An onlay mesh was placed over the defect with anchoring sutures over the surrounding musculature.
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  • mutation in a patterning gene could give rise to a simple heart defect, not a full scale patterning defect.
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  • nystagmus in early childhood may be caused by a defect in the eye or the visual pathway from the eye to the brain.
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  • oblique aponeurosis was clearly exposed around the circumference of the defect.
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  • osseous defect which makes the immediate introduction of a revision prosthesis almost impossible.
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  • Upon delivery please inspect your goods and make a note on the delivery paperwork of any damage or defect.
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  • However, decreased penetrance of a particular gene defect cannot be excluded.
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  • pulmonic stenosis, aortic stenosis is a congenital heart defect in which a malformation impedes the flow of blood through the heart.
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  • pupillary defect to either eye.
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  • retrograde pyelography revealed an irregular filling defect in the right renal pelvis.
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  • Likewise if there's a defect with the print we offer recompense.
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  • Underlying molecular defect CF is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein.
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  • remedy that defect.
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  • To analyze data from mitochondrial respiration to identify a metabolic defect.
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  • scarify the recipient site then create a flap at least 2.5 times wider than the defect on an adjacent site.
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  • septal defect.
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  • septum defect in humans is directly linked to the mammalian controlled term atrial septal defect and nothing else.
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  • specular X-ray reflectivity, diffraction imaging and defect mapping.
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  • In the spine, the affected vertebrae have a defect at the back and the boney ring does not completely surround the spinal cord.
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  • The third most common kind of defect affects the spinal cord, such as spina bifida.
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  • Every fourth clone born is either stillborn or suffers from a lethal defect.
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  • We will be happy to demonstrate how the Defect Tracking System could considerably streamline your customer relations procedures.
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  • He leads his officers to defect to the US with a new super sub.
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  • If there is spurting of blood: insert another suture to close the defect.
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  • A distinction can be drawn however when the defect is a mere technicality.
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  • transposition of the great arteries (or vessels) A congenital heart defect in which the two arteries emerging from the heart are switched.
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  • Double outlet right ventricle A cardiac defect in which both great major vessels emerge from the right ventricle.
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  • vitiated by the inherent defect of making the first move toward reconciliation come from our side.
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  • zero-sum strategy is to defect every time (' Always Defect ' ).
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  • His researches from 1860 and onwards on the then vexed question of spontaneous generation proved that, in all cases where spontaneous generation appeared to have taken place, some defect or other was in the experiment.
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  • The majority, in which Cardinal Manning pla t ed a very active part, took their stand on theological reasons o the strongest kind; they invoked the promises of Our Lord o St Peter: " Thou art Peter, and upon this rock will I build y Church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against her " and again, " I have prayed for thee, Peter, that thy faith ail not; and do thou in thy turn confirm thy brethren "; they showed the popes, in the course of the ages, acting as the g ardians and judges of the faith, arousing or welcoming dogmati controversies and authoritatively settling them, exercising the supreme direction in the councils and sanctioning their decis ons; they explained that the few historical difficulties did not in olve any dogmatic defect in the teaching of the popes; they i sisted upon the necessity of a supreme tribunal giving judg ent in the name of the whole of the scattered Church; and finally, they considered that the definition had become opportu e for the very reason that under the pretext of its inopportuneness the doctrine itself was being attacked.
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  • On the other hand carelessness and neglect were severely punished, as in the case of the unskilful physician, if it led to loss of life or limb his hands were cut off, a slave had to be replaced, the loss of his eye paid for to half his value; a veterinary surgeon who caused the death of an ox or ass paid quarter value; a builder, whose careless workmanship caused death, lost his life or paid for it by the death of his child, replaced slave or goods, and in any case had to rebuild the house or make good any damages due to defective building and repair the defect as well.
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  • Punishments of a mixed nature were: (e) Suspension either from office alone or from office and benefice; (f) Deprivation of benefice; (g) Deposition or Degradation (a more solemn and ceremonial form) from the ministry; (h) Irregularity - not always a punishment - a state of incapacity to be ordained, or, being ordained, to execute the ministry; this might result from some defect of mind and body, but was also incurred by some grave offences.
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  • This defect appears most strongly in his treatment of Joan of Arc; and the attack on Agnes Sorel seems to have been dictated by the dauphin (afterwards Louis XI.), then a refugee in Burgundy, of whom he was afterwards to become a severe critic. He was not, however, misled, as his more picturesque predecessor Froissart had been, by feudal and chivalric tradition into misconception of the radical injustice of the English cause in France; and except in isolated instances where Burgundian interests were at stake, he did full justice to the patriotism of Frenchmen.
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  • The structure of the prosomatic appendages or legs is also seen to present many significant points of agreement (see figures), but a curious discrepancy existed in the six-jointed structure of the limb in Limulus, which differed from the seven-jointed limb of Scorpio by the defect of one joint.
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  • The defect of the disputed prophecies in the former part of the book (a defect, as long as we regard them in isolation, and not as supplemented by those which come after) is that they emphasize too much for the Christian sentiment the stern, destructive side of the series of divine interpositions in the latter days.
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  • The embittering influence of Ultramontanism may be further traced in its attitude towards the baptism of nonCatholics, for it seeks to establish the rule that baptism conferred by Protestants is invalid through defect of form or matter, or even of intention, and that, consequently, the rite must be readministered, at least conditionally, to proselytes joining the Roman Church.
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  • The outlines of her foreign policy are sketched elsewhere (see English History), and her courtships were diplomatic. Contemporary gossip, which was probably justified, said that she was debarred from matrimony by a physical defect; and her cry when she heard that Mary queen of Scots had given birth to a son is the most womanly thing recorded of Elizabeth.
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  • To evaluate the second integrals vdp we may subtract a constant b to represent the defect of the volume of the vapour from the ideal volume Rt/p. This gives V' (Po -{-p - p') = Rt log (p/p') - b(p - p').
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  • On this view, the function of the solvent is to give space for the solute to diffuse, and the pressure on a semi-permeable membrane is due to the excess of solvent molecules entering over those leaving in consequence of the smaller number which impinge on the membrane from the side of the solution; the defect in the number must be proportional, roughly at any rate, to the number of solute molecules, present, that is, to the strength of the solution.
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  • This defect is usually remedied by heating the pits by the Siemens regenerative system (see § 99); the greater FIG.
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  • That this defect was serious was dimly apprehended even by those who frequented and admired the lectures of the earlier sophists; that it was fatal was clearly seen by Socrates, who, himself commonly regarded as a sophist, emphatically reprehended, not only the taking of fees, which was after all a mere incident, objectionable because it seemed to preclude independence of thought, but also the fundamental disregard of truth which infected every part and every phase of sophistical teaching.
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  • As already mentioned, Faraday remedied this defect by coating the inside of the glass vessel in which the gold-leaves were suspended to form an electroscope with tinfoil (see fig.
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  • It is, however, in some degree a defect; for his defence of religion against the deists rests on a view of reason which would for ever preclude a demonstrative proof of God's existence.
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  • 'The view that this, with other mental processes, is a function of the brain, is remarkably corroborated by modern investigation of the disease of aphasia, where the power of thinking remains, but the power is lost of recalling the word corresponding to the thought, and this mental defect is found to accompany a diseased state of a particular locality of the brain (see Aphasia).
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  • He certainly seems to have been the reverse of athletic (the stalwart Aeschines upbraids him with never having been a sportsman), and he probably had some sort of defect or impediment in his speech as a boy.
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  • This defect can be avoided (after Abbe) if a small central portion of the back surface of the front lens be ground away and blackened; this portion should exactly catch the direct cone of rays, whilst the edges of the lens let the deflected cone of rays pass through (fig.
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  • Like pulmonic stenosis, aortic stenosis is a congenital heart defect in which a malformation impedes the flow of blood through the heart.
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  • Retrograde pyelography revealed an irregular filling defect in the right renal pelvis.
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  • Likewise if there 's a defect with the print we offer recompense.
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  • Here at least there is a chance to remedy that defect.
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  • Prepare, clean and scarify the recipient site then create a flap at least 2.5 times wider than the defect on an adjacent site.
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  • Blood returning from the lungs must flow through an opening in the wall between the atria, called an atrial septal defect.
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  • For example atrial septum defect in humans is directly linked to the mammalian controlled term atrial septal defect and nothing else.
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  • Dislocations may nucleate near a different type of crystalline defect, such as a grain boundary, solute atom or vacancy.
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  • The second section delves into the techniques and theory behind the applications such as specular X-ray reflectivity, diffraction imaging and defect mapping.
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  • The project features the world 's largest lattice Boltzmann simulation of its kind, to study defect dynamics in liquid crystalline surfactant systems.
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  • If there is spurting of blood: Insert another suture to close the defect.
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  • Transposition of the great arteries (or vessels) A congenital heart defect in which the two arteries emerging from the heart are switched.
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  • All such performances are vitiated by the inherent defect of making the first move toward reconciliation come from our side.
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  • Tips on strategy The ultimate zero-sum strategy is to defect every time (' Always Defect ').
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  • Long QT can't explain all incidences of SIDS, but one study found that around one in ten babies who die of SIDS had this heart defect.
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  • In a nut shell, a serotonin defect in a baby's brainstem most likely contributed to these babies' demise.
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  • A lemon is any car that has a continual and unrepairable defect that affects the car's value, safety and use.
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  • In other states, the presence of a single, serious defect can cause your car to be classed as a lemon.
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  • Be sure you have your receipt if you find a major defect, and be sure the place where you bought the book allows returns.
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  • Sometimes outlets purchase pieces that have a variation in fabric coloration that's a fabric manufacturing defect.
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  • You can take advantage of great prices when purchasing what's called a manufacturing defect as long as you take your time to examine the furniture thoroughly.
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  • The greater the defect, the greater the discounted price.If the defect is something that won't show when the furniture is placed in your home, then you've made a great find.
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  • In order for a haute couture item to be present in a discount store, special circumstances would need to arise or there might even be a manufacturing defect in the item.
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  • Typical patients would include those with natural hearing loss due to aging, hearing loss due to an injury in the workplace such as loud noise, and those with a hearing defect due to trauma at birth, genetic disorders and viral infections.
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  • Buy your laminate floor from a reputable dealer that you know will be there if by chance you need to order more flooring due to a defect or error on your part.
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  • It is true that if a certain item is deeply discounted, it might be because it has a small defect (such as a snag or missing button).
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  • Often the defect is minor, but enough to fail inspection.
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  • Unfortunately, you'll have to include a non-refundable processing fee of $12.50 with your sunglass package, as well as a brief description of the defect or damage.
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  • You can also visit your local Ray Bans store, and in many cases, they can arrange to ship your product back to the manufacturer for repair--as long as the defect is covered by your warranty.
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  • You must pay the postage and insure the shipment, as well as include a $12.50 processing fee, your contact information, and a description of the damage to the glasses or the manufacturer's defect.
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  • They take care of it for you as long as it's a manufacturer defect.
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  • For three years, if you experience a problem due to a manufacturer defect with your frames, you send them back.
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  • Make sure you're aiming for the underside because the outer shell will defect your shots.
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  • These repairs could be any number of things, from a small cosmetic defect to something that has major ramifications for the functionality of the system.
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  • Near Mint - If the item is in near mind condition the tags might be slightly worn or bent but the character is totally without defect.
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  • Patent ductus arteriosus-A congenital defect in which the temporary blood vessel connecting the left pulmonary artery to the aorta in the fetus doesn't close after birth.
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  • Patent foramen ovale (PFO)-A congenital heart defect characterized by an open flap that remains between the two upper chambers of the heart (the left and right atria).
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  • Less commonly, heart murmurs can result from a valve defect, narrowed blood vessel, or other cardiovascular defect.
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  • These conditions, called pathologic heart murmurs, may indicate the presence of a serious heart defect, especially when accompanied by other signs and symptoms of a heart problem such as shortness of breath, rapid heartbeats, or fainting.
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  • A septal defect or aortic aneurysm can cause heart murmurs.
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  • The most common types of septal defects are atrial septal defect, an opening between the two upper heart chambers (atria), and ventricular septal defect, an opening between the two lower heart chambers (ventricles).
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  • To determine if the child has any conditions or disorders that might increase the risk of a cardiovascular defect, the physician will review the child's family medical history.
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  • If a septal defect is causing the heart murmurs, corrective surgery may be required.
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  • Children with an underlying congenital cardiovascular defect tend to gain weight slowly.
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  • The defect can be effectively controlled by diet.
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  • If an underlying congenital cardiovascular defect is diagnosed, there are many treatment options that allow children to be fully active and grow up to be healthy adults.
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  • Support groups are available to help parents and caregivers cope with the challenges of providing care for a child with a congenital cardiovascular defect.
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  • "If Your Child Has a Congenital Heart Defect."
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  • Since the specific cause of this birth defect is unknown, there is no way known as of 2004 to prevent biliary atresia.
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  • In both types of NF, a genetic defect causes these neural crest cells to develop abnormally, resulting in numerous tumors and malformations of the nerves, bones, and skin.
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  • NF-1 is due to a defect on chromosome 17; NF-2 results from a defect on chromosome 22.
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  • When a parent has NF, and the specific genetic defect causing the parent's disease has been identified, tests can be performed on the fetus (developing baby) during pregnancy.
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  • The tissue can then be examined for the presence of the parent's genetic defect.
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  • MERFF is a mitochondrial encephalomyopathy in which a mitochondrial defect as well as a tissue abnormality called "ragged-red fibers" (an accumulation of diseased mitochondria) is found microscopically.
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  • Jaundice resulting from a congenital defect usually does not appear until the baby is at least ten days old.
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  • Prenatal testing is available for pregnancies in which an affected parent has been identified and the DNA mutation is known or the biochemical defect has been demonstrated.
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  • However, prenatal testing is only a possibility in these types if the underlying defect has been found in another family member.
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  • Body dysmorphic disorder-A psychiatric disorder marked by preoccupation with an imagined physical defect.
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  • Fragile X, a defect in the chromosome that determines sex, is the most common inherited cause of mental retardation.
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  • Neural tube defect, for example, is a birth defect in which the neural tube that forms the spinal cord does not close completely.
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  • This defect may cause children to develop an accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid on the brain (hydrocephalus).
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  • Inborn error of metabolism-One of a group of rare conditions characterized by an inherited defect in an enzyme or other protein.
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  • This defect causes the lungs and pancreas to secrete thick mucus, blocking passageways and preventing proper function.
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  • Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disease, meaning it is caused by a defect in the person's genes.
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  • A simple defect in this gene leads to all the consequences of CF.
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  • However, 70 percent of all people with a defective CFTR gene have the same defect, known as delta-F508.
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  • In some types of albinism, a genetic defect in tyrosinase means that the amino acid tyrosine cannot be converted by tyrosinase into melanin.
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  • Coarctation of the aorta (COA) is a congenital heart defect that develops in the fetus.
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  • The genetic defect causes a deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase that is responsible for breaking down a certain type of fat and releasing it from fat cells.
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  • Wolman's disease is caused by a genetic defect with a recessive pattern of inheritance that results in a deficiency of an enzyme that breaks down cholesterol.
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  • In this case, the birth defect usually presented itself as very small, deformed versions of normal limbs.
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  • The same test may be used to determine the presence of the genetic defect in unaffected individuals, such as siblings.
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  • Cystoscopy (looking into the bladder with a thin telescope-like instrument) and x rays with a contrast agent to illuminate the urinary system will usually identify the defect.
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  • If it can be done safely, it is better to repair the defect surgically.
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  • A-T is a genetic disorder, meaning that it is caused by a defect in a gene that is present in a person at birth.
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  • As of 2004, the A-T diagnosis is usually based on the characteristic clinical findings and supported by laboratory tests that point to a defect of DNA (genes and chromosomes) and to an inability to repair some types of damage to DNA.
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  • Even within families, in which the specific genetic defect should be the same, some children have mostly neurologic problems while others have recurrent infections, and still others have neither neurologic problems nor recurrent infections.
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  • An atrial septal defect (ASD) is an abnormal opening in the muscular wall separating the left and right upper chambers (atria) of the heart.
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  • This abnormal opening is called an atrial septal defect and causes blood from the left atrium to flow (or "shunt") across the hole into the right atrium.
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  • The most commonly found atrial septal defect, called secundum atrial septal defect, occurs in the middle of the atrial septum and accounts for about 70 percent of all atrial septal defects.
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  • Atrial septal defects can occur alone or in combination with other congenital heart disorders, such as ventricular septal defect.
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  • Atrial septal defect accounts for 4-10 percent of all cases of congenital heart disease in the United States.
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  • If the defect is large, oxygen-rich blood from the left atrium flows back into the right atrium and gets pumped back to the lungs again, causing more work for the heart and lungs.
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  • In some cases, an atrial septal defect can allow blood clots from the body to enter the brain and cause a stroke.
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  • Untreated atrial septal defect can lead to pulmonary hypertension, chest infection, Eisenmenger's syndrome, atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, stroke, or right-sided heart failure.
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  • A person born with an atrial septal defect may have no symptoms in childhood, and the condition may go undetected into adulthood.
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  • Stunted growth may be a symptom of atrial septal defect.
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  • The medical and family history help the physician determine if the child has any conditions or disorders that might contribute to or cause the heart defect.
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  • Some heart murmurs (abnormal heart sounds) can indicate an atrial septal defect.
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  • A chest x ray, electrocardiogram (ECG, EKG), echocardiogram (echo), or magnetic resonance imaging MRI) can confirm the presence of an atrial septal defect.
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  • In some cases, cardiac catheterization, a more invasive diagnostic procedure, may be performed to diagnose atrial septal defect.
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  • There are two types of surgical repair for atrial septal defects: primary closure in which the opening is repaired with sutures alone if the defect is small; or secondary closure in which a patch closes the opening if the defect is large.
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  • During traditional atrial septal defect surgery, the heart is exposed through an incision made in the chest or between the ribs.
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  • A heart-lung bypass machine pumps blood for the heart while the heart is stopped and the wall defect is being repaired.
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  • When possible, minimally-invasive surgical techniques that use smaller incisions (3-4 inches [7-10 cm]) may be performed, depending on the size and location of the defect.
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  • The catheter-based cardiac implant procedure involves the implantation of a closure device that seals the defect.
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  • Closure devices cannot be used to treat all atrial septal defects, especially if the defect is large, if it is not centrally located within the atrial septum, or if there is not enough nearby tissue to adequately support the closure device.
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  • The procedure starts with a cardiac catheterization to determine the size and location of the defect.
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  • The closure device is placed through a specially designed catheter and guided to the location of the heart wall defect.
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  • Diuretics may be prescribed if the atrial septal defect was diagnosed later in life and is causing fluid build-up.
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  • Children with atrial septal defects require lifelong monitoring, even after a successful surgery or procedure to close the defect.
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  • There is a 25 percent lifetime risk of death if the atrial septal defect is not repaired.
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  • When an atrial septal defect is corrected within the first 20 years of life, there is an excellent chance for the child to live a normal and productive life.
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  • Once an atrial septal defect has been closed, it is unlikely that more surgery will be needed.
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  • Certain athletic activities such as competitive sports may be limited, depending on the child's type of defect and medical condition.
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  • A child with an atrial septal defect may tire more easily than other children; frequent breaks and rest periods should be encouraged as needed during activities.
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  • A child with an atrial septal defect has a greater risk of having a child with a heart defect.
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  • Treatment and care for a child with an atrial septal defect can be costly, and some health insurance plans may not cover all expenses associated with a child's hospitalization or surgery.
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  • Caring for a child with an atrial septal defect is demanding.
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  • "If Your Child Has A Congenital Heart Defect" In Heart Diseases and Disorders Sourcebook. 2nd ed. Detroit, MI: Omnigraphics, Inc., 2000.
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  • The disorder can result from a defect in formation during the embryonic stage, as a result of certain degenerative diseases, as a part of various genetic syndromes, or as an inherited family trait.
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  • If prenatal testing indicates the baby has a serious congenital anomaly as a heart defect or spinal cord defect, the mother may need additional testing to determine the extent of the problem.
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  • Laryngomalacia-A birth defect that causes the tissues around the larynx to partially collapse and narrow the air passageway, causing noisy breathing.
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  • Congenital heart disease, or congenital heart defect, includes a variety of structural problems of the heart or its major blood vessels, which are present at birth.
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  • In some cases, the defect may be mild and unnoticed at birth, then diagnosed later in life.
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  • Each defect is defined by its location and severity.
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  • Although rare, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, a condition in which the left side of the heart is underdeveloped, is the most serious congenital cardiovascular defect.
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  • With this syndrome, blood returning from the lungs must flow through an opening or hole in the wall between the atria, called an atrial septal defect.
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  • Two variations of septal defects include atrioventricular canal defect and Eisenmenger's complex.
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  • Atrioventricular canal defect (also called endocardial cushion defect or atrioventricular septal defect) is a large hole in the septum, accompanied by abnormal tricuspid and mitral valves that are not formed as individual valves.
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  • Instead, a single large valve crosses the defect.
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  • The defect allows oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to flow from the left side of the heart to the right side of the heart and back again to the lungs.
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  • Eisenmenger's complex is a ventricular septal defect coupled with pulmonary high blood pressure, an enlarged right ventricle, and sometimes an aorta that is not positioned correctly.
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  • The major defects are a large hole (ventricular septal defect) between the ventricles, which allows oxygen-poor blood to mix with oxygen-rich blood, and narrowing at or beneath the pulmonary valve.
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  • The other defects are an overly muscular right ventricle and an aorta that lies over the ventricular septal defect.
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  • Transposition of the great arteries comprises 10-14 percent of congenital cardiovascular defect cases in the United States.
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  • This condition may cause a hole in the wall between the left and right atrium, called an atrial septal defect.
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  • Brugada syndrome is another rare congenital cardiovascular defect that appears in adulthood and may cause sudden death if untreated.
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  • Researchers believe the defect responsible for Marfan's syndrome is found in gene FBN1 on chromosome 15.
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  • About 44,000 infants (about eight of every 1,000 infants or 1 percent of live births) are born every year with congenital cardiovascular defects, the most common birth defect.
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  • Most of these children can benefit from surgical treatment, even if the defect is severe.
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  • The likelihood of having a child with a congenital cardiovascular defect increases if the mother or father, another child, or another relative had congenital cardiovascular defects, or there is a family history of sudden death.
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  • Children with oral clefts are 16 times more likely to have a congenital cardiovascular defect than the normal population, although the reason for this association is unknown.
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  • Severe congenital cardiovascular defect is diagnosed in infancy and usually becomes evident shortly after birth.
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  • In a few cases, a cardiovascular defect is not detected until the child is a teenager or adult.
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  • The medical and family history help the physician determine if the child has any conditions or disorders that might contribute to or cause the cardiovascular defect.
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  • Some heart murmurs (abnormal heart sounds) can indicate a congenital heart defect.
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  • Between 10 and 14 weeks of pregnancy, physicians may use an ultrasound to look for a thickness at the nuchal translucency, a pocket of fluid in back of the embryo's neck, which may indicate a cardiac defect in 55 percent of cases.
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  • Several closure devices such as coils, patches, or umbrella-like devices, have been developed that can be inserted through the catheter and are designed to close the defect.
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  • The goal of surgery is to repair the defect as much as possible, restore circulation to as close to normal as possible, reduce symptoms, improve survival, and improve quality of life.
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  • For tricuspid atresia and pulmonary atresia, the Fontan procedure connects the right atrium to the pulmonary artery directly or with a conduit, and the atrial defect is closed.
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  • Pulmonary artery banding, narrowing the pulmonary artery with a band to reduce blood flow and pressure in the lungs, is used for ventricular septal defect, atrioventricular canal defect, and tricuspid atresia.
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  • The band can be removed at a later time, and the defect corrected with open-heart surgery.
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  • A child with a congenital cardiovascular defect has a greater adulthood risk of having a child with a cardiovascular defect.
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  • Coarctation of the aorta-A congenital defect in which severe narrowing or constriction of the aorta obstructs the flow of blood.
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  • When this pocket of fluid is thickened, it may indicate that the infant will be born with a congenital cardiovascular defect.
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  • "If Your Child Has A Congenital Heart Defect."
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  • If this tube forms incompletely during the first few months of pregnancy, a serious, and often fatal, defect results in spina bifida or anencephaly (formation of the head without the brain).
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  • About one person in 30,000 has the genetic defect that causes Wilson's disease, while about 1.1 percent of the general population are carriers of the mutant gene.
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  • Although the defect in cerebral function that causes CP is not progressive, the symptoms of CP often change over time.
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  • MPS only occurs when both of an individual's genes that produce the same enzyme contain a mutation or defect, causing them not to function properly.
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  • For women in the first trimester of pregnancy, there is a high likelihood of the child being born with one or more birth defect.
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  • The genetic defect in Tay-Sachs disease results in the lack of an enzyme called hexosaminidase A.
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  • Owing to a defect in one of the enzymes of the heme biosynthesis pathway, protoporphyrins or porphyrins (heme precursors) are prevented from proceeding further along the pathway.
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  • These precursors accumulate at the stage of the enzyme defect, causing an array of physical symptoms in an affected child.
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  • Each type of porphyria corresponds with a specific enzyme defect and an accumulation of the associated precursor.
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  • Although there are eight steps in heme biosynthesis, there are only seven types of porphyrias; a defect in ALA synthase activity does not have a corresponding porphyria.
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  • HEP results from a defect in uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase activity (step 5), and is caused by defects in the same gene as PCT.
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  • In virtually all cases of porphyria, an inherited factor causes the enzyme's defect.
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  • Hypoplastic left heart syndrome, in which the blood flow through the left side of the heart is obstructed, is the most common congenital heart defect that is a candidate for prenatal surgery.
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  • This is the second most common birth defect in the United States, affecting one out of every 2,000 newborns.
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  • Ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) is a surgery performed for a congenital defect that blocks the fetus's airway.
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  • Ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT)-A cesarean section in which the infant is removed from the uterus but the umbilical cord is not cut until after surgery for a congenital defect that blocks the air passage.
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  • Omphalocele-A birth defect where the bowel and sometimes the liver, protrudes through an opening in the baby's abdomen near the umbilical cord.
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  • Spina bifida-A birth defect (a congenital malformation) in which part of the vertebrae fail to develop completely so that a portion of the spinal cord, which is normally protected within the vertebral column, is exposed.
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  • Although there is a wide range of effects that result from in utero alcohol exposure, the diagnosis of FAS is recognized as the most severe birth defect that occurs.
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  • With each of the inherited myopathies, a genetic defect is linked to a lack of, or defect in, one of the proteins needed for normal muscle cell function.
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  • Only one of these two copies needs to have the mutation (change) or defect in order for the child to have the disease.
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  • Most cases of VUR are due to a defect in the way the ureter is implanted into the bladder.
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  • Zellweger-like syndrome, which is fatal in infancy and known to be a defect of three particular enzymes.
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  • In peroxisomal single-enzyme disorders, the peroxisome is intact and functioning, but there is a defect in only one enzymatic process, with only one corresponding biochemical abnormality.
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  • If IUGR is related to a disease or a genetic defect, the future of the infant is related to the severity and the nature of that disorder.
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  • Mitral valve prolapse-A heart defect in which the mitral valve of the heart (which normally controls blood flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle) becomes floppy.
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  • However, if the defect is large, it may be difficult to fit all the organs into the small abdominal cavity.
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  • The spinal cord may protrude through a defect in the vertebrae of the spinal column (myelomeningocele).
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  • Von Willebrand's disease is caused by a defect in the von Willebrand clotting factor, often accompanied by a deficiency of factor VIII as well.
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  • In fact, the defect often extends all the way to the penis in the male or splits the clitoris in the female.
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  • Lack of prenatal care and nutrition has been linked to many birth defects; however, beyond the avoidance of known teratogens (anything that can cause a birth defect), there is little prevention possible.
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  • As a congenital birth defect, OI cannot be prevented.
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  • In an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, only one of these two copies needs to have the mutation (change) or defect in order for the child to have DM.
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  • This genetic defect is called DM2 or proximal myotonic myopathia (PROMM).
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  • This defect has only been decoded since 2001; therefore, less is known about how it functions.
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  • Since the mid-1970s, amniocentesis has been used routinely to test for Down syndrome, by far the most common, nonhereditary, genetic birth defect, afflicting about one in every 1,000 babies.
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  • It is also recommended for women who have already borne children with birth defects, or when either of the parents has a family history of a birth defect for which a diagnostic test is available.
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  • The risk of bearing a child with a nonhereditary genetic defect such as Down syndrome is directly related to a woman's age-the older the woman, the greater the risk.
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  • Thirty-five is the recommended age to begin amnio testing because that is the age at which the risk of carrying a fetus with such a defect roughly equals the risk of miscarriage caused by the procedure-about one in 200.
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  • At age 25, the risk of giving birth to a child with this type of defect is about one in 1,400; by age 45 it increases to about one in 20.
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  • Professional counseling may also prove necessary, particularly if a fetal defect is discovered.
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  • An overall "normal" result does not, however, guarantee that the pregnancy will come to term, or that the fetus does not suffer from some other defect.
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  • Anencephaly-A genetic defect resulting in the partial to complete absence of the brain and malformation of the brainstem.
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  • Positive results on an amnio analysis indicate the presence of the fetal defect being tested for, with an accuracy approaching 100%.
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  • Turner syndrome is a birth defect caused by the absence of an X chromosome in some or all cells of a female, which inhibits sexual development and usually causes infertility.
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  • This defect is thought to be a result of an obstructed lymphatic system compressing the aorta during fetal development.
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  • But many physicians avoid this and operate to remove diseased bowel and repair the defect at the same time.
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  • The relationship between this defect and the symptoms of the disease is unclear.
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  • EDMD is due to a defect in the gene for a protein called emerin, which is found in the membrane of a cell's nucleus, but whose exact function is unknown.
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  • This gene defect is called a triple repeat, meaning it contains extra triplets of DNA code.
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  • Therefore, a male has only one copy of each gene on the X chromosome, and if it is flawed, he will have the disease that defect causes.
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  • A son born with the defect has the disease.
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  • Most men with EDMD survive into middle age, although a defect in the heart's rhythm (heart block) may be fatal if not treated with a pacemaker.
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  • Hence, some vitamin deficiencies tend to result in one type of defect, while other deficiencies result in a variety of problems.
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  • Immunodeficiency is a defect of any component of the immune system or a defect of another system that affects the immune system leading to an increased incidence or severity of infection.
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  • X-linked agammaglobulinemia is an inherited disease stemming from a defect on the X chromosome, consequently affecting more males than females.
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  • Defect results in absence or reduced numbers of B cells that do not mature and perform normal function.
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  • It is believed to be caused by a defect in the development of T helper cells (cells that recognize foreign antigens and activate T and B cells in an immune response).
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  • Hemophilia is a coagulation disorder arising from a genetic defect of the X chromosome; the defect can either be inherited or result from spontaneous gene mutation.
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  • Hemophilia A and B are both caused by a genetic defect present on the X chromosome.
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  • Both factors VIII and IX are produced by a genetic defect of the X chromosome, so hemophilia A and B are both sex-linked diseases passed on from a female to male offspring.
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  • These individuals have had the unfortunate occurrence of a spontaneous mutation, meaning that in their early development, some random genetic accident affected their X chromosome, resulting in the defect that causes hemophilia A or B.
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  • An umbilical hernia occurs when a portion of the bowel protrudes through a small defect in the abdominal wall muscle near where the umbilical cord attaches to the baby's abdomen.
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  • These are not a result of an organ protruding through weakened muscle tissue but rather are a result of a much larger defect of the muscles of the abdomen that causes the internal organs to develop outside the body.
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  • A diaphragmatic hernia can occur as an isolated defect or as part of a more complex syndrome.
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  • Umbilical hernia is caused by a small defect in the muscles of the abdominal wall.
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  • Infants with siblings who have been diagnosed with congenital hip dysplasia or who have parents with the defect are at an increased risk.
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  • Operations are performed to reduce the dislocation of the hip and to repair a defect in the acetabulum.
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  • The development of infection or the presence of a birth defect can also affect long-term prognosis.
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  • Congenital deficiency is caused by an enzyme defect present at birth.
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  • Primary deficiency is caused by an enzyme defect developed over time.
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  • Various types of congenital heart disease, including ventricular septal defect (VSD), atrial septic defect (ASD), or PDA (patent ductus arteriosus), may be present.
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